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HISTOLOGY I

By :
Name : Muhammad Faiq Fadhllurohman
Student ID : B1B016019
Entourage : D2
Group :4
Assistant : Ellen Evita

LABORATORY REPORT
PLANT STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT II

MINISTRY OF RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGY AND HIGHER EDUCATION


JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN UNIVERSITY
BIOLOGY FACULTY
PURWOKERTO
2017
INTRODUCTION
Tissue in biology is a collection of cells that have the same form and function.
Tissue according to function divided into two or meristem tissue young and adult
tissues or permanent (Kimball, 1991). The tissue consists of a network of meristem,
parenchyma tissue, sklerenkim, xylem and phloem (Brotowidjoyo, 1989).
Tissue became differentiated according to function and shape. When the cells
have groups and form a tissue will appear functions and special thing called
differentiation, so that the tissue developed to form a special function (Prawiro,
1997).
I. OBJECTIVE
The objectives of Hystology I laboratory activityis :
1. Student can observe and describe about the epidermal derivates.
2. Student can observe and describe about structure and various of ground tissue
(Actinenchyma)
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
A. Materials
Equipments used in Histology I laboratory activity are microscope, object
glass, cover glass, razor, pipette and needle.
Objects used in Histology I laboratory activity are water, leaf of Zea mays,
Leaf of Rhoeo discolor, Leaf of Saccharum officinarum, leaf of Orthosiphon
stamineus, lower epiderm leaf of Durio zibenthinus and Petiole of Canna sp.

B. Methods
Methods used on Hystology I laboratory activity are :
1. Leaf of Rhoeo discolor, sliced longitudinally using a razor blade, and placed on
a objectglass, drops of water and cover with a cover glass.
2. The leaf of Saccharum officinarum specimen, the leaf of Orthosiphon stamineus
specimen, and the leaf of Zea mays specimen is prepared.
3. The lower part of Durio zibenthinus taken by rubbed using razor blade,placed on
a objectglass, drops of water and cover with a cover glass.
4. The leaf stalk of Canna sp sliced crosswise,placed on a objectglass, drops of
water and cover with a cover glass.
5. Observed under the microscope
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Result
Family : Poaceae

1 Magnification 100x

Description :
1. Porous
2 2. Guard cell
(halter)
3 3. Subsidiary cell
4. Cell wall
4
Type of stoma :
Graminae

Figure 3.1. L.Leaf of Zea mays

Family :
Commelinaceae

4
Magnification 400x
1
Description :
1. Porous
2. Guard cell
2 (Kidney)
3. Subsidiary cell
3
4. Cell wall

Type of stoma :
Amarillidaceae

Figure 3.2. L. Leaf of Rhoeo discolor


Family : Poaceae
Magnification 400x
Description :
3
1. Silica
2. Cork cell
2
3. Cell wall

Figure 3.3. L. Leaf Saccharum officinarum

Family : Lamiaceae
1
Magnification 400x
3 Description :
1. Upper epiderm
4
2. Lower epiderm
3. Palisade tissue
5
4. Sponge tissue
2 5. Trichome

Type of trichome:
Glandural

Figure 3.4. L. Leaf of Orthosiphon stamineus


Family : Malvaceae

Magnification 100x
Description :
1. Star shape
trichome
2
2. Scale shape
trichome
Type of trichome :

1 Non glandural

Figure 3.5. Lower epiderm leaf of Durio zibenthinus

Family : Cannaceae

Magnification 400x
Description :
1
1. Actinenchyme
2. Aerenchyme

Figure 3.6.C. Petiole of Canna sp.


B. Discussion
Epidermis is the layer of tissue, usually as thick as a single cell layer, which
covers the surface of organs, such as leaves, stems, roots, and flowers. The
characteristic of epidermis are contain od cuticle, the plastid is leukolplas, outer cell
wall is thicker than the inside, contain living cell and there is no space between cells
(Foster, 1942).
According to Evert (2006), epidermis tissue is also capable of differentiating
epidermis. The epidermis that has been differentiated become derivate of epiderm,
they are :
Trichome, thricomes is a modified form of epidermal cells that form the hair.
Trichomes are usually located in the roots, leaves, stems, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
In epidermal cells, trichomes emerged from the upper epidermis. Based on secretion
ability, trichome divided into two type, glandular and non glandular.
Stomata, stomata is a small pore that is flanked by two guard cells. In the
guard cells contained chloroplasts. The chloroplast is part of the epidermis that
contains chlorophyll with the role as the place the process of photosynthesis.
The general characters of parenchyma cells are diameters essentially equal,
walls thin, protoplast present and a capability for cell division even when the cells
are permanent cells (Mishra, 2009).
The function of parenchyme are to photosynthesis because contain of
chloroplasts.The next parenchymal tissue function as a storage of food reserves. This
function is executed by the parenchymal tissue hoarders who usually located at the
pith of the stem, tuber, root tubers, rizhoma, or on the seeds and fruits.In some
specific plants, parenchymal tissue also serves as a storage water reserves. Plants
intended for example, are plants that live in dry areas such as cactus, aloe vera, or
other Xerophyte plants.The next parenchymal tissue function as a storage area air.
This function can only be found in plants hidrofit or plants that live in water, such as
hyacinth, lotus, etc.Parenchymal tissue can also serve as a network carrier in helping
the xylem and phloem in performing their duties. This parenchymal tissue in order to
connect the outer tissue and tissue in the stem (Starr et al, 2008).
Based on the practical class, Saccharum officinarum has a silica cell and cork
(Datnoff et al, 2001). The stomata type of Zea mays is graminae and the stomata type
of Rhoeo discolor is Amaryllidaceae (Willmer& Fricker, 1983). The trichome type of
Orthosipon stamineus is glandular and the tricome type of Durio zibenthinus is non
glandular (Priyanti et al, 2015). There is two tissue in the petiole of Canna sp, they
are actinenchyme and aerenchyme.
IV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
Based on results and discussion, it can be concluded that :
1. The epidermal derivate consist of stomata, silica and trichomes.
2. The various of ground tissue are parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.

B. Suggestion
Suggestion for this laboratory activityis the topic of report should be faster
announced.
REFERENCES
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Evert, Ray F. 2006. Esau’s Plant Anatomy. New Jersey: John Wiley & SonsInc.
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