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International Political Economy

Angelei T. Dineros March 24, 2018


AB Foreign Service – 301 Jumel G. Estrañero

Hubs and Spokes of US-RP Immigration Policy and its Gradual Shift of Political
Economy in Human Capita of Filipino Immigrants

Abstract
This research aims to know the deep Bilateral Relation of US-RP in terms of migration
and how the New Immigration Policy of the United States of America could affect the
Political Economy of the Republic of the Philippines with regards to Human Capita of
Filipino Immigrants.
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

The Philippines and the United States have an enduring alliance that is based on deep
historical and cultural ties. The Philippines gained its independence from the United
States on July 4, 1946, and diplomatic relations were formally established the same day.1
During the late twentieth century, Filipinos became one of the fastest-growing
immigrant populations in the United States. By the early twenty-first century, they
constituted the third-largest Asian immigrant group in the United States, after Asian
Indians and Chinese, and could be found living throughout the North American continent. 2
A long history of migration is deeply ingrained in the social, economic, and cultural climate
of the Philippines. As one of the largest origin country for migrants, migration has greatly
affected the Philippines. The history of Philippine migration helps us understand how
migration has shaped the social landscape of the Philippines today. The rich history of
migration explains the motivation of Filipinos to go overseas, the challenges and the
opportunities that they face. 3
United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines indeed have a long-
standing bilateral relation. Data from the U.S. Census Bureau states that there are
approximately 3.4 million Filipino immigrants and their children living in the U.S., making
Filipinos the fourth largest immigrant community in the U.S. behind Mexicans, Chinese
and Indians. 4 But since the presidency of Donald Trump, immigrants are now being
affected by his new immigration policy.
This study aims to know how this gradual shift of new immigration policy of the United
States of America would affect the Filipino Immigrants in the United States and what will
be the effect of this in the Political Economy of the Philippines in terms of Human Capita
of Filipino Immigrants.

Chapter II

1
Embassy of the Philippines - PH-US Bilateral Relations. Accessed March 22, 2018. http://www.philippineembassy-
usa.org/philippines-dc/embassy-dc/ph-us-bilateral-relations-dc/.
2
"Filipino Immigrants." Immigration to the United States. Accessed March 16, 2018.
http://immigrationtounitedstates.org/497-filipino-immigrants.html#sel=5:2,5:49.

3
"History of Philippine Migration." Centerformigrantadvocacy.com. March 09, 2018. Accessed March 16, 2018.
https://centerformigrantadvocacy.com/philippine-migration/history-of-philippine-migration/.

4
"Filipinos Respond to Trump's Statements Suggesting Immigration Ban for PH." News. August 9, 2016. Accessed
March 16, 2018. http://asianjournal.com/news/filipinos-respond-to-trumps-statements-suggesting-immigration-
ban-for-ph/.
A. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

(1) What are the push and pull factors that causes Filipinos to migrate in the United States
of America?
(2) What are the advantages and disadvantages of Trump’s Immigration Policy to Filipino
Immigrants in the United States of America?
(3) What will be the effects of the implementation of United States’ New Immigration Policy
in Political Economy of the Republic of the Philippines with regards to Human Capita of
Filipino Immigrants.
B. METHODOLOGY
These procedures and methods will serve as a guide in conducting and underpinning
research data by gathering, analyzing, and processing information.

Historical Development
According to Dr. Tripti Sharma, Historical methods of research are the process of
systematically examining an account of what has happened in the past. It is not facts and
dates or even a description of past events. The dynamic account of past events that
involves an interpretation attempt to recapture the nuances, personalities, and ideas that
events. It also describes as scientific method in which comparison is used to reveal the
general and the particular in historical phenomena and to gain an understanding of the
various historical stages of development of one and the same phenomenon or two
different but contemporaneous phenomena
It is made to establish facts in order to arrive at conclusions concerning past events or
predict future events. It enables to provide a solution to contemporary problems to be
sought in the past. Furthermore, it allows to for the revaluation of data in relation to
selected hypothesis, theories and generalizations that are presently held about the past.
There are two sources of Historical methods of research, first, the Primary Sources of
information which directs outcomes of events or the records of eyewitnesses (e.g. Original
documents, relics, remains and artifacts). The other is Secondary Sources of information
which provided by a person who did not directly observe the event, object, or condition
(e.g. Textbooks, encyclopedias, newspapers, periodicals and review of research).5

Descriptive Research Method

The Descriptive method is designed for the investigator to gather information about
presenting existing conditions. Furthermore, it defines as involving collection of data in

5
Tripti Sharma. "Historical Method." Lecture. November 12, 2017. Accessed March 16, 2018.
https://es.slideshare.net/DrTriptiSharma/historical-method-81926486.
order to test hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of the
subject of the study (Gay, 1976)
It aims to describe the nature of situation as it exists at the time of the study and to
explore the causes of particular phenomena (Travers, 1978).6
Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way.
More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the
study.7
There are three ways a researcher can go about doing a descriptive research project,
and they are:
Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the
participants. Observational method (sometimes referred to as field observation) animal
and human behavior is closely observed. There are two main categories of the
observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation.
Case study, defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals. Case
studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case
studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for
making accurate predictions.
Survey, defined as a brief interview or discussion with an individual about a specific topic.
In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through
interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers
describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is
important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so
they are clear and easy to comprehend.8

6
Erwin S. Manuel and Razzel Marie L. Masinda. "Descriptive Method." Lecture. July 22, 2008. Accessed March 16,
2018. https://www.slideshare.net/japorto/descriptive-method.

7
Study.com. Accessed March 22, 2018. https://study.com/academy/lesson/descriptive-research-design-definition-
examples-types.html.

8
"The 3 Basic Types of Descriptive Research Methods." World of Psychology. September 27, 2011. Accessed March
16, 2018. https://psychcentral.com/blog/the-3-basic-types-of-descriptive-research-methods/.
Chapter III

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

5 reasons Filipino immigrants apply for US citizenship


By: Lourdes Santos Tancinco
October 04, 2015
There are different reasons why Filipinos aspire to become American Citizen. Here are
some of their motivations why they are seeking for naturalization and for applying US
citizenship.
Family Unity
Filipinos are being known for having a strong family-oriented culture. Thus, this become
one of the reason why they seek for US citizenship or become a green card holder who
are permanent residents of the United states. They can petition their family members
particularly their spouses and unmarried children. While being a US citizen provides them
the ability to petition more family members including their future spouses or fiancées.
Also, US citizens may petition their minor children and spouses faster (about 12 months)
as compared to green card holder petitioners.9 Therefore, we can see that US citizenship
will be able to unite family members even they are not natural-born citizen of America.
Avoiding Separation
Having a status of green card holder doesn’t give assurance for non-US citizen, it can be
revoked anytime by the Department of Homeland Security if the holder is proven guilty or
being convicted of a removable/deportable offense. So, to prevent to prevent any
unintended immigration consequence, it would be best to apply for US citizenship as soon
as the immigrant meets the eligibility for naturalization.
So, prevent any unintended immigration consequence, it would be best to apply for US
citizenship as soon as the immigrant meets the eligibility for naturalization.
Civic engagement
Immigrants who were granted privilege of having a US citizenship were now able to have
equal rights like a natural-born citizen of the United States. They can now engage in
different socio-political activities like running for a government position and a right to
suffrage.

9
Tancinco, Lourdes Santos. "5 Reasons Filipino Immigrants Apply for US Citizenship." Inquirer Global Nation 5
Reasons Filipino Immigrants Apply for US Citizenship Comments. October 4, 2015. Accessed March 20, 2018.
http://globalnation.inquirer.net/129131/5-reasons-filipino-immigrants-apply-for-us-citizenship.
Federal employment
They can also have the opportunities to work in US military and receive benefits from US
government. Furthermore, they will be given the ability to petition their family and enjoy
military benefits.
Ease of travel
These may be the least benefits that will be received by the Immigrants eligible of US
citizenship but can be one of the privileges. Being an American passport holder has a lot
of benefits in terms of travelling and this may be one reason why immigrants wanted to
become US citizen beside of many benefits that America can offer. Besides, who doesn’t
want a hassle-free travelling? Of course, everyone will dream to become an American
passport holder.9
Filipinos respond to Trump’s statements suggesting immigration ban for PH
By: Momar G. Visaya, Christina M. Oriel and Klarize Medenilla
August 9, 2016
Because of the comment of current president of the United States of America, Donald
Trump, suggesting a ban on immigration from areas with high rates of terrorism, including
the Philippines, many Filipinos are being affected and reacted on his statement. Trump
said that immigrants should be heavily scrutinized even those who obtained their
citizenship legally. He called this system trojan horse, which is apparently let terrorist
enter their country. He mentioned lot of examples in which this legally immigrants planned
to enter in the US for them to be able to kill as many Americans as they can.
Philippine Presidential Spokesperson Ernesto Abella responded to Trump’s comment on
behalf of the country and stated that Trump should really understand his constituents if
he wants to become president. But communications secretary Martin Andanar says that
Mr. Trump always loves the Philippines and think that it is one of the best place in Asia.
Rep. Jose “Joey” Salceda introduced a bill, House Resolution No. 43, in which he called
Trump’s presence in the country harmful to “national interest.”
Most of Filipino-Americans residing in the US condemned Trump for his statement and
ascertaining that that his remarks disregard the contributions Filipinos have made to the
country. Data from the U.S. Census Bureau states that there are approximately 3.4 million
Filipino immigrants and their children living in the U.S., making Filipinos the fourth largest
immigrant community in the U.S. behind Mexicans, Chinese and Indians.
California Assembly member Rob Bonta, put out a call to action on social media to ban
Trump, urging Fil-Ams to share videos and pictures with a sign that says
“#BawalSiTrump.”
Along with other migrant communities and the colonial history of the U.S. and the
Philippines, countless contributions have been made by Filipino workers and their families
to the growth of the U.S. in various fields: agriculture and industry, health and wellness,
performance arts and humanities, science and technology, public service and social
movements, mass media and even security and defense.
Meanwhile, Fil-Am Republicans argue that Trump’s comments were taken out of context.
Dolly De Leon, a Filipina in Las Vegas who founded Baby Boomers, she stated that “the
mainstream media should be blame for taking out of context what Donald Trump said as
much as when he made comments about the criminals who come from Mexico.”
The Filipino-American Republicans USA Facebook page denounced the media reports
that suggested Trump had referred to all Filipinos as “animals,” and encouraged Filipinos
to be more mindful of the news.
“We urge our fellow Filipinos to continue to have an open mind and to seek the truth in
every issue. We are proud of our readership’s vigilance and not giving into the biased
media’s pandering,” the post said.10
5 ways a Trump presidency could affect Filipinos
By: JC Punongbayan
November 12, 2016
Immigration and remittances
Donald Trump espouses a protectionist worldview that runs across many of his policies,
such as immigration. He promised to bring back job opportunities for the Americans and
thought that these undocumented immigrants stole the job opportunities that were
reserved for the Americans per se. These statements affect the ethnic minorities in US
including the nearly 4 million Filipinos currently living there, who account for about a third
of all Filipinos abroad. Even those highly skilled OFW’s could be affected when the
immigration policy begins to tighten, thus, it OFW’s remittances could be compromised
once Trump propose to “impound remittance payments derived from illegal wage.
Investments
Trumps Administration plans to build businesses inside the America thus this decrease
America’s investment abroad. This could affect the economy of the Philippines since the
business process outsourcing (BPO) industry has served as one of the Philippine
economy’s bright spots. It has created many high-paying jobs for our young professionals
and earned dollars for the economy in a way that is even starting to overtake dollar
earnings from remittances.
Trade

10
"Filipinos Respond to Trump's Statements Suggesting Immigration Ban for PH." News. August 9, 2016. Accessed
March 20, 2018. http://asianjournal.com/news/filipinos-respond-to-trumps-statements-suggesting-immigration-
ban-for-ph/.
Trump’s rejection of the Trans-Pacific Partnership – although it admittedly has its flaws –
could promote a general skepticism of trade deals and disrupt the integration efforts of
countries like the Philippines.
Trump’s protectionist policies could derail global trade including the US-RP trade
relationship.
Figure 2 shows that as much as 15.7% of Philippine exports of goods go to the US, but
this share has, in fact, been decreasing for several years. Today more than half of our
exports of goods go to East Asian countries. Still, it will be better for the Philippines to see
more trade rather than less, regardless of the country destination.

West Philippine Sea


Trump’s presidency could also serve as a game-changer with regards to Philippines’
claims in the West Philippine Sea.
In contrast to Obama’s “rebalancing” strategy in Asia-Pacific, there is now doubt whether
Donald Trump will show a similar degree of interest in the region. Hence, with less US
“interference”, China could now flex its muscle more in the region.
It seems that Trump could complicates our strategy when it comes to the West Philippine
issue since he didn’t show that much support to the Philippines with regards to this
territorial dispute. But president Duterte is planning to repair its relation to the US and
expressed his willingness to work with Trump.
Climate change
Donald Trump believes that climate change is just an “expensive hoax” that’s why people
all over the world wary that Trump could spell climate disaster for the entire world.
Numerous studies have shown that the Philippines is one of the countries most at risk
and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The impacts range from more frequent
extreme weather events, rising sea levels, ocean acidification, and loss of biodiversity.
Hence, the Philippines could easily find itself at the receiving end of Donald Trump’s
dangerous and utterly misinformed stance on climate change.11
Due to Trump? Filipinos in U.S. sending more money home
January 17, 2017
Inward remittances to the Philippines posted their biggest jump in over 8 years in
November last year, following the US election victory of Donald Trump, who threatened
to send the 10 million undocumented immigrants back to their countries.
Latest data from the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) showed that remittances spiked
by 18.5% to $2.22 billion in November, the fastest growth since July 2008 and a rebound
from the 2.8% decline posted in October 2016.
This brought the remittances level for the period January-November 2016 to $26.9 billion,
representing a growth of 5.1% year-on-year.
There are some factors while Remittances increase during this time. First is the “front-
loading of cash transfers” Overseas Filipinos tend to send their money to their relative in
the Philippines because they know that the protectionist policies of Donald Trump could
affect and tighter immigration policies that’s why they may even send not just their monthly
income but as well as their annual savings.
Moreover, the peso depreciation could also be one of the factor why remittances from
OFWs increased. Because as lower peso rates would allow them to convert each dollar
to more units of the local currency, also, given the fact that month of December
considered as the month of having a highest percentage of remittance in the Philippine
Economy. 12
The Philippines: Beyond Labor Migration, Toward Development and (Possibly)
Return
By: Maruja M.B. Asis
JULY 12, 2017
In the Philippines, a deeply rooted and pervasive culture of migration has made moving
abroad common, acceptable—even desirable—as an option or strategy for a better life.
It’s been a decade, a large number of Filipino decided to leave their home to work abroad
to have a temporary or permanent work abroad. oday, more than 10 million Filipinos—
or about 10 percent of the population—are working and/or living abroad. While a markedly
improved economic situation in recent years has not diminished the outflows, it has
allowed the country to move beyond its longstanding labor migration policy to incorporate
migration into long-term development planning and strengthen the return and
reintegration of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). The government subsequently

11
Punongbayan, JC. "5 Ways a Trump Presidency Could Affect Filipinos." Rappler. November 12, 2016. Accessed
March 16, 2018. https://www.rappler.com/thought-leaders/152115-trump-presidency-affect-filipinos.
12
"Due to Trump? Filipinos in U.S. Sending More Money Home." Rappler. January 17, 2017. Accessed March 20,
2018. https://www.rappler.com/business/158659-ofw-remittances-november-donald-trump.
developed a number of institutions, laws, and policies aimed at enhancing the protection
of OFWs and their families, spurred on by civil-society advocacy. Because during 1970’s
the deployment and competition with other countries increased and surfacing labor
migration problems including poor working conditions and abuse by employers.
This dual approach of facilitation and protection makes a contribution to the Philippines
as major source country of workers and talent for the global labor market, while also
providing protection to OFWs.
The Philippines ranks third after India and China as major recipients of remittances. In
2016, the country received US $26.9 billion in money transfers, according to the Central
Bank of the Philippines. There are concerns that reliance on remittances may have
delayed the implementation of needed reforms.
Background: The Centrality of the United States in Early Filipino Migration
After more than three centuries of Spanish colonial rule, the Philippines became a U.S.
territory as a result of the Spanish-American War in 1898. For much of the 20th century,
"international migration" for Filipinos meant moving to the United States and its Pacific
territories.
The first batch of Filipino workers arrived in Hawaii on December 20, 1906 to work on
sugarcane and pineapple plantations. More workers, mostly single men, followed; others
left Hawaii to work in agriculture in California, Oregon, and Washington, or the salmon
canneries of Alaska. Some 4,000 Filipinos were employed in the merchant marine, but
this employment possibility ceased with the Merchant Marine Act of 1936 requiring the
crew of U.S. flag vessels to be at least 90 percent American citizens. Estimates place the
number of Filipino workers coming to the United States, chiefly to Hawaii, between 1906
and 1934 at 120,000 to 150,000. A small number of scholars, known as pensionados,
also migrated to the United States before the 1920s. Because the Philippines was a U.S.
colony, the movement of Filipinos to the United States was considered internal migration.
As U.S. nationals, Filipinos could enter and leave the country freely, but could not access
citizenship. It was not until the passage of the 1934 Tydings-McDuffie Law, which
provided for the granting of Philippine independence within ten years. Other countries of
settlement also dismantled their pro-European immigration policies in the 1970s, paving
the way for Filipinos to enter Canada, Australia, and New Zealand under family- or skills-
based provisions. The Philippines eventually became one of the top ten origin countries
in these traditional immigration destinations. This permanent migration, however, was
overshadowed by the larger and thornier temporary labor migration that started in the
1970s.
Becoming a Source Country of Workers
A number of factors led to the ascent of the Philippines as a major labor exporter in Asia
and worldwide. In 1974, the Labor Code of the Philippines established the framework for
what became the government's overseas employment program.
The Philippines' foray into organized international labor migration was supposed to be
temporary, lasting only until the country recovered from its economic problems. However,
the ongoing demand for workers in the GCC countries and the opening of new labor
markets in other regions, especially in East and Southeast Asia, fueled further migration.
On the supply side, the push factors did not abate. Lack of sustained economic
development, political instability, unabated population growth, persistent unemployment,
and low wages continued to compel people to head abroad.
Beyond Labor Migration
The problems that emerged in the 1970s remain the same today: illegal recruitment,
contract substitution, illegal placement fees, long working hours, and no days off (in the
case of domestic workers), among others.
The 1995 Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act, a landmark law, aimed to provide
protection to OFWs from predeparture through arrival and return. The focus on protection
shifted during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-10), when the
government for the only time to date set a target for the deployment of workers. The
Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010 set a goal of sending 1 million
workers overseas every year.
This thrust was reversed by the subsequent administration of Benigno Aquino III (2010-
16). His social contract with the Filipino people included the goal of moving “from a
government that treats its people as an export commodity and as a means to foreign
exchange, disregarding the social cost to Filipino families, to a government that creates
jobs at home, so that working abroad will be a choice rather than a necessity; and when
its citizens do choose to become OFWs, their welfare and protection will still be the
government’s priority.”
This stated desire to a return to welfare and protection was accompanied by legislative
and executive actions to further regulate labor migration and expand services for OFWs.
Soon after Aquino took office, he signed Republic Act (RA) 10022 into law, aiming to
further strengthen measures to protect migrant workers, their families, and other overseas
Filipinos in distress.
The Philippines Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) also amended recruitment
industry regulations, resulting in the 2016 Revised POEA Rules and Regulations
Governing the Recruitment and Employment of Seafarers, and a separate set of rules
and regulations applying to land-based workers.
The welfare and protection of OFWs received another boost in 2016 with RA 10801, which
launched a new charter bolstering the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration
(OWWA). This agency’s mandate is to provide programs and services for the welfare of
OFWs and their families, and to manage the funds from member contributions and
interest from investments.
Growing marriage migration also has caused anxieties about the welfare of women who
marry foreign nationals. A new law (RA 10906) strengthening the Anti-Mail Order Bride
Act of 1990 was enacted in 2016.
Linking Migration and Development
A 2007 conference and a 2010 comprehensive study on migration and development in
the Philippines brought to the fore five key observations:
1. Migration policies in the Philippines were primarily focused on temporary labor
migration.
2. The development impact of migration was mostly discussed in terms of economic
benefits, particularly remittances.
3. The social costs of migration to families were often mentioned.
4. National, regional, and local development plans did not take international migration
into consideration.
5. At the regional and local levels, there were few migration institutions.13

10K Filipinos may be affected by rescinded US immigration policy—DFA


By: Frances Mangosing
September 06, 2017
The Department of Foreign affairs stated that an estimation of 10,000 Filipinos may be
affected by the United States’ new immigration policy. The United States of America
particularly Washington, decided to end a program that allows undocumented immigrant
children to stay legally in the US or the Deferred Action on Childhood Arrivals (DACA).
After the statement of Donald Trump which pertains to revoking DACA and gave US
congress up to 5 March 2018 to come up with a law that would prevent the deportations
of as many as 800,000 people covered by the program, the secretary of Foreign affairs,
Alan Peter Cayetano issued a statement regarding authorization of certain limitations on
the use of the Assistance to Nationals Fund and the Legal Assistance Fund to assist
immigrants. Furthermore, he said that while we are hoping for the best in the form of a
legislative solution and exploring other possible legal options for the affected Filipinos, we
should prepare for the worse.
Quoting Chargé d’Affaires Patrick Chuasoto of the Philippine Embassy in Washington,
D.C., the DACA program was covered by an executive order issued by President Barack
Obama in 2012 that was envisioned to protect undocumented immigrant children from
deportation.14

13
Asis, Maruja M.B. "The Philippines: Beyond Labor Migration, Toward Development and (Possibly) Return."
Migrationpolicy.org. November 30, 2017. Accessed March 16, 2018.
https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/philippines-beyond-labor-migration-toward-development-and-possibly-
return.
14
Mangosing, Frances. "10K Filipinos May Be Affected by Rescinded US Immigration Policy-DFA." Inquirer Global
Nation 10K Filipinos May Be Affected by Rescinded US Immigration PolicyDFA Comments. September 6, 2017.
Accessed March 22, 2018. http://globalnation.inquirer.net/160222/filipino-ofw-immigration-daca-dfa-deport-
trump-undocumented.
Trump’s Immigration Policy and Its Effects on Filipinos in the US
OCTOBER 4, 2017
During his election campaign, current US president Donald Trump had made remarks
about taking America to a more cautious stance when it comes to immigration.
Issues he expressed support for include the limiting of legal immigration and guest-worker
visas, as well as adding more restraints to the granting of green cards. Then there’s that
promise of building a wall on the US-Mexico border.
Rescission of DACA
Perhaps people may say that these claims have been exaggerated and over-the-top for
the most part. However, with the recent rescinding of the Deferred Action for Childhood
Arrivals (DACA) policy, which deferred deportation for around 800,000 individuals who
arrived in America as children—referred to as Dreamers.
Former President Barack Obama had put DACA into effect in June 2012 and expanded
in November 2014 with the hopes of making America a more immigration-friendly nation.
But with it no longer being in effect and the full implementation of its rescission looming,
the situation is dire for those who used to be covered by the now-overturned policy.
The RAISE Act
The Reforming American Immigration for a Strong Economy (RAISE) Act was introduced
by Senators Tom Cotton (R-Arizona) and David Perdue (R-Georgia) to take the place of
current immigration policy, with basis on family unity being superseded by that of a rigid
merit-based system. This will restrict legal immigration into the US, and President Trump
has since endorsed this act.
Trump’s approval of this act is in line with the “America first” policy his administration has
been pulling for thus far.
The RAISE Act was proposed for the main purpose of cutting immigration by at least half
from current levels by only including spouses and minor children in a prospective
immigrant’s petition.
Filipinos in the US
According to Foreign Affairs Secretary Perfecto Yasay Jr., at least 300,000 Filipinos in
the United States are now at risk due to Trump’s immigration policy. President Duterte
has stated that Manila can’t do anything to interfere due to it being a US domestic matter,
so the Philippine government has no real say in the matter.
There are almost 400,000 family petitions filed by Filipino immigrants waiting for visa
availability. The impending changes to US immigration policy that were approved by
President Trump are set to eliminate these visa petitions.
Among the 2.73 million immigrant and non-immigrant visas issued by the US State
Department to citizens of countries listed in the “terrorist safe havens” list, the Philippines
ranks second with more than 235,000 visas issued. There are now 3.5 million Filipino
immigrants living in the US as of 2013, according to a report by the Migration Policy
Institute.15
Filipino Immigration to America
By: Linda Alchin
January 01, 2018
Background History and Overview of the Philippines
The Philippines came under the control of the United States of America in 1898 following
the Spanish-American War (April 25, 1898 – August 12, 1898). The term 'Tagalog' refers
to both ethnic race in the Philippines and their language. The Philippines achieved full
independence in 1946. The Philippine islands were embroiled in political turmoil during
the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos that started in 1965 and ended with his exile in 1986.
The capital of the Philippines is Manila and the country has a population of 91 million.
Filipinos now represent the 4th largest immigrant group in the United States by country
of origin, after Mexico, India and China.
Major waves of immigrants from the Philippines
There have been four major waves of immigrants from the Philippines to America:
*** The first wave of immigrants from the Philippines to America was during the period
when the country was under Spanish rule and formed part of the Spanish East Indies

*** The second wave of immigrants from the Philippines occurred from 1906 - 1934
bringing plantation workers to Hawaii and migrants to the west coast

*** The third wave of immigrants from the Philippines started just before World War II
(1939 - 1945) and the Philippines independence in 1946

*** The fourth, present and largest wave of immigrants from the Philippines started after
the 1965 Immigration Act was passed.
The Reasons for Filipino Immigration to America
The reasons for the Filipino Immigration to America were motivated by political reasons
such as escaping from the harsh rule of the Spanish or the later dictatorship of Ferdinand
Marcos. The poverty and high levels of unemployment in the Philippines are still a strong
motivational reason for the high levels of Filipino Immigration to America. Some Filipino
immigrants also looked to avoid the natural disasters in the Philippines such as
Earthquakes, Landslides and Typhoons.

15
"Trump's Immigration Policy and Its Effects on Filipinos in the US." Para Sa Pinoy. October 04, 2017. Accessed
March 22, 2018. http://parasapinoy.com/trump-immigration-policy-filipino-immigrants-usa/.
The Spanish Rule
Filipino Immigration to America started in the period in history when the Philippines were
under Spanish rule. As part of the Spanish East Indies the first Filipinos made their way
to America via the 'Manila Galleons', the Spanish trading ships that ran across the Pacific
Ocean from Manila to the port of Acapulco and. The Manila Galleons brought silk,
perfume, spices, ivory and other exotic goods from China, via Manila, to Mexico and
California where Filipino seamen, who had been forced to work for the Spanish, would
migrate to North America. In 1763, Filipinos, called the "Manila Men", made their first
permanent settlement in the bayous of Louisiana.
Los Angeles founded by a Filipino
Early Filipino Immigration to America established the city of Los Angeles. In 1781, a
Filipino expedition, led by Filipino born Antonio Miranda Rodriguez, were sent by the
Spanish government from Mexico to establish what is now known as the city of Los
Angeles in Alta California. The province of Alta California marked the northern frontier of
the Spanish empire in the New World. The first 44 settlers are known as the 'Pobladores'.
The 1897 Philippine Revolution
The next wave of Filipino Immigration to America was preceded by the 1897 revolution in
the Philippines. The Philippine Revolution (also called the Tagalog War) erupted between
the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities. It was a Filipino victory and led to the
establishment of the First Philippine Republic in 1899, proclaimed by revolutionary leader
Emilio Aguinaldo on June 23, 1898. The revolutionary constitution in the Philippines
created the Biak-na-Bato Republic. The preamble of the constitution declared the
separation of the Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and their formation into an
independent state with its own government called the Philippine Republic. The turmoil
and conflict in the western pacific led to the Spanish-American War.
Immigration to America in the 1800's: The 1898 Spanish-American War
Filipino Immigration to America was strongly impacted by Spanish-American War
between Spain and the United States, which lasted for just over three and a half months
from April 25, 1898 – August 12, 1898. The 1899 Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-
American War, and Spain sold the Philippine Islands to the United States for $20,000,000.
Immigration to America in the 1900's: The Philippine-American War
The Philippine-American War (1899–1902) erupted as the Philippine Republic fought in
the Philippines to secure independence from the United States. The Philippine-American
War lasted just over 3 years and resulted in a US victory with the capture and surrender
of Emilio Aguinaldo and the occupation of the Philippines under U.S. sovereignty and the
dissolution of the Philippine Republic. The Philippines became part of the U.S.
Commonwealth and an unincorporated territory of the United States until Filipino
independence was gained in 1946.
Immigration to America in the 1900's: US Sovereignty
In 1901 William Howard Taft was sent to the islands as the first U.S. governor of
Philippines. The 1902 Philippine Bill was passed provided for a Bill of Rights and
established a bicameral legislature. The law made it illegal for a Filipino to vote, own
property, operate a business, live in an American residential neighborhood or hold public
office.
The Second Wave of Immigration
The second wave of Filipino Immigration to America occured from 1906 to 1934 with a
heavy concentration of Filipinos emigrating to California and Hawaii. The Jones Law was
enacted in 1916 which promised independence to the Philippines once a stable
government had been established. Because the Philippines was an American colony
Filipinos in the second wave of immigration were able to travel to the US as American
nationals.
Angel Island Immigration Center
The Angel Island Immigration Center (1910 - 1940), was located in San Francisco Bay,
California and opened on January 21, 1910. Angel Island served as an Immigration center
for immigrants from Asia, Japan, India and the Philippines. Filipino immigrants during this
period would have been processed very quickly and subject to brief medical examinations,
unlike other immigrants.
The Third Wave of Immigration - WW2
The third wave of Filipino Immigration to America started in 1934 just before the outbreak
of World War II (1939 - 1945). In 1941 Japan invaded the Philippines defeating General
Douglas MacArthur at Bataan and Corregidor. President Manuel Quezon y Molina was
forced to establish a government in exile and dies in 1944. In 1944 General MacArthur
re-invaded the Philippines and Manila was liberated from Japanese occupation.
The Philippines become an Independent Nation
The Tydings-McDuffie Act provided for independence of the Philippine Islands in 1946,
changed the status of Filipinos from American citizens to aliens and the transition to
independence began. Philippine independence came on July 4, 1946, with the signing of
the Treaty of Manila between the governments of the United States and the Philippines.
Filipinos who had served in WW2 were given the option of becoming U.S. Citizens, and
over 10,000 Filipinos took up the offer. War brides from the Philippines were also allowed
to immigrate to the United States due to the 1945 War Brides Act and Fiancées Act. The
immigration policy of the United States was restricted by the ’per-country' quota system
and records show that 32,201 Filipinos immigrated between 1953 to 1965.
The Fourth Wave of Immigration - 1965 Hart-Cellar Act
The fourth wave of Filipino Immigration to America started in 1965 with the passing of the
Immigration and Nationality Act, also known as the Hart-Celler Act. The law was an
extremely important landmark in U.S. immigration history as it abolished nation-of-origin
restrictions. The numbers of immigrants from Asian and Hispanic countries rose
dramatically and Filipinos now represent the 4th largest immigrant group in the United
States.16

16
Alchin, Linda. "Linda Alchin." History for Kids ***. January 01, 2018. Accessed March 17, 2018.
http://www.emmigration.info/filipino-immigration-to-america.htm.
Push and Pull factors of Filipino Migration
By: Linda Alchin
January 01, 2018
This article explains the Push and Pull factors of Filipino Migration to America
The push and pull factors of Filipino Migration are dictated by economic, political,
environmental and social reasons. Discover specific events in the history of the
Philippines that prompted Filipino people to leave their homes to start a new life in
America.
Push Factors
 Political and Economic Factors: The Philippines were colonized by Spain as part
of the Spanish East Indies from 1565-1898. In 1793 they established a trade route
from Manila to the US port of Acapulco.
 Political and Economic Factors: The 1897 Revolution in the Philippines
(Tagalog War) erupted as Filipinos fought for independence from Spain. This led
to Philippine-American War (1899 -1902) that ended with the occupation of the
Philippines under the sovereignty of the United States.
 Environmental Factor: The Mount Taal volcano erupted in the Philippines in 1911
causing 1335 deaths, destruction and homelessness. A year later a 7.5 earthquake
struck Northeast Mindanao resulting in widespread landslides and serious damage.
 Economic Factor: The Philippines featured high unemployment in the 1930's.
 Political Factor: The 1965 Hart-Cellar Act lifted restriction on immigration.
 Environmental Factor: Mount Pinatubo volcano erupted in the Philippines in
1991 causing the deaths of 700 people and the destruction of homes and
property.
 Environmental Factor: Typhoon Ketsana, a devastating tropical cyclone struck
the Philippines in 2009 resulting in 747 deaths and damage amounting to over 1
billion dollars. The devastation was followed by the Bohol earthquake and Typhoon
Haiyan in 2013.
Pull Factors
 Political and Economic Factors: The "Manila Men" were the first Filipino
immigrants who made their homes in the bayous of Louisiana to seek a new life
and freedom from the Spanish rule.
 Political and Economic Factors: A second wave of migrants from the Philippines
occurred from 1906 - 1934 as Filipinos moved to a new life and employment
opportunities on the plantations of Hawaii and in west coast areas of America.
 Environmental Factor: Filipino immigrants chose to find more fertile land, escape
hunger and disease and find new homes and safety in a more settled climate and
environment.
 Economic Factor Filipino immigrants took the opportunity to build a new life and
gain new employment in America.
 Political Factor: People looked security and employment potential in America
 Environmental Factor: Lower risk from natural disasters and hazards
 Environmental Factor: Filipino immigrants looked to the safer environment of the
United States and escape from the threat of more natural disasters.17
Filipino Immigrants in the United States
By: Jie Zong and Jeanne Batalova
MARCH 14, 2018
Migration from the Philippines to the United States began in the late 19th century and has
ebbed and flowed since then, in response to evolving government and business
relationships between the two countries and changing U.S. immigration policy. In 2016,
more than 1.9 million Filipinos lived in the United States, accounting for roughly 4 percent
of the country’s 44 million immigrants. Between 1980 and 2016, the Filipino population in
the United States nearly quadrupled, rising from 501,000 to 1.9 million. The Philippines,
which was the second-largest origin country for immigrants in 1990, was overtaken by
India and China during the early 2000s and since 2010 has ranked fourth, after Mexico,
India, and China.
After the U.S. annexation of the Philippines in 1899, large numbers of Filipinos migrated
to the United States to study or to fill agricultural jobs, primarily in California and Hawaii.
Depression and passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, which set the Philippines
on a track to independence after ten years and imposed strict immigration quotas on the
islands of just 50 immigrants per year. However, after World War II larger numbers began
arriving, primarily as “war brides” of U.S. servicemen and as recruits into the armed forces,
though some also came to train as health-care workers.
Starting in the 1960s, the Filipino immigrant population grew rapidly, in part a result of the
1965 Immigration Act’s removal of national-origin quotas. But this growth was also
influenced by longstanding government, military, economic, and educational ties between
the two countries, as well as Philippine policy that encourages and facilitates labor
migration for development purposes. The unique historical experience of having once
been U.S. nationals sets Filipinos apart from other immigrant groups that have arrived in
large numbers since 1965.
Today, most Filipinos in the United States who obtain lawful permanent residence (LPR
status, also known as getting a green card) do so through family reunification channels,
either as immediate relatives of U.S. citizens or through other family-sponsored channels.
Many also get green cards through employment preferences. Meanwhile, Filipinos are
more likely than other immigrants to have strong English skills, and have much higher
college education rates than the overall foreign- and U.S.-born populations. They are also
more likely to be naturalized U.S. citizens than other immigrant groups, have higher
incomes and lower poverty rates, and are less likely to be uninsured.

17
Alchin, Linda. "Chinese Migration." For Kids ***. January 01, 2018. Accessed March 22, 2018.
http://www.emigration.link/push-pull-factors-filipino-migration.htm.
Distribution by State and Key Cities
In the 2012-16 period, immigrants from the Philippines were highly concentrated in
California (44 percent), followed distantly by Hawaii (6 percent). The next four most
populous states—Texas, New York, Illinois, and New Jersey—were home to 19 percent
of the Filipino population collectively. The top four counties by Filipino concentration were
Los Angeles and San Diego counties in California, Honolulu County in Hawaii, and Clark
County in Nevada. Together these counties accounted for 26 percent of Filipinos in the
United States.
As of 2012-16, the U.S. cities with the largest number of Filipinos were the greater Los
Angeles, San Francisco, and New York metropolitan areas. These three metro areas
accounted for about 32 percent of Filipinos in the United States.
English Proficiency
Filipino immigrants are much more likely to be proficient in English than the overall
foreign-born population. In 2016, about 30 percent of Filipinos ages 5 and over reported
limited English proficiency (LEP), compared to 49 percent of all immigrants.
Approximately 15 percent of Filipinos spoke only English at home, versus 16 percent of
the foreign born.
Age, Education, and Employment
In 2016, Filipinos were older than the overall foreign- and U.S.-born populations. The
Filipino median age was 50 years, compared to 44 years for all immigrants and 36 years
for native born. This is largely due to the disproportionately high number of Filipino seniors:
22 percent of Filipinos were 65 or older, versus 15 percent of both the overall foreign- and
native-born populations. Meanwhile, Filipinos were more likely than the native born but
somewhat less likely than the overall foreign born to be of working age.
Income and Poverty
Filipinos overall have significantly higher incomes compared to the total foreign- and
native-born populations. In 2016, households headed by a Filipino immigrant had a
median income of $87,000, compared to $54,000 and $58,000 for all immigrant and U.S.-
born households, respectively.
Further, in 2016, just 5 percent of Filipino families were living in poverty, a much lower
rate than the 9 percent for the U.S. born and 15 percent for immigrant families overall.
Immigration Pathways and Naturalization
Filipinos are much more likely to be naturalized U.S. citizens than immigrants overall. In
2016, 70 percent of Filipinos were naturalized citizens, compared to 49 percent of the
total foreign-born population.
Compared to all immigrants, Filipinos are slightly more likely to have arrived before 2000.
The largest share of Filipinos, approximately 59 percent, arrived prior to 2000, followed
by 26 percent coming between 2000 and 2009, and 16 percent in 2010 or later
MPI also estimated that, in 2017, approximately 18,000 Filipino unauthorized immigrants
were immediately eligible for the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)
program. However, as of January 31, 2018, just under 3,800 Filipinos were active
participants, according to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) data.
Overall, about 683,000 unauthorized youth were participating in the DACA program.
Health Coverage
Filipinos have relatively high health insurance coverage rates compared to other groups.
In 2016, 7 percent of Filipinos were uninsured, the same as for the native born, compared
to 20 percent of all foreign born. Filipino immigrants were also more likely to be covered
by private health insurance than the overall foreign- and U.S.-born populations
Diaspora
The Filipino diaspora in the United States was comprised of nearly 4.1 million individuals
who were either born in the Philippines or reported Filipino ancestry or race, according to
tabulations from the U.S. Census Bureau 2016 ACS.
Remittances
In 2017, Filipinos living abroad sent nearly $33 billion in remittances to the Philippines via
formal channels, according to World Bank data. Remittances more than doubled in the
past decade and represented about 11 percent of the country’ gross domestic product
(GDP) in 2016.18

Chapter IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION OF DATA

The United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines has a long-standing
history and deep relationship since Americans colonized Philippines in the late 1800’s.
This also became one of the factors why many Filipinos have been migrating in the United
States since 19th century up until 21st century. Filipinos are being known for having a deep
and pervasive culture of migration. That’s why migrants become one of the contributors
in the growing economy of the Philippines especially the Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW)
that decided to migrate in the United States since they wanted to keep their jobs
permanently once they become a green card holder or a citizen of US.

America has been one of the great influencers of Filipino culture, the way they think,
the way they dressed and especially their language that became one of the language use
in teaching and publishing textbooks, since they introduced proper education in the
Philippines, no wonder Filipinos always dream of going in the United states and thinking
that once they have been to America, their life will change since America is a first-world

18
Zong, Jie, Jeanne Batalova Jie Zong, and Jeanne Batalova. "Filipino Immigrants in the United States."
Migrationpolicy.org. March 14, 2018. Accessed March 24, 2018. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/filipino-
immigrants-united-states.
country and considered as hegemonic state in international arena. Filipinos have this
stereotype that once their relatives or friends have given the opportunities to go abroad,
especially in the United States, they see it as if it will be great chances for them to become
rich and popular.

Filipino migration to America have push and pull factors. In terms of political and economic
factors, during 1793 they established a trade route from Manila to the US port of Acapulco
and the colonization of US became one of the push factor. Furthermore, during 1930’s,
Philippines experienced high unemployment rate and 1965 Hart-Cellar Act lifted
restriction on immigration that also contributed to the push factor. And lastly, the
environmental factor, the eruption of mount Pinatubo 1991 that causes death to over 700
people and the destruction of home and property. Moreover, Typhoon Ketsana, a
devastating tropical cyclone struck the Philippines in 2009 resulting in 747 deaths and
damage amounting to over 1 billion dollars. The devastation was followed by the Bohol
earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan in 2013.

While on the other side, the pull factors in terms of political and economic, the “Manila
Men” who initiated that migration in the US and were considered as the first Filipino
immigrants who made their homes in the bayous of Louisiana to seek a new life and
freedom from the Spanish rule. A second wave of immigrants move to America for a new
life and seeking job opportunities in plantations of Hawaii and in west coast areas of
America during 1906 – 1934. Additionally, Filipinos sought for security and protection
away from disaster since America before is considered as having a lower risk of natural
disasters and hazard. And because Americans free Filipinos from Spanish colonization,
they tend to look them as if they were heroes that can pull us from being underrated by
the abusive colonization of Spaniards. They also introduce us the proper education and
teach us their culture that’s why Filipinos wanted to become part of America as citizens.

The Presidency of Donald Trump became very alarming for Filipino Immigrants residing
in the United States. Since Donald Trump has a protectionist policy that prioritize
Americans especially in employment opportunities. He promotes “America First” in terms
of Political and economic affairs. He also wanted to protect the US against illegal
immigrants that later on became terrorist. For he believes that migration becomes the
way of terrorist to enter US in more possible way. He called this system as “Trojan Horse”
In one of his statement, Trump consider Philippines as one of terrorist country and said
that he will tighten the immigration policy. Some government officials said that they cannot
pass a legislation about it but instead he will implement a much stricter immigration policy.
Not just Filipino Immigrants have been affected but also other nationals, for example,
Mexicans, for Trump believes that South Americans have been a source and couriers of
illegal drugs in US, that’s why he planned to build a wall that separates North and South
America.
Others said that the statement of Donald Trump was being misinterpreted by Filipino
Immigrants. This gradual shift of new Immigration Policy of US has a lot of impact
especially in terms of Economy of the Republic of the Philippines since remittances
became one of the source of economic growth in the Philippines. In fact, since the
Presidency of Donald Trump, there have been an increase of sending money from the
US to the Philippines for the Filipino Immigrants worried that sending money will also be
affected in the new immigration policy of Trump.

In fact, the inflow of OFW remittances has slowed down in recent years, and today they
account for just around 10% of GDP (Figure 1).

19

In 2017, Filipinos living abroad sent nearly $33 billion in remittances to the Philippines via
formal channels, according to World Bank data. Remittances more than doubled in the
past decade and represented about 11 percent of the country’ gross domestic product
(GDP) in 2016.

19
Punongbayan, JC. "5 Ways a Trump Presidency Could Affect Filipinos." Rappler. November 12, 2016. Accessed
March 16, 2018. https://www.rappler.com/thought-leaders/152115-trump-presidency-affect-filipinos.
20

But as much as 43% of such remittances come from the US. Hence, if Trump’s
immigration policies push through, the role of remittances in buoying up the Philippine
economy could further diminish.

This graph shows how the economy of the Philippines would go down in the next ten
years, since one of the great contributors in the Economy of the Philippines are Filipino
Immigrants and Overseas Filipino Workers.

Furthermore, the rescission of DACA or the Deferred Action for Childhood can affect
around 800,000 individuals who arrived in America as children—referred to as Dreamers.
For they are prone for deportation. Even those who legally enter the US can also be
affected in this new immigration policy for they are not the one who will be prioritizing by
government of America, they might lose their jobs for giving the opportunities to other
Americans that needed an employment.
In terms of Economy of the Philippines, Investments might suffer because Trump was
planning to build businesses inside the America, therefore, foreign direct investment in
the Philippines may also bust since one pf the major investor of the Philippines is the
United States of America.
While with regards to Political Economy of the state, the bilateral relationship of US-RP
might also change since the two leaders has the same in terms of strong personality. In

20
Zong, Jie, Jeanne Batalova Jie Zong, and Jeanne Batalova. "Filipino Immigrants in the United States."
Migrationpolicy.org. March 14, 2018. Accessed March 24, 2018. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/filipino-
immigrants-united-states
his recent statement, President Duterte announced that he will cut military ties with the
US, but since Trump and Duterte are having a slightly good relationship, the strong
relationship of US-RP may also restore unlike the former administration of Barrack
Obama where Duterte showed no interest in having good relationship in the United States
of America.
The stand of US in terms of territorial disputes in South China Sea may also change. Back
in the former administration of Barrack Obama and Benigno Simeon Aquino, the republic
of the Philippines and the United States have strong military ties. US supports Philippines
in pursuing the disputed island, but since Trump became the President of the United
States, he doesn’t show more concern in the Philippines unlike Obama that shows
unending support and alliance to the Philippines.

Chapter V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

US-RP has a strong bilateral relation in terms of Political and economic affairs. They
have a long-standing history since American occupation. This become one of the factors
that Filipino Immigrants consider why they decided to migrate in the United States.
Americans became influential in terms of culture and education. They believe that once
they become a US citizen, their life will change, and this will provide them more
opportunities in life.

Filipino Immigrants were one of the great contributors’ economic growth and
development of the Philippines. Since 19th century to 21st century, they still become one
of the reason why Philippines’ economy boom. But apparently, there has been a gradual
shift in terms of Immigration Policy of United States that will definitely affect the economy
of the Philippines since Donald Trump promotes a protectionist policy in the US and
prioritizing native or naturally born American Citizens and was planning to deport
immigrants from other countries particularly the Filipinos abroad. It may affect the
economy of the Philippines since Filipino Immigrants become one of the contributors in
the RP’s economy. This new immigration policy that was planned to implement in the next
few years might make our economy suffer, but this will not just end there, since no one
can predict what Trump was planning in the future.

As a researcher of this study, I don’t think that Trump will pursue this kind of Policy
since a large portion of America are immigrants. Their economy might also suffer if they
just contained themselves inside America with just Americans citizens only. America
cannot just deport immigrants that easily because they are also one of the major
contributors of American economy. They will also lose highly-skilled workers from
countries that has a cheap and large human resources. Their laborers were composed of
different immigrants from different countries especially Filipinos. Not just the economy of
the Philippines might suffer but this policy can also bring economic crisis to the United
States of America. I believe that Trump uses this statements and actions as strategic
steps and to become popular in the international arena. For the leader of different
countries have its own national intertest that promotes economic development in the state.
They cannot just make steps that might ruin their own country. Moreover, as researcher,
President Duterte will not let these Filipino Immigrants to be deported since they
contribute a lot in RP’s economy, he will make a way to make this issue be solved, maybe
not today but surely, he has a plan for the citizens residing abroad. And since they already
met, Pres. Duterte and Trump praise each other and Trump shows support for the drug
campaign of President Duterte, while Pres. Duterte shows his willingness to restore the
bilateral relationship of US-RP. This might be a stepping stone for future restoration of
US-RP relation.

I therefore conclude Immigrants are one of the great contributors on RP’s economic
growth and development. And once they are gone, they will make RP’s economy suffer.
For they have been making our Political Economy robust and stable, providing
sustainability and development to political economy of the state. Furthermore, I therefore
concluded that this new Immigration policy might not just affect the Political economy of
the Republic of the Philippines but can also bring economic crisis in the United States of
America. Furthermore, the Filipino Immigrants should not be affected and be worried
since Duterte Administration has been providing them assistance and establishing a
restored relationship to US.

The Republic of the Philippines should guarantee protection among our Citizens
abroad. They should make them secured even though they are not residing inside the
country. They should extend their hands for those have needed them and give assistance
to Filipino Immigrants since they contributed a lot in the Political Economy of the state.
President Duterte should establish good relationship with other countries where Filipino
Immigrants residing, especially in the US. The department of Foreign Affairs should focus
on the positive side but expect the worse since the President on the US has a tendency
to change his mind in just a nick of time. They should also be guaranteeing the protection
of each individuals and provide them proper information that would lessen their worries
and not to make things worse.
Chapter VI
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