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ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo

universiteti

SoTa mesxia

Zleva ჲ sakvirveli
didgoris brZola da Tbilisis
SemoerTeba
UDC (uak) 94(479.22)+94(479)+94(5-012)
m-58

TiTqmis 900 wlis win (1121 w.) didgorze mopovebulma


ZlevaY sakvirvelma da misma uSualo Sedegma _ Tbilisis Semo-
erTebam, ara mxolod daagvirgvina saukunenaxevriani brZola
erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Sesaqmnelad, aramed saTave dau-
do qarTuli politikuri samyaros Semdgom, manamde sruliad
uprecedento, gaZlierebas.
wignSi, romelic, faqtobrivad, monografiul gamokvle-
vas warmoadgens, amomwuravadaa gaSuqebuli didgoris saxelo-
vani epopeis samxedro-politikuri aspeqtebi, naCvenebia did-
gorze mopovebuli istoriuli gamarjvebis mTeli sidiade, da-
viT aRmaSeneblis saqarTvelos wamyvani roli da adgili kavka-
siasa da axlo aRmosavleTSi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom SoTa mesxias am naSromis gamoqvey-
nebidan (1972 w.) oTx aTeul welze meti gavida, mas odnavadac
ar daukargavs mecnieruli Rirebuleba da dResac uTuod mi-
ipyrobs ara mxolod specialistTa, aramed saqarTvelos isto-
riiT dainteresebul mkiTxvelTa farTo wris yuradRebas.

wigni gamosacemad moamzades


marine mesxiam da zurab papasqirma

redaqtori: saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli


akademiis akademikosi roin metreveli

© ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, 2016

ISBN 978-9941-13-513-2
IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI TBILISI STATE UNIVERSITY

SHOTA MESKHIA

MIRACULOUS VICTORY

BATTLE OF DIDGORI AND


LIBERATION OF TBILISI

Tbilisi State University Press


Tbilisi – 2016
UDC (uak) 94(479.22)+94(479)+94(5-012)
m-58

Nearly 900 years ago, in 1121 the “Miraculous Victory” was


achieved by Georgian army at Didgori, the immediate outcomes of
which were not only regaining Tbilisi as the capital city and crowning
a century-and-a-half struggle of the country for the unification of the
Georgian state, but also promoting the unprecedented expansion of
Georgia’s political influence.
Shota Meskhia’s book offers a full study of the military and
political aspects of the renowned event at Didgori. It also points to
the greatness of the historical victory and the leadership of David
the Builder’s Georgia in the Caucasus and the Near East.
More than forty years have elapsed since Sh. Meskhia’s book
was first published (1972) but its cardinal scientific importance is still
at its heights, attracting the interest of academic researchers as well
as of the wide range of readers interested in the history of Georgia.

The book was prepared by


Marine Meskhia and Zurab Papaskiri

Editor: Academician of the Georgian National


Academy of Sciences Roin Metreveli

© Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 2016

ISBN 978-9941-13-513-2
didgoris epopeis piruTvneli matiane
SoTa mesxias `Zlevaჲ sakvirveli~

sayovelTaod cnobili WeSmaritebaa, rom istoria


arasodes yofila mecnierebis ganyenebuli dargi, rome-
lic ubralod swavlobs ama Tu im qveynis, xalxis war-
suls _ is bevrad metia. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom is-
toria aris codnis sfero, romelic, rogorc arc erTi
sxva dargi, sZens adamians moqalaqeobriv Segnebas, aq-
cevs mas moqalaqed. am kuTxiT, kidev ufro meti dat-
virTva aqvs mSobliuri istoriis codnas _ is aris sa-
fuZvelTa-safuZveli erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobi-
erebisa, igia ganmsazRvreli pirovnebis ama Tu im qveyni-
sadmi moqalaqeobrivi kuTvnilebisa. anu, swored mSob-
liuri istoria aqcevs adamians konkretuli qveynis (ro-
melsac is samSoblod miiCnevs) moqalaqed.
sworad brZanebda didi ilia, rom `arc erToba eni-
sa, arc erToba sarwmunoebisa da gvar-tomobisa ise ar Se-
amsWvalebs xolme adamians erTmaneTTan, rogorc erTo-
ba istoriisa...~, 1 radgan `istoria... didebuli taZaria,
saca uwiravs erTian sulsa erisas da saca aRumarTavs
ers Tavis didebuli da did-bunebovan kacTa uwmindesni
xatni da zed wauweria didTa saqmeTa moTxroba, viTa
saSviliSvilo anderZi...~.2 amitom mouwodebda eris mama
Tanamemamuleebs, gafrTxilebodnen am `saSviliSvilo
anderZs~, vinaidan, misi Rrma rwmeniT, `eris pirqve dam-
xoba gaTaxsireba, gawyaleba iqidam daiwyeba, roca igi
Taviss istorias iviwyebs, roca mas xsovna ekargeba Ta-
visis warsulisa, Tavisis yofilis cxovrebisa. daviwyeba

1
ilia WavWavaZe. osmalos saqarTvelo. _ ilia WavWavaZe. eqvs-
tomeuli. t. 4. Tb., 2012, gv. 3, xazgasma Cvenia _ z.p.
2
ilia WavWavaZe. eri da istoria. dim. baqraZis naSromis gamo is-
toriaze. _ ilia WavWavaZe. eqvstomeuli. t. 4. Tb., 2012, gv. 32.

5
istoriisa, Tavisis warsulisa da yofilis cxovrebis aR-
mofxvra xsovnisagan _ momaswavebelia eris suliT da xor-
ciT moSlisa, darRvevisa da mTlad warwymedisaca...~.1
diax, SeiZleba adamianma (adamianTa jgufma) icodes
mSobliuri ena, met-naklebad hqondes SenarCunebuli ma-
mapapuri sarwmunoeba, magram imis gamo, rom man dakarga
saerToistoriuli mexsierebis kodi, anu mowyda (ufro
swored, mowyvites) Tavis istoriul fesvebs, igi amo-
varda erovnuli sxeulidan da Tavisive samSoblos mte-
ric ki gaxda. magaliTisaTvis Sors wasvla araa saWiro _
afxazeTis tragedia, ZmaTamkvleli omi afxazebsa da
qarTvelebs Soris, amis naTeli dadasturebaa.
mSobliuri istoriis gadamwyveti roli erovnul-
saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis formirebis procesSi mS-
venivrad esmodaT sabWouri komunistur-totalitaruli
reJimis mesveurebs. amitom ebrZoda ase xmalamoRebiT
ybadaRebuli `proletaruli internacionalizmis~ fari-
sevlur lozungs amofarebuli imperiuli ideologia
erovnulobis iseTi mamoZravebeli muxtis propagandas,
rogoric mSobliuri istoriaa. amis mkafio gamoxatule-
bas warmoadgenda yovlad gaumarTlebeli, nacionaluri
Rirsebis ukiduresad Semlaxveli politika istoriis
swavlebis sferoSi, romlis mTavari daniSnuleba erov-
nulobis mTlianad moSla da `velikorusul~ istoriul
faseulobebze dafuZnebuli axali erTobis _ sabWoTa
adamianis _ formireba iyo.
am utopiuri ideis xorcSesxmas emsaxureboda er-
Tiani sabWouri saganmanaTleblo (rogorc saskolo, ise
umaRlesi) sistema, romlis ideologiur qvakuTxeds ko-
munisturi partiisa da `sabWoTa samSoblos~ istoriis
swavleba warmodgenda. mTeli paradoqsi mdgomareobda
1
ilia WavWavaZe. eri da istoria. dim. baqraZis naSromis gamo...,
gv. 29, xazgasma Cvenia _ z.p.

6
imaSi, rom es. e.w. `sabWoTa samSoblo~, romlis istoriis
(oficialuri saxelwodeba _ `ssrk istoria~) Seswavla sa-
valdebulo iyo mTeli ukidegano sabWoTa kavSiris masS-
tabiT, sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara `deda-ruseTis~ istoria.
am fonze savalalo mdgomareoba iyo Seqmnili re-
alurad mSobliuri istoriis swavlebis sferoSi. saqar-
Tvelos istoria faqtobrivad fakultaturi sagnis do-
neze iswavleboda. SedarebisaTvis kmara Tundac is faq-
ti, rom e.w. `ssrk istoria~ (faqtobrivad, ruseTis aTa-
swlovani saxelmwifoebrivi istoria) gadmocemuli iyo
oTx sakmaod sqeltanian saskolo saxelmZRvaneloSi, ma-
Sin rodesac samiaTaswlovani saxelmwifoebriobis mqone
saqarTvelos (sakuTari samSoblos) istorias qarTveli
moswavleebi euflebodnen mcire moculobis erTaderTi
saxelmZRvanelos meSveobiT. amasTan, Tu `ssr kavSiris
(anu ruseTis) istorias~ gaaCnda stabiluri datvirTva
(TiToeuli tomi iswavleboda erTi wlis manZilze), `sa-
qarTvelos istoriis~ erTi saxelmZRvanelos masala ga-
danawilebuli iyo sam Tu oTx saswavlo welze.
Sedegad rigiTi qarTveli axalgazrda, rogorc we-
si, gacilebiT met codnas iRebda ruseTis istoriaSi,
vidre sakuTari samSoblos _ saqarTvelos istoriul
warsulze. ufro metic, mas zustad imdenive unda scod-
noda magaliTad, cnobil rus moRvaweTa _ kievisa da
moskovis did mTavarTa da mefeTa (iaroslav brZenis,
iuri dolgorukis, aleqsandre nevelis, dimitri done-
lis, petre I-isa da a.S.), Tu saxalxo gmirebis (mininisa
da poJarskis da a.S., arafers vambobT sabWoTa sazog-
doebis kumirebad miCneul e.w. `glexTa omebis~ winamZ-
Rolebze: ivane bolotnikovze, stefane razinsa da eme-
lian pugaCovze), ramdenic mis moskovel da leningra-
del Tanatolebs.
mSobliuri istoriis, erovnuli gmirebisa da fase-
ulobebis ignorireba-ugulebelyofis politika mJRavn-
7
deboda imaSic, rom respublikebs, faqtobrivad, akrZa-
luli hqondaT TavianTi erovnuli moRvaweebisaTvis pa-
tivis migeba. rad Rirs Tundac is faqti, rom sabWoTa
saqarTveloSi, sadac TiTqmis yvela qalaqi da raionuli
centri mofenili iyo `proletariatis didi beladis~,
sinamdvileSi ki _ mezobeli saxelmwifos (ruseTis fede-
raciis) lideris1 ZeglebiTa da biustebiT, ar idga TviT
daviT aRmaSeneblisa da Tamar mefis Zeglebi.2 da es ma-
Sin, rodesac sabWoTa periodSi xeli ar uxliaT sankt-
peterburgSi mdgari, TviT komunisturi koniunqturi-
saTvis sruliad miuRebeli `tirani~ mefis _ nikoloz I-
is ZeglisTvisac ki. gamodis, rom `eqspluatatoruli
klasebisa~ da maTi beladi mefe-monarqebis mgmobeli ko-
munisturi ideologiis mebairaxtre ruseTs hqonda uf-
leba Zeglebi daedga (an ar moeSala) rusi mefe-mTavre-
bisaTvis, xolo saqarTvelos es ekrZaleboda.
Tu rogor ebrZoda komunisturi ideologia erov-
nul (gansakuTrebiT ararusi xalxebis) istorias, mkafi-
od gamomJRavnda XX s. 70-iani wlebis damdegs, rodesac
qveynis umaRlesi politikuri organos skkp centralu-
ri komitetis erT-erTma maRalCinosanma (Semdgom mixe-
il gorbaCovis `perestroikis~ cnobilma `arqiteqtor-
ma~) aleqsandre iakovlevma pirdapir `jvars acva~ naci-
onaluri respublikebis samecniero da SemoqmedebiTi
wreebis is warmomadgenlebi, romlebic, misi azriT, ga-
tacebuli iyvnen warsulis idealizaciiT da qeba-didebas
1
marTalia, v. lenini 1922 wlis miwurulidan oficialurad
axladSeqmnili (1922 w. 30 dekembers) ssr kavSiris mTavrobis
meTauradac iTvleboda, magram, rogorc cnobilia, realurad
mas, avadmyofobis gamo, am funqciis Sesruleba ar mouwia.
2
saqarTvelos didi mefeebidan Zeglis dadgmis pativi ergoT
mxolod erekle meores (rogorc rusul-qarTuli megobrobis
simbolos) da vaxtang gorgasals _ rogorc Tbilisis damaar-
sebels.

8
asxamdnen calkeul mefe-mTavrebs (maT Soris, daviT aR-
maSenebels, Tamar mefes,1 Temur-lengs da a.S.2
yovelive zemoTqmulze yuradRebis gamaxvileba imi-
tom CavTvaleT saWirod, rom gveCvenebina, Tu ra ideo-
logiuri barierebis gadalaxva uwevdaT qarTvel isto-
rikosebs sabWoTa periodSi da rogori gambedaoba sWir-
deboda mecniers, rom, aseTi umkacresi politikur-ide-
ologiuri wnexis pirobebSi, moexerxebina STamomavlobis
mier erovnul gmirebad Seracxul qarTvel mefeTa Tu
sxva eriskacebis `didTa saqmeTa~ maRal profesionalur
doneze obieqturad warmoCena da popularizacia. zedme-
tia imaze laparaki, rom aseT viTarebaSi yvela rodi be-
davda xmis amoRebas, gamokveTilad erovnul-patriotu-
li datvirTvis Semcveli Temebis win wamowevasa da pro-
pagandas. es mxolod gamonaklisebs SeeZloT.

1
am kuTxiT maRali rangis partiuli `bosi~ (skkp centraluri
komitetis propagandis ganyofilebis gamgis movaleobis Sems-
rulebeli) gansakuTrebiT gauRizianebia maSin jer kidev
axalgazrda istorikosis (amJamad akademikosis) roin metreve-
lis, erTi SexedviT, sruliad uwyinar da upretenzio publika-
cias, romelSic xazgasmuli iyo Tamaris gansakuTrebuli po-
pularoba, qarTveli xalxis sayovelTao siyvaruli da mowi-
weba didi mefisadmi (r. metreveli. qveynis Tvali, mzisa dari...
(Tamar mefis saxe xalxur SemoqmedebaSi). _ ciskari, #4, 1966;
Р. Метревели. Образ царицы Тамары в грузинском народном творчест-
ве. – Литературная Грузия, 1970, №8). amis Sesaxeb ufro vrclad.
ix. z. papasqiri. erTiani saqarTvelos istoriis mkvlevari. _
qveynis siyvarulSi ganvlili wlebi. akademikos roin metreve-
lis 75 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili krebuli. Tb., 2014, gv. 155-159.
2
А. Яковлев. Против антиисторизма. – Литературная газета, 15 нояб-
ря 1972 г. (http://www.ctvr.ru/lentad/2005/10/31/2.htm). aRsaniSnavia,
rom es erTgvari `programuli~ statia operatiulad iTargmna
da gamoqveynda qarTuladac. ix.: a. iakovlevi. antiistorizmis
winaaRmdeg. _ mnaTobi, #2, 1973, gv. 3-25.

9
erT-erTi im mcirericxovan qarTvel istorikosTa-
gan, vinc odnavadac ar uSindeboda oficialur koniunq-
turas da medgrad idga erovnuli faseulobebisa da
mSobliuri istoriis sadarajoze, dReniadag eweoda mis
popularizacias, iyo gamoCenili mecnieri da mamuliSvi-
li, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos mec-
nierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespondenti, profesori So-
Ta mesxia. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT gamosarCevia mecnieris
wigni: `ZlevaY sakvirveli~, romlis xelaxal publikaci-
asac vTavazobT mkiTxvels.
SoTa mesxias es naSromi, romelic, Tamamad SeiZle-
ba iTqvas, warmoadgens qarTvelTa yvelaze didi gamarj-
vebis _ TanamedroveTa mier Zlevai sakvirvelad aRqmu-
li didgoris saxelovani epopeis _ WeSmaritad piruTv-
nel matianes, pirvelad am naxevari saukunis win (1965
wels) gamoica da umalve iqca samagido wignad ara mxo-
lod specialisti istorikosebisaTvis. sazogadoebis in-
teresi imdenad didi aRmoCnda, rom avtorma gadawyvita
misi axali gamocemis momzadeba. `didgoris brZolis~
(swored ase erqva 1965 wels gamocemul wigns) axali re-
daqcia, romelic ukve `ZlevaY sakvirvelis~ saxelwode-
biT 1972 wels gamovida, ar iyo adrindelis ubralo ga-
meoreba. SoTa mesxiam amjerad mkiTxvels SesTavaza se-
riozulad gadamuSavebuli da Sevsebuli naSromi, rome-
lic, arsebiTad, dasrulebul monografiul gamokvle-
vas warmoadgenda.
SoTa mesxias `ZlevaY sakvirvelis~ gamosvla, rome-
lic didgoris brZolis 850 wlisTavs mieZRvna, imTaviT-
ve gascda sakuTriv istoriuli mecnierebis akademiur
CarCoebSi moqceuli movlenis (Tundac saetapo) farg-
lebs da zogaderovnuli mniSvnelobis faqtad iqca. am
mniSvnelobas wigns sZenda is, rom masSi yvelasTvis gasa-
gebi, popularuli eniT ganxiluli urTulesi istori-
ografiuli problemebis fonze, SesaSuri patriotuli

10
(Tumca ara gadametebuli) paTosiT naCvenebi iyo did-
gorze mopovebuli istoriuli gamarjvebis mTeli sidi-
ade, daviT aRmaSeneblis saqarTvelos wamyvani roli da
adgili kavkasiasa da wina aziaSi. dasanania, rom ukurne-
beli seniT Sepyrobili misi avtori ise gardaicvala,
rom Tvalic ki ver Seavlo Tavisi naRvawis sasignalo
egzemplars da ver moeswro wignis sayovelTao, WeSmari-
tad saxalxo aRiarebas. is am qveynidan 1972 w. maisSi,
SemoqmedebiTi gafurCqvnis asakSi _ 56 wlisa _ wavida.
miuxedavad xanmokle cxovrebisa, SoTa mesxiam Za-
lian bevri moaswro. is ar iyo ubralod warmatebuli
mecnieri-istorikosi _ Tavisi drois (XX s. 40-70-iani
wlebis damdegi) qarTuli saistorio skolis erT-erTi
yvelaze gamorCeuli warmomadgeneli da lideri, rom-
lis istoriografiuli memkvidreoba fasdaudebeli Se-
naZenia ara mxolod sakuTriv saistorio mecnierebisaT-
vis, aramed mas zogaderovnuli kulturuli mniSvnelo-
bac gaaCnia. yovelgvari gadaWarbebis gareSe SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom SoTa mesxia Tavisi maRali inteleqtiTa da
erudiciiT, garegnuli da Sinagani aristokratizmiT,
kacuri kacobiT, mSobliuri qveynisadmi usazRvro siy-
varuliTa da misi istoriuli monapovrebis dacvisTvis
Tavgadadebuli zrunviT, didi zneobrivi magaliTi iyo
TanamedroveTaTvis.
uaRresad farTo iyo S. mesxias mecnieruli inte-
resebis wre. is aris avtori fundamenturi saetapo ga-
mokvlevebisa Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos qalaqebsa da
saqalaqo wyobaze, saxelmwifo wyobis, samoxeleo siste-
misa da saSinao politikuri cxovrebis sakiTxebze da a.S.
araerTi originaluri dakvirvebiTa da principuli xasi-
aTis mecnieruli mignebebiT gamorCeulia mecnieris wya-
roTmcodneobiTi da istoriografiuli xasiaTis naSro-
mebi. Taobebi gaizardnen saqarTvelos istoriis sasko-
lo saxelmZRvaneloze, romlis avtorebi SoTa mesxia da
viqtor guCua iyvnen.

11
SoTa mesxia iyo patrioti istorikosi. misi yoveli
naSromi gamsWvalulia mSobliuri qveynisa da misi isto-
riisadmi amaRlebuli siyvaruliT. igi yovelTvis aqtiu-
rad ibrZoda saqarTvelos istoriis gamyalbeblebis wi-
naaRmdeg da medgrad idga erovnuli faseulobebis sa-
darajoze. misi kritika, diaxac, iyo `gamosarClebiTi~,
Tumca ara `urapatriotuli~. is wina planze, pirvel
rigSi, mecnierul keTilsindisierebasa da obieqturobas
ayenebda. am mxriv, SoTa mesxia didi ivane javaxiSvilisa
da Tavisi uSualo maswavleblis akademikos simon jana-
Sias Rirseuli memkvidre iyo.
yovelive es (rasakvirvelia, mecnieris maRal inte-
leqtTan erTad) yvelaze mkafiod gamovlinda swored
wignSi `ZlevaY sakvirveli~, romlis istoriografiuli
mniSvneloba uryevia dResac _ gamoqveynebidan TiTqmis
naxevari saukunis Semdeg. mainc riTia gamorCeuli SoTa
mesxias es naSromi da ratomaa aqtualuri misi xelaxali
gamocema?
pirveli, ris gamoc dRis wesrigSi dgeba am wignis
gamoqveyneba, rasakvirvelia, aris masSi asaxuli movleni-
sa da mTlianad daviT aRmaSeneblis epoqis masStaburoba.
didi mtkiceba ar sWirdeba imas, rom didgoris omSi ga-
marjvebam da am gamarjvebis uSualo Sedegma _ Tbilisis
SemoerTebam, ara mxolod daagvirgvina TiTqmis saukune-
naxevriani brZola erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Sesaqm-
nelad, aramed es gaxda erTgvari aTvlis wertili qarTu-
li politikuri samyaros Semdgomi (manamde sruliad up-
recedento) gaZlierebis gzaze, romelmac nikofsiidan
darubandamde gadaWimuli saqarTvelos samefo aqcia kav-
kasiisa da axlo aRmosavleTis wamyvan saxelmwifod, rom-
lis liderebi saqveynod acxadebdnen TavianT ambiciebs
mTlianad saqristianos mesveurobaze.
dRes, rodesac saqarTvelo, faqtobrivad, pirve-
lad bolo xuTi saukunis ganmavlobaSi (Tu ar CavTvliT

12
1918-1921 wlebis warumatebel mcdelobas), realurad
daadga saxelmwifoebrivi aRmSeneblobis gzas da msof-
lio Tanamegobrobis sakmaod wonad subieqtad iqca, ro-
gorc arasdros, aqtualuria yvelas _ Sin da gareT _
SevaxsenoT, Tu rogor istoriul gamocdilebazea da-
fuZnebuli Tanamedrove qarTuli saxelmwifo da ratom
aqvs mas pretenzia kvlav moipovos Tavis kuTvnili adgi-
li msoflios civilizebul qveynebs Soris. swored ami-
tomaa saWiro saqarTvelos istoriis gmiruli epopeis
amsaxveli movlenebisa da maTi Semoqmedi didi moRvawe-
ebis kidev erTxel warmoCena da Semdgomi popularizeba.
meore garemoeba, ris gamoc unda ganxorcieldes
`ZlevaY sakvirvelis~ morigi (faqtobrivad, _ mesame1) ga-
mocema, aris TviT sakuTriv S. mesxias naSromis mecnie-
ruli Rirebuleba. didgoris brZolas arasodes mokle-
bia mkvlevarTa yuradReba, magram am Temaze msjeloba
ZiriTadad daviT aRmaSeneblis epoqisadmi miZRvnil gan-
mazogadebel2 naSromebSi mimdinareobda da is sagangebo,
yovelmxrivi mecnieruli Seswavlis obieqti ar yofila.
1965 wels gamocemuli SoTa mesxias `didgoris brZola~
qarTul istoriografiaSi arsebuli am xarvezis Sevsebis
pirveli cda iyo, romlis gadamuSavebul da Sevsebul
variants, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, warmoadgens 1972 wels
gamocemuli `ZlevaY sakvirveli~.
SoTa mesxias zemoaRniSnulma publikaciebma, rome-
lic Tvisobrivad axali etapi iyo didgoris epopeis mec-
1
1986 wels aRniSnuli naSromi Sevida S. mesxias Txzulebebis III
tomSi. ix.: S. mesxia. saistorio Ziebani. t. III. Tb., 1986, gv. 5-139.
2
aRsaniSnavia, rom XX s. 60-iani wlebisaTvis daviTis epoqa
arc ki iyo siRrmiseulad, monografiulad damuSavebuli. ro-
gorc cnobilia, pirveli aseTi kvleva Caatara roin metre-
velma, romlis Sedegebi gamoqveynda 1965 wels. ix.: r. metreve-
li. daviT aRmaSenebeli. saxelmwifoebrivi reformebi XII sau-
kunis pirveli meoTxedis saqarTveloSi. Tb., 1965.

13
nieruli Seswavlis sferoSi, cxoveli interesi gaaRviva
saqarTvelos mravalsaukunovani istoriis am umniSvne-
lovanesi movlenisadmi da axali impulsi SesZina mis Sem-
dgom damuSavebas. amis naTeli dadasturebaa is, rom
cnobilma istorikosma sargis kakabaZem, S. mesxias `did-
goris brZolis~ gamocemis `cxel kvalze~, saxeldaxe-
lod gaamzada sakmaod vrceli naSromi, romelic ukve
mecnieris gardacvalebis (1967 w.) Semdeg gamoqveynda. 1
1973 wels gamoica qveli CxataraiSvilisa da ivane SaiS-
melaSvilis erToblivi naSromi didgoris omze, romel-
Sic yuradReba gamaxvilda samxedro aspeqtebze.2
am bolo dros didgoris omsa da zogadad daviT
aRmaSeneblis samxedro-politikur moRvaweobaze sakma-
od ambiciuri monografia gamoaqveyna awgansvenebulma
mkvlevarma soso margiSvilma,3 romelSic avtorma saqar-
Tvelos saxelmwifos brZola selCukur samyarosTan XI s.
miwurulsa da XII s. I meoTxedSi ganixila axlo aRmosav-
leTSi mimdinare politikur-religiuri dapirispirebis
farTo WrilSi da Seecada, ramdenadme eWvis qveS daeye-
nebina (xSir SemTxvevaSi sruliad usafuZvlod)4 didgo-
ris epopeisa da zogadad daviT aRmaSeneblis samxedro-
politikuri da diplomatiuri moRvaweobis masStabebi

1
s. kakabaZe. didgoris omi. Tb., 1982. rogorc aRniSnavs wignis
redaqtori ioseb megreliZe, sargis kakabaZes Tavisi naSromi
dauweria 1966 w. oqtomber-dekemberSi, misive `qarTveli xal-
xis istoriis~ gamouqveynebeli nawilis safuZvelze da did-
goris midamoebis daTvaliereba-Seswavlis Sedegad~. ix. s. ka-
kabaZe. didgoris omi, gv. 5.
2
q. CxataraiSvili, i. SaiSmelaSvili. didgoris brZola. Tb., 1973.
3
s. margiSvili. miTebi da realoba daviT aRmaSeneblis mefo-
bis Sesaxeb. omi seljukTa samyaros winaaRmdeg. Tb., 2006.
4
amis Sesaxeb ix.: j. samuSia. ramdenime mosazreba soso margiS-
vilis naSromis Sesaxeb (recenzia). _ mesxeTi. saistorio kre-
buli. Tbilisi-axalcixe, 2008, gv. 157-166.

14
da mniSvneloba, anu swored is, rac ase xazgasmiTaa war-
moCenili SoTa mesxias `ZlevaY sakvirvelSi~.
rasakvirvelia, am formatis werilSi Znelia da Sei-
Zleba arcaa aucilebeli vrclad saubari SoTa mesxias
`ZlevaY sakvirvelis~ Rirsebebze, magram Cven mainc Se-
vecdebiT, gamovyoT zogierTi aspeqti, riTac gamorCeu-
lia es naSromi da ris gamoc migvaCnia misi xelaxla ga-
mocema (pirveli publikaciidan 50 wlis Semdegac) mizan-
Sewonilad.
daviwyoT pirvelive TaviT, romelSic mokled, mag-
ram avtorisaTvis Cveuli skrupulozurobiT gaanali-
zebulia didgoris omisa da zogadad daviT aRmaSeneblis
moRvaweobis amsaxveli saistorio wyaroebi da problemis
irgvliv arsebuli istoriografiuli memkvidreoba. TiT-
qos ra unda iyos gansakuTrebuli am, erTi SexedviT,
sruliad upretenzio wyaroTmcodneobiT da istoriog-
rafiul narativSi, garda imisa, rom amgvari mimoxilva
pirvelad (im droisaTvis) gakeTda? magram ar SeiZleba
yuradReba ar miiqcios erTma friad mniSvnelovanma ga-
remoebam _ istoriografiul mimoxilvaSi ar `moiZebna~
adgili marqsizm-leninizmis klasikosebis arcerTi ideo-
logiuri tiradisaTvis. da es maSin, rodesac oficialur
koniunqturas TiTqmis kanonis rangSi hqonda ayvanili
moTxovna, nebismieri kvleva dafuZnebuli yofiliyo yba-
daRebul `marqsistul-leninur meTodologiaze~ da es
aucileblad formaluradac unda asaxuliyo naSromSi.1
1
magaliTad, yvela disertanti (politikisa da ideologiisa-
gan absoluturad daSorebul dargebSic ki) ubralod valde-
buli iyo Tavisi sakvalifikacio naSromis Sesaval nawilSi sa-
gangebod mieTiTebina, rom naSromis meTodologiur safuZ-
vels warmoadgenda marqsizm-leninizmis klasikosTa (karl mar-
qsis, fridrix engelsis, vladimir leninis) Txzulebebi, xolo
naSromisTvis darTuli bibliografia aucileblad unda daew-
yo rubrikiT: `marqsizm-leninizmis klasikosTa Sromebi~, ro-

15
SoTa mesxiam swored am koniunqturuli moTxovnis
ignorireba moaxdina da ar CaTvala saWirod `ZlevaY sak-
virvelisTvis~ darTuli istoriografiuli mimoxilva
`SeefuTa~ marqsizm-leninizmis klasikosebis ideologiu-
ri `miTiTebebiT~. Tumca mecniers mainc mouxda garkve-
ulwilad `valis moxda~ oficialuri koniunqturisaTvis,
magram es man Zalze ostaturad da diplomatiurad gaak-
eTa. naSromis ZiriTad nawilSi _ iq sadac jvarosnuli
laSqrobebis dampyroblur arsze da aRmosavleTSi maTi
qmedebebis negatiur mxareebzea msjeloba _ moyvanilia
karl marqsis sityvebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor „gaaSmaga
aRmosavleTis mTeli mahmadianuri mosaxleoba~ evro-
pelTa mier ierusalimis aRebisas gamoCenilma sisasti-
kem.1 es citata motanilia k. marqsis `qronologiuri Ca-
nawerebidan~, 2 romelic warmoadgens marqsizmis fuZem-
deblis erTgvar konspeqts istoriaSi da mas faqtobri-
vad ara aqvs ideologiuri datvirTva. Tanac, daskvna
imis Sesaxeb, rom evropeli jvarosnebi sulac ar iyvnen
`ucodveli kravebi~ da rom isini aRmosavleTSi namdvi-
lad ar mosulan mxolod „qristes saflavisa~ da sxva

melSic CamoTvlili iyo maTi calkeuli naSromebi. es ase iyo


mTeli sabWoTa periodis ganmavlobaSi, TviT `perestroikis~
wlebSic (magaliTisaTvis ix.: Б. А. Cеменовкер. Библиографические
памятники Византии. Автореферат диссертации на соискание учёной
степени доктора педагогических наук. М., 1989, gv. 9 (http://tekhnosfe
ra.com/view/436866/a#?page=14).
1
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli. Tb., 1972, gv. 72.
2
«Злодеяния крестоносцев. На 3-й день гарнизон крепости сдался
под условием свободного отступления, за что войско должно было
быть вознаграждено новой резней жителей; поведение крестонос-
цев в Иерусалиме привело в ярость все магометанское население
Востока...». К. Маркс. Хронологические выписки. – Архив Маркса и
Энгельса, т. V. Под редакцией В. Адоратского. М., 1938, gv. 125, xaz-
gasma Cvenia _ z.p.

16
„wminda adgilTa~ „uwmindurTagan~ gasaTavisufleblad
(swored am debulebis Sesamagreblad mohyavs S. mesxias
marqsizmis Teoretikosis citata), istoriografiaSi ise-
dac sakmaod myaradaa damkvidrebuli da, rom ara arsebu-
li koniunqtura, k. marqsis (Tundac yovelgvari ideolo-
giuri Stampebisagan daclili) citatis (romelSic mxo-
lod faqtis konstatacia iyo da sxva araferi) `mibma~ am
daskvnasTan sulac ar iqneboda aucilebeli.
da mainc, is faqti, rom `ZlevaY sakvirvelSi~ mxo-
lod erTxelaa naxsenebi marqsizmis klasikosi da isic
aseT qrestomaTiul konteqstSi naTlad aCvenebs misi
avtoris maqsimalur distancirebas marqsistul-leninu-
ri ideologiisagan (sxvaTa Soris, es Cans SoTa mesxias
sxva naSromebSic). ai, es aris mTavari am SemTxvevaSi.
sanam davasrulebdeT saubars `ZlevaY sakvirvelis~
wyaroTmcodneobiTi da istoriografiuli nawilis irgv-
liv, ar SegviZlia gverdi avuaroT daviT aRmaSeneblis
istorikosis Txzulebis erTi pasaJis S. mesxiaseul in-
terpretacias, romelsac vxvdebiT ukve ZiriTad nawilSi.
mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs fragmenti, sadac `cxovreba mefeT-
mefisa daviTisis~ avtori wers: „…rameTu glexTa ixi-
lem-ca, odes arabTa mefeni mohyvandes tyued. da sxuaTa
goliaTTaTKs radRa ramca gKndoda Tqmad“.1 S. mesxias es
fragmenti Semdegnairad esmis: „glexebmac ki naxes, roca
qarTvel molaSqreebs arabTa mefeebi mohyavdaT tyved, xo-
lo tyved wamoyvanil sxva goliaTebze sityvis Tqma raRa
saWiroao~. 2 TiTqos yvelaferi garkveulia da S. mesxias
interpretacia originalis adeqvaturia.
magram daviT aRmaSeneblis istorikosis am cnobis
1
daviT aRmaSeneblis istorikosi. cxovreba mefeT-mefisa davi-
Tisi. _ qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi
xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tb., 1955, gv.
341-342, xazgasma Cvenia _ z.p.
2
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli, gv. 115, xazgasma Cvenia _ z.p.

2. SoTa mesxia 17
sxvanairi gagebac arsebobs. akad. mzeqala SaniZem moaxdi-
na teqstis erTgvari koreqtireba, ris Sedegadac miviReT
akad. s. yauxCiSvilisagan (romlis gamocemiTac xelmZRvane-
lobda S. mesxia) gansxvavebuli redaqcia: `rameTu glexTa,
_ ixilemca, odes _ arabTa mefeni mohyvandes tyued; da
sxuaTa goliaTTaTKs radRa raYmca gKndoda Tqumad!~.1
Sedegad, es pasaJi m. SaniZem ise gaigo, rom glexebma
ki ar ixiles, Tu rogor mohyavdaT (sxvebs) `arabTa mefe-
ni … tyued~, aramed TviT glexebs mohyavdaT datyvevebu-
li mefeebi. swored asea warmodgenili es pasaJi daviT
aRmaSeneblis istorikosis Txzulebis rusul («Видел бы
ты, как крестьяне вели пленных арабских царей; а о других
богатырях и нет нужды говорить что-либо!»)2 da inglisur
(You should have seen how peasants were driving the captured
Arabian kings, how could you tell now that they had been great
fighters) TargmanebSi. 3 m. SaniZis am wakiTxvas TiTqos
amarTlebs vaxuSti batoniSvili, romelic aseve wers:
`aramed gexilamca odes arabTa da sparsTa mTavarni. Cu-
enTa glexTa mohyvandaT winaSe daviT mefisa~.4
miuxedavad aseTi seriozuli argumentisa, rogori-
caa vaxuStis versia, zogadi konteqstidan gamomdinare,
vfiqrobT, am cnobis S. mesxiaseuli wakiTxva ufro mar-
1
cxorebaY mefeT-mefisa daviTisi. _ qarTlis cxovreba. mTa-
vari redaqtori r. metreveli. Tb., 2008, gv. 325, xazgasma Cve-
nia _ z.p.
2
Жизнь царя царей Давида. – Картлис цховреба. Главный редактор Р.
Метревели. Тб., 2008, gv. 192, xazgasma Cvenia _ z.p. Targmani Ses-
rulebulia TviT m. SaniZis mier.
3
The Life of David, King of Kings. – Kartlis Tskhovreba. Editor in Chief R.
Metreveli. Tb., 2014, gv. 181, xazgasma Cvenia _ z.p.
4
batoniSvili vaxuSti. aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa. _ qar-
Tlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris
mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. IV. Tb., 1973, gv. 160.

18
Tebuli da logikuria. Cveni azriTac, mematianes imis
Tqma surda, rom datyvevebuli (qarTuli jaris mier)
arabTa mefeebi TviT glexebmac ki sakuTari TvaliT ixi-
les. aba ra dasajerebelia, rom ubralo glex molaSqre-
ebs (im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu isini namdvilad monawileobd-
nen didgoris brZolaSi, rac ramdenadme saTuoa1) daety-
vevebinaT ara romelime erTi warCinebulTagani, aramed
zogadad mowinaaRmdegis mTeli samxedro elita _ `arab-
Ta mefeebi~ (vaxuStiseuli `arabTa da sparsTa mTavarni~).
gacilebiT ufro advilad warmosadgenia, rom aq
Cven saqme gvqondes saqarTvelos xelisuflebis erTgvar
`piar-aqciasTan~, romlis mizani iyo mTel qveyanas _ sa-
mefos yvela mosaxles _ gaego, Tu ra didi gamarjveba
iqna mopovebuli didgorze (daaxloebiT iseT RonisZie-
basTan, rogoric stalinma moawyo 1944 w. 17 ivliss, ro-
desac moskovis quCebSi Camoatares 57 aTasamde datyveve-
buli germaneli oficeri da jariskaci).2
uaRresad saintereso da sayuradReboa SoTa mesxi-
as dakvirvebebi erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos saSinao
da sagareo politikur mdgomareobaze bagrat III-idan
daviT aRmaSeneblamde. avtori savsebiT sworad aRniS-
1
daviTis istorikosis am cnobaze dayrdnobiT, mkvlevarTa er-
Ti nawili Tvlis, rom arabi mefeebi glexTa tyveebi iyvnen. (an.
jafariZe. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria. t. III.
Tb., 2013, gv. 754). ufro metic, es cnoba miCneulia imis dastu-
rad, rom daviT aRmaSeneblis epoqaSi glexobas molaSqreoba
evaleboda (ix.: g. meliqiSvili. feodaluri saqarTvelos poli-
tikuri gaerTianeba da saqarTveloSi feodalur urTierToba-
Ta ganviTarebis zogierTi sakiTxi, Tb., 1973, gv. 74; m. wurwumia.
Sua saukuneebis qarTuli laSqari (900-1700). organizacia, taq-
tika, SeiaraReba istoriis doqtoris (PhD) akademiuri xarisxis
mosapoveblad warmodgenili disertacia. Tb., 2014, gv. 33).
2
«Большой вальс» Иосифа Сталина: Шествие побежденных в Моск-
ве (http://www.m24.ru/articles/46603).

19
navs, rom mas Semdeg, rac bagrat III-m Tavisi xelisufle-
bis qveS moaqcia ZiriTadi qarTuli regionebi da imer-
ameri (bizantiis mier mitacebuli imiertaosa da Tbili-
sis saamiros teritoriis gamoklebiT) erTian saxelmwi-
fod Sekra, samefo kars bizantiasTan urTierTobis ga-
dasinjvisaTvis unda ezruna _ imperias `unda egrZno sa-
qarTvelos siZliere, erTxel da samudamod eRiarebina
misi suverenoba da Tanasworoba~.1
aseve swor Sefasebas aZlevs mecnieri giorgi I-is _
bagrat mesamis „mgznebare, magram warumatebeli memk-
vidris~ nabijebs am mimarTulebiT da miuxedavad ganc-
dili marcxisa, sulac ar Tvlis mis qmedebebs gaumarT-
lebel avantiurad. S. mesxias daskvniT, giorgi I-is Tav-
ganwirvas amaod ar Cauvlia, `imperiam naTlad dainaxa,
rom saqarTvelos saxiT mis mezoblad izrdeboda Zlie-
ri, ara marto TanatolobisaTvis, aramed pirvelobi-
saTvis mebrZoli saxelmwifo~.2
amitomac iyo, rom konstantinopolma kidev ufro
mkveTri nabijebi gadadga mzardi qarTuli saxelmwifos
Semdgomi gaZlierebis SesaCereblad da imperiis kont-
rolidan gamosuli bagrat IV-is morCilebaSi mosayvanad.
magram bizantiis xelisuflebis TiTqmis 20-wlianma per-
manentulma mcdelobebma, maqsimalurad SeezRuda erTi-
ani qarTuli saxelmwifos suvereniteti da quTaisis
taxti mTlianad imperiuli politikis farvaterSi moeq-
cia, konstantinopols sasurveli Sedegi ver moutana.
es brZola, principSi, bagrat IV-is warmatebiT damTavr-
da. saimperatoro kari iZulebuli gaxda sevastosis pa-
tivSi ayvanili saqarTvelos mefe faqtobrivad Tanas-
wor partniorad da mokavSired eRiarebina, rac dinas-
tiuri qorwinebiTac iqna ganmtkicebuli.
1
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli, gv. 23.
2
iqve.

20
daviT aRmaSeneblis reformebis analizisas yurad-
Rebas ipyrobs S. mesxias msjeloba axali samoxeleo ins-
titutis _ „mosakargaveobisa~ da „mosakargave aznaure-
bis~ rolsa da adgilze centraluri xelisuflebis gaZ-
lierebis saqmeSi, romelic gadamwyveti faqtori aR-
moCnda saqarTvelos saxelmwifos aRmavlobis procesSi.
mecnieris azriT, „sakargavi~ mefis mier gansageblad,
samarTavad gacemul teritorias, qveyanas ewodeboda,
„mosakargave~ kidev mefis mier ama Tu im teritoriis,
qveynis mxolod ganmgeblad, mmarTvelad daniSnul mo-
xeles~, romelic `mTlianad damokidebuli iyo samefo
xelisuflebaze~ da gasamrjelos fuladi sargos saxiT
samefo xazinidan iRebda.1
samefo xelisuflebis centralizaciis gzaze mniS-
vnelovani RonisZieba iyo vaziris saxelos SemoReba. aR-
niSnavs ra, rom am tipis institucia funqcionirebda
`imdroindeli aRmosavleTis did saxelmwifoebSic~, S.
mesxia yuradRebas amaxvilebs im Taviseburebaze, rome-
lic principulad ganasxvavebda saqarTvelos samefos
vazirs mezobeli `qveynebis amave saxelwodebis xelisu-
falTagan~. es gansxvaveba gamomdinareobda iqidan, rom
saqarTveloSi vaziri, `rogorc saeklesio xelisufali
1
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli, gv. 31. SoTa mesxias es daskvna
da zogadad `sakargavis~ institutis Sesaxeb `ZlevaY sakvirve-
liSi~ mocemuli analizi efuZneba mecnieris gamokvlevas, ro-
melic moxsenebis saxiT wakiTxul iqna 1966 wels Tsu saqarT-
velos istoriis kaTedris samecniero sesiaze, xolo mogvian-
ebiT gamoqveynda XII saukunis saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi-
sadmi miZRvnil krebulSi (ix.: S. mesxia. XI-XIII ss. saqarTvelos
saxelmwifoebrivi wyobilebis istoriidan. sakargavis mniSvne-
lobisaTvis. _ XII saukunis saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi.
Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, t. 125. Tb., 1968,
gv. 171-210. igive publikacia ix. agreTve wgn.: S. mesxia. saisto-
rio Ziebani. t. I. Tb., 1982, gv. 324-374).

21
(Wyondideli episkoposi), umemkvidro iyo da sakuTari
samemkvidro qonebis, „mamulis~ uqonelic~. amdenad, „sa-
mamulo~ e. i. samemkvidro ver iqneboda misi Tanamdebo-
bac~. aRniSnuli garemoebis gamo `vaziris Tanamdebobi-
saTvis ucxo iyo yvela sxva TanamdebobisaTvis (saxelo-
saTvis) ase damaxasiaTebeli… memkvidreobiToba… same-
fo karis ama Tu im maRali Tanamdebobis memkvidreobiT
gadacemis SesaZlebloba~.1
aranakleb sayuradReboa S. mesxias msjeloba saxel-
mwifo mmarTvelobis sxva instituciebis (mandaturTuxu-
cesis, amirspasalaris, meWurWleTuxucesis saxeloebis)
irgvliv. damajerebelia mecnieris azri, rom am saxelo-
ebisa da zogadad `srulyofili centraluri samoxe-
leo aparatis~ formireba ZiriTadad swored daviT aR-
maSeneblis saxels ukavSirdeba.2
SoTa mesxiam sagangebod gamoyo daviT aRmaSeneb-
lis reformatoruli moRvaweobis kidev erTi umniSvne-
lovanesi ubani _ samxedro sfero, romlis centralur
RonisZiebas warmoadgens samxreT ruseTis stepebidan
momTabare yivCayTa saqarTveloSi gadmosaxleba da maT-
gan mudmivi cxenosani jaris Seqmna. is yuradRebas amax-
vilebs Tavisi masStaburobiT imdroisaTvis TiTqmis up-
recedento aqciis diplomatiur uzrunvelyofaze da
sworad SeniSnavs, rom saqarTvelos samefo kars am gran-
diozuli Canafiqris ganxorcielebisaTvis diplomatiu-
ri samzadisi didi xniT adre unda daewyo.
1
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli, gv. 33-34.
2
aqve ar SeiZleba ar aRvniSnoT, rom am kuTxiT `ZlevaY sak-
virvelSi~ warmodgenili msjeloba da daskvnebi aris erTgva-
ri anotacia S. mesxias ukanaskneli fundamenturi monografi-
isa, romelic misi gardacvalebis Semdeg gamoica da dRemde
rCeba saetapo gamokvlevad XII saukunis saqarTvelos saxelm-
wifo mmarTvelobis sistemaze qarTul istoriografiaSi. ix.:
S. mesxia. saSinao politikuri viTareba da samoxeleo wyoba XII
saukunis saqarTveloSi. Tb., 1979.

22
yivCayTa saqarTveloSi gadmosaxlebis diplomatiur
aspetebTan dakavSirebiT cxoveli interesi gamoiwvia So-
Ta mesxias sakmaod maxvilgonivrulma hipoTezam, romlis
mixedviT mkvlevari, XVII s. cnobili saeklesio moRvawis
pavle alepoelis cnobaze1 dayrdnobiT, dasaSvebad miiC-
nevda saqarTvelos samefo karis garkveul diplomatiur
konsultaciebs (yivCayeTSi wargzavnili `kacni sarwmuno-
nis~ meSveobiT) kievis did mTavar vladimir monomaxTan
(1113-1125).
miuxedavad imisa, rom S. mesxias am Tvalsazriss 2
mohyva kritikuli gamoxmaureba calkeuli mkvlevrebis (i.
cincaZe,3 n. nakaSiZe4) mxridan, istoriografiaSi mas mxar-
1
am cnobis Tanaxmad, TiTqos daviT aRmaSeneblisaTvis sam-
xedro Zala gamougzavniaT kievis ruseTidan da saqarTvelos
mefes am Zalis daxmarebiT ganudevnia Tavisi qveynidan sarki-
nozebi (ix.: n. asaTiani. masalebi XVII saukunis saqarTvelos is-
toriisaTvis. `saqarTvelos aRweriloba~ Sedgenili pavle ale-
poelis mier. gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da komentare-
bi daurTo n. asaTianma, Tb., 1973, gv. 73).
2
aRsaniSnavia, rom es Tema pirvelad n. asaTianma wamoswia
(ix.: n. asaTiani. axali cnobebi ruseT-saqarTvelos politi-
kuri urTierTobebis istoriidan. _ saqarTvelos ssr minis-
trTa sabWosTan arsebuli umaRlesi da saSualo ganaTlebis
saxelmwifo komitetis samecniero-meToduri sabWos istori-
is seqciis samecniero sesiis Tezisebi. Tb., 1965).
3
i. cincaZe. ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebis istoriisaT-
vis. _ macne, #5. Tb., 1968, gv. 211-214. i. cincaZis kritikas S.
mesxiam upasuxa specialuri weriliT, romelSic man moiyvana
axali argumentebi Tavisi hipoTezis gasamyareblad (ix.: S. mes-
xia. SeniSvnebi Zveli ruseTisa da saqarTvelos istoriidan
/prof. iase cincaZis werilis gamo/. _ mnaTobi, #1. Tb., 1970,
gv. 143-149).
4
Н. Т. Накашидзе. Грузино-русские политические отношения в первой
половине XVII века. Тб., 1968, gv. 206.

23
damWerebic ar mohklebia.1 oficialur quTaissa da kievs
Soris amgvari diplomatiuri kontaqtebis SesaZlo arse-
bobis erT-erT mTavar argumentad (romelzec sagangebod
miuTiTebda S. mesxiac), miCneulia is faqti, rom Zvel
ruseTSi sakmaod kargad iyvnen informirebulni, Tu ro-
mel qveyanas Seafares Tavi vladimir monomaxis mier dev-
nilma yivCayebma. amis naTeli dadasturebaa volineli me-
matianis cnoba vladimir monomaxis mier yivCayTa erT-er-
Ti urdos meTauris otrokis (igive daviT aRmaSeneblis
istorikosiseuli aTraqa SaraRanis Ze) gandevnis Sesaxeb
saqarTveloSi («...во Обезы , за Желѣзныя врата»).2
vfiqrobT, aseve Seuvalia yivCayebTan dakavSirebu-
li sxva problemuri sakiTxebis S. mesxiaseuli xedva.
pirvel rigSi, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs yivCayTa gansaxlebis

1
Н. Ш. Асатиани. Страницы истории русско-грузинских взаимоотноше-
ний. – Литературная Грузия, №8, 1975, gv. 78; r. metreveli. saqar-
Tvelos saxelmwifos sagareo politikuri urTierTobebi XI
saukunis miwurulsa da XII saukunis I meoTxedSi. daviT aRmaSe-
neblis diplomatia. _ qarTuli diplomatiis istoriis narkve-
vebi, t. I. Tb., 1998, gv. 265-267; Р. В. Метревели. Внешняя полити-
ка Грузии в средние века XII век. Некоторые вопросы внешней поли-
тики Грузии в средние века. Тб., 1995, gv. 6-7; R. Metreveli. Foreign Po-
licy of Georgia in the Middle Ages. 12th Century. Tbilisi, 1997, gv. 6; З. В.
Папаскири. У истоков грузино-русских политических взаимоотноше-
ний. Тб., 1982, gv. 103-105.
2
galiC-volinis matiane _ XIII s. Zveli rusuli saistorio Tx-
zuleba, romelSic gadmocemulia am samTavros istoria XIII
saukuneSi, Sesulia ipatis nusxis saxeliT cnobil matianeSi
(Полное собрание русских летописей – ПСРЛ. Том 2. Ипатьевская лето-
пись. Издание второе. С.-Петербургъ, 1908). amJamad Cven vsargeb-
lobT am matianis uaxlesi gamocemiT (ix.: Галицко-Волынская ле-
топись. Подготовка текста, перевод и комментарий О. П. Лихачевой. –
Памятники литературы Древней Руси: XIII век. М., 1981, gv. 236).

24
adgilmdebareobis sakiTxi. mkvlevarma ganaviTara akad.
iv. javaxiSvilis Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac `imier-
kavkasiiTgan gadmoyvanili~ yivCayebi saqarTvelos same-
fo kars `gareSe mtris, selCukiani Turqebis, Semoseve-
bis wyalobiT~ mosaxleobisagan daclil qarTlSi unda
Caesaxlebina.1 amasTan, S. mesxiam kategoriulad miuReb-
lad miiCnia cnobili somexi mecnieris akad. suren eremi-
anisa da qveli CxataraiSvilis mosazreba yivCayTa somxe-
Tis teritoriaze gansaxlebis Taobaze.2
mecnieris azriT, saxelmwifo interesebidan gamom-
dinare, daviT aRmaSenebels yivCayebi iq unda Caesaxle-
bina, sadac maTi gaqarTvelebis ukeTesi pirobebi iqne-
boda, aseT raionebad ki S. mesxiam miiCnia Sida da qvemo
qarTli, da ara somxeTis teritoria, romelic yivCayTa
„armenizacias~ ufro Seuwyobda xels, vidre maT gaqar-
Tvelebas. rac Seexeba s. eremianisa da q. CxataraiSvilis
mier moxmobil somxur epigrafikul masalas (romliTac
isini asabuTebdnen yivCayTa mosaxleobas somxeTSi), is S.
mesxias savsebiT argumentirebulad `axal (XIII-XIV sauku-
neebSi Camosaxlebul) yivCayTa~ nakvalevad miaCnia.3
aranakleb principulia S. mesxias mier s. eremianis
mxridan yivCayTa rolis gazviadebis mcdelobis4 kriti-
1
iv. javaxiSvili. qarTveli eris istoria, w. II. _ Txzulebani
Tormet tomad. t. II. Tb., 1983, gv. 209.
2
С. Т. Еремян. Юрий Боголюбский в армянских и грузинских источни-
ках. – Научные труды Ереванского государственного университета,
т. XXIII. Ереван, 1946, gv. 393-394; С. Т. Еремян. Агарцинская надпись
1184 г. – Исследования по истории культуры народов Востока. Сбор-
ник в честь акад. И. А. Орбели. М.-Л., 1960, gv. 85-86; q. CxataraiSvi-
li. ucxoelebi XII s-is saqarTvelos laSqarSi. _ saqarTvelo
rusTavelis xanaSi. Tb., 1966, gv. 170-173.
3
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli.., gv. 40-43.
4
С. Т. Еремян. Юрий Боголюбский.., gv. 391.

25
kac. amasTan, mecnieri sulac ar uaryofs, rom yivCaye-
bisagan Semdgarma jarma mniSvnelovnad gazarda saqarT-
velos saxelmwifos samxedro potenciali, Tumca, misi
azriT, is faqti, rom didgoris omSi, rodesac, faqtob-
rivad, qveynis bed-iRbali wydeboda, man 40000 yivCayi-
dan brZolis velze mxolod 15 aTasi meomari gamoiyvana,
aSkarad imaze metyvelebs, rom daviTis saqarTvelos mi-
er mopovebuli samxedro warmatebebis mTavari Semoqme-
di sakuTriv qarTuli jari iyo.
samxedro reformasTan dakavSirebiT ar SeiZleba
gverdi avuaroT S. mesxias kidev erT uaRresad sayurad-
Rebo mignebas. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs mecnieris mosazreba
imis Sesaxeb, rom, erT-erT mTavar faqtorad, ramac ga-
daawyvetina daviT aRmaSenebels yivCayTa gadmosaxleba
da maTgan jaris Sevseba, iyo materialuri dovlaTis
mTavari Semqmneli masis _ glexTa _ miwisagan ar mowyve-
ta da glexuri meurneobis gaZliereba, rac qveynis eko-
nomikuri aRmasvlis sawindari iqneboda.1
zemoT ukve nawilobriv SevexeT SoTa mesxias dak-
virvebebs saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sagareopolitikur
mdgomareobaze XI _ XII s. damdegs. es Tematika gansakuT-
rebiT reliefuradaa gaSuqebuli paragrafSi: `saqarT-
velos sagareo politikuri mdgomareoba didgoris br-
Zolis win~, romelSic mkafiodaa naCvenebi saqarTvelos
saxelmwifos sagareopolitikuri aqtiurobis masStabebi,
misi roli da adgili saerTaSoriso politikaSi.
am kuTxiT, pirvel rigSi, unda gamovyoT saqarTve-
lo-jvarosnebis urTierTobebis analizi. S. mesxiam sav-
sebiT damajereblad aCvena, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwi-
fo evropeli jvarosnebis TvalSi ganixileboda rogorc
mTavari mokavSire Turq-selCukTa winaaRmdeg `saRvTo
omSi~. yovelgvari daeWvebis gareSe SeiZleba iTqvas, rom

1
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli, gv. 38.

26
S. mesxias mier am daskvnis Sesamagreblad motanili masa-
lebi mTeli damajereblobiT aCveneben, rom saqarTvelo
da misi sworupovari lideri jvarosnuli kampaniis aqti-
ur subieqtebs warmoadgendnen da rom selCukebis wina-
aRmdeg daviT aRmaSeneblis samxedro-politikur masSta-
bur aqciebs mniSvnelovani koreqtivebi Sehqonda dasav-
leTsa da aRmosavleTs Soris globalur dapirispireba-
Si, romelsac jvarosnulma laSqrobebma daudes saTave.1
Cven amas sagangebod vusvamT xazs imis gamoc, rom
bolo dros adgili aqvs sruliad gaugebar da, Cveni az-
riT, absoluturad dausabuTel mcdelobas, gadaisin-
jos S. mesxias es daskvna, romelic sayovelTaod gazi-
arebulia qarTul istoriografiaSi. 2 amgvari mcdeloba
1
aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTvelos rolsa da adgilze
jvarosanTa da Turq-selCukTa dapirispirebaSi manamde yurad-
Reba gaamaxviles zurab avaliSvilma, romlis naSromi (z. ava-
liSvili. jvarosanTa droidan. oTxi istoriuli narkvevi. pa-
rizi, 1929, gv. 13-73) erTgvarad saetapo iyo am mimarTulebiT
da akad. simon janaSiam (Sesabamisi masala warmodgenilia s. ja-
naSias mier saqarTvelos istoriis saxelmZRvanelosaTvis da-
weril paragrafSi: `qarTuli feodaluri monarqia XII sauku-
neSi~. ix.: n. berZeniSvili, iv. javaxiSvili, s. janaSia. saqarTve-
los istoria. naw. I. uZvelesi droidan XIX saukunis damdegam-
de. saxelmZRvanelo saSualo skolis ufrosi klasebisaTvis.
meore, Sesworebul-Sevsebuli gamocema. Tb., 1946, gv. 224-225;
s. janaSia. Sromebi. t. V. Tb., 1987, gv. 162-164). S. mesxiam gana-
viTara, Seavso da dasrulebuli saxe misca mis winamorbedTa
Sexedulebebs.
2
v. kopaliani. saqarTvelos urTierToba jvarosnebTan da bi-
zantiasTan XI-XII ss. mijnaze. _ XII saukunis saqarTvelos is-
toriis sakiTxebi, Tsu Sromebi, t. 125. Tb., 1968, gv. 83-121; m.
lorTqifaniZe. saqarTvelo XI s. bolos da XII s. pirvel meoT-
xedSi. daviT IV aRmaSenebeli. _ saqarTvelos istoriis narkve-
vebi. t. III. Tb., 1979, gv. 248-249; S. badriZe. saqarTvelo da
jvarosnebi. Tb., 1973, gv. 12-21; r. metreveli. jvarosnuli

27
mocemulia s. margiSvilis zemoT naxseneb monografiaSi,
romelSic avtori araTu gamoricxavs saqarTvelo-jva-
rosnebs Soris `politikur TanamSromlobas~ daviT aRma-
Seneblis epoqaSi, aramed saerTod fiqrobs, rom imJamad
raime partnioroba-mokavSireobisaTvis `politikuri
motivacia (da politikuri neba)~ ubralod ar arsebob-
da. 1 werilis formatidan gamomdinare, Cven amjerad
moklebuli varT SesaZleblobas warmovadginoT am Zir-
Sive mcdari debulebis amomwuravi kritika, magram mci-
re SeniSvnas mainc gavakeTebT.
s. margiSvilis, udavod niWieri da erudirebuli
mkvlevris (Zalze sawyenia misi udroo gardacvaleba)
mTavari Secdoma imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mas am konkre-
tul SemTxvevaSi partnioroba-mokavSireoba ver warmo-
udgenia Sesabamisi dokumenturi dadasturebis gareSe.
is faqti, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifos evropel jva-
rosnebTan ar hqonda gaformebuli ormxrivi, ase vTqvaT,
`CarCo xelSekruleba~ (yovel SemTxvevaSi amgvari doku-
menti ar SemogvrCa), sulac ar gamoricxavs selCukTa
winaaRmdeg mebrZol am or subieqts Soris diplomatiur
da samxedro TanamSromlobas.
gana Zalze miamituri ar iqneba imis daSveba, rom
selCukTa winaaRmdegobis aRiarebulma liderma nejm ad
din il-Razim, romelmac jvarosnebTan omebSi `didi av-
toriteti moipova, rogorc unarianma mxedarTmTavarma
da sakmaod did warmatebebsac miaRwia~,2 yvelaferi mi-

omebi da saqarTvelos samefo. _ samecniero paradigmebi. Tb.,


2010, gv. 388-416; R. Metreveli. Les relations de la Georgie avec la By-
zance et les croises au XII-ieme siecle. – Caucasica. The Journal of Caucasi-
an Studies, Vol. 3. Tb., 1998 da sxv.
1
s. margiSvili. miTebi da realoba daviT aRmaSeneblis mefo-
bis Sesaxeb.., gv. 104.
2
s. margiSvili. miTebi da realoba.., gv. 67.

28
atova, moxsna Tavisi Zalebi ierusalimi-antioqiis fron-
tidan da erTianad daiZra aRmosavleTisaken mxolod imi-
saTvis, rom ubralod saqarTvelos mefis mier Seviwro-
ebul Tbilel da dmanel muslimebs miSveleboda?!
ra didi dafiqreba unda imas, rom selCukTa aseTi
farTo koaliciis mobilizacia, romelsac saTaveSi ma-
incdamainc imJamad mTel islamur samyaroSi yvelaze sa-
xelovani mxedarTmTavari Cauyenes, aSkarad gacilebiT
ufro masStaburi amocanis gadaWras emsaxureboda da es
amocana, arc meti, arc naklebi, saqarTvelos erTxel da
samudamod daCoqeba da am gziT realurad arsebuli `me-
ore frontis~ moSla iyo.
an ratom ar unda gavuwioT angariSi didgoris om-
Si jvarosanTa razmis uSualo monawileobis faqts, ro-
melsac ara mxolod Zalze kompetenturi (Tumca `dainte-
resebuli~) avtori, antioqiis jvarosnuli samTavros
kancleri valter gotie,1 aramed, misgan damoukideblad,
somexi istorikosi maTeos urhaecic afiqsirebs? 2 ro-
gor SeiZleba aseTi mniSvnelovani faqti garkveul po-
litikur-diplomatiur WrilSi ar ganvixiloT?
rac Seexeba s. margiSvilis mosazrebas didgoris
brZolis `oras frang meomarSi~ (v. gotie) jvarosnebi ki
ar unda davinaxoT, aramed `qveynidan qveyanaSi mosiaru-
le, iRblisa da samxedro samsaxuris maZiebeli~ Cveu-
lebrivi moqiravneebi, 3 es sruli gaugebroba da mecni-
eris mier akviatebuli Tvalsazrisis _ saqarTvelo-jva-
1
z. avaliSvili. garSemo erTi omisa. 1121. _ jvarosanTa dro-
idan. oTxi istoriuli narkvevi, gv. 46.
2
l. davlianiZe. maTe urhaelis cnobebi daviT aRmaSeneblis
Sesaxeb. _ saqarTvelo rusTavelis xanaSi. Tb., 1966, gv. 246; Р.
М. Бартикян. Хронография Матфея Эдесского о Грузии и грузинах. _
bizantinologiuri etiudebi. Tb., 1978, gv. 144.
3
s. margiSvili. miTebi da realoba.., gv. 111.

29
rosnebis urTierTobebis politikur-diplomatiuri Se-
madgenlis uaryofis _ ususuri mcdelobaa.1
s. margiSvili imdenad gaitaca saqarTvelo-jvaros-
nebs Soris samxedro-politikuri kavSir-urTierTobebis
kategoriulad uaryofam, rom wminda saflavis kantoris
anselusis cnobil werilSi asaxuli faqti (mis mier da-
viT qarTvelTa mefis naqoni jvris SeZenis Sesaxeb) mxo-
lod savaWro urTierToebis amsaxvelad CaTvala2 da ara-
frad Caagdo amave werilSi mocemuli uaRresad mniSvne-
lovani ganmarteba, romlis mixedviTac daviTis `qveyana
da samefo midielTa da sparsTa winaaRmdeg~ brZolaSi
jvarosan-evropelTa `wina burjadaa~ gamocxadebuli.3
s. margiSvilis naSromSi aris kidev araerTi mcda-
ri debuleba, maT Soris uSualod didgoris brZolis
samxedro aspeqtebis irgvliv, romlebSic eWvs qveS dge-
ba didgorze mopovebuli `ZlevaY sakvirvelis~ grandio-
zuloba. rCeba iseTi STabeWdileba, rom avtori yovel-
nairad cdilobs, daamcros daviT aRmaSeneblis reforma-
toruli moRvaweobisa da saqarTvelos saxelmwifos mier
sagareo arenaze mopovebuli gamarjvebebis masStabebi da
amiT gaamarTlos Tavisi naSromis saTauri _ `miTebi da re-
aloba...~.
Cven, rasakvirvelia, Sorsa varT im azrisagan, rom
apriori Tavi SevikavoT wyaroTa monacemebis ufro kri-
tikuli gaazrebisa da amis safuZvelze istoriuli mov-
1
aRsaniSnavia, rom Tavis droze `frangebis~ monawileobas did-
goris brZolaSi uaryofdnen s. eremiani (С. Т. Еремян. Юрий Бого-
любский.., gv. 350) da q. CxataraiSvili (q. CxataraiSvili. ucxo-
elebi XII s-is saqarTvelos laSqarSi, gv. 178). S. mesxiam savse-
biT samarTlianad miuTiTa am Tvalsazrisis mcdarobaze (ix.:
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli.., gv. 107).
2
s. margiSvili. miTebi da realoba.., gv. 104.
3
z. avaliSvili. erTi jvaris garSemo. 1108-9. _ jvarosanTa
droidan. oTxi istoriuli narkvevi, gv. 17-18.

30
lenebis irgvliv arsebul tradiciul xedvebSi garkveu-
li koreqtivebis Setanisagan _ es Caklavs mecnierebas,
magram gana siaxlisa da originalurobis Ziebis survil-
ma unda gvibiZgos iqiTken, rom, saTanado dasabuTebis
gareSe, erTi xelis mosmiT, uarvyoT da miTebad gamova-
cxadoT saqarTvelos istoriis saamayo epizodebi.
erovnuli istoria metad saTuTi sferoa, romelic
ver iTmens ryevebs da mecnieris mxridan moiTxovs maqsi-
malur sifrTxiles. qarTuli istoriografiis mamebs (va-
xuSti bagrationi, ivane javaxiSvili, simon janaSia, niko
berZeniSvili...) es mSvenivrad esmodaT. isini arasodes
aZlevdnen Tavs uflebas ahyolodnen erovnul grZno-
bebs da, saTanado argumentaciis gareSe, daumsaxureb-
lad ganedidebinaT calkeuli moRvaweebi. magram, amas-
Tan, maTTvis kategoriulad miuRebeli iyo moWarbebu-
li nihilizmi da erovnuli istoriis saxelovani furc-
lebis zedmetad kritikuli aRqma. Tanamedrove qarTu-
li istoriografia zogadad (rasakvirvelia, TiTo-oro-
la gamonaklisis garda) erTgulad mihyveba am magistra-
lur xazs, cdilobs daicvas erTgvari `oqros Sualedi~
da ar dauSvas gadaxra arc erTi mimarTulebiT. SoTa
mesxias `ZlevaY sakvirveli~ swored am `oqros Sualed-
is~ sanimuSo demonstrirebaa.
am TvalsazrisiT SoTa mesxias `ZlevaY sakvirveli~
mniSvnelovani da samagaliToa imiTac, rom masSi mecnieri
upasuxod ar tovebs calkeul ucxoel mkvlevarTa mxri-
dan tendenciur midgomebs, kerZod, saqarTvelos saxel-
mwifos saerTaSoriso rolis damcrobis mcdelobebs. am
mxriv gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia cnobil rus numizma-
t evgeni paxomovidan momdinare Tvalsazrisis (romlis
mixedviTac demetre I-is monetaze xalifasa da sulT-
nis saxelebis moxseniebis safuZvelze XII saukuneSi sa-
qarTvelos saxelmwifo muslimuri samyaros vasalad cxad-

31
deboda) 1 reanimaciis faqtebze (vladimir minorskisa da
gansakuTrebiT oleg vilCevskis mxridan)2 yuradRebis ga-
maxvileba da am Sexedulebis amomwuravi kritika.3 aRsa-

1
Е. А. Пахомов. Монеты Грузии. Ч. 1. Домонгольский период. СПб.,
1910. am naSromis xelaxali gamocema ix.: Е. А. Пахомов. Монеты
Грузии. Тб., 1970, gv. 32. e. paxomovis am Tvalsazrisis kritika
ix.: И. А. Джавахишвили. Е. А. Пахомов. Монеты Грузии. – Христиан-
ский Восток. т. I, вып. I. СПб., 1912, gv. 104-117.
2
V. Minorsky. Caucasica in the History of Mayyafariqin. – Bulletin of the
School of Oriental (and African) Studies (BSOAS), 1953, gv. 31 (http://
www.jstor.org/stable/609061); О. Л. Вильчевский. Ода Хакани грузинс-
кому царю Димитрию I. – Исследования по истории культуры народов
Востока. Сборник в честь академика И. А. Орбели. М.-Л., 1960, gv. 60.
3
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli.., gv. 147-151. S. mesxias argumenta-
cia da daskvnebi am sakiTxze aqtualobas inarCunebs dResac,
radgan bolo dros zogierTi azerbaijaneli mkvlevari yovel-
nairad cdilobs daamtkicos, rom saqarTvelo XII saukuneSi da-
mokidebuli iyo muslimur samyaroze (maT Soris azerbaijanze)
politikurad da ekonomikurad («Гpузия зависела от мусульманс-
кого мира, в том числе от Азербайджана, не только политически, но и
экономически»). ix.: Р. А. Гусейн-заде. Кавказ и сельджуки. Баку, 2010,
gv. 120, xazgasma Cvenia _ z.p. am naSromSi ganviTarebuli ten-
denciuri midgomebis Sesaxeb dawvril. ix.: z. papasqiri. XII sau-
kunis saqarTvelos saxelmwifos rolisa da adgilis ignorire-
bis erTi mcdelobis Sesaxeb. zogierTi SeniSvna rauf husein
zades monografiaze: `kavkasia da selCukebi~. _ saqarTvelo da
TurqeTi: kulturul urTierTobaTa istoria, dRevandeloba
da perespeqtivebi. ahmed ozqan melaSvilis dabadebidan 90
wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saerTaSoriso samecniero konferen-
ciis (Tbilisi, 21-24 ivnisi, 2012) masalebi. Tb., 2012, gv. 161-170;
З. Папаскири. Об одной попытке игнорирования роли и места гру-
зинского государства на международной арене в XII веке. Некоторые
замечания на книгу Рауфа А. Гусейн-Заде: «Кавказ и Сельджуки». – Кав-
каз и мир. Международный научный журнал. №14. Тб., 2012, gv. 60-83
(http://iberiana2.wordpress.com/caucasus/papaskiri).

32
niSnavia agreTve S. mesxias replika 1 azerbaijaneli is-
torikosis akad. abdulqerim ali-zades mcdelobaze, uar-
yos saqarTvelos siuzereniteti SirvanSahTa saxelmwi-
foze XII saukuneSi.2
`ZlevaY sakvirvelis~ centraluri Tema, rasakvir-
velia, sakuTriv didgoris brZolaa. S. mesxia saTanado
pirvelwyaroebze dayrdnobiT metad sainteresod Slis
am Temas. aanalizebs mis mizezebs, azustebs selCukTa
koaliciuri laSqris, raodenobas, Semadgenlobasa da
meTaurTa vinaobas, aseve qarTuli jaris ricxovnobas
da Semadgenlobas. mkvlevars savsebiT marTebulad Se-
aqvs eWvi selCukTa laSqris raodenobis maTTeos urhae-
ciseul (560 000) da kancler goties (600 000) monacemeb-
Si da am cifrebs gazviadebulad miiCnevs. misi azriT,
`naxevarmilioniani Tu eqvsasaTasiani laSqari TrialeT-
manglis-didgoris sanaxebSi araTu ver gaiSleboda sab-
rZolvelad, verc ki daeteoda~. amasTan, mecnieri savse-
1
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli.., gv. 142.
2
А. А. Али-заде. От ответственного редактора. – wgn.: В. Ф. Минорский.
История Ширвана и Дербента X-XI веков. М., 1963, gv. 8-12; А. А. Али-
заде. Социально-экономическая и политическая история Азербайджана
XIII-XIV вв. Баку, 1966, gv. 357. miuxedavad imisa, rom a. alizades am
Tezisis usafuZvloba mkafiod aCvenes rogorc qarTvelma (n.
asaTiani. saqarTvelo-Sarvanis politikuri urTierToba XII sa-
ukuneSi. werili I. XII saukunis pirveli naxevari. _ XII saukunis
saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, Tsu Sromebi, t. 125. Tb.,
1968, gv. 8-16, ise TviT azerbaijanelma (З. М. Буниятов. Некото-
рые сведения Садр ад-Дина ал-Хусайни о Грузии. _ macne, istori-
is... seria, #1, 1971) mecnierebma, a. ali-zadem mogvianebiT ma-
inc ganagrZo Tavisi Tvalsazrisis tiraJireba (А. А. Али-заде. К
вопросу об освещении ширвано-грузинских отношений в XI-XII веках.
Статья первая. – Известия АН Азербайджанской ССР. Серия истории,
философии и права, №4, 1977, gv. 73-85).

3. SoTa mesxia 33
biT logikurad askvnis, rom `mowinaaRmdegis laSqari
bevrad, ramdenimejer aRemateboda saqarTvelos samefo
xelisuflebis mier am brZolaSi gamoyvanil laSqars~.
ase rom S. mesxia (da zogadad qarTuli istoriog-
rafia) namdvilad araa `miTebs~ ayolili da sulac ar
endoba brmad maTTeos urhaecisa da goties `gaberil~
cifrebs, raSic mas usamarTlod adanaSaulebs s. margiS-
vili.1 rac Seexeba, TviT s. margiSvilis tendencias, maq-
simalurad `Camowios~ dabla mowinaaRmdegeTa laSqris
ricxovnoba (faqtobrivad, amiT is erTgvarad akninebs,
didgoris epopeis mniSvnelobas), es, sul cota, met ar-
gumentacias moiTxovs. gansakuTrebiT es iTqmis saqarT-
velos laSqris raodenobaze, romlis cifrobriv mona-
cemebSi verafers daujerebels ver vxedavT.
uaRresad sainteresoa msjeloba selCukTa laSqris
marSrutsa da TviT brZolis velis adgilmdebareobaze;
kvalificiuradaa gaanalizebuli sabrZolo moqmedebebi
samxedro-taqtikuri kuTxiT. am mxriv, mkvlevari gansa-
kuTrebiT yuradRebas amaxvilebs wyaroebis mier dafiq-
sirebul moulodnelobis efeqtze, romelic gamouye-
nebia daviT aRmaSenebels didgoris brZolaSi. mxedve-
lebaSi gvaqvs oraskaciani mewinave razmis (ibn al-asiris
mixedviT, yivCayebisagan, xolo goties cnobiT `frangebi-
sagan~ Semdgari) Segzavna mowinaaRmdegis banakSi, romel-
Ta uecarma Tavdasxmam selCukTa laSqris sruli dabneu-
loba gamoiwvia. S. mesxias savsebiT dasaSvebad miaCnia da-
viT aRmaSeneblis mier am taqtikuri xerxis gamoyeneba,
Tumca mas eeWveba, rom saqarTvelos mefes aseTi `did-
mniSvnelovani operacia, romelic qveynis da mefisaTvis
Tavganwirvas moiTxovda, yivCayebisaTvis da, miT ufro
„frangebisaTvis~ (jvarosnebisaTvis) miendo~.2
1
s. margiSvili. miTebi da realoba.., gv. 79, 243.
2
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli.., gv. 113-114.

34
am Temaze msjelobisas, ar SeiZleba ar aRiniSnos
S. mesxias kritikuli SeniSvna zogierTi mecnieris (sar-
gis kakabaZe) Tvalsazrisze didgoris omSi `frangebis~
(jvarosnebis) gadamwyveti rolis Sesaxeb. 1 mkvlevari
sworad aRniSnavs, rom ara „orasma mZimed SeiaraRebul-
ma frangma~, aramed `saqarTvelos laSqris Tavganwirvam,
molaSqreTa marjved moqneulma xmalma.., mamaci laSqris
gonierma xelmZRvanelobam uzrunvelyo didi gamarjveba
didgoris gadamwyvet brZolaSi~.2
kidev bevri ram SeiZleba iTqvas S. mesxias `ZlevaY
sakvirvelis~ Rirsebebze, magram, vfiqrobT, zemoaRniS-
nulic savsebiT sakmarisia, rom is miviCnioT sruliad
gamorCeul naSromad, romelic Tavisi mecnieruli Rire-
bulebiT (arafers vambobT farTo mkiTxvelisaTvis ga-
sageb, popularul enaze masalis miwodebis maRal kul-
turaze, rac aranakleb mniSvnelovania) dResac _ did-
goris omze 1972 wlis Semdeg gamosul publikaciaTa
fonzec _ upirobod rCeba saetapo kvlevad qarTul is-
toriografiaSi. amitomacaa aqtualuri am SesaniSnavi
wignis kidev erTxel gamocema.
`ZlevaY sakvirveli~ ibeWdeba im saxiT, rogorc is
gamovida gamovida avtoris xelidan _ 1972 wels. Ziri-
Tad teqsts araviTari azrobrivi cvlileba ar ganucdia,
Casworda mxolod wignis gamocemisas gaparuli zogier-
1
s. kakabaZe. daviT aRmaSeneblis ori didi omi. _ quTaisis pe-
dinstitutis Sromebi. IV. Tb., 1942, gv. 217. aRsaniSnavia, rom
s. kakabaZe gamoexmaura S. mesxias am kritikas (is mas icnobda
`didgoris brZolis~ pirveli _ 1965 wlis gamocemidan) da
ganmarta, rom mZimed SearaRebul raindebSi, romelmac, misi
azriT, gadawyvita didgoris brZolis bedi, man igulisxma ara
mxolod goties moxseniebuli `orasi franki~, aramed maTTan
erTad sakuTriv qarTveli mZimed SearaRebuli 1000-2000 me-
omari (ix.: s. kakabaZe. didgoris omi. Tb., 1982, gv. 11-14.
2
S. mesxia. ZlevaY sakvirveli.., gv. 120, xazgasma avtorisaa.

35
Ti koreqturuli xarvezi. naSromSi mTlianad SenarCune-
bulia avtoriseuli stili. am mxriv moxda mxolod um-
niSvnelo `Careva~ (mag. sityva: `faqtiuri~ Seicvala `faq-
tobrivi~-T, `muslimani~ _ `muslimiT~ da a.S.).
da bolos, 2016 weli saiubileo TariRia _ 27 ap-
rils SoTa mesxias dabadebidan 100 weli usruldeba.
aseT viTarebaSi uTuod misasalmebeli da mosawonia iva-
ne javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo univer-
sitetis iniciativa `ZlevaY sakvirvelis~ axali gamoce-
miT pativi miagos umaRlesi saswavleblis profesuris
erT-erT uTvalsaCinoes warmomadgenels, qarTuli isto-
riografiis WeSmarit rainds, gamoCenil istorikoss, ma-
muliSvils, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtors, saqarTve-
los mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespondents, wle-
bis manZilze Tsu saqarTvelos istoriis kaTedris gam-
gesa (akademikosebis ivane javaxiSvilis, simon janaSias,
niko berZeniSvilis Semdeg) da istoriis fakultetis de-
kans, profesor SoTa mesxias.

zurab papasqiri
istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, profesori

36
Tavi I. wyaroebisa da literaturis
mokle mimoxilva

didgoris brZolam da misma erT-erTma yvelaze


mniSvnelovanma Sedegma _ Tbilisis SemoerTebam _ Tavi-
danve miiqcia rogorc am omis momswreTa, ise Semdeg-
droindel istorikosTa yuradReba. swored es, Zveli
Tu axali drois istorikosTa naSromebi, SesaZleblobas
gvaZlevs met-naklebad srulad warmovadginoT am mra-
valmxriv saintereso brZolis suraTi. amitom, vidre
TviT brZolis mizezebze, msvlelobasa da Sedegebze
SevCerdebodeT, saWiroa jer im wyaroebis avkargianoba-
sa da sandoobaze visaubroT, romelzedac damyarebuli
iqneba winamdebare naSromi.
didgoris brZolis da Tbilisis SemoerTebis Sesa-
xeb wyaroebi daculia qarTul, aRmosavlur da evropul
enebze. yvela maT CvenTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs, mag-
ram gansakuTrebul yuradRebas mainc originaluri, qar-
Tuli wyaroebi iqceven. cxadia, ama Tu im xalxis istori-
is Sesaswavlad pirvel rigSi im xalxis enaze dacul masa-
lebs unda mivmarToT, romlis istoriasac vwerT.
erTaderTi originaluri pirvelwyaro Cveni sakiT-
xis Sesaswavlad XII s. pirveli naxevris qarTveli isto-
rikosis Txzulebaa. istorikosis vinaoba _ saxeli, gva-
ri da sxva _ CvenTvis dRemde ucnobia. amitomac am
anonim avtors saqarTvelos istoriis mkvlevarebi piro-
biTad daviT aRmaSeneblis istorikoss uwodeben; mas aR-
werili aqvs daviT aRmaSeneblis cxovreba da moRvaweoba.
mis Txzulebasac ase ewodeba _ „cxovreba mefeTmefisa
daviTisi~. „cxovreba~ Zvel qarTulSi „istoriis~ Sesat-
yvisad ixmareboda. ase rom, anonim avtors miznad daus-
axavs „mefeT-mefe daviTis istoriis~ aRwera. marTalia,
Cven ar viciT daviTis istorikosis saxeli, magram is ki

37
kargad viciT, rom igi daviT aRmaSeneblis umcrosi Ta-
namedrove iyo, rom is araTu momswre, aramed xSir Sem-
TxvevaSi monawilec ki yofila bevri istoriuli movle-
nisa, romelic aRuweria. daviTis istorikosi erT-erTi
brZolis, kerZod, erwuxis omis (1105 w.) aRwerisas, sxva-
Ta Soris, SeniSnavs: roca mefe omgadaxdili Semobrunda
karavSi da Seixsna jaWvis perangis sartyeli, „mtknari,
Seyinebuli sisxli daiTxia~, romelsac „TviT misgan
vgonebdiT gamosrulado~, namdvilad ki, es mtris sis-
xli iyo „xmliT misiT ukumomdinare~ da dagrovili me-
fis jaWvis perangSio. rogorc am detalis aRweridan
Cans, daviTis istorikosi mefesTan ise daaxloebuli pi-
ri yofila, rom SesaZlebloba hqonia aseT mZime wuTeb-
Sic masTan, mis karavSi yofiliyo.
daviTis istorikosi didgoris brZolis momswreca
da iqneb monawilec iyo. igi ara marto am brZolas, da-
viTis gardacvalebasac Seeswro da mefis cxovrebis uka-
naskneli dReebi, gardacvaleba da dakrZalvac detalu-
rad aqvs aRwerili. ase rom, igi TviTmxilveli iyo im
istoriuli faqtebisa, rasac daviTis dros hqonia adgili.
TviTmxilveli istorikosis cnobebi ki usaTuod sandoa
da pirvelxarisxovan wyaros warmoadgens mkvlevarisTvis.
TviT didgoris brZolas daviTis istorikosi mok-
led, magram savsebiT naTlad agviwers. igi jer am omis
gamomwvev mizezebs exeba, Semdeg mahmadianTa koaliciu-
ri laSqris Seqmnisa da misi (am laSqris) monawileobis
Sesaxeb wers, bolos ki omis msvlelobasa da qarTvelTa
laSqris brwyinvale gamarjvebaze. iqve mas mokled aqvs
ganxiluli didgoris omis Sedegebic. yvela am cnobis
Sesaxeb detalurad Cven qvemoT visaubrebT. aq ki Sev-
niSnavT _ TviT istorikoss imdenad didmniSvnelovan
movlenad miaCnia qarTvelTa gamarjveba am omSi, rom es
brZola, misi sityviT, gansakuTrebuli qebisa da dide-
bis Rirsia, ufro metisa, vidre aleqsandre makedonelis
Tu Zveli drois sxva gmirTa mier gadaxdili omebi.

38
daviTis istorikosi, marTalia, Zalian mokle, mag-
ram TavisTavad saintereso cnobebs gvawvdis agreTve
Tbilisis SemoerTebis Sesaxebac. am mxriv gansakuTre-
biT sayuradReboa misi cnobebi saqarTvelos mefis Tan-
mimdevrul RonisZiebebze Tbilisisa da misi mosaxleobis
SemosaerTeblad, dasamorCileblad, an rogorc TviT is-
torikosi wers, „sruliad Semosayeneblad~ „uRelsa que-
Se morCilebisasa~. aseve sainteresoa istorikosis cno-
ba daviTis RonisZiebebiT Seviwroebuli Tbiliselebisa
da dmaniselebis mier saTanado daxmarebisa da mfarve-
lobis Zebnis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT.
daviTis istorikosi Tbilisis aRebisa da Semoer-
Tebis ambavs mxolod oriode sityviT mogviTxrobs. igi
TiTqmis arafers ambobs arc SemoerTebis Semdegdroin-
del TbilisSi Seqmnil mdgomareobaze, magram misi cno-
bebis Sevseba am mxriv SesaZlebelia rogorc sakuTriv
qarTuli, aseve gansakuTrebiT ucxouri wyaroebis mona-
cemebiT.
amas garda, roca mkvlevari sargeblobs daviTis
istorikosis TxzulebiT, angariSi unda gauwios imasac,
Tu rogor cdilobda igi Seeqo TviT mefe da mis mier
gadaxdili brZola, ganedidebina daviTis pirovneba da
misi moRvaweobis yoveli mxare. es ki imaze miuTiTebs,
rom daviTis istorikosi ara marto mefis axlobeli pi-
ri yofila, aramed mis momxreTa dasis aqtiuri wevri da
samefo xelisuflebis politikis Tavdadebuli damcve-
lic. istorikosis aseTi mikerZoebuli damokidebuleba
mefisa da misi politikisadmi, bunebrivia, daRs asvams
am saistorio Txzulebas da monaTxrobs, iSviaT Sem-
TxvevaSi, obieqturobis elfers ukargavs. daviTis is-
torikosis cnobebiT sargeblobisas mkvlevarma, cxadia,
esec unda gaiTvaliswinos. magram aqve unda SevniSnoT,
rom daviTis istorikosis faqtobrivi monacemebi did-
goris brZolaze eWvs ar iwvevs da savsebiT sandod unda

39
iqnes miCneuli. amaSi Cven gvarwmunebs misi cnobebis Se-
jereba sxva, araqarTul msgavs masalasTan, didgoris
omze araqarTveli istorikosebis cnobebTan.
daviTis istorikosis Txzulebis garda, „qarTlis
cxovrebis~ krebulSi moTavsebulia aseve ucnobi, XI s.
qarTveli avtoris naSromi, romelic Cvens istoriogra-
fiaSi „qarTlis matianis~ saxeliTaa cnobili. es Txzu-
leba Seicavs saintereso cnobebs saqarTvelos mefeebsa
da Tbilisis urTierTobaze, Tbilisis moqalaqeTa war-
momadgenlebis _ uxucesebis („berebis~) _ xelisufleba-
sa da saerTod, Tbilisis mdgomareobaze SemoerTebis
win. „qarTlis matianis~ am da sxva msgavsi cnobebis gaT-
valiswinebis gareSe bevri ram gaugebari iqneboda davi-
Tis im RonisZiebebidan, rasac is atarebda Tbilisis mi-
marT qalaqis SemoerTebis win Tu mis Semdeg.
zemodasaxelebuli sakiTxebis gasarkvevad Cven mier
gamoyenebulia agreTve qarTuli dokumenturi, epigrafi-
kuli, numizmatikuri da sxva saxis masalac. magram mar-
tooden qarTuli wyaroebi mainc sakmarisi ver iqneboda
didgoris brZolisa da Tbilisis SemoerTebis istoriis
Sesaswavlad. CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxebze araqarTuli
wyaroc araerTi mogvepoveba. mokled SevexoT maTac.
didgoris brZolisa da Tbilisis SemoerTebis Sesa-
xeb friad saintereso cnobebi aqvs daculi XII s. pirve-
li naxevris somex istorikoss matTeoz urhaecis (maTe
urhaels) Tavisi naSromis _ „JamTaaRmwerlobis~ _ mesa-
me nawilSi, romelic 1103-1136 wlebis ambebs moicavs.
maTe urhaelis cnobebi CvenTvis saintereso brZo-
laze gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs Tavisi sisru-
liT. igi vrclad Cerdeba didgoris omis wina periodze,
daviTis mier Seviwroebul Turq-selCukTa warmomadgen-
lebis elCobaze sxvadasxva mahmadian mflobelebTan, Tur-
qTa koaliciuri laSqris Sedgenaze, da, rac mTavaria, am

40
laSqris raodenobis sakiTxze. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSna-
via, rom maTe urhaeli saintereso cnobebs gvawvdis TviT
saqarTvelos mefis mier didgoris brZolaSi gamoyvanili
laSqris raodenobasa da Sedgenilobaze. msgavsi cnoba
ar moepoveba arc daviTis istorikossa da arc romelime
sxva avtors, vinc ki didgoris oms Sexebia. urhaelis am
cnobebs Cven qvemoT detalurad ganvixilavT.
daviTis istorikosis msgavsad, maTe urhaelic aR-
frTovanebulia daviTis moRvaweobiTa da misi brZole-
biT ara marto qarTvelTa, aramed somexTa gasaTavisuf-
leblad. igi ambobs, rom „mefe daviTi iyo guladi da
Zlieri sparsTa winaaRmdeg brZolebSi. man mravalgzis
daamarcxa ucxo tomTa jarebi da gastexa maTi yoveli
Zliereba... da iyo wmida da keTilmoqmedi, Semkuli yove-
li RmerTismsaxurebiT da keTili samarTlianobiT. igi
gamouCnda Semwynarebeli da moyvare somexTa toms. mas-
Tan Seikriben somexTa darCenili jarebi... da epyra didi
sixaruliTa da SvebiT somexTa mravali tomi~.
maTe urhaeli aRfrTovanebiT laparakobs agreTve
daviT aRmaSeneblis mier Tbilisis SemoerTebasa, somex-
Ta saxelganTqmuli q. anisis ucxoelTa batonobisagan
gaTavisuflebasa da amis Semdeg daviTis mier gatare-
bul RonisZiebebze. maTe urhaelis naSromi somxur ena-
ze orjer aris gamocemuli; amas garda, igi Targmnilia
frangul enazedac. amjerad ukve mogvepoveba misi Tx-
zulebis CvenTvis saintereso adgilebis qarTuli Tar-
gmanic, Sesrulebuli l. davlianiZis mier.
maTe urhaels garda, didgoris brZolaze mokle
cnobebi moepovebaT XII-XIII ss. sxva somex istorikoseb-
sac: samuel anels, vardan barZrberdels, stefanoz or-
beliansa da sumbat sparapets. aRsaniSnavia, rom es uka-
naskneli saintereso da Tanac gansxvavebul cnobas iZ-
leva mahmadianTa koaliciuri laSqris raodenobaze.

41
Cven qvemoT davinaxavT, rom qarTveli da somexi
istorikosebis cnobebi xSir SemTxvevaSi savsebiT eTanx-
mebian, an kidev, avseben erTimeores. yvela es cnoba ma-
inc im xalxebis istorikosebs ekuTvniT, romelnic didi
xnis manZilze gawamebuli iyvnen Turq-selCukTa bato-
nobiT da, bunebrivia, daviT aRmaSeneblis yovel Ronis-
Ziebas am saerTo dampyroblis winaaRmdeg isini aRfr-
TovanebiT aRwerdnen. amitom maTi cnobebi mefe daviTis
brwyinvale gamarjvebebze, erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba mi-
kerZoebulad mogveCvenos.
aseT STabeWdilebas savsebiT aqarwylebs im wyaro-
ebis ganxilva, romelic TviT mahmadian istorikosebs
ekuTvniT.
Tbilisis SemoerTebis istoriis Sesaswavlad gansa-
kuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs XI s. Sua da Semdegi wlebis
Tbilisis mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebas. magram swored
am periodis Tbilisze Zvel qarTul saistorio mwerlo-
baSi araferia naTqvami. am didi xarvezis Sevseba nawi-
lobriv mainc xerxdeba Turqi istorikosis ahmed ibn
luTfulahis (munejim-baSis) cnobebiT. igi Tumca XVII s.
istorikosia, misi cnobebi XI s. amierkavkasiis mdgomare-
obis Sesaxeb mkvlevarTa mier samarTlianad miCneulia
pirvelxarisxovan wyarod. es imitom, rom munejim-baSs
Tavis Txzulebis CvenTvis saintereso nawilSi masalebi
motanili aqvs XI s. istorikosis, fakihis Txzulebidan,
romelic 1075 w. yofila Sedgenili. fakihis Txzuleba
amJamad dakargulia da igi mxolod munejim-baSis mona-
cemebis mixedviT aris cnobili. munejim-baSis Txzule-
bis es nawili Targmnilia da gamocemulia inglisur
(v. minorskis mier) da rusul (a. mamedovis mier) enebze.
fakihis cnobebi arsebiTad avsebs „qarTlis mati-
anis~ monacemebs saqarTvelos mefisa da Tbilisis moqa-
laqeTa xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebis, „Tbilisis be-
rebis~ urTierTobaze. amas garda, fakihi friad sagu-

42
lisxmo masalebs gvawvdis TbilisSi damoukidebeli saqa-
laqo TviTmarTvelobis arsebobaze SemoerTebis win.
aRmosavlur wyaroTa Soris gansakuTrebul yurad-
Rebas imsaxurebs maifarikineli arabi istorikosis ibn
al-azrak al-farikis cnobebi. al-fariki, marTalia, ar
iyo TviTmxilveli didgoris brZolisa (am dros is sul
xuTiode wlis iqneboda, daibada 1116 wels, gardaicva-
la 1176 wlis Semdeg), magram mas am omis Sesaxeb friad
saintereso cnobebi Seukrebia, rogorc koaliciur laS-
qrobaSi monawile mahmadian mflobelTa Soris, ise sa-
qarTveloSic. al-fariki XII s. Sua wlebSi, kerZod 1153
wels, Camovida saqarTveloSi, TbilisSi da aq ramdenime
weli dahyo imdroindeli mefis, demetre pirvelis
(1123-1156 ww.), daviT aRmaSeneblis memkvidris samsaxur-
Si. arabi istorikosi gansakuTrebiT dainteresebuli
iyo didgoris omis ambebiT da im brZolis adgilic ki
dauTvalierebia, sadac sastikad iqnen damarcxebuli mi-
si Tanamemamuleni. al-farikis saqarTveloSi yofnis
dros jer kidev cocxali iyo gadmocemebi am brZolis
Sesaxeb, cocxali iyo TviT misi erT-erTi mTavari mona-
wile demetre pirveli da zogierTi tyvec, romelic aq
Turq-selCukTa damarcxebis Semdeg darCa. al-fariks
brZolis monawileebTan, kerZod, mahmadian tyveebTan
Sexvedris didi survilic gamouCenia. ai, ras wers igi:
„me TviT vnaxe brZolis veli, roca 1153 wels Cavedi Tbi-
lisSi. afxazTa mefis dimitris davalebiT, wavediT Tbi-
lisis Sida olqebSi. Cven gaviareT teritoria, romelic
70 dRis savals Seadgens... ramdenime dRis Semdeg erT
mTasTan mivadeqiT vrcel vels. am mTis Zirs aRmarTu-
lia maRali cixe-simagre da aq dabanakda mefe. afxazTa
mefem miTxra: „ai, cixeSi aris viRac tyve ilRazis laS-
qridan, rogorc gaTendeba xvalindeli dRe, adi masTan,
naxe da hkiTxe, saidan aris igi~. me gadavwyvite asec mov-
qceuliyavi. magram im Rames mefes mouvida cnoba, rom

43
zogierTi olqi aujanyda. maSinve dasces salaSqro buki
da mefe daiZra. ar ineba RmerTma, rom Cven Sevxvedro-
diT mas~ (e. i. tyves _ S.m.).
rogorc al-farikis cnobebis ganxilvidan irkveva,
mas zusti informacia hqonda daviT aRmaSeneblis dro-
indeli saqarTvelos politikuri mdgomareobis, mefis
mier gatarebuli RonisZiebebis, didgoris omisa da Sem-
dgom Tbilisis SemoerTebis Sesaxeb. al-farikis zogier-
Ti cnobis Sedareba daviTis istorikosis monacemebTan
savsebiT gvarwmunebs mis ueWvelobaSi. yovelive es, cxa-
dia, mas didgoris brZolis Sesaswavlad gansakuTrebul
mniSvnelobas aniWebs.
al-farikis es saintereso cnobebi, saerTod, sa-
qarTvelosa da kerZod, didgoris brZolaze, didi xani
ar aris, rac qarTveli (vl. fuTuriZe, g. wereTeli) da
ucxoeli (h. amedrozi, v. minorski) mecnierebis wyalo-
biT cnobili gaxda mkvlevarTaTvis. swored am mecnier-
ebma gamosces al-farikis Txzulebis es adgilebi qar-
Tul, arabul da inglisur enebze da mniSvnelovnad ga-
amdidres XII s. pirveli meoTxedis saqarTvelos istoria
axali masalebiT.
didgoris brZolaze mravalmxriv sayuradRebo cno-
bebi moepoveba agreTve arab istorikoss ibn al-asirs
(1160-1234 ww.). igi didxans cxovrobda mosulSi (erayi) da
adgilobrivi amiras samsaxurSi iyo. mosulis amiras da-
valebiT ibn al-asiri bevrs mogzaurobda sxvadasxva
qveynebSi da am mogzaurobas istoriuli masalebis Se-
sakrebad iyenebda. am masalebze aago man Tavisi ToTx-
mettomiani naSromi „istoriis sruli krebuli~, uZve-
lesi droidan vidre 1231 wlamde. ibn al-asiri umTavre-
sad imeorebs mis winamorbed arab istorikosTa cnobebs,
magram amasTan erTad bevri axali da saintereso masalac
moaqvs. magaliTad, didgoris brZolisa da mahmadianTa
koaliciuri laSqris raodenobaze mas moepoveba al-fa-
rikis da sxva istorikosebisagan gansxvavebuli cnobebi.
44
amas garda, igi aRwers brZolis dawyebis erT detalsac,
romelic daviTis mier gamoyenebul erT taqtikur xer-
xze miuTiTebs da rac arc erT sxva istorikoss ara aqvs
aRniSnuli. ibn al-asirs cnobebi moepoveba tyved Cavar-
dnil mahmadian molaSqreTa raodenobaze da sxva.
ibn al-asiris Txzulebis CvenTvis saintereso nawi-
li rusulad Targmnilia p. Juzes mier da calke wignad
gamoica „Tarihi al-qamilis~ saxelwodebiT.
wyaroTa Soris yuradRebas iqcevs agreTve ara-
bulenovani istorikosis sibt ibn al-jauzis mokle cno-
bebi daviT aRmaSenebelsa, didgoris brZolasa, Tbili-
sis SemoerTebasa da mis Semdegdroindel mdgomareoba-
ze. al-jauzi XIII s. pirveli naxevris avtoria. marTalia,
misi cnobebi sisruliTa da agreTve mniSvnelobiTac ver
Seedreba al-farikis TxzulebaSi dacul masalebs, mag-
ram igi mainc darCeba erT-erT mniSvnelovan wyarod
didgoris brZolis zogi detalis aRsadgenad da Semo-
erTebuli Tbilisis muslimuri mosaxleobis mimarT da-
viTis mier gatarebul RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb. al-jauzis
cnobebis arabuli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniTurT calke
gamoaqveyna o. cqitiSvilma.
ibn al-asiris „istoriis~ calkeuli nawyvetebi, ro-
melnic saintereso cnobebs Seicaven somxebsa da qarT-
velebzec, saukuneze meti xnis winaT daamuSava da Tar-
gmanebis saxiT gamoaqveyna cnobilma frangma aRmosav-
leTmcodnem m. defremerim. aRsaniSnavia, rom defreme-
ris mier ibn al-asiris „istoriis~ gamoqveynebul nawi-
lebs Tan axlavs komentarebi, romlebic faqtobrivad
nawyvetebs warmoadgens Zveli arabi istorikosebis _ al-
jauzis da sxvaTa _ Txzulebebidan. m. defremeris mier
Sekrebili da damuSavebuli cnobebi jer kidev gasuli
saukunis miwuruls qarTulad Targmna da Jurnal „mo-
ambeSi~ gamoaqveyna cnobilma qarTvelma moRvawem iv. ma-
Wavarianma.

45
zemoxsenebul avtorTa garda, daviT aRmaSeneblisa
da didgoris brZolaze saintereso cnobebi moepovebaT
evropelebsac. maT Soris gansakuTrebul yuradRebas
imsaxurebs daviT mefis Tanamedrove, evropel jvaro-
sanTa pirveli laSqrobis aRmweri istorikosis goties
cnobebi. zogi mkvlevaris azriT, gotie frangi iyo. mas
monawileoba miuRia pirvel jvarosnul laSqrobaSi da
erTxans jvarosanTa mier daarsebuli antioqiis samTav-
ros kancleric ki yofila. zogi cnobiT, 1119 wels jva-
rosanTa laSqris erT nawilTan erTad igi tyved Cavar-
dnila, magram 1122 wlidan ganTavisuflebula tyveo-
bidan da isev gaugrZelebia moRvaweoba antioqiaSi. misi
cxovrebis bolo wlebi ucnobia, magram faqtia, rom go-
tiem Tavisi sicocxlis umTavresi nawili aRmosavleTSi
gaatara da kargad erkveva iq mimdinare movlenebSi.
goties mniSvnelovani masalebi hqonia ara marto
evropel jvarosnebze, aramed im brZolebzec, rasac im-
droindeli saqarTvelo awarmoebda mahmadianuri gare-
mocvis winaaRmdeg. saqarTvelos brZola Turq-selCuke-
bis batonobis winaaRmdeg TavisTavad exmaureboda jva-
rosanTa interesebs aRmosavleTSi da, bunebrivia, rom
jvarosnebis pirveli laSqrobis istorikosi daintere-
sebuli iyo saqarTvelos ambebiT da, kerZod, didgoris
velze Turq-selCukTa koaliciuri laSqris ganadgure-
biT. amitomaa, rom gotiem Tavis cnobil laTinur qro-
nikaSi _ „antioqiis omebi~ _ mniSvnelovani adgili da-
uTmo didgoris brZolas. marTalia, gotie TviTmxilve-
li ar yofila am omisa, magram, rogorc qvemoT davina-
xavT, mas saintereso masalebi hqonia 1121 wels saqar-
TveloSi momxdari ambebis Sesaxeb. raki bevri ram goti-
es cnobebSi gazviadebuli da saeWvo Cans, misi monaceme-
bi unda SevudaroT sxva istorikosTa cnobebs da mxo-
lod aseTi kritikuli ganxilvis Semdeg gamoviyenoT.

46
daviT aRmaSenebelsa da mis Tanadroul saqarTve-
loze calkeuli saintereso cnobebi moepovebaT sxva ev-
ropel avtorebsac, magram maT sagangebo ganxilvas aq
saWirod ar miviCnevT.
rogorc davinaxeT, didgoris brZolaze masalebi
mogvepoveba rogorc qarTul, somxur, arabul, aseve
laTinur enebze. da es SemTxveviTi ar aris: am omma Ta-
visi didi mniSvnelobiT ara marto qarTvel da somex is-
torikosTa, aramed saerTod, mTeli maSindeli aRmosav-
leTisa da dasavleTis, ukeT, imdroindeli msoflios
istorikosTa yuradReba miiqcia. yovelive aman SesaZ-
lebloba mogvca sxvadasxva xalxisa da sxvadasxva rwme-
nis istorikosTa monacemebis urTierTSejerebiT, maTi
kritikulad SeswavliT, aRgvedgina didgoris brZolisa
da misi Sedegebis met-naklebad sruli suraTi, met-nak-
lebad srulio _ vambobT imis gamo, rom zemoganxiluli
istorikosebi CvenTvis saintereso yvela kiTxvaze saTa-
nado pasuxs ar iZlevian. maTi monacemebi yovelTvis ar
aris sakmarisi didgoris brZolis yvela mxaris naTlad
da srulad warmosadgenad. am mxriv didi daxmarebis ga-
weva SeeZlo didgoris velis arqeologiur Seswavlas. iq
bevri ram saintereso miwis qveS aris moqceuli da dRem-
de saidumloebiTaa moculi. am saidumloebis gaxsna ki,
samwuxarod, jerjerobiT ver moxerxda. bunebrivia, yve-
laferi es am naSromsac daamCnevs Tavis kvals _ igi yo-
velmxrivi sisrulis pretenzias ver ganacxadebs.

***
wyaroebis mokle mimoxilvis Semdeg, saWirod vTv-
liT oriode sityviT mainc SevexoT im samecniero li-
teraturas, rac daviT aRmaSenebelsa da, kerZod, did-
goris brZolaze mogvepoveba.
miuxedavad imisa, rom XI s. miwuruli da XII s. pir-
veli meoTxedi, e. i. is wlebi, roca daviT aRmaSenebeli

47
moRvaweobda, mravalmxriv saintereso istoriuli mov-
lenebiT aris aRsavse da feodaluri saqarTvelos isto-
riis erT yvelaze RirsSesaniSnav periods warmoadgens,
igi dRemde saTanadod Seswavlili ar aris. sakmarisia
aRiniSnos, rom am xanis Sesaxeb arc qarTul da arc sxva
enebze ar mogvepoveba vrceli, safuZvliani gamokvleva,
monografia, magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom qarTveli Tu
ucxoeli mkvlevari-istorikosebi ar yofilan daintere-
sebuli daviT aRmaSeneblis didmniSvnelovani saxelmwi-
foebrivi RonisZiebebiTa da, kerZod, didgoris omiT,
rom maT amis Sesaxeb saerTod araferi dauweriaT.
XX saukuneSi araerTi gamokvleva gamoqveynebula
saqarTvelos istoriaze da bunebrivia, aseT wignebSi
daviT aRmaSenebels, mis moRvaweobas da didgoris omsac
saTanado adgili eTmoboda.
pirveli qarTveli mkvlevari, romelmac umTavre-
sad qarTuli wyaroebis safuZvelze aRwera daviTis Ro-
nisZiebani da kerZod, didgoris omi, XVIII s. pirveli na-
xevris saxelovani istorikosi vaxuSti bagrationi iyo.
man Tavis „saqarTvelos cxovrebaSi~ mniSvnelovani ad-
gili dauTmo didgoris oms, sagangebod Seexo mas davi-
Tis sxva RonisZiebebTan erTad, magram vaxuStis dros
saqarTvelos istoriis wyaroebi jer kidev saTanadod
ar iyo gamovlenil-Seswavlili da igi iZulebuli gaxda
umTavresad daviTis istorikosis Cven mier zemoT ganxi-
luli cnobebi gaemeorebina. samagierod, vaxuStis sain-
tereso cnobebi da dakvirvebebi aqvs daviT aRmaSeneblis
droindeli qarTuli feodaluri laSqris organizaciaze,
SeiaraRebasa da saerTod, samxedro xelovnebaze.
vaxuSti bagrationis Semdeg, mTeli saukunis man-
Zilze, CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxebis Seswavla qarTul
istoriografiaSi win ar waweula. vaxuStis momdevno xa-
nis istorikosebi, romelnic ki XII s. pirvel meoTxeds

48
exebian, ver gascildnen daviTis istorikosisa da vaxuS-
tis monacemebs.
erTgvari gardatexa am mxriv XIX s. 30-iani wlebi-
dan xdeba, roca saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis
mecnierul kvleva-Ziebas iwyebs cnobili mecnieri, aka-
demikosi mari brose (1802-1880 ww.). man didi amagi das-
do saqarTvelos istoriis Seswavlis saqmes _ pirvelma
gamoamzeura da gamoaqveyna saqarTvelos istoriis ara
marto qarTuli, aramed ucxouri wyaroebic, maT Sori-
saa araerTi saintereso masala daviT aRmaSenebelze,
didgoris brZolasa da Tbilisis SemoerTebaze.
m. brosem frangul enaze Sesrulebul Tavis naS-
romSi _ „damatebani da ganmartebani saqarTvelos isto-
riis Sesaxeb~ _ nawyvetebis saxiT gamoaqveyna somex, arab
Tu sxva istorikosTa cnobebi didgoris omze. aqve aris
masalebi daviTis mier Tbilisis SemoerTebasa da amis
Semdeg qalaqSi Seqmnil mdgomareobaze. es masalebi fri-
ad sainteresoa daviTis moRvaweobisa da misi pirovnebis
Sesafaseblad. aRsaniSnavia, rom m. brosem Tavis „saqar-
Tvelos istoriaSi~ am masalebis, kerZod, maTe urhael-
is cnobebis gamoyenebiT mokled ganixila didgoris
brZola da misi Sedegebi.
didgoris omis Seswavlis Semdgomi safexuri qarTul
istoriografiaSi ekuTvnis XIX s. meore naxevris cnobil
qarTvel istorikoss dimitri baqraZes. mas, marTalia,
didgoris brZolaze sagangebo gamokvleva ar dauweria,
magram vaxuStis „saqarTvelos istoriis~ 1888 wlis ga-
mocemas daurTo friad saintereso SeniSvnebi. swored iq,
sadac vaxuSti didgoris omze saubrobs d. baqraZem gan-
martebebis saxiT moitana maTe urhaelis da goties cno-
bebi am brZolaze da amiT kidev ufro gaamdidra qarTu-
li istoriografia axali masalebiT. goties cnobebi
qarTul enaze pirvelad swored d. baqraZis mier iqna
gadmoTargmnili da samecniero xmarebaSi Semotanili.

4. SoTa mesxia 49
XIX s. II naxevarsa da XX s. damdegs araerTi samecni-
ero werili, wigni, istoriuli poema Tu legenda gamoq-
veynda daviT aRmaSenebelze. yvela maTgans aq ar movixse-
niebT. mivuTiTebT mxolod zogierTze, romelTac gar-
kveuli wvlili Seitanes, saerTod, XII s. pirveli meoTxe-
dis saqarTvelos istoriisa da, kerZod, didgoris brZo-
lis SeswavlaSi. am mxriv pirvel rigSi aRsaniSnavia n. ur-
bnelis (xizaniSvilis) istoriuli monografia _ „mefe da-
viT aRmaSenebeli da misi dro~, romelic 1894 wels Jurn.
„moambis~ furclebze daibeWda. n. urbnelma im droisaT-
vis mis gankargulebaSi arsebuli wyaroebis mixedviT sak-
maod vrclad ganixila daviT aRmaSeneblis moRvaweobis
yoveli mxare da maT Soris didgoris brZolac.
daviT aRmaSenebelze araerTi werili aqvs gamoq-
veynebuli sxvadasxva dros, XIX s. miwurulsa da XX s.
damdegs, cnobil qarTvel istorikoss m. janaSvils; XII s.
saqarTveloze sagangebo gamokvleva gamoaqveyna agreTve
d. kariWaSvilma _ „saqarTvelo XII saukuneSi~, sadac
didgoris omze aris saubari, manve werili miuZRvna sa-
kuTriv daviT aRmaSenebelsac. daviT aRmaSenebels weri-
lebi miuZRvnes agreTve i. feraZem, d. RambaSiZem, gr.
yifSiZem, z. WiWinaZem da bevrma sxvam. yvela am werilma
Tavis droze saTanado roli Seasrula daviT aRmaSeneb-
lis moRvaweobis ama Tu im mxaris SeswavlaSi. miuxe-
davad amisa, XII s. pirveli meoTxedis saqarTvelos is-
toriis mecnieruli Seswavla da saTanado Sefaseba jer
kidev momavlis saqmed rCeboda.
ise rogorc saqarTvelos istoriis yvela kardina-
luri sakiTxis, daviT aRmaSeneblis moRvaweobisa da,
kerZod, didgoris omis mecnierul SeswavlaSi axali sa-
fexuris Semqmnelia iv. javaxiSvili. man jer kidev 1914
wels gamoqveynebul „qarTveli eris istoriis~ II wignSi
mniSvnelovani adgili dauTmo daviT aRmaSeneblis mra-
valmxrivi RonisZiebebis Seswavlasa da Sefasebas. iqve

50
ganxiluli iyo didgoris brZolac. aRsaniSnavia, rom iv.
javaxiSvilma saamisod, pirvelad qarTul istoriogra-
fiaSi, gamoiyena yvela wyaro, rac ki im droisaTvis xel-
misawvdomi iyo da amis safuZvelze mogvca didgoris
brZolis pirveli mecnieruli analizi. amasTanave, did-
goris brZola iv. javaxiSvilma ganixila sxva istoriul
movlenebTan kavSirSi, mogvca am brZolis mizezebis mok-
le mimoxilva da Sedegebis saTanado Sefasebac.
am sakiTxis ganxilvisas iv. javaxiSvilis ZiriTad
wyaros, daviTis istorikosis monacemebTan erTad, maTe
urhaelisa da ibn al-asiris cnobebic Seadgenda. maTi
urTierTSejereba mkvlevars SesaZleblobas aZlevda,
daedgina didgoris brZolis TariRi, daaxloebiT mainc
ganesazRvra mowinaaRmdege laSqris raodenoba, misi
Sedgeniloba da sxva. SromaSi, sadac XII-XIII ss. saqarTve-
los istoriis yvela ZiriTadi sakiTxia ganxiluli, cxa-
dia, didgoris brZolas didi adgili ver daeTmoboda _
mas mxolod samiode gverdi mieZRvna. aqedan gamomdina-
re, didgoris brZolis garSemo yvela mniSvnelovanma sa-
kiTxma iv. javaxiSvilis zemodasaxelebul naSromSi sa-
Tanado gaSuqeba ver pova.
sabWoTa periodSi, daviT aRmaSeneblisa da didgo-
ris brZolis Sesaxeb sagangebo gamokvlevebi, monografi-
ebi ar yofila gamoqveynebuli, magram XII s. pirveli me-
oTxedis saqarTvelos istoriis kvlevam mainc sagrZnob-
lad win waiwia gamoCenili qarTveli istorikosebis _ s.
janaSiasa da n. berZeniSvilis _ naSromebis wyalobiT.
s. janaSiam sagangebo statia uZRvna daviT aRmaSe-
nebels da mokled, magram sxartad da Tanamimdevrulad
Camoayaliba daviT IV aRmaSeneblis dros Seqmnili saga-
reo viTarebis ZiriTadi movlenebi, saSinao RonisZieba-
Ta da reformaTa umTavresi Sedegebi. s. janaSiam gansa-
kuTrebiT xazi gausva qveynis SigniT arsebul Zalebs,
rogorc daviT IV-is saSinao da sagareo politikis war-

51
matebis umTavres wyaros. aqve igi gakvriT exeba didgo-
ris brZolis mizezebsa da Sedegebs.
daviT aRmaSeneblis saSinao da sagareo politikas,
sxva problemebTan dakavSirebiT, araerTxel Sexebia n.
berZeniSvili da araerTi sagulisxmo daskvnac gaukeTeb-
ia CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxebze. amas garda, n. berZe-
niSvilma misi redaqciiT gamocemul „saqarTvelos isto-
riis~ saxelmZRvanelosaTvis daviT aRmaSeneblisa da did-
goris omisadmi miZRvnili paragrafebi xelaxla dawera.
meore msoflio omis wlebSi qarTvelma istoriko-
sebma araerTi naSromi gamoaqveynes Cvens saxelovan wi-
naprebze, did mxedarTmTavrebsa da im gmirul brZoleb-
ze, rac Cvenma xalxma gadaixada ukeTesi momavlis Sesaq-
mnelad. am naSromebma isev gaacocxles gmiri winaprebis
naTeli saxeebi...
cxadia, arc daviT aRmaSenebeli da misi sardlobiT
gadaxdili omebi yofila daviwyebuli. a. kikviZem 1942
wels gamoaqveyna mecnierul-popularuli naSromi „daviT
aRmaSenebeli~. masve miuZRvna Tavisi broSura s. makala-
Tiam; omis wlebSive daviT aRmaSeneblis ori didi omis
Sesaxeb specialuri werili gamoaqveyna s. kakabaZem. masSi
sagangebodaa ganxiluli erwuxisa da didgoris brZolebi.
s. kakabaZem CvenTvis saintereso brZola umTavresad go-
ties zemoxsenebuli qronikis _ „antioqiis omebis~ _ mi-
xedviT ganixila. marTalia, mas daviTis istorikosisa da
maTe urhaelis cnobebic aqvs moSveliebuli, magram ga-
damwyveti mniSvneloba mainc goties mianiWa. swored es
gaxda mizezi im mcdari daskvnebisa, rac s. kakabaZis ze-
modasaxelebuli werilisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli.
didgoris brZolas, umTavresad aRmosavluri wya-
roebis mixedviT, Seexo r. kiknaZe. misma gamokvlevam,
romelic arsebiTad Sua saukuneebis Tbilisisadmia miZ-
Rvnili, didgoris brZolis zogi sakiTxis (kerZod, mah-
madianTa koaliciuri laSqris monawileTa) garkvevaSi
sinaTle Seitana.
52
ukanasknel wlebSi daviT aRmaSeneblis mravalmxri-
vi saxelmwifoebrivi reformebi sagangebo Seswavlis
sagnad iqca. am sakiTxebze muSaobs r. metreveli. misi
Sroma „daviT aRmaSenebeli~, sadac mokled didgoris
brZolacaa ganxiluli, 1965 wels gamoqveynda. amas gar-
da, r. metrevelma gamoaqveyna sagangebo statia, rome-
lic mieZRvna daviT IV-is drois saqarTvelos istoriis
qronologiis sakiTxebs. werils mniSvnelovani Seswore-
ba Seaqvs CvenTvis saintereso periodis zogi istoriu-
li movlenis dRemde miRebul daTariRebaSi.
didgoris brZola mecnierTa kvlevis sagani gaxda
samxedro xelovnebis istoriis TvalsazrisiTac. XIX s.
80-ian wlebSi T. dadiSkelianis vrceli statia _ „saqar-
Tvelos mxedroba~ _ iyo XI-XIII ss. saqarTvelos samxedro
wyobilebis Seswavlis pirveli cda. narkvevSi mniSvnelo-
vani adgili hqonda daTmobili daviT aRmaSeneblis dro-
indeli samxedro xelovnebisa da didgoris brZolis mi-
moxilvas. amave sakiTxebs mieZRvna i. gedevaniSvilis ga-
mokvleva _ „samxedro xelovneba saqarTveloSi~.
XII s. saqarTvelos samxedro xelovneba, saerTod,
da daviT aRmaSeneblis samxedro moRvaweoba, kerZod,
qarTvel istorikosTa kvlevis saganic gaxda. XII s. sam-
xedro wyobilebis sakiTxs sagangebo moxseneba miuZRvna
v. donduam; S. badriZem sakuTriv didgoris omi ganixi-
la samxedro xelovnebis istoriis TvalsazrisiT. masve
ekuTvnis agreTve saintereso gamokvleva jvarosnul
Tqmulebebze daviT aRmaSeneblis Sesaxeb da narkvevi
„jvarosnebi da saqarTvelo~.
aRsaniSnavia, rom didgoris omi, rogorc saerTod
msoflio samxedro xelovnebis erT-erTi TvalsaCino ni-
muSi, Sefasebulia samxedro xelovnebis istoriis Tana-
medrove rusi specialistebis mierac. am mxriv yuradRe-
bas iqcevs polkovnikis, prof. a. strokovis am aTiode
wlis winaT rusul enaze gamoqveynebuli naSromi „sam-

53
xedro xelovnebis istoria~, sadac saTanado adgili
aqvs daTmobili didgoris brZolis aRwerasa da misi
taqtikuri mxaris ganxilvas.
didgoris brZola qarTulsa da ucxour istori-
ografiaSi ganixileboda msoflio istoriis imdroindel
RirsSesaniSnav movlenebTan, kerZod, jvarosanTa omebTan
kavSirSic. magaliTad, z. avaliSvili narkvevSi _ „garSe-
mo erTi omisa~ _ didgoris brZolas swored am Tvalsaz-
risiT Seexo da SeiZleba iTqvas, savsebiT sworad uCvena
is arsebiTi gansxvaveba, romelic am or istoriul mov-
lenas _ qarTveli xalxis ganmaTavisuflebel brZolebsa
da jvarosnebis dampyroblur omebs _ Soris arsebobda.
am mxriv qarTveli mkvlevaris pozicia samarTlianad upi-
rispirdeba im ucxoel istorikosebs (mag., b. kuglersa
da sxvebs), romelnic didgoris brZolas jvarosnebis mi-
er aRmosavleTSi warmoebul dampyroblur omebTan kav-
SirSi, erT sibrtyeze ganixilaven.
daviT aRmaSenebeli da didgoris brZola aramarto
istorikos mkvlevarTa yuradRebas iqcevda, igi araer-
Txel yofila qarTuli mxatvruli sityvis ostatebis
Semoqmedebis wyaroc. imdenad mimzidveli Canda es isto-
riuli Tema, rom araTu mwerlebs, zogjer TviT isto-
rikosebsac ki ucdiaT mecnieruli kvleva-Zieba mxatv-
rul saxeebSi gadmoecaT. cnobilma istorikosma mose
janaSvilma vrceli poema uZRvna daviT aRmaSenebelsa
da didgoris brZolas. bevri sxvac daiwera moTxrobis,
leqsis, poemisa Tu legendis saxiT. magram didi mxatv-
ruli tilo daviT aRmaSenebelze konstantine gamsaxur-
diam Seqmna. mxatvruli sityvis didostatma Zveli sa-
qarTvelos did saxelmwifo moRvawes oTxwigniani roma-
ni uZRvna; meoTxe wignis mniSvnelovani nawili didgoris
brZolas dauTmo da es istoriuli movlena, umTavresad
daviTis istorikosis, al-farikisa da goties qronikebis
mixedviT, mxatvrulad aRwera. didgoris brZolis ambe-

54
bis didi sizustiT gadmocemis mizniT, avtorma saWirod
miiCnia naSromis am nawilisaTvis TviT pirvelwyaroTa
Targmanebi da originaluri teqstebic ki daerTo.
ukanasknel xanebSi, kerZod, Cveni broSuris _
„didgoris brZolis~ _ gamocemis (1965 w.) Semdeg dabeW-
dil werilTa da sagangebo gamokvlevaTa Soris pirvel
rigSi unda movixsenioT k. salias statia _ „ramdenime
furceli saqarTvelos istoriidan~, romelic daibeWda
frangul enaze Jur. „bedi qarTlisas~ ocdameSvide no-
merSi. werilis sagangebo paragrafi daTmobili aqvs
didgoris brZolas. avtori didgoris ambebs swored im
wyaroebis mixedviT mogviTxrobs, romelic Cven zemoT
ganvixileT; kerZod, mis mier gamoyenebulia goties, da-
viTis istorikosis da sxv. cnobebi am brZolis Sesaxeb.
aRsaniSnavia, rom k. salia specialurad Seexo agreTve
daviTisa da sakmaod moaruli Tqmulebis gmiris, mefe-
presviteris, ioanes igiveobis sakiTxs.
am ukanaskneli 5-6 wlis manZilze, marTalia, did-
goris brZolisa da Tbilisis SemoerTebisadmi sagange-
bod miZRvnili gamokvleva ar dabeWdila, magram gamoq-
veynda calkeul avtorTa (v. gabaSvili, m. lorTqifaniZe,
n. Sengelia, g. kiRuraZe, v. kopaliani, n. asaTiani, m. ef-
remiZe, i. beraZe, q. CxataraiSvili da sxv.) gamokvlevebi,
sadac sxvasTan erTad aRZrulia daviTis drois saqar-
Tvelos rogorc saSinao, aseve sagareo politikuri ur-
TierTobis istoriis sakiTxebi da amdenad, met-naklebad
exmaurebian CvenTvis saintereso problemebs.
1971 wels didgoris brZolis 850 wlisTavs gamoex-
maura Cveni sazogadoebrioba da amasTan dakavSirebiT
respublikis centralursa da adgilobriv presaSi ga-
moqveynda l. goTuas, r. metrevelis, S. badriZis, T. ka-
xianis, m. jangiZis da sxvaTa werilebi, romelTac mniSv-
nelovani wvlili Seitanes didgoris brZolis Seswavli-
sa da misi propagandis saqmeSi.

55
istoriis, arqeologiis, eTnografiisa da folk-
loris samecniero sazogadoebam sagangebo sajaro sx-
doma miuZRvna didgoris brZolis 850 wlisTavs da mois-
mina iv. SaiSmelaSvilisa da q. CxataraiSvilis moxsenebe-
bi. pirvelma didgoris brZola samxedro xelovnebis is-
toriis TvalsazrisiT ganixila, q. CxataraiSvili ki See-
xo didgoris brZolis mizezebsa da Sedegebis istoriul
mniSvnelobas.
zemodasaxelebuli masalebi saTanadod gaTvalis-
winebulia winamdebare samecniero-popularul monogra-
fiaSi. amas garda, saqarTvelos sagareo Tu saSinao po-
litikuri viTarebisa Tu daviTis mier gatarebul re-
formaTa da RonisZiebaTa Sesaswavlad gamoyenebulia
sxva rigis wyaroebica da agreTve qarTvel, rus da uc-
xoel avtorTa gamokvlevebi, magram maTi CamoTvla da
ganxilva winamdebare naSromSi saWirod ar CavTvaleT.
aseve, am naSromis profilisaTvis Seufereblad miviCni-
eT zogi Cveni dabejiTebiT gamoTqmuli Tvalsazrisis
(mag., daviTis reformebze da sxv.) dasamtkiceblad saTa-
nado wyaroebis monacemebis analizi da sabuTebis moSve-
lieba. magram, TavisTavad cxadia, rom amgvari, sxvebisa-
gan gansxvavebuli Sexedulebani ama Tu im sakiTxze yo-
velTvis avtoris mier ukve Catarebuli kvleva-ZiebiT
miRebul Sedegebzea damyarebuli.
rogorc mokle mimoxilvidan Cans, qarTul isto-
riografiaSi araerTi naSromi moipoveba daviT aRmaSe-
neblis moRvaweobis xanisa da am dros gadaxdili omebis
Sesaxeb, magram mainc didgoris brZola da misi Sedegebi,
ise rogorc TviT imdroindeli mravalmxrivi saxelmwi-
foebrivi reformebi da RonisZiebani, dRemde saTanadod
Seswavlili ar aris. am xarvezebis nawilobriv Sevsebas
isaxavs miznad es mecnierul-popularuli narkvevi.

56
Tavi II. saqarTvelo didgoris
brZolis win
1. bagrat III-dan daviT IV-mde

didgoris brZola ganapiroba XI s. da XII s. pirveli


meoTxedis feodaluri saqarTvelos saSinao da sagareo
pirobebma. amitom, sanam TviT didgoris gmirul epopeas
SevexebodeT, saWiroa gavecnoT im viTarebas, rac im-
droindel saqarTveloSi Seiqmna da ramac warmoSva am
brZolis mizezebi.
XI s. da XII s. pirveli meoTxedi saqarTvelos isto-
riaSi mravali RirsSesaniSnavi movleniT aRiniSna. XI s.
damdegisaTvis saqarTvelo, misi aRmosavleTi, dasavle-
Ti da samxreTi nawili, romelic manamde calke politi-
kur erTeulebs qmnida, ukve ZiriTadad gaerTianebuli
iyo. erTian qarTul feodalur monarqias safuZveli Se-
uqmna imdroindelma socialurma da ekonomikurma piro-
bebma, feodalizmis ganviTarebis axalma safexurma, mis-
ma mowifulobam, rac soflis meurneobis, xelosnobis,
vaWrobisa da saqalaqo cxovrebis Semdgom ganviTarebaSi
gamoixata.
qveynis axali ekonomikuri aRmavlobis niadagze
aRmocenebuli erTani saqarTvelo TandaTan Zalas ik-
rebda. magram mis zrda-ganviTarebasa da gaZlierebas
mravali dabrkoleba eRobeboda win. qveynis SigniT jer
kidev Zlierni iyvnen gaerTianebis sawinaaRmdego Zalebi
_ didgvariani feodalebi, romelnic erTian samefo xe-
lisuflebaSi TavianTi privilegiebisa da didi xnis wi-
naT mopovebuli mdgomareobisa da uflebebis SemzRud-
vel Zalas xedavdnen. amitomac yovelnairad upirispir-
debodnen da yvela saSualebiT ebrZodnen mas.
qveynis gareTac araerTi Zala iyo, romelic feo-
daluri monarqiis gaZlierebas daupirispirda. jer er-

57
Ti, arabi dampyroblebi, romlebic aq VII s. meore naxev-
ridan gaCndnen, saqarTvelos, mis zog (ukve mcire) na-
wils mainc, TavianT kuTvnilebad miiCnevdnen; meorec,
saqarTvelos samxreT-dasavleTis mezobeli _ bizantiis
imperia _ Cvens qveyanas vasalobis xels adebda da yo-
velnairad cdilobda qarTveli mefeebi Tavisi karis mo-
xeleebad, Tavisi neba-survilis Semsruleblebad gaexa-
da. saamisod bizantia ar erideboda arc saqarTvelos
saSinao saqmeebSi Carevas, arc uxv saCuqrebsa da maRali
sakariskaco titulebis mikuTvnebas qarTveli mefeebis-
aTvis, arc didgvariani feodalebis mosyidva-gadabire-
basa da sxva muxanaTuri xerxebis gamoyenebas.
erTiani saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebas Zale-
bis maqsimalurad daZabva sWirdeboda, raTa alRo aeRo
Seqmnili rTuli saSinao da sagareo pirobebisaTvis. ga-
erTianebuli saqarTvelos pirveli mefis, bagrat mesa-
mis (978-1014 ww.) mkveTrma RonisZiebebma gamarjveba mo-
upoves qveynis erTianobis momxre Zalebs. samefo xeli-
suflebam daundobeli brZola gamoucxada TavkerZobas
SeCveul qarTlis erisTavebsa da erisTavTerisTavebs
Tu klarjeTis mcire xelmwifeebs. bagrat mesamem zogi
maTgani, maT Soris Tavisi uaxloesi naTesavebic ki, mos-
po, zogi kidev, ama Tu im kuTxis memkvidreobiTi mflo-
belebi (magaliTad, kldekaris mflobelebi) Tavis moxe-
leebad, mefis xelisuflebas daqvemdebarebul erisTa-
vebad aqcia. amasTanave, hereT-kaxeTis SemoerTebiTa da
Tbilisis saamiros teritoriis TandaTan SezRudviT
bagrat mesamem saqarTvelos samefos avtoriteti didad
aamaRla mis mezobel saxelmwifoTa TvalSi. amitomac
iyo, rom bagrat mesame zog mis Tanamedrove istorikoss
ara marto saqarTvelos TviTmpyrobel mefed, mTeli
kavkasiis „nebierad ganmgebladac~ miaCnda.
qveynis Sinagani urTierTobis, misi siZlieris gan-
mtkicebis, e. i. saSinao prolemebis ZiriTadad gadawyve-

58
tis Semdeg, samefo xelisuflebas sagareo saqmeebis,
kerZod, bizantiasTan urTierTobis mowesrigebisaTvi-
sac unda ezruna; bizantias unda egrZno saqarTvelos
siZliere, erTxel da samudamod eRiarebina misi suvere-
noba da Tanasworoba. am didi amocanis gadawyvetas Se-
alia Tavisi xanmokle sicocxle bagrat mesamis „mgzneba-
re, magram warumatebelma memkvidrem~ giorgi pirvelma.
misi mefobis wlebi (1014-1027 ww.) bizantiasTan gamudme-
buli omebis wlebi iyo. marTalia, am brZolaSi saqarTve-
lom gadamwyvet warmatebebs ver miaRwia, magram bizanti-
is imperiam naTlad dainaxa, rom saqarTvelos saxiT mis
mezoblad izrdeboda Zlieri, ara marto Tanatolobi-
saTvis, aramed pirvelobisaTvis mebrZoli saxelmwifo.
bizantiasTan omSi giorgi pirvelis calkeuli war-
matebebis miuxedavad, qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis
sagareo urTierTobis sakiTxi jer kidev gadauwyveteli
rCeboda. amasTanave, giorgi pirvelis mier mxolod sa-
gareo sakiTxebisadmi yuradRebis gamaxvilebam Seasusta
qveynis erTianoba _ kaxeT-hereTi isev ganudga erTian
samefos da TiTqmis mTeli saukune dasWirda mis xelax-
la SemoerTebas. isev ganze daiwyes yureba bagrat mesa-
mis mier damorCilebulma erisTavebma da erTiani saqar-
Tvelos mesame mefis _ bagrat meoTxis _ dros (1027-
1072 ww.) ukve aSkara brZola gamoucxades samefo xeli-
suflebas. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeoda kldeka-
ris imdroindeli erisTavi lipariti, romelsac bizanti-
ac umagrebda zurgs. ase rom, bagrat meoTxis winaSe isev
axali saxiT aRimarTa mis winamorbedTa dros arsebuli
yvela siZnele.
samefo xelisuflebis momxreTa Zalebis ganmtkice-
bis mizniT, bagrat meoTxem gansakuTrebuli yuradReba
miaqcia aRmavlobis gzaze Semdgar qalaqebs. qalaqebis
mosaxleoba _ vaWrebi da xelosnebi _ feodaluri daq-
saqsulobis sawinaaRmdego Zlier Zalad iqceoda; gaZli-

59
erebuli qalaqebi ki mefis mokavSired gamodiodnen. aman
ganapiroba bagrat meoTxis mier wlebis manZilze warmo-
ebuli brZola Tbilisis SemosaerTeblad, zrunva axali
samefo qalaqebis dasaarseblad (man daaarsa q. ateni),
ZvelTa gasaZliereblad da samefod gadasaqcevad. aseT-
ma da sxva msgavsma RonisZiebebma Tavisi nayofic gamoi-
Ro: ocwliani brZolis Semdeg bagrat meoTxem kldeka-
ris erisTavi daamarcxa, kaxeT-hereTze Tavisi gavlena
gaaZliera _ kaxeT-hereTis mefeebma saqarTvelos mefis
ymoba aRiares. SedarebiT mowesrigda bizantiasTan ur-
TierTobac. qveyana moSenebis gzas daadga, mefis xeli-
suflebac TandaTan Zlierdeboda. magram amasTanave sa-
mefo xelisuflebas jer kidev bevri saSinao saqme rCe-
boda mouwesrigebeli.
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas moiTxovda eklesia, ro-
melic xSir SemTxvevaSi, upirispirdeboda samefo xeli-
suflebas. es imitom, rom eklesia mefis xelisuflebis
mowinaaRmdege didgvarianTa TavSesafarad iqca. maRali
saeklesio Tanamdebobani maT an memkvidreobiT hqondaT
miRebuli, an kidev, didi Tanxebis gaRebiT nayidi. saek-
lesio Tanamdebobebs zogjer TviT mefec hyidda. ami-
tom iyo, rom maRal saeklesio Tanamdebobebze savsebiT
uRirsi pirebi aRmoCndnen, romelnic saxelmwifo saqme-
ebze ki ar zrunavdnen, aramed pirad gamorCenasa da gam-
didrebaze. Tanamdebobebsac amisTvis itacebdnen da iZen-
dnen. ase rom, samefo xelisuflebas, saerosTan erTad,
sasuliero feodalebis reaqciuli wrec upirispirdebo-
da. yvelafer amas kargad grZnobdnen imdroindeli prog-
resuli saeklesio moRvaweni da arsebuli viTarebis ga-
mosworebisaTvis RonisZiebebsac saxavdnen.
XI s. saqarTvelos didma moRvawem, giorgi aTonel-
ma bagrat meoTxes kategoriulad mosTxova saeklesio
sferoSi gadamWrel RonisZiebaTa gatareba. magram Zli-
er saero feodalebTan mravalwlovani brZoliT moqan-

60
cul samefo xelisuflebas imxanad saamiso Zala aRar
Seswevda. amas zed daerTo sagareo viTarebis gamwvave-
bac, aRmavlobis gzaze Semdgar qveyanas axali, saSiSi
dampyroblebi daemuqrnen. eseni Turq-selCukebi iyvnen.
oRuzTa modgmis Turqul tomebs, romlebic Sua
aziidan daiZrnen, saTaveSi selCukebis sagvareulo ed-
gaT da amitom isini Turq-selCukebad iwodebodnen. XI s.
pirvel naxevarSi Turqebi maxlobel aRmosavleTs Seesi-
en, daipyres irani, xolo Semdeg somxeTis udidesi nawi-
lic miitaces. 1065 wlidan TurqTa sulTanma orjer
ilaSqra saqarTveloSi _ jer samxreT saqarTvelo aaox-
ra, Semdeg ki qarTli da argveTi. igi Cveni qveynisagan
morCilebasa da yovelwliur xarks moiTxovda; marTalia,
bagrat meoTxis mefobis wlebSi qarTvelma xalxma Tav-
dadebuli brZoliT Tavidan aicila mZime saTurqo xarki,
magram TurqTa TandaTan gabatoneba gardauvali xdebo-
da.
Turqebi maxlobel aRmosavleTSi gansakuTrebiT
mas Semdeg gaZlierdnen, rac qristianulma bizantiam
1074 w. xelSekrulebiT aRmosavleTis qveynebis udidesi
nawili selCukebs dauTmo da saqarTvelo am Zlieri dam-
pyroblis winaSe marto datova. marTlac, 1080 wlidan
Cvens qveyanaSi gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda TurqTa Semo-
seva-Camosaxlebani, daiwyo „didi Turqoba~. am dros sa-
qarTveloSi ukve giorgi meore mefobda (1072-1089 ww.).
qveyanas didi gansacdeli daemuqra. mejoge-momTa-
bare Turqebis gabatoneba saqarTvelos noyier miwa-
wyalze ganviTarebuli feodaluri soflis meurneobis
srul moSlas niSnavda. Turqebma saZovrebad aqcies qar-
Tveli glexis saxnav-saTesi da sabaRvenaxe adgilebi. ma-
terialuri dovlaTis Semqmneli, mwarmoebeli mowyda
Tavis marCenals _ miwas... Turq-selCukebis mier ayrili
glexoba iZulebuli gaxda mTebs Sexiznoda. ganviTare-
buli feodaluri qveynis es didi tragedia realurad

61
asaxa am ambebis Tanamedrovem, Cven mier zemoxsenebulma
daviTis istorikosma; ai, ras werda igi: „ar iyo am dros
Tesva da mka. qveyana mooxrda da tyed gadaiqca. kacTa
nacvlad mxecni da nadirni velisani daemkvidrnen masSi
da qveynis yovel mkvidrTa Soris iyo Wiri mouTmeneli,
Seudarebeli da aRmatebuli odesme momxdar Tu gago-
nil aoxrebisagan... [mtrebma] ar Seiwyales moxucebulni,
Seagines qalwulni, amowyvites Wabukebi, xolo Cvilni
moitaces... nakadulTa nacvlad sisxlis mdinareni rw-
yavda qveyanas~. ase ganadgurda mwarmoebeli mosaxleoba.
daviTis istorikosis sityviT, Turqebma amowyvites is-
inic ki, vinc „darCenili iyo tyeSi, kldeebsa, qvabebsa
Tu xvrelebSi...~, xolo Tu vinme iyo mTebsa da simagre-
ebs Sexiznuli, zamTris sificxem, usaxlkarobam da Sim-
Silma amoxoca.
im droisaTvis maxlobel aRmosavleTSi, saerTod,
da kerZod ki, amierkavkasiaSi Seqmnili viTareba _ somxe-
Tis dapyroba jer bizantielebis, xolo Semdeg Turq-
selCukebis mier da wvril somxur samefoTa zedized ga-
uqmeba, Sirvanisa da aranis TurqTa TareSis asparezad
gadaqceva, bizantiis damarcxeba Turq-selCukebTan br-
ZolaSi anu „berZenTa Zalis Semcireba~ _ aiZulebda sa-
qarTvelos imdroindel mefes giorgi II-s TurqebTan mo-
laparakeba gaemarTa da mZime saTurqo xarkis safasurad
qveynisaTvis erTgvari mSvidoba moepovebina.
amitom iyo, rom giorgi II, amierkavkasiis qveynebis
mesveurTa (somxeTis kaTalikosi barseli, lore-taSiris
mefe kvirike) erTad, iZulebuli gaxda TviT xleboda
sulTan maliq-Sahs ispahanSi. sulTanma, marTlac, saqar-
Tvelo TiTqos „gaaTavisufla zedamarbevelTagan~, e. i.
Turq-marbielTa dalaSqvrisagan, magram samagierod,
„xaraja (xarki) iTxova~, romelsac „aiRebda JamTa mra-
valTa~. es yovelwliuri saTurqo gamosaRebi, cxadia,
glexobas unda exada, rac kidev ufro aCanagebda mas.

62
amas garda giorgi II-isa da sulTnis samSvidobo
molaparakebas ar mohyolia qarTlsa da kaxeTSi damkvi-
drebul TurqTa gasxma am adgilebidan. daviTis istori-
kosis sityviT, Camosaxlebuli Turqebis aqedan ayra, „ma-
Ti gasxma da vneba~ aravis SeeZlo, TviT sulTansac ki.
friad mZime iyo „didi Turqobis~ Sedegebi saqar-
TvelosaTvis, meurneobis is sistema _ momTabaruli me-
jogeoba, romelsac Turq-selCukebi nergavdnen, anadgu-
rebda ganviTarebuli feodaluri qveynis intensiur
soflis meurneobas, maTi ganuwyveteli Semosevebi ki an-
grevda qalaqebs, aqveiTebda vaWrobasa da xelosnobas.
aRmavlobis gzaze Semdgar qalaqTa erTi nawili Turqe-
bis xelSi aRmoCnda. yvelaferi es safuZvels uryevda
qveynis ekonomikur da politikur Zlierebas, dacemisa
da gadagvarebisaken miaqanebda mas.
TurqTa Semosevebma da gabatonebam sagrZnoblad
daasusta samefo xelisufleba da gazarda mis mowina-
aRmdegeTa Zalebi. didgvarianebma giorgi meores „qveya-
na auSales~ da samefos erTianobas safrTxe Seuqmnes.
maTi erTi nawili Turqebs miuvida da dampyrobels
qveynis SigniT araerTi cixe-simagre gadasca. amasTanave,
kaxeTis mefem, romelic bagrat meoTxis dros saqarTve-
los mefis ymobas aRiarebda, ara marto ukuagdo misi
morCileba, aramed mahmadianobac miiRo da madlieri
sulTnisagan kaxeTic daimkvidra. giorgi meoris cda ka-
xeTis SemosaerTeblad savsebiT uniadago aRmoCnda. ama-
sTanave, samefo xelisuflebas ar SeeZlo winaaRmdegoba
gaewia dampyroblebisaTvis. yovelive aman damoukideb-
lobisaTvis mebrZol xalxs guli gautexa da TurqTa
uZlevelobis rwmena Seuqmna. meurneobas mowyvetili
xalxi brZolis pasiur formebze gadavida _ mters gae-
cala da mTebsa da cixeebs Seexizna. daviTis istoriko-
sis sityviT, „Tvinier cixeTa sadame ara sada iyo kaci
sofelsa Sina~.

63
amrigad, „didma Turqobam~ ara marto qveynis er-
Tianoba daaziana, aramed qarTvelobis, misi socialuri
da ekonomikuri wyobis sruli moSlisa da gadaSenebis
realuri safrTxe Seqmna. aseTi gansacdelis Jams ar Can-
da feodalur qaosSi wesrigis damnergavi maorganizebe-
li Zala, qveynis saTaveSi dasustebuli samefo xeli-
sufleba idga. yvelafer amas kargad xedavdnen imdroin-
deli progresuli moRvaweni da rogorc Cans, saTanado
gegmebs amuSavebdnen qveynis gamosayvanad saSinao da sa-
gareo politikuri krizisidan. feodaluri sazogadoe-
bis progresuli nawilic amjerad giorgi II-is mowina-
aRmdege Canda. gaisma mefis moRvaweobiT ukmayofiloTa
xmebi _ giorgi II-s ufro amqveyniuri gancxromisadmi
midrekilebaSi, didgvarianTa opoziciisadmi loialoba-
sa da saerTod saxelmwifos marTva-gamgeobaSi sisustis
gamoCenaSi sdebdnen brals. mefis mmarTvelobiT ukmayo-
filoTa dasis erT-erTi wevri, rogorc Cans, daviTis
istorikosic iyo, romelmac Semdeg ase muqi ferebiT
dagvixata giorgi II-is mefoba.
feodaluri sazogadoebis progresulma nawilma
samefo karze gadatrialeba moaxdina _ giorgi II aiZula
taxtze uari eTqva da Tavisive Svili, jer kidev axal-
gazrda, Teqvsmetiode wlis, magram didi saxelmwifo
saqmeebisaTvis savsebiT momzadebuli, daviTi gaemefebi-
na: „TviT mamaman daadga guirguini mefobisao~ _ werda
daviTis istorikosi. es moxda 1089 wels. amis Semdeg gi-
orgi II-m sakmao xans (zogi mkvlevaris varaudiT, 20
wels) icocxla, magram saxelmwifoebriv saqmeebSi aqti-
ur monawileobas ver iRebda, Tumca „mefeTa-mefedac~
ki iwodeboda.

64
2. daviT IV aRmaSeneblis saSinao
RonisZiebebi da reformebi

XI s. miwuruls saqarTveloSi Seqmnili saSinao da


sagareo viTareba samefo xelisuflebisagan gadamwyveti
da efeqturi zomebis miRebas moiTxovda. daviT meoTxem,
rogorc didma pirovnebam, da mis irgvliv Semokrebilma
saxelmwifo moRvaweTa dasma kargad ganWvrites movle-
nebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi da mravalmxrivi Ro-
nisZiebebiT yovelnairad xeli Seuwyves maT Semdgom ka-
nonzomier ganviTarebas, progresis saqmes.
saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebam pirveli rigis
amocanad Turq dampyrobelTa winaaRmdeg brZola miiC-
nia. daviTis mefobis pirveli wlebi arsebiTad Seewira
saamiso mosamzadebel muSaobas da Turqebis mier SeSine-
buli, terorizebuli, mTebs, gamoqvabulebsa da cixeebs
Sexiznuli mosaxleobis daSoSminebas.
mefem Tavis irgvliv Semoikriba erTguli saSualo
da wvrili aznauri-molaSqreebi da TurqTa mcire raz-
mebs brZolebi iq gaumarTa, sadac gamarjveba ueWveli
iyo. xalxSi Turqebis uZlevelobis rwmena TandaTan gaq-
ra da gamxnevebulma mosaxleobam barad Camosvla iwyo:
glexoba nel-nela ubrundeboda Tavis mamapapeul kar-
midamos, isev iwyeboda xvna-Tesva.
amave dros, sagareo movlenebic saqarTvelos mefis
sasargeblod viTardeboda: 1092 wels gardaicvala Tur-
qTa didi sulTani maliq-Sahi. mis memkvidreTa Soris tax-
tisaTvis gauTavebeli da daundobeli brZola atyda; sel-
CukTa didi saxelmwifo TandaTan daiSala da axlad war-
moqmnili, urTierT brZolaSi garTuli politikuri erTe-
ulebi saqarTvelosaTvis Zveleburad veRar iclidnen.
SinabrZolebiT daosebuli Turqebis winaaRmdeg
swored am dros, TiTqos „qristes saflavis~ gasaTavi-

5. SoTa mesxia 65
sufleblad, dasavleT evropidan daiZrnen e. w. jvaros-
nebi. evropelTa es laSqroba, axlo aRmosavleTis miwebi-
sa da simdidris xelSi Casagdebad, saqarTvelos mefes
xels umarTavda. jvarosnebis mier XI s. miwuruls ieru-
salimisa da antioqiis aRebam kidev ufro daasusta
Turq-selCukebi da xelsayreli pirobebi Seqmna maT mi-
er dapyrobil xalxTa gaTavisuflebisaTvis. daviTis is-
torikosi Tavis TxzulebaSi sagangebod aRniSnavs ro-
gorc maliq-Sahis gardacvalebis ambavs, aseve „frangTa
(evropielTa) gamosvlas~ aRmosavleTSi da yvelafer
amas ukavSirebs saqarTveloSi yovelwliuri saTurqo
xarkis amokveTas: am droidan, _ wers daviTis istoriko-
si, _ mefem „arRara misca sulTansa xaraja, da Turqni
veRara daizamTrebdes qarTls~. saTurqo xarajaze ua-
ris Tqma didi gamarjveba iyo _ mwarmoebel mosaxleo-
bas uReli aexsna, qveynis dovlaTi ukve aRar eZleoda
dampyrobels xarkad da, daviTis istorikosis sityviT
rom vTqvaT, „moeSena qveyana qarTlisa~.
daviT aRmaSenebelma, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri
cxovrebis SedarebiT aRorZinebis Semdeg, qveynis mTli-
anobisa da siZlieris aRdgena-ganmtkicebis mizniT, pir-
vel rigSi im didgvarian feodalebs gamoucxada brZola,
romlebmac mis winaprebs araerTxel „auSales qveyana~.
daviTis RonisZiebani am mxriv kategoriuli iyo da ar
hgavda mis winamorbed mefeTa moqmedebas. igi ar dakma-
yofilda zog erisTavTa martooden wvrTniTa da morCi-
lebaSi moyvaniT. zogi saerisTavo, kerZod, kldekarisa,
romelic saukuneTa manZilze samefo xelisuflebis wi-
naaRmdeg brZolis centrad iyo qceuli, gaauqma, saeris-
Tavo miwa-wyali samefo sakuTrebad gamoacxada, damar-
cxebuli liparit erisTavi ki qveynidan gaaZeva. ase us-
wordeboda daviTi yvela imas, vinc ki mefisa da samefos
sawinaaRmdego moqmedebas ganizraxavda.
aseve sastikad gausworda daviT IV samefo xeli-
suflebis kidev erT mowinaaRmdeges _ aragvis Zlier

66
feodals Zagan abuleTisZesa da mis Zmebs, romelTac,
TviT daviTisave sityviT, kldekaris erisTavTa msgavsad,
arasodes gamouCeniaT erTguleba samefo xelisuflebis
mimarT: „maT gvarTa (warmomadgenlebs _ S.m.) aravis od-
es eqmna Cveni erTgulebao~ _ aRniSnavda mefe Tavis „an-
derZSi~. piriqiT, isini yovel SesaZlebel SemTxvevaSi
did brZolebs umarTavdnen samefo xelisuflebas da mi-
si gaZlierebis momxreebs.
rogorc irkveva, mefem brZola gamoucxada ara
marto aseT feodalebs, aramed TviT im samoxeleo in-
stitutsac, erisTavobasac, romelsac gankerZoebis mo-
surne feodalebi mefis xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg brZo-
laSi iyenebdnen. erisTavoba daviTs, rogorc Cans, im xa-
nisaTvis Seuferebel, ukve dromoWmul Tanamdebobad
miaCnda da mis winaaRmdeg brZolas centraluri samoxe-
leo da adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis aparatSi reforme-
bis CatarebiT fiqrobda.
s. janaSias savsebiT marTebuli SeniSvniT, daviT IV
cdilobda pirvel rigSi daesrulebina is RonisZieba,
rac jer kidev bagrat III-is dros daisaxa, kerZod, sabo-
lood aRmoefxvra Zveli saufliswuloTa sistema _ ur-
TierT sustad dakavSirebuli wvrili da msxvili sam-
Tavroebis erTgvari federacia Zlieri, centralizebu-
li saxelmwifos Seqmnis interesebTan savsebiT SeuTav-
sebeli Canda. amas garda, aucilebeli iyo erisTavobis
Secvla ufro moqnili, samefo xelisuflebasTan uSua-
lod dakavSirebuli samoxeleo institutiT.
bagrat III-m Tavis droze am mxriv mniSvnelovani
RonisZiebebi gaatara _ daundoblad gawyvita tao-klar-
jeTis damoukideblobas SeCveuli „xelmwifeni~, xolo
„urCni Tvisni Secvalna didebisagan~ da maT adgilze
daadgina „erTgulni da mswrafl morCilni brZanebaTa
misTa~. mefis brZanebaTa morCilni, misi erTgulad
swrafad Semsrulebelni, cxadia, axali, msaxureuli az-

67
naurebi iyvnen da ara isini, ZirZveli feodalebi, ro-
melnic mefem swored amis gamo „Secvalna didebisagan~,
gadaayena Tanamdebobidan.
erTiani qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis Camoyali-
bebis procesSi, Zvelsa da axal moxeleobasa da samoxe-
leo institutebs Soris brZolis periodSi, warmoiSva
axali samoxeleo instituti „mosakargaveobisa~ da misi
Sesabamisi axali moxeleebi „mosakargave aznaurebi~. „sa-
kargavi~ mefis mier gansageblad, samarTavad gacemul
teritorias, qveyanas ewodeboda, „mosakargave~ kidev me-
fis mier ama Tu im teritoriis, qveynis mxolod ganmgeb-
lad, mmarTvelad daniSnul moxeles. „mosakargaveobis~
institutma dasrulebuli saxe daviT aRmaSeneblis
dros miiRo _ amieridan „mosakargave aznaurebi~ dau-
pirispirdnen swored im „memamule aznaurebs~, romleb-
mac erT dros mefisagan gansageblad miRebuli saeris-
Tavoebi samemekvidro mamulebad aqcies. erisTavobas
mosakargaveoba cvlida, es ki niSnavda, erTi mxriv, TviT
erisTavTa gadaqcevas moxele-mosakargaveebad, e. i. maT-
Tvis gacemuli teritoriebis mxolod ganmgeblebad, xo-
lo meore mxriv, amieridan qveynebis ara pirobiT mflo-
belobaSi, rogorc es Zvelad iyo, aramed sakargavebad,
gansagebel erTeulebad gacemas, romlis ganmgebelic
gasamrjelod sakargavad micemuli qveynis Semosavals ki
ar miiRebda, aramed fulad sargos samefo xazinidan.
aseTi „mosakargave aznauri~ mTlianad damokidebu-
li iyo samefo xelisuflebaze, mis siZlieresa da xazi-
naze. swored eseni iyvnen amitom mefis xelisuflebis
„erTgulni da moswrafed morCilni brZanebaTa misTa~.
adgilebze wargzavnili moxeleebis TanamdebobaTa
reorganizaciasTan da agreTve saqarTvelos samefos
sazRvrebis gafarToebasTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli
daviTis dros sanapiro qveyanaTa mcvelebis, ganmgeble-
bis sagangebo Tanamdebobebis SemoReba. am moxeles, ro-

68
gorc es daviTis drois warwerebidan Cans, „marzpani~
ewodeboda. termini „marzpani~ axali ar iyo qarTuli
samoxeleo wyobisaTvis. igi jer kidev sasaniduri iranis
batonobis droidan Semovida qarTlSi da Tavis droze
iranis Sahis mier qarTlSi warmogzavnil moxeles ewo-
deboda. magram XII s. pirveli naxevris marzpans, ra Tqma
unda, mxolod saxeli akavSirebda im Zvel iranel moxe-
lesTan. daviTis drois marzpani, saqarTvelos mefis
qarTveli moxele iyo, saqarTvelos samefos sanapiro,
sasazRvro olqis, mazris gamgebelad, mcvelad, „napirTa
mWiravad~ dadgenili.
samoxeleo termini „marzpani~ anu „napirTa mWira-
vi~, XII s. meore naxevridan TandaTan Secvala qarTulma
„monapirem~. Tamaris droisaTvis swored „monapire~ ix-
mareboda calkeuli sasazRvro („sanapiro~) olqis gan-
mgebelis aRsaniSnavad, Tumca zog wyaroSi amave mniSvne-
lobiT „marzpanic~ gvxvdeba.
daviT mefis zemoaRniSnul reformebs mohyva bevri
uRirsi, maRali Tanamdebobis piris gadayeneba, maT magi-
er piradi RirsebiT, saqmis codniTa da mefis erTgule-
biT gamorCeulTa dawinaureba wvril da saSualo azna-
urTa fenidan. TviT esec _ uRirs didgvarianTa magiv-
rad piradi Rirsebis mqoneTa daniSvna _ arsebiTad didi
reforma iyo feodalur qveyanaSi. samefo xelisuflebis
opoziciuri Zalebi TandaTan ukan ixevdnen, mefis xeli-
sufleba ki Zlierdeboda da mtkicdeboda.
magram yvelaferi es sakmarisi ar Canda; jer erTi,
mefis mowinaaRmdege didgvarianni jer kidev mokalaTe-
bulni iyvnen saxelmwifos sxva uwyebaSic, kerZod, ekle-
siaSi, eklesia ki Sua saukuneebSi didmniSvnelovan Zala-
sa da msxvilfeodalur organizacias warmoadgenda. sae-
ro marTva-gamgeobidan gamoZevebulma Tu mefis winaaRm-
deg brZolaSi damarcxebulma didgvarianma feodalebma
eklesias miaSures da mas Seafares Tavi. rac mTavaria,

69
am dros eklesia, maRal saeklesio TanamdebobaTa mqone
uRirs pirTa wyalobiT, saerTo saxelmwifo saqmeebisag-
an ganze idga, mefis xelisuflebas ar emorCileboda da
zogjer upirispirdeboda kidec. saWiro iyo eklesiaSic
iseTive radikaluri reformis moxdena, rogoric mefem
saero sferoSi gaatara.
es didi amocana, romelic samefo xelisuflebis
winaSe jer kidev bagrat meoTxis dros dadga, daviT aR-
maSenebelma 1103 wlis ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebas
gadaawyvetina. ise rogorc saero-samoxeleo aparati,
eklesiac, miuxedavad didi winaaRmdegobisa, gaiwminda
samefo xelisuflebis orguli didgvarianebisagan. maRa-
li saeklesio Tanamdebobani, uRirsTa magier, Rirseu-
lebma, mefis momxre pirebma daikaves. magram eklesiis
morCilebaSi mosayvanad arc es aRmoCnda sakmarisi. ami-
tom daviT aRmaSenebelma feodalur saqarTvelos isto-
riaSi ganumeorebeli RonisZieba gaatara: man ori didi
Tanamdeboba _ saero (mwignobarTuxucesisa) da saekle-
sio (Wyondidis episkoposisa) _ erTi piris xelSi gaaer-
Tiana, mwignobarTuxuces-Wyondidelis „saxelo~ Seqmna
da mas eklesiis saqmeebic Caabara. daviTis istorikosis
sityviT, amieridan „monasterni da saepiskoposoni da yo-
velni eklesiani wessa da rigsa... yovelsa saeklesiosa gan-
gebisasa darbazis kariT (samefo aparatidan _ S.m.) mii-
Rebian~. amgvarad, mefem eklesia samefo xelisuflebas,
mis interesebs daumorCila da qveynis samsaxurSi Caayena.
eklesia-monastrebs mefe saxelmwifos interesebs
amieridan axali xelisufalis _ mwignobarTuxuces-Wyon-
didelis _ meSveobiT ukarnaxebda. eklesiis garda, mwig-
nobarTuxuces-Wyondidels daviT IV-m sasamarTlo xeli-
suflebac Caabara da amasTanave mas, saerTod, rogorc
upirveles moxeles mefis Semdeg, yvela saxelmwifo-sa-
Sinao Tu sagareo saqmeze xeli miuwvdeboda. am Zlier
xelisufals „vaziri~ ewodeboda. amrigad, saqarTvelos

70
samefos vaziris Tanamdebobis SemoReba daviT aRmaSeneb-
lis saSinao reformis erT-erTi metad mniSvnelovani Se-
degi iyo.
vaziri daviTisa da mis memkvidreTa (giorgi III, Tama-
ri) drosac samefo karze mxolod erTi iyo. ase iyo sxva-
ganac, imdroindeli aRmosavleTis did saxelmwifoebSic;
ase rom, saqarTvelo am mxriv gamonaklisi ar yofila.
magram saqarTvelos samefos vaziri Tavisi ufleba-mova-
leobiT, am saxelos SinaarsiT, savsebiT sxva iyo, vidre
aRmosavleTis qveynebis amave saxelwodebis xelisufali.
saqarTvelos mefis vaziri, rogorc saeklesio xe-
lisufali (Wyondideli episkoposi), umemkvidro iyo da
sakuTari samemkvidro qonebis, „mamulis~ uqonelic. ase-
ve, „samamulo~ e. i. samemkvidro ver iqneboda, cxadia,
misi Tanamdebobac. ase rom, vaziris TanamdebobisaTvis
ucxo iyo yvela sxva TanamdebobisaTvis (saxelosaTvis)
ase damaxasiaTebeli feodaluri Tvisebebi, kerZod ki,
memkvidreobiToba, e. i. samefo karis ama Tu im maRali
Tanamdebobis memkvidreobiT gadacemis SesaZlebloba.
amitom iyo, rom vazirs, rogorc mxolod samefo xeli-
suflebisagan damokidebul moxeles, erTaderTi sazru-
navi hqonda _ mefis xelisuflebis gaZliereba da gan-
mtkiceba. mefec yovelTvis cdilobda vaziris Tanamde-
bobaze yvelaze erTguli, sando da sxva maRali Rirse-
bebis mqone piri daeniSna.
saqarTvelos samefos pirveli mwignobarTuxuces-
Wyondideli, e. i. pirveli vaziri iyo mefe daviTis Zli-
er axlobeli, misi „TanaaRzrdili da gamzrdeli~, didi
saxelmwifo moRvawe giorgi Wyondideli. aRsaniSnavia,
rom giorgi Wyondidelis gareSe daviT aRmaSenebeli ar
wyvetda arc erT did saxelmwifoebriv saqmes, maT So-
ris mezoblebTan urTierTobis, laSqris organizaciis,
Tu ama Tu im cixe-qalaqis SemoerTebisa da sxva msgavs
sakiTxebs, romelTac TiTqos uSualo kavSiri arc unda

71
hqonoda samefo kancelariis (mwignobarTa) uxucesis da
saeklesio moRvawis gansagebelTan. magram saqme imaSi
iyo, rom daviTma Tavisi reformebis wyalobiT samefo
karze saSinao Tu sagareo saqmeTa gansageblad Seqmnili
calkeuli uwyebebi uSualod vazirs, mwignobarTuxu-
ces-Wyondidels dauqvemdebara.
ase rom, vaziris Tanamdebobis SemoRebas, rogorc
Cans, win uZRoda saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTvelobis cent-
raluri aparatis reorganizacia, samefo xelisuflebis
zogi saTanado uwyebis xelaxla Seqmna.
daviT aRmaSeneblis zemoganxiluli saSinao Ronis-
Ziebebi, Zlieri da daundobeli brZola feodaluri opo-
ziciuri Zalebis winaaRmdeg amravlebda mefis politi-
kiT ukmayofiloTa ricxvs, istorikosis sityviT, e. w.
„mabralobelebs~, e. i. mefis bralmdeblebs. es ki same-
fo xelisuflebisagan, „feodalur qaosSi wesrigis~ dam-
yarebis mizniT kidev axali RonisZiebebis gatarebas mo-
iTxovda. „mabraloblebs~ mefem „mstovarTa~ (meTval-
TvaleTa, mzveravTa) Zlieri aparati daupirispira. da-
viTis istorikosis sityviT, amieridan mefes araferi
daemaleboda „arca samefoTa Sina misTa, arca laSqarTa
Sina misTa myofTa kacTa, didTa da mciredTa saqme qmni-
li, keTili gina sityva boroti Tqmuli _ ara ra daefar-
voda~; „raodenica vis farulad eqmnes anu Tu eTqvas, yo-
velive cxad iyo winaSe missa~, TviT „gulis-sityvanica~ (e.
i. gonebiT ganzraxulica _ S.m.) ki. xolo vinc ki SemCneu-
li iqneboda „borot sityvasa~ Tu moqmedebaSi, e. i. Ra-
latSi, maT mefe sastikad uswordeboda _ ganpatiJebi-
Tac ki (TvaldawviTa da dasaWurisebiT).
aseTi daundobeli RonisZiebani, daviTis istori-
kosis azriT, „mravalTa keTilTa mizez iqmna... orgule-
basa, zakvasa da Ralatsa rasme vervin, didTa Tu mcire-
Tagani, ikadrebda~, verc sofleli da verc moqalaqe,
verc samxedro da verc sxva pativisa da asakis piri,

72
vinc ar unda yofiliyo, igi vervin ikadrebda gandreki-
lad, mrudi gziT svlaso _ werda daviTis istorikosi.
wesrigisa da wesierebis dacva, „yovelTa kacTa wesiere-
ba~, „yovelTaTvis kanonad~ iqca. samefoSi mkacri reJi-
mi damyarda. daviTis istorikosis sityviT, „SiSi didi
da zari~ mefisa „ganiTqua kideTa queynisaTa~.
yvelaferi es miRweuli iyo samefo xelisuflebas-
Tan Zlieri da moqnili sapolicio aparatisa da Sesaba-
misi uwyebis, Sinagan saqmeTa sagangebo uwyebis SeqmniT.
am axal da ase saWiro sagamgeblos daviT aRmaSenebelma
mandaturTuxucesi (mandaturTa _ Sinagani policiis
msaxurTa ufrosi) Cauyena saTaveSi. rogorc wyaroebi-
dan irkveva, daviTis dros mandaturTuxucesoba did
qarTvel feodalebs _ jer vardanisZeebs, Semdeg ki or-
belebs hqondaT.
rogorc Cans, daviTis dros mandaturTuxucesi,
vaziris Semdeg, samefo karze upirvelesi xelisufali
iyo, mandaturTxucesis Tanamdeboba am drosve SemoRe-
bul amirspasalaris Tanamdebobaze uwin moixsenieboda.
es arcaa gasakviri: Zlieri mefisa da TviT mTavarsard-
lis daviTis mefobis dros amirspasalari, samxedro uw-
yebaTa ganmgebeli, ver iqneboda upirveles moxeleTa
rigebSi, miT ufro, rom mefe-sardals Sinagani wesrigis
dasamyarebeli xelisufalis siZliere amjerad ufro
sWirdeboda, vidre amirsapasalarisa. sainteresoa, rom
daviTis droidan momdinare wesis mixedviT, mandaturT-
uxucesi, amirspasalaris saxelos gaZlierebis Semdegac
(mag., giorgi III-is, Tamaris drosac), yovelTvis amirspasa-
larze uwin moixsenieboda.
daviTis RonisZiebebi, srulyofili centraluri
samoxeleo aparatis Seqmnis TvalsazrisiT, amiT ar amo-
wurula. rogorc irkveva, daviTis dros Camoyalibda
agreTve samefo finansebis calke sagangebo uwyeba me-
WurWleTuxucesiT saTaveSi. CvenTvis cnobil pirvel

73
meWurWleTuxucesad moixsenieba iovane vardanis Ze,
svanTa erisTavi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom aq dasaxelebuli ioane (ivane) var-
danis Ze, sanam igi meWurWleTuxucesobas miiRebda, same-
fo karis „protostratori~ yofila. es Tanamdeboba misi
amgvari saxelwodebiT _ protostratori _ arc daviTam-
de da arc mis Semdeg dadasturebuli ar aris, magram ir-
kveva, rom XII s. meore naxevarsa da Semdeg am Tanamdebo-
bas ukve sxva saxeliT („amiraxori~) moixseniebdnen.
rogorc Cans, protostratoris Tanamdebobac da-
viT aRmaSeneblis dros aris SemoRebuli. protostra-
tori (amiraxori) saqarTvelos jarebis sardlis, amir-
spasalaris pirveli TanaSemwe iyo.
gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTul samoxe-
leo wyobilebaSi sagangebo samxedro uwyebis Seqmna da
am uwyebis ganmgeblis _ „amirspasalaris~ _ Tanamdebo-
bis SemoRebac daviTis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli.
daviTamde, ra Tqma unda, iyvnen feodaluri laSqris ga-
nayofTa Tu saerTod laSqris sardlebi, romelTac
spaspetebi da spasalarebi ewodebodaT, magram mas Sem-
deg, rac Zireuli cvlilebebi moxda TviT saqarTvelos
laSqris organizaciaSi, samxedro saqmis gangebis arse-
buli wesi, romelic Zveli patronymuli laSqris prin-
cipebze iyo agebuli, damakamayofilebeli ver iqneboda.
ase rom, amirspasalaris Tanamdebobis SemoReba TviT sa-
qarTvelos laSqarSi momxdarma reformebma gamoiwvies.
amitom pirvel rigSi daviTis swored am saxis RonisZi-
ebebs unda SevexoT.
daviTis samefo xelisuflebam Tavidanve didi yu-
radReba dauTmo giorgi meoris droidan arsebiTad moS-
lili feodaluri laSqris organizaciis saqmes. daviT
aRmaSenebelma, jer erTi, TviT Semoikriba erTguli mo-
laSqreni da maTgan mudmivi, arc ise didi, magram Zlieri
piradi gvardia _ „mona-spa~ _ Seqmna; meorec, ufro saime-

74
do da organizebuli gaxada saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuT-
xidan mosakargave erisTavTa mier gamoyvanili laSqari.
cxadia, mas Semdeg, rac calkeul kuTxeebSi mefis erTgu-
li moxeleebi iyvnen Cayenebulni, maT mier gamoyvanili
laSqaric mefis neba-survilis amsrulebeli iqneboda da
ara misdami dapirispirebuli, rogorc es xSirad xdeboda
daviTis winaparTa mefobis dros.
amasTan erTad, daviT aRmaSenebeli gansakuTrebiT
zrunavda qarTvelTa laSqris gamravlebis, SeiaraRebisa
da gawvrTnisaTvis, masSi disciplinis ganmtkicebisaTvis.
daviTis istorikosma SesaniSnavad asaxa yvela is Ronis-
Zieba, rac am mxriv samefo xelisuflebam gaatara. misi
sityviT, daviTis gamefebis droisaTvis qarTvelTa laS-
qari faqtobrivad warmoadgenda „tyveobaTa da zemoxse-
nebulTa WirTagan~ SeTxelebul „mcire gunds mxedro-
bisa~ da isic, mtrebis mier „mravalgzis ukuqceviT da-
jabnebuls, ucxenosa da usaWurvlos, TurqebTan brZo-
lis yovlad ucodinars da friad moSiSs~.
cxadia, aseTi laSqari warmatebas ver moipovebda
da mefem pirvel rigSi „ganamravlna spani~, uzrunvelyo
SeiaraRebiTa da cxenebiT; xolo umsxverplo laSqrobi-
Ta da mcired-mciredi brZoliT, saTanado swavlebiT,
Sesaferisi winamZRolobiTa da araerTi gamarjvebis mo-
gvarebiT gawvrTna spani Tvisni. mefe-sardali yovelna-
irad cdilobda molaSqreebSi Tavdadebisa da gmirobis
danergvasa da ganmtkicebas. am mizniT, uxvad „ajildo-
vebda da aqebda mxneTa (TavdadebulTa _ S.m.), xolo ja-
banTa kicxavda da aZagebda~. imasac ki ar erideboda,
rom maTTvis sadedo (qalis) tansacmeli Caecmia da laS-
qrisaTvis gamoecxadebina _ es jabani mamaci (mamakaci) ki
ar aris, diaciao (qaliao); laSqarSi disciplinis gan-
mtkicebis mizniT, mefem akrZala „saeSmakoni simRerani,
saxiobani da gancxromani~ da amgvarad „yoveli uwesoba
mospobili iyo laSqarTa Sina misTa~.
75
es mxolod pirveli nabijebi iyo qarTuli laSqris
organizaciis saqmeSi. im drois saqarTvelos samefos
winaSe mdgari didi sagareo da saSinao amocanebi auci-
lebels xdida laSqris gamravlebisaTvis zrunvas. didi
amocanebis gadasawyvetad qveynis mcire laSqari sakma-
risi ar Canda. sakmarisi ar iyo agreTve is reformebi
da RonisZiebebi, rac daviTma gaatara gamefebis pirvel
wlebSi laSqris raodenobis gazrdis TvalsazrisiT.
laSqris simcire gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg gaxda sagr-
Znobi, rac mefem zedized SemoierTa cixe-qalaqebi da aq,
mopovebul gamarjvebaTa gansamtkiceblad, qarTvelTa
laSqris erTi, sagangebo nawili „qalaqTa da cixeTa Sina
mdgomad da damWirvelad~ ganawesa. daviTis istorikosis
mowmobiT, „ara iyo eseodeni simravle laSqarTa samefo-
sa Sina missa~, rom mefes SeZleboda misi sam nawilad ga-
yofa: erTi nawili cixe-qalaqebSi Caeyenebina, meore Ta-
na xleboda da mesames „zamTar-zafxul daucxromlad~
elaSqra. amasTanave, „zamTar-zafxul daucxromeli laS-
qroba~, romelsac ase sagangebod usvams xazs daviTis
istorikosi, soflisa da qalaqis mwarmoebel mosaxle-
obas didi xniT, xSir SemTxvevaSi mudmivadac, wyvetda
soflis meurneobasa da saqalaqo cxovrebas. es ki qvey-
nis ekonomikas Tavis daRs asvamda, ganuwyveteli omia-
noba ekonomikuri aRmavlobis Semaferxeblad iqceoda.
ase rom, samefo xelisuflebas unda ezruna, raTa,
erTi mxriv, laSqris raodenoba gaezarda da meore
mxriv, qveynis materialuri dovlaTis mwarmoebeli Ta-
vis ZiriTad saqmianobas ar moewyvita.
amitom samefo laSqris gamravlebisaTvis zrunva
TavisTavad iwvevda, pirvel rigSi, qveynis SigniT sam-
xedro samsaxuris safuZvlis _ feodaluri miwaTmflo-
belobis formebis _ ganviTarebas iseT dasrulebul
sistemamde, romelic SesaZleblobas miscemda mefes
„zamTar-zafxul daucxromel molaSqreTa~ farTo fena

76
hyoloda, ise rom, miwismoqmedTa masa ar moewyvita Ta-
vis ZiriTad saqmianobas.
amas garda, saqarTvelos samefo laSqris raode-
nobis gazrdis sxva SesaZleblobac arsebobda _ saqarT-
velos mosaxleobis xelovnuri gamravleba da am gziT
aseve mudmiv, „daucxromel molaSqreTa~ kidev axali da
farTo kontingentis Seqmna. daviT aRmaSenebelma orive
es saSualeba gamoiyena da axlad organizebuli qarTu-
li feodaluri laSqari kidev ufro gaamravla saqar-
TveloSi gadmosaxlebuli araqarTuli warmoSobis mo-
laSqreebiT.
rogorc irkveva, saqarTvelos samefo xelisufle-
bam adreve daiwyo zrunva amgvari RonisZiebis gatarebi-
saTvis, magram saamiso niadagis momzadebas, gadmosaxle-
buli xalxis SerCevasa da masTan daaxloebas, kontaqtis
damyarebasa da molaparakebas sakmao xani dasWirda. bo-
los samefo xelisuflebam gadawyvita saqarTvelos im-
droindeli Crdiloeli mezoblebi, yivCayebi gadmoesax-
lebina, aq daemkvidrebina da mudmivi laSqris ZiriTad
wyarod eqcia. cxadia, samefo xelisuflebis mier yivCa-
yebi SemTxveviT ar iyvnen SerCeuli. daviTis istorikosi
savsebiT naTlad asabuTebs am arCevanis gonivrulobas.
misi sityviT, saqarTvelos samefo karma kargad icoda
„yivCayTa simravle, wyobaTa (brZolebSi _ S.m.) Sina simx-
ne, sisubuqe da mimosvla, sificxe mimarTebisa~.
didi mniSvneloba hqonda imasac, rom ganviTarebis
dabal safexurze mdgomi yivCayebis Senaxva ganviTarebu-
li feodaluri qveynisaTvis SedarebiT advili iyo. am-
denad, daviTis istorikosis sityviT rom vTqvaT, yivCa-
yebze arCevanis SeCerebis erT-erTi mizezi maTi „advi-
lad dasamWirvlobac~ iyo. amasTanave, mefis warmodge-
niT, yivCayebi iqnebodnen „yovliTurT momzavebelni
(mimyolni _ S.m.) nebisa Tuisisa~. istorikosis cnobiT,
yivCayebis gadmoyvanis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebas

77
xels uwyobda agreTve saqarTvelos mefis moyvroba yiv-
CayTa mTavarTan _ daviTs meuRled hyavda yivCayTa
mTavris, aTraqa SaraRanis Zis asuli guranduxti. cxa-
dia, yivCayTa mTavari Tavisi didi siZis, saqarTvelos
mefis gadawyvetilebebis winaaRmdegi ver iqneboda.
dasasrul, saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebam kar-
gad icoda, rom ruseTis mTavrebis mier Seviwroebuli,
araerTxel darbeuli da TavianTi sacxovreblidan gamo-
devnili yivCayebi saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebasa da aq
gadmosaxlebaze uars ar ityodnen.
yvela am pirobis gaTvaliswinebiT da saTanado zo-
mebis miRebiT, samefo xelisuflebam XII s. 20-iani wlebi-
saTvis Crdilo kavkasiidan saqarTvelos teritoriaze
gadmoasaxla yivCayTa ormoci aTasi ojaxi. gadmosaxle-
buli yivCayebi mefem „daayena adgilTa maT marjueTa
deda-wuliTa maTiTa~ da gauCina maT „sazamTro sadgu-
ri da sazrdeli~.
magram istorikosi ar miuTiTebs konkretulad, Tu
sad daasaxla yivCayebi daviT aRmaSenebelma. am cnobidan
is ki irkveva, rom yivCayni erT ki ara, ramdenime „ad-
gilTa maT marjueTa~ daasaxles. marTlac, 40 000 ojax-
is anu daaxloebiT 200 000 suli yivCayis erT kompaqtur
masad dasaxleba SeuZlebelica da saxelmwifoebrivi
TvalsazrisiT gaumarTlebeli iqneboda. yvelafers rom
Tavi davaneboT, yivCayTa didi masis erT adgilze dasax-
leba xels SeuSlida, gaaxangrZlivebda maTi gaqristia-
nebisa da qarTul mosaxleobaSi Serwymis, asimilaciis
process. yivCayTa swrafi asimilaciiT, gaqristianebiT
ki dainteresebuli iyo samefo xelisufleba. mxolod am
gziT SeiZleboda Turquli warmoSobis yivCayebis gadaq-
ceva saqarTvelos jaris molaSqreebad, mis organul na-
wilad. amitom iyo, rom daviTis istorikosi sagangebod
xazs usvamda yivCayTa swraf gaqristianebis processa da
gaqristianebul yivCayTa saxiT „dRiTi dRe gamravle-

78
bas~ „qristes mimdevarTa~. amave istorikosis sityviT,
daviTis sicocxleSive, XII s. 20-ian wlebSi, ukve „TviT
yivCaynica umravlesni qristiane qmnilni~ iyvnen.
swored es, yivCayTa gaqristianebisa da adgilob-
riv mosaxleobasTan Serwymis procesis daCqarebis inte-
resebi ukarnaxebda samefo xelisuflebas yivCayebi da-
esaxlebina qarTul teritoriaze, raTa uSualod qar-
Tuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis Zlieri gavlenis
qveS moeqcia isini. ra Tqma unda, qarTuli saxelmwifo-
saTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda yivCayebSi qristianuli
sarwmunoebis, swored qarTuli, qalkedonuri mimdina-
reobis danergvas da ara zogadad maT gaqristianebas.
amitom, ra Tqma unda, ar SeiZleba gaviziaroT am
ukanasknel xans somxursa da qarTul samecniero lite-
raturaSi damkvidrebuli mosazreba daviTis dros yiv-
Cayebis maincadamainc somxur teritoriaze dasaxlebisa
da maT mier sagangebod „somxuri qristianobis miRebis~
da maSasadame, maTi „armenizaciis~ Sesaxeb. dabejiTebiT
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am mosazrebis avtorebis (s. eremi-
ani, q. CxataraiSvili) mier moSveliebul masalaTagan
arc erTi ar gamodgeba daviTis dros gadmosaxlebul
yivCayTa somxur sarwmunoebaze moqcevis dasamtkiceb-
lad. Cven aq SesaZlebloba ar gvaqvs vrceli kamaTi gav-
marToT dasaxelebul avtorebTan, magram is ki unda
SevniSnoT, rom 1206 wels zaqaria mxargrZelis saxsre-
biT agebuli hariWis monastris meore saxelwodeba _
„RfCanxvanq~ da iqve soflis _ „RfCax~-is arseboba, an
kidev amave monastris 1304 wlis Semwirvelebis miCneva
Tundac yivCayTa STamomavlebad, cxadia, ver daamtki-
cebs araTu daviTis droindeli yivCayebis mier „somxu-
ri qristianobis miRebas~, aramed TviT yivCayTa dasax-
lebasac ki am teritoriebze XII s. pirvel meoTxedSi.
yvela es masala Semdeg xanebSi, kerZod XIII-XIV saukune-
ebSi gadmosul da Camosaxlebul „axal yivCayTa~ nakva-

79
levze ufro migviTiTebs, vidre daviTis dros, XII s.
pirvel meoTxedSi, saqarTveloSi organizebulad gad-
moyvanil yivCayTa aq dasaxlebaze.
s. eremianis mtkicebis sasargeblod arafers lapa-
rakobs arc aRarwinis 1184 wlis somxuri warwera da am
warweraSi erT-erTi moxelis „elbekis~ saxeliT moxseni-
eba. jer erTi, aRarwinis warweris CvenTvis saintereso
nawilSi s. eremianis mier zogi ram TviTneburadaa Cama-
tebuli. amas garda, savsebiT xelovnuri da usabuToa
warweris _ „elbekis~ _ gaigiveba giorgi III-is amirspasa-
larTan, yubasarTan da misi elbekis elis (momTabareTa)
meTauris (el-bek?!) aRmniSvnelad gamocxadeba. gana war-
mosadgenia saqarTvelos saxelmwifos amirspasalari da
mandaturTuxucesi yubasari aRarwinis warweraze saxe-
lis gareSe (sxva yvela _ antoni, sargisi _ iqve saxele-
biT moixseniebian), mxolod TanamdebobiT moexsenebinoT
da isic momTabareTa (elis) meTauris TanamdebobiT, ma-
Sin, roca aseTi Tanamdeboba arc yivCayTa razmebSi im
dros da arc saerTod saqarTvelos samefo karze da-
dasturebuli ar aris.
Tundac rom davuSvaT warweris _ „elbekisa~ da
amirspasalar yubasaris igiveoba, gana es Seamagrebda
zemodasaxelebul mkvlevarTa Tvalsazriss? cxadia, ara!
aRarwinis warwera iseve ar gamodgeba elbekis somxuri
religiisadmi kuTvnilebis dasadgenad, rogorc igi ar
gamodgeba iqve, elbekis win moxsenebul anton Wyondide-
lis somxuri rwmenisadmi mimdevrobis dasamtkiceblad.
aRarwinis sxva TvalsazrisiT mravalmxriv saintereso
warwera miT ufro ar gamodgeba, cxadia, XII s. pirvel
meoTxedSi gadmosaxlebul yivCayTa religiuri kuTvni-
lebis Sesaswavlad. ase rom, yovelgvari safuZveli ec-
leba s. eremianisa da q. CxataraiSvilis mier aRarwinis
mixedviT gakeTebul Sorsmimaval daskvnebs yubasaris
yivCayobiT (wyaroebi ki mas „nayivCayars~ uwodeben), „yiv-

80
CayTa zedafenis (yubasaris sagvareulos!) hariWis mida-
moebSi mosaxleobisa~ da aqve, amave somxur teritoria-
ze, amaze adre daviTis mier yivCayebis dasaxlebisa da
maT mier „somxuri qristianobis miRebis~ e. i. maTi „ar-
menizaciis~ Sesaxeb.
yvelafers rom Tavi davaneboT, zemoaRniSnuli mo-
sazrebis avtorebma, aseTi daskvnis gakeTebis dros, ro-
gorc Cans, ar gaiTvaliswines imdroindeli saqarTve-
los, zogadad, saSinao da, kerZod ki, religiuri poli-
tika. rogorc cnobilia, qarTulma saxelmwifom da ek-
lesiam, gansakuTrebiT somxuri teritoriebis Semoer-
Tebis Semdeg, farTod gaSala qalkedonur eklesia-mo-
nastrebis qseli yofil somxur samefoTa teritoriebze;
am droidan da amis Semdeg gansakuTrebiT momravlda
qalkedonit, e. i. gaqarTvelebul somexTa ricxvi, es am
dros mimdinare politikuri procesebis bunebrivi Sede-
gi iyo. am drosve dadga sakiTxi somexTa eklesiuradac
SemoerTebisa. „qarTlis cxovrebis~ somxuri, XII s. Tar-
gmanis mixedviT, swored daviT mefem „moisurva somexTa
da qarTvelTa eklesiuri SeerTeba~ da saamiso krebac
gamarTa. aseT viTarebaSi, roca saqarTvelos eklesia da
samefo politikurad SemoerTebuli somxeTis eklesiu-
radac SemoerTebis politikas awarmoebda, gana warmo-
sadgenia, rom imave xelisuflebasa da eklesias yivCayTa
40 000 ojaxi, romelic saqarTveloSi mudmiv sacxovreb-
lad iyo gadmoyvanili, somxuri eklesiisaTvis mienebeb-
inaT da „somxur qristianobaze~ moeqciaT?!
saqarTvelos samefosa da aseve eklesiasac yivCay-
Ta saqarTveloSi damkvidrebisa da qarTul mosaxleoba-
Si Serwymis safuZvlad swored maTi qarTul-qalkedo-
nur sarwmunoebaze moqceva miaCnda da ara maTi „armeni-
zacia~, miT ufro maSin, roca swrafad mimdinareobda
TviT somexTa religiuri „qarTvelizacia~ gaqarTveleba.
ase rom, yivCayebi iq unda daesaxlebinaT, sadac yvelaze

6. SoTa mesxia 81
ukeTesi pirobebi iyo maTi swrafad gaqarTvelebisaTvis.
amasTanave, angariSi gaeweoda, cxadia, sxva pirobebsac
da saTanadod SeirCeoda sameurneo Tu strategiuli
TvalsazrisiT moxerxebuli da Sesaferisi, dausaxlebe-
li Tu naklebad dasaxlebuli adgilebi da sxv.
amrigad, Cveni azriT, arsebiTad marTali iyo iv.
javaxiSvili, roca varaudobda yivCayebis Casaxlebas Zi-
riTadad qarTlSi, sadac TurqTa Semosevebis wyalobiT
mosaxleoba sagrZnoblad iyo Semcirebuli. magram es imas
ar niSnavs, rom yivCayTa imdroindeli gansaxleba mxo-
lod sakuTriv geografiuli (Sida) qarTliT Semovfarg-
loT da maTi dasaxleba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sxva-
dasxva raionebSi, maT Soris qvemo qarTlSic, ar vivara-
udoT, miT ufro, rom am dros qvemo qarTlSi, somxiTSi,
qalkedonoba, rogorc vTqviT, sakmaod farTod iyo
gavrcelebuli da ganmtkicebuli. magram ar aris savara-
udebeli, rom yivCayebi, sanam isini gaqarTveldebodnen,
daesaxlebinaT sasazRvro, gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis
strategiul raionebSi. Zneli warmosadgenia, rom Tur-
quli modgmis yivCayebisaTvis Turq-selCukebTan sasaz-
Rvro raionebis dacva da gamagreba Tavidanve miendoT.
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva punqtebSi da-
saxlebuli yivCayebi „dRiTi dRe qristiandebodnen~ da
iv. javaxiSvilis sityviT rom vTqvaT, male Seerwynen ki-
dec qarTvelebs, ase rom, daviTis drois „yivCayis arc
erTi STamomavali yivCayaT aRar SerCa~. umTavresad amiT
aixsneba, rom saqarTvelos teritoriaze yivCayTa mosax-
leobis kvali an saerTod ar Semonaxula, an kidev, Zali-
an sustad aris warmodgenili. angariSi unda gaewios
imasac, rom yivCayebi socialuri da sameurneo ganviTa-
rebis doniT gacilebiT dabla idgnen qarTul mosaxle-
obasTan SedarebiT da, cxadia, arc aris warmosadgeni,
rom maT raime mniSvnelovani kvali daetovebinaT maRal-
ganviTarebuli feodaluri qveynis sameurneo-ekonomi-
kur cxovrebasa da yofaSi.

82
yivCayTa swrafi asimilaciiT unda aixsnas agreTve
isic, rom daviTis Semdeg, giorgi III-isa da Tamaris
dros, saqarTvelos laSqarSi calke „yivCayTa laSqari~
ar ixsenieba, is adreve Seerwya qarTuls da „Zveli yiv-
Caynic~ masSi ivaraudebodnen.
yivCayTa TiToeul ojaxs samefosaTvis erTi mud-
mivi molaSqre unda mieca, ase rom, amieridan daviT aR-
maSenebels mudmivad yavda yivCayTagan „wyobad gamavali
rCeuli ormoci aTasi~. am axal laSqars mieca „cxenebi
da saWurveli~, daiyo nawilebad („guarad-guarad~), yo-
vel nawils daeniSna spasalarebi, mmarTeblebi da zeda-
mdgomni.
mudmivi laSqris ZiriTad nawils yivCayebi qmnidnen,
magram, rogorc zemoTac iTqva da vaxuSti bagrationis
erTi metad saintereso cnobidan Cans, mudmiv laSqarSi,
yivCayTa garda, sakuTriv qarTvelebic iyvnen. vaxuStis
sityviT, daviT aRmaSenebels „maradis mcvelad~ samoca-
Tasiani laSqari hyavda. amasve adasturebs ioane bato-
niSvilic. daviTma „ganawyo mxedrobani da yovelTvis
mzad hyavda roWikiT samoci aTasi mxedari kaci~. aqedan
ormoci aTasi, daviTis istorikosis mixedviT, yivCayi
iyo, danarCeni oci aTasi ki, cxadia, qarTvelebi iqne-
bodnen.
amrigad, saqarTvelos samefom XII s. 20-ian wlebSi
gaiCina samociaTasiani mudmivi laSqari. esec umagaliTo
RonisZieba iyo feodaluri saqarTvelos istoriaSi _
arc manamde da arc Semdeg feodalur saqarTvelos ase
mravalricxovani mudmivi laSqari ar hyolia.
samocaTasiani mudmivi laSqris garda, mefes hyavda
Tavisi piradi xuTaTasiani gvardia, „mcvelad misad~,
„mona-spa~ _ „rCeulni da ganswavlulni... misandoni da
gamocdilni simxniTa~. amasTanave, qveynis laSqris erT
ZiriTad nawils, daviTis istorikosis mowmobiT, isev
ise Seadgendnen „samefosa spani, rCeulni da mokazmulni,
83
cxenkeTilni da pirSeuqcevelni~. laSqris am saxeobas
vaxuSti, „maradis mcvelad~ dadgenil laSqrisagan gan-
sxvavebiT, „sxva spas, qveyniTgan gamoyvanils da eris-
TavTa qveSe dawesebulT~ uwodebs. es is laSqari iyo,
romelsac „mouwodian Jamad~, e. i. drodadro, saWiroe-
bis SemTxvevaSi. saqarTvelos laSqari ivseboda agreTve
„roqis spiT~, mezobeli qveynebidan daqiravebuli jariT.
laSqris daqiraveba feodalur qveyanaSi Cveulebrivi
movlena iyo.
erT-erT mTavars mainc qarTvelebisa da yivCayebi-
sagan Semdgari „qarTvelTa laSqari~ warmoadgenda. am
laSqars zogi mkvlevari „daqiravebuls~, an kidev „daqi-
ravebuli jaris msgavss~, magram „roqis spisagan~ gansx-
vavebuls, ufro mudmivi samsaxuris saxis laSqars uwo-
debs. zedmetia laparaki imaze, rom daviT aRmaSeneblis
mier Seqmnil am samocaTasian laSqars ar SeiZleba ewo-
dos ucxoelTa daqiravebuli jari; jer erTi, aseTi sa-
xis laSqris aRsaniSnavad im dros qarTulSi, rogorc
vnaxeT, sxva termini _ „roqis spa~ (qiris laSqari) _ ix-
mareboda. amas garda, saxelmwifo qiriT jars mxolod
droebiT, garkveuli vadiT iyvanda da, cxadia, ar zru-
navda maT dasasaxleblad, adgilebze dasamkvidreblad
Tu gasaqristianeblad. yivCayebi ki, rogorc vnaxeT, da-
viTma saqarTveloSi daasaxla da maTi swrafi gaqarTve-
lebac daiwyo. amasTan, isini qarTvelebTan erT laSqar-
Si gaaerTiana. ase rom, yivCayTa da qarTvelTa am laS-
qars SeiZleba mxolod „qarTuli mudmivi laSqari~ ewo-
dos da ara yivCayTa Tu saerTod ucxoelTa daqiravebu-
li jari.
magram, meore mxriv, daviTis mier SemoRebuli laS-
qris gastumrebis axali wesi qarTvelTa mudmiv laSqars
erTgvarad marTlac amsgavsebda qiris jars. saqme imaSi
iyo, rom daviTma akrZala alafad mopovebuli „saWurW-
lis~ (iaraR-saWurvlis Tu sxva) molaSqreTa Soris gana-

84
wileba: „daviTTasa arRara ganiyofoda saWurWle spaTa
zeda~, samagierod molaSqreTa „pativi sxva iyo~, _ gvat-
yobinebs vaxuSti bagrationi. amasTan erTad, Tu anga-
riSs gavuwevdiT agreTve nagvianevi xanis zemomotanil
cnobas daviTis mier am samocaTasiani laSqris „roWi-
kiT~ _ ulufiT da sargoTi (jamagiriT) _ Senaxvis Sesa-
xeb, aSkara gaxdeba daviTis mier am mxriv gatarebuli
RonisZiebis arsi, mudmivi laSqris arsebiTad ulufasa
da sargoze gadayvana.
marTalia, saqarTvelos mudmiv laSqarSi 40 000
yivCayi mniSvnelovan Zalas warmoadgenda, magram, ro-
gorc es qvemoT iqneba naCvenebi, daviT aRmaSenebels sa-
kuTriv yivCayebi arasodes gauxdia Tavis ZiriTad da-
sayrdenad, rogorc es zogierT mkvlevars hgonia. maga-
liTad, s. eremianis mixedviT, daviT IV msxvil qarTvel
feodalebTan, didebulebTan brZolaSi emyareboda uc-
xoelTa jars da masTan mikedlebul somex feodalebs.
jer erTi, daviT aRmaSenebeli ebrZoda ara saer-
Tod did qarTvel feodalebs, aramed mxolod mis reaq-
ciul frTas, nawils; meore, yivCayebis gadmoyvanamde
(1118-1120 wlebamde) daviT IV-m, yivCayebis gareSe, gamar-
jvebiT daagvirgvina brZola saero da saeklesio did-
gvarian feodalebTan; mesame, aseve yivCayebis Camoyvanam-
de arsebiTad damTavrebuli iyo qveynis SigniT brZola
Turq-selCukebis winaaRmdegac; meoTxe, sayovelTaod
cnobilia, rom ucxo laSqarze da aseve ucxoel feo-
dalebze damyarebul arc erT saxelmwifo moRvawes ar
miuRwevia didi warmatebisaTvis da, cxadia, martooden
yivCayebisa da somexi feodalebis xelis Semyure, verc
daviT aRmaSenebeli moipovebda im did warmatebebs, ra-
zedac ase aRfrTovanebiT weren somexi da qarTveli mi-
si Tanamedrove istorikosebi; mexuTe da rac mTavaria,
s. eremiani ver daasaxelebs araTu ramdenime, aramed
erT somex feodalsac ki, romelic samefo xelisufle-

85
bis dasayrdeni ki ara, saerTod raime mniSvnelovan Ta-
namdebobaze yofiliyo daviTis samefo karze. aseTi arc
somxurma da arc qarTulma wyaroebma ar icis; meeqvse,
daviT aRmaSeneblis warmatebis wyaro qveynis SigniT ar-
sebul Zalebsa da reformebsa da RonisZiebebSi unda ve-
ZioT da ara qveynis gareT, gareSe ZalebSi; Tumca, kacma
rom Tqvas, saqarTveloSi damkvidrebuli da gaqristia-
nebuli, e. i. faqtobrivad gaqarTvelebuli, yivCayebi ra-
tom unda migveCnia ucxo Zalad, ucxoel molaSqreebad?
qarTuli laSqris sruli reorganizacia, laSqris
axali saxeebis Seqmna bunebrivad moiTxovda samefo kar-
ze samxedro saqmeTa gansageblis reorganizaciasac.
swored am axal movlenebs daukavSirda samefo karTan
sagangebo samxedro saqmeTa uwyebisa da misi xelmZRvane-
lis _ „amirspasalaris~, saqarTvelos jarebis mTavar-
sardlis Tanamdebobis Seqmna.
saqarTvelos istoriis mkvlevarebi varaudobdnen,
rom TviT termini „amirspasalari~ qarTulSi mxolod
XII s. meore naxevridan, giorgi III-is (1156-1184) droidan
Semovida xmarebaSi magram amJamad dabejiTebiT SeiZleba
vamtkicoT, rom termini „amirspasalaric~ da TviT es Ta-
namdebobac, daviTis droisaTvis, XII s. damdegidan qar-
Tuli feodaluri monarqiis samoxeleo wyobisaTvis cno-
bili iyo. arabul-sparsuli sityvebisagan Sedgenili ter-
mini „amirspasalari~ qarTulSi, rogorc irkveva, Turq-
selCukTa meSveobiT, maTi samoxeleo terminologiidan
Semovida. magram Turq-selCukTa amirspasalaris ufleba-
movaleobaTa Seswavla, urTierTSedareba gvarwmunebs,
rom amirspasalaris qarTuli samoxeleo instituti Sina-
arsobrivad arsebiTad gansxvavdeba amave saxelwodebis
selCukuri institutisagan. ase rom, terminologiuri na-
sesxoba, cxadia, ar gulisxmobda TviT institutis, am
Tanamdebobis gadmoRebas, miT ufro, rom qarTul samefo
samoxeleo institutebs, saerTod, da „laSqris Tavis~ xe-

86
lisuflebas, kerZod, Seudareblad didi tradicia hqon-
da, vidre selCukur samoxeleo wyobasa da misTvis dama-
xasiaTebel amirspasalaris instituts.
amirspasalaris Tanamdebobis SemoRebas didi mniSv-
neloba hqonda qarTuli laSqris organizaciisa da misi
xelmZRvanelobis ganmtkicebisaTvis.
amrigad, daviT aRmaSeneblis dros, misi reformebis
wyalobiT, sabolood dasrulebuli saxiT Camoyalibda
feodaluri monarqiis centraluri samoxeleo aparati.
samefo karis mmarTvelobis calkeulma uwyebebma, ro-
melTa saTaveSic maTi „uxucesebi~ (ufrosebi, xelmZRva-
nelebi) idgnen, an daviTis dros miiRes dasrulebuli
saxe, an kidev am droidan Camoyalibdnen saerTod. sa-
xelmwifo mmarTvelobis centraluri aparatis calke
uwyebas Seadgenda samefo finansebi da mas meWurWleTu-
xucesi ganagebda; saqarTvelos samefos saSinao saqmee-
bis saTaveSi mandaturTuxucesi idga; samxedro uwyebas
amirspasalari xelmZRvanelobda, misi pirveli TanaSemwe
kidev protostratori anu amiraxori iyo.
aq dasaxelebuli calkeuli uwyebebi erTiandeboda
erT saerTo gansagebelSi, romelsac saTaveSi edga same-
fos vaziri _ mwignobarTuxuces-Wyondideli. vaziri „me-
fis mamad~ iyo miCneuli da mefis Semdeg, yvela saxelm-
wifo saqme, maT Soris saeklesio, swored mas ekiTxeboda.
ase moaxdina daviT aRmaSenebelma saxelmwifo xelisuf-
lebis koncentracia samefo karze. aRsaniSnavia, rom da-
viT aRmaSeneblis mier Seqnili centraluri samoxeleo
aparati arsebiTad ucvlelad darCa mis memkvidreTa
(demetre I, giorgi III, Tamari) mefobis periodSic.
daviT aRmaSeneblis zemoaRniSnuli reformebis
erT-erT ZiriTad azrs isic Seadgenda, rom igi gansa-
kuTrebiT win wevda, aZlierebda da upiratesobas aniW-
ebda swored centralur samoxeleo aparats. amasTanave,
adgilebze daniSnul moxeleebs _ mosakargave erisTavebs,
87
maTi centraluri aparatisadmi daqvemdebarebis mizniT,
samefo karze Tanamdebobebsac aZlevda da centraluri
uwyebis moxeled aqcevda. amitom iyo svanTa erisTavi
protostratori Tu meWurWleTuxucesi, orbelebi _
amirspasalarica da mandaturTuxucesic da a. S.
daviTis mier gatarebuli (gansakuTrebiT samxedro)
reformebi zog qarTvel mkvlevars (mag., s. kakabaZes)
Turq-selCukTagan gadmoRebulad miaCnda. zemoT Cven
marTlac vnaxeT, rom zogi saxelos (Tanamdebobis) sa-
xelwodeba da TviT saxelic TiTqos Turqul-selCuku-
ria. magram amave dros Cven isic vnaxeT, rom zogi saxe-
los saxelwodeba bizantiuria (mag., protostratori),
zogic _ bizantiur-qarTuli (mandaturTuxucesi) da an
wminda qarTuli (meWurWleTuxucesi, mwignobarTuxuce-
si); magaliTad, „mona-spa~, romelsac zogierTi Turq-
selCukTagan gadmoRebulad miiCnevs, im drois sxva
qveynebSic, maS., bizantiaSic iyo. ase rom, daviT IV-s sa-
magaliTod marto Turq-selCukebis samoxeleo wyobile-
ba ar hqonia. igi, rogorc Cans, sakuTriv qarTulTan
erTad, ucxoelebis, pirvel rigSi mezobeli qveynebis _
Turq-selCuebis, bizantiis _ miRwevebsac ecnoboda da
SesaZlebel SemTxvevaSi, zog maTgans Tavis moRvaweobaSi
iTvaliswinebda kidec.
ase rom, misTvis, samefo xelisuflebisa da feo-
daluri qveynis gaZlierebis interesebis TvalsazrisiT,
miuRebeli ar iqneboda arc aRmosavluri (Turqul-sel-
Cukuri) da arc dasavluri (bizantiuri) saxelmwifoeb-
rivi wyobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebis gaTva-
liswinebac. am qveynebTan yoveldRiuri, samtro Tu sam-
Svidobo, Sexvedra-urTierTobis interesebi daviTs swo-
red aqeTken, maTi gamarjvebis, warmatebisa Tu waruma-
teblobis safuZvlebis gacnobisaken da saWiro SemTxve-
vaSi, gaTvaliswinebiskenac ubiZgebda, magram es mainc
imas ar niSnavs, rom saqarTvelos saSinao saxelmwifoeb-

88
rivi reformebis wyaroebi mis sazRvrebs gareT, selCu-
kursa Tu bizantiur saxelmwifoebriv wyobaSi veZioT.
daviTis mravalmxrivi reforma imdroindeli sa-
qarTvelos socialur-ekonomikur niadagzea aRmocene-
buli da amitomac, cxadia, ar SeiZleba igi „did selCuk-
Ta~ sulTnebis reformis ganmeoreba iyos. rogorc sel-
CukTa saxelmwifos istoriis mkvlevarebi aRniSnaven, sa-
ufliswuloTa sistemis gabatonebis wyalobiT, selCukTa
saxelmwifo patar-patara „saxelmwifoTa~ erTgvari fe-
deracia iyo da amitomac centralur samoxeleo uwyebebs
XI s. miwurulisaTvis ukve dakarguli hqonda mniSvnelo-
ba. samagierod, adgilobrivi administracia mTlianad
iyo SenarCunebuli Tavisi moxeleebiTa Tu samoxeleo
wyobiT. ase rom, saufliswuloTa sistema, romelic gan-
sakuTrebiT gavrcelda XII saukuneSi, Turq-selCukebSi
ayvanili iyo saxelmwifoebrivi wyobis normebis simaR-
lemde. amgvarad warmoiqmnen sxvadasxva sasulTnoebi,
saaTabagoebi da saamiroebi.
saqarTveloSi ki, rogorc aRvniSneT, sapirispiro
procesi mimdinareobda: saufliswuloTa sistemis Tu
gankerZoebuli erisTavebis winaaRmdeg bagrat III-is mier
dawyebuli brZola daviT IV-m daasrula... daviTis re-
formebma kidev, mmarTvelobis zogi adgilobrivi apara-
tis gauqmebisa Tu zogis mniSvnelobis Semcirebis xarjze,
gaaZliera da ganamtkica centraluri samoxeleo aparati.
amrigad, daviT aRmaSeneblis reformebi sxva niadagze
iyo aRmocenebuli, reformebic imis Sesabamis Sinaarss
atarebda da Sedegebic, cxadia, ar SeiZleboda damTxveo-
da „did selCukTa~ sulTnebis RonisZiebaTa Sedegebs.
daviT IV-is zemoaRniSnulma reformebma kidev uf-
ro gaaZliera samefo xelisufleba. qveynis mmarTvelo-
bis saTaveSi idga mefe, romelic Zveleburad „Tanaswor-
Ta Soris pirveli~ ki ar iyo, aramed ukve TviTmpyrobe-
li xelmwife, „RvTis mier kurTxeuli~ uzenaesi da Se-

89
uzRudveli xelisufali. ar iyo qveynis cxovrebis arc
erTi mxare, romelic samefo xelisuflebis kompetenci-
aSi (uflebebSi) ar Sedioda. mefe yvelafers Tavis Zala-
uflebas uqvemdebarebda da xelisuflebis srul kon-
centracias axdenda. es kargad asaxa daviTis istori-
kosma. misi sityviT, vin da rogor aRricxos ramdeni
saqme moeTxoveba mefobas, ramdeni movaleoba da gansa-
gebeli aqvs mas, sazRvrebis gafarToeba da maTi dacva,
ganxeTqilebaTa Tavidan acileba, samefoSi wesrigis dam-
yareba, laSqarTa mecadineoba, mTavarTa mzakvrobis ga-
mocnoba, mxedarTmTavrebis ganweseba, xalxis Segoneba,
administraciuli da sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebani, xa-
zinis Semosavalni, elCebTan Sexvedra da maTTvis pasu-
xis gacema, ZRvenis momtanTa Rirseulad dasaCuqreba,
SecodebulTa sakadrisi wvrTna, damsaxurebulTa uxvad
dajildoeba, saCivarTa samarTliani gamoZieba, mosakiT-
xavTa Sesaferisi mokiTxva, jaris dawyoba da misi marj-
ved gaZRola _ vin amoswuravs im saxelmwifoebrivi saq-
meebis zRvas, romelSic aravin hgavs daviTs, arc Zveli
da arc axali mefe. da amaSi istorikosi savsebiT marTa-
li Cans _ saqarTvelos arc erTi mefe ise Zlieri da
TviTmpyrobeli ar yofila, rogoric daviT aRmaSenebe-
li iyo.
es ki daviT aRmaSenebelma SeZlo isev feodalebze,
wvril da saSualo aznaurebsa da qalaqebze dayrdnobiT,
didgvarian, reaqcioner feodalTa damarcxebiTa da ekle-
siis morCilebaSi moyvaniT; daviTis istorikosis sityviT
rom vTqvaT, „nacvlad orgulTa, jabanTa da uRirsTa,
erTgulTa, frTxilTa da axovanTa gandidebiT~. feo-
daluri monarqiis ase gaZlierebasa da gandidebas, cxadia,
sargebloba pirvel rigSi swored im maRali sazogadoeb-
rivi fenebisaTvis mohqonda, romelsac mefe emyareboda.
feodaluri saqarTvelos dabali fenebi ki, mSro-
meli xalxi, qveynis dovlaTis Semqmneli am reformebis

90
gasatareblad ZiriTad wyaros warmoadgendnen; mudmivi
laSqris organizacia, ricxvmraval „samefo spis~ uz-
runvelyofa iaraR-saWurveliTa da misi Senaxva did sax-
srebs moiTxovda. mimdinareobda agreTve laSqris swra-
fi da daubrkolebeli mimosvlisaTvis axali gzebis gay-
vana, Zvel gzebze qvafenilebis dageba, gauval mdinare-
ebze xidebis ageba da sxva.
samefo xelisufleba saero Tu saeklesio feoda-
lebis, didvaWrebis SemweobiT axerxebda mwarmoebeli mo-
saxleobidan saWiro didi resursebis amoqaCvas. amitomac
ase gaZlierebul samefoSi mravlad iyvnen „daWirebulni
da mimZlavrebulni~, „glaxakni~, „Rarib-Ratakni~, TviT
eklesiac, „monasterni, lavrani da xucesnica~ daviT aR-
maSenebels mefobis bolo wlebamde, e. i. sanam yvela um-
Tavresi saqme mogvardeboda, „yovelsa Wirsa da begaraSi~
hyolia. maTi mudmivi stumrebi iyvnen samefo gadasaxade-
bis amkrefni _ „mosakargave maWirvebelni~. swored ami-
tom sWirdeboda mefes eklesiis morCilebaSi moyvana,
qveyanaSi mkacri TviTmpyrobeluri reJimis damyareba.
daviTis istorikosis sityviT, Tumca mefis „SiSi
didi da zari... qveynis kidiT-kidemde iyo ganfenili~, ma-
inc aSkarad gaismoda Zlieri ukmayofilebis xmebi. TviT
daviTis politikis Tavdadebuli momxre da damcveli
istorikosic ki ver malavs, rom mefes bevri hyavda
„mabralobelni„ da „mgiobelni~ (mZagebelni) samefos mo-
saxleobis „mWised~ (gaWirvebiT) yofnisaTvis, misi „mxe-
drobis ganusveneblobisaTvis~... „mabralobelni~ pir-
vel rigSi, rogorc Cans, damcrobili didgvarianebi,
gansakuTrebiT imiT iyvnen ukmayofilo, rom mefe „visac
Seiyvarebda _ ganadidebda, xolo visac SeiZulebda, da-
amcrobda, zogs aRamaRlebda da zogs daamdablebda~.
rogorc daviTis istorikosis Txzulebidan Cans,
„mabralobelni~ cdilobdnen mefis Tavidan mocilebas,
araerTxel ganuzraxavT Ralati da moulodneli Tav-

91
dasxma masze, saamisod gauCeniaT kidec „kacni mxneni,
romelnime xrmliTa, romelnime SubiTa da sxuani isri-
Ta~ SeiaraRebulni da es „ara erT, or da gana samgzis,
aramed mravalgzis~ yofila mowyobili, maT araerTxel
daumartoxelebiaT kidec mefe, magram yovelTvis ga-
darCenila igi „mdevarTa misTagan~.
TviTmpyrobeli mefe daundoblad uswordeboda
„mabraloblebs~ da vinc mis mier aRebuli gezidan „gan-
drekilad svlas~, „orgulobas~ „zakvas da Ralats~ gabe-
davda. mudmiv laSqars, mTel mis sapolicio aparats mefe
ara marto gareSe mtrebTan brZolaSi, aramed Sinagani
mRelvarebis Casaqrobad da dasaTrgunavadac iyenebda.
yvela zemoaRniSnuli saSinao reforma XI s. miwu-
rulsa da XII s. damdegs ganxorcielda. am RonisZiebebis
gatarebam samefo xelisuflebas SesaZlebloba misca,
qveynis mTlianobis aRdgenisa da Turq-dampyrobelTa
gandevnis mizniT, gadamwyveti nabijebi gadaedga. es ka-
xeTis sabolood SemomtkicebiTa da erwuxis „didi da
xma-gasmenili~ (saxelganTqmuli) brZoliT daiwyo. er-
wuxis 1105 w. omma daagvirgvina saqarTvelos samefo xe-
lisuflebis saukunovani brZola kaxeTis Semosamtkiceb-
lad. am kuTxis SemoerTebiT ki ZiriTadad dasrulda
qveynis gaerTianebis saqme.
erwuxis oms daviTi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas
aniWebda da TviTonac, Tavisi piradi magaliTiT, am omis
monawileebs Tavdadebisa da gmirobis saucxoo nimuSs aZ-
levda. daviTis istorikosis sityviT, „TviT mefe, zog
sxvasaviT, zurgSi ki ar udga da Soridan ki ar uZaxoda
Tavis laSqars... aramed yvela maTganze win midioda da
rogorc lomi, maRali xmiT SeuZaxebda da grigaliviT mi-
damos aqcevda, goliaTurad utevda da Zlieri mklaviT
axovnebas amxobda, win SemxvedrT srvida da dascemda...
[brZolaSi mefes] sami cxeni moukles da meoTxe cxenze
mjdomma gamarjvebiT daasrula im dRis omi~. TavdadebiT

92
ibrZoda qarTvelTa, marTalia, jer kidev mcire, magram
ukve gawvrTnili da organizebuli laSqari da „ganwiru-
li eri~. swored maT „daxoces sultnis uricxvi spa~. er-
wuxis velze daviTis laSqris mier mopovebulma am pir-
velma didma gamarjvebam cxadyo saqarTvelos siZliere
da gadamwyveti brZolisaTvis mzadyofna.
marTlac, amis Semdeg ar gasula didi xani, mefem
Turq-selCukebs zedized waarTva maT mier saqarTvelo-
Si dapyrobili qalaqebi da cixe-simagreebi. 1110-1118 ww.
ganTavisuflda qalaqi samSvilde, qalaqi rusTavi, cixe-
ebi: giSi, lore da agarani. bunebrivia, dampyroblebi as-
eT marcxs advilad ar urigdebodnen da drodadro sa-
pasuxo laSqrobebsac awyobdnen dakarguli qalaqebisa
da cixeebis dasabruneblad, magram aseTi Tavdasxmebic
ukugdebul iqna, saqarTvelo dampyroblebisagan Tanda-
Tan iwmindeboda. ukve am wlebSi saqarTvelos samefom
Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZola saqarTvelos sazRvrebs
iqiTac gadaitana da dampyroblebs mis mezobel qveyneb-
Sic, kerZod, SirvanSi (axlandeli azerbaijani) Seutia.
amrigad, XII s. 20-iani wlebis damdegisaTvis saqar-
Tvelos SigniT Turq-dampyroblebTan brZola ZiriTa-
dad mogebuli iyo, saqarTvelos samefos TavdacviTi
omebi warmatebiT mimdinareobda. magram jer kidev ara-
erTi amocana iyo gadasawyveti saboloo da mtkice ga-
marjvebis mosapoveblad. qveynis imdroindeli sagareo
da saSinao mdgomareoba samefo xelisuflebisagan, gan-
sakuTrebiT sagareo urTierTobaTa mowesrigebis Tval-
sazrisiT, axali RonisZiebebis gatarebas moiTxovda.

93
3. saqarTvelos sagareo politikuri mdgomareoba
didgoris brZolis win

a) urTierToba bizantiasTan

XI s. miwuruls saqarTvelos samefos sagareo po-


litikis erT-erT ZiriTad amocanas bizantiasTan urTi-
erTobis mowesrigeba Seadgenda. giorgi I-is droidan
mokidebuli bizantia-saqarTvelos urTierTobam mniS-
vnelovani cvlilebebi ganicada. giorgi I-is SeiaraRe-
bul brZolas bizantiis winaaRmdeg, rogorc Cans, ukva-
lod ar Cauvlia. bizantiis saimperatoro xelisufleba
iZulebuli gaxda saqarTvelos mimarT Tavisi politika
Seecvala da amieridan saqarTvelos saSinao saqmeebSi
aSkarad Carevis magier ufro SeniRbuli meTodebisaTvis
miemarTa: samefo xelisuflebis mowinaaRmdege adgilob-
rivi (qarTveli) feodalebis mxardaWeriT (iaraRiT,
laSqriT, fuliT) kidev ufro daesustebina saqarTve-
los mefe. aseTi xerxiT bizantiam garkveul warmatebebs
miaRwia kidec, gansakuTrebiT mis mier mxardaWerili
liparit kldekaris erisTavisa da bagrat IV-es Soris
gamarTul brZolaSi.
magram male bizantia iZulebuli gaxda aseTi moq-
medebac Seewyvita _ XI saukuneSi, gansakuTrebiT 50-iani
wlebidan, paWanikebis gamudmebulma Tavdasxmebma, xolo
Semdeg Turq-selCukTa gamoCenam TviT mas mravali saz-
runavi gauCina sagareo urTierTobaSi da amierkavkasiis
qveynebTan gonivrul damokidebulebas am garTulebul
sagareo urTierTobis pirobebSi didi mniSvneloba eni-
Weboda.
yivCayebis mier Seviwroebuli paWanikebis ganuwyve-
teli Semotevebi bizantiis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sazRv-
rebze mZime dReSi ayenebda berZnebs. bizantiis imperiam
didi energia Seelia paWanikebis winaaRmdeg brZolas.

94
didma qarTvelma moRvawem grigol bakurianma, bizantiis
jarebis dasavleTis domestikosma (mTavarsardalma) ara-
erTi gadamwyveti brZola gaumarTa paWanikebs da araer-
Txel asaxela bizantiis iaraRi. magram bizantias am
dros marto paWanikebi rodi ebrZodnen. kidev ufro di-
di saSineleba xdeboda samxreTiT _ Turq-selCukTa ga-
manadgurebel laSqrobaTa wyalobiT.
swored aseTi mZime sagareo viTarebis dros bizan-
tiis politikosebma didi SorsmWvreteloba ver gamoi-
Cines da somxeTis samxedro Zlierebisa da politikuri
damoukideblobis moSliT sakuTari xelebiTve mospes
Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZolis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani
barierebi _ somxuri damoukidebeli samefoebi. saqarTve-
lo kidev TviT awarmoebda mZime brZolebs sakuTar te-
ritoriaze da bizantiis uSualo aqtiuri mokavSire ver
iqneboda Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi, xolo ZaliT
mokavSireobas ki amjerad imperia saqarTvelos veRar
ukarnaxebda: ase rom, bizantia Turq-selCukebis pirispir
aRmoCnda da 1071 w. agvistos manaskertis maxloblad ga-
damwyvet brZolaSi kidevac ganicada didi marcxi.
manaskertis brZola iyo mniSvnelovani gardatexis
etapi ara marto maxlobeli aRmosavleTis, aramed, ram-
denadme, TviT msoflio istoriis TvalsazrisiTac. zo-
gi mkvlevaris mixedviT, am dros gairkva sabolood max-
lobel aRmosavleTSi ZiriTadi dominirebuli Zalis sa-
kiTxi: aseT Zalas, am droidan mokidebuli sakmao xnis
manZilze, Turq-selCukebi warmoadgendnen.
amas garda, manaskertis Semdeg bizantia iZulebuli
gaxda gamoTxoveboda amierkavkasiaSi SeWrisa da kerZod
ki, saqarTveloSi Tavisi gavlenis ganmtkicebis gegmebs.
ase rom, manaskerti kidev erTi safexuri iyo bizantia-sa-
qarTvelos urTierTobis istoriaSi. magram es imas ar
niSnavda, rom amieridan saqarTvelos SeeZlo damSvidebu-
li yofiliyo da bizantia CaeTvala iseT Zalad, romel-

95
sac ukve aRar SeeZlo gamoemJRavnebina agresiuli zrax-
vebi saqarTvelos mimarT. amitom saqarTvelos samefo
xelisufleba cdilobda „didi Turqobis~ mZime drosa da
daviTis mefobis pirvel wlebSi, bizantiasTan adreve ar-
sebuli urTierToba SeenarCunebina da saqarTvelos me-
feebs iseve mieRo bizantiuri sakariskaco titulebi,
rogorc bagrat III-isa Tu bagrat IV-is dros. amiT aixsne-
ba, rom ara marto giorgi II, aramed daviT IV-c erTxans
bizantiur sakariskaco titulebs atarebda.
aRsaniSnavia, rom jer kidev gamefebamde, 1085
wlamde, rogorc erT-erTi xelnaweris minaweridan Cans,
daviT giorgis Ze „sevastosad~ iwodeboda, xolo TviT
mama, giorgi ki _ kesarosad. amgvarive _ sevastosis _
tituli SerCa daviTs erTxans, gamefebis Semdegac. xo-
lo Semdeg, 1091-1092 ww. igi ukve „panipersevastosad~
aris moxseniebuli. Cveni azriT, es unda iyos daviTis
ukanaskneli umaRlesi bizantiuri sakariskaco tituli.
sxva, ufro maRali tituli, Semdeg wlebSi mikuTvnebuli,
CvenTvis ucnobia. rogorc Cans, XI s. 90-ian wlebSi arse-
biTad dasrulda bizantiis imperatorebis mier saqarTve-
los mefeebze mfarvelobis xelis dadebis mauwyebeli sa-
moxeleo sakariskaco titulebis miniWebis periodi.
swored am dros bizantia iseT mZime mdgomareobaSi
iyo, rom aleqsi komninosi iZulebuli gaxda misTvis sa-
Zulvel „laTinebisagan~ daxmareba eTxova. 1092 wels
aleqsi komninosi (1081-1118), graf robert flandrie-
lisadmi gagzavnili weriliT, faqtobrivad, iwvevda ev-
ropel raindebs konstantinopolis gasaZarcvad da da-
sapyrobad: „wminda imperia... didad Seviwroebulia paWa-
nikebisa da Turqebis mier. isini yoveldRiurad Zarcva-
ven mas da arTmeven olqebs. qristianTa Seuracxyofa da
xocva, ubedureba, romelic mas Tan sdevs, aRuricxve-
lia... gexvewebiT Tqven, qristes mebrZolno... iCqaroT Ce-
mi da qristiani berZnebis dasaxmareblad... Tqven gnebde-

96
biT Cven, gvirCevnia viyoT Tqveni, vidre warmarTTa ba-
tonobis qveS; dae, konstantinopoli iyos Tqveni, vidre
Turqebisa da paWanikebisa... aq aris Zvirfasi wmida nawi-
lebi RvTisa. konstantinopolis erTi eklesiis saganZu-
ri sakmarisi iqneboda msoflios yvela eklesiaTa mo-
sarTavad~... rogorc ar unda iyos gadakeTebuli TviT
jvarosnebis mier am werilis laTinuri teqsti, aSkaraa,
rom XI s. 90-ian wlebSi mZime mdgomareobaSi myofi bi-
zantia daxmarebisaTvis mimarTavda evropel mTavrebs.
bizantiis aseTi mdgomareoba xelsayreli iyo saqar-
TvelosaTvis. daviT aRmaSenebelma, rogorc Cans, Seqmni-
li viTarebiT isargebla da sabolood uari Tqva bizan-
tiis vasalobis mauwyebel yovelgvar sakariskaco titu-
lebze. ase rom, didi xnis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi ga-
batonebis mosurne bizantiis imperias amieridan mis Tana-
tol da iqneb kidev ufro metis pretenziebis mqone sa-
xelmwifosTan _ saqarTvelosTan _ unda hqonoda saqme.
magram amasTanave, Turq dampyrobTagan energiulad mebr-
Zol qveyanas bizantiasTan normaluri urTierTobis Se-
narCuneba da masTan kavSiris ganmtkiceba sWirdeboda.
swored aman, aseTma sagareo politikurma intere-
sebma ukarnaxa daviT IV-s Tavisi erT-erTi qaliSvili _
kata _ 1118 wels bizantiis saimperatoro saxlze gaeT-
xovebina. erT-erTi bizantieli istorikosis cnobiT, ka-
ta unda gaTxoviliyo imdroindeli imperatoris aleq-
sis ufrosi qaliSvilis anas rZlad, e. i. ana komninosisa
da misi meuRlis, nikifore vrieniosis ufros vaJiSvil-
ze, aleqsize. bizantiis istoriis mkvlevarebi imdenad
iyvnen darwmunebulni am cnobis sisworeSi, rom daviT
aRmaSeneblis qaliSvilis meuRled anasa da nikifores
vaJiSvils, aleqsis miiCnevdnen. magram, rogorc Cans, es
swori ar aris. kata iqneb, marTlac, iyo anas rZlad
gaTvaliswinebuli, magram misi qorwineba aleqsize ar
momxdara. rogorc masalebidan irkveva da rogorc es
7. SoTa mesxia 97
qarTul samecniero literaturaSi ukve (o. lorTqifa-
niZe, v. kopaliani) aRiniSna, daviT aRmaSeneblis qaliSvi-
li kata 1118 wels swored im dros, roca berZenTa impe-
ratori aleqsi komninosi sicocxlis ukanasknel dReebs
iTvlida, miaTxoves mis yvelaze umcros Zes isaaks.
qarTveli mxedroba, romelic Tan axlda saqarTve-
los mefis asuls, dedaqalaqSi swored im dReebSi aR-
moCnda, roca unda gadawyvetiliyo bizantiis taxtis mem-
kvidris sakiTxi; amas garda, es mxedroba swored im par-
tiis mxareze iyo, romelsac isaaki edga saTaveSi da, ro-
melic, winaaRmdeg imperatoris meuRlis irines, qaliSvi-
lis anasa da siZis nikifore vrieniosis partiisa, aleqsis
ufrosi vaJis, ioanes gamefebisaTvis ibrZoda. aRsaniSna-
via, rom saqarTvelos mxedroba iyo agreTve pirveli,
romelmac miuloca manganis sasaxlidan gamosul ioanes
gamarjveba da mamis memkvidreobis dasakuTreba.
rogorc Cans, kata da misi mxleblebi, qarTvelTa
mxedroba, ara marto saqmis kursSi iyvnen, aramed aqti-
uradac monawileobdnen bizantiis saimperatoro taxtis
memkvidreobis sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi. arc is unda iyos
SemTxveviTi, rom isaakisa da katas qorwineba maincdama-
inc 1118 wels, swored taxtisaTvis brZolis gadamwyvet
wels daemTxva. savaraudebelia, rom qarTvelTa mxedro-
ba, mefis asulis mxlebeli, sagangebod iyo Cayvanili
konstantinopolSi, rogorc erT-erTi mniSvnelovani da-
sayrdeni Zala ioanesa da isaakis momxreebisa, ioanes ga-
mefebisaTvis brZolaSi. siZis, isaakis Zmis ioanes taxtze
ayvana, zogi arapirdapiri masalis mixedviT Tu vimsje-
lebT, saqarTvelos mefisaTvisac xelsayreli iyo da
Cans, amitomac monawileobdnen TiTqos saqorwilod Ca-
suli qarTvelebic taxtisaTvis brZolaSi.
yvela zemoT dasaxelebulma movlenam misca, albaT
SesaZlebloba daviTis istorikoss eTqva, rom saqarTve-
los mefisaTvis amieridan „mefe berZenTa [iyo] viTarca

98
saxleuli (saxlis wevri) TKsi~. marTlac, daviT IV-s uf-
leba hqonda katas, misi meuRlis isaakisa da qarTvelTa
laSqris daxmarebiT gamefebuli ioane mieCnia Tavis sax-
leulad, saxlis wevrad, axloblad.
saqarTvelos samefos bizantiasTan urTierTobis es
xazi ar Seucvlia daviTis mefobis ukanasknel wlebamde,
miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos mefis siZe isaaki amis
Semdeg imave Zmis ukve mowinaaRmdegeTa mxareze aRmoCnda
da mas sicocxlis manZilze ebrZoda kidec. damaxasia-
Tebelia, rom isaaki yvelgan eZebda Tavisi Zmis samtro
Zalebs _ aziis qristian Tu muslim xelmwifeebTan: iko-
niis sulTanTan, trapizonis dukasTan, kilikiis somxeTis
mTavarTan, siriasa da palestinaSi, magram ara saqarTve-
loSi. rogorc Cans, isaaki am mizniT saqarTveloSi ar Ca-
mosula, an kidev, qarTul-berZnul wyaroebSi amis Sesa-
xeb cnobebi ar Semonaxula. rogorc irkveva, daviT IV,
garkveul wlebSi mainc, saWirod ar miiCnevda ioanes da-
pirispireboda, Tundac Tavisi siZis interesebisaTvis.
amrigad, daviT aRmaSenebelma bizantiasTan damyare-
buli umTavresad keTilmezobluri urTierTobiT arsebi-
Tad uzrunvelyo Tavisi qveynis samxreT-dasavleTis, bi-
zantiasTan damakavSirebeli sazRvrebis uSiSroeba. Tumca
bizantiasa da saqarTvelos sazRvrebi am dros, Turq
dampyrobTa wyalobiT, yovelTvis uSualod rodi emij-
neboda erTimeores.

b) urTierToba CrdiloeTis qveynebTan


da xalxebTan

CrdiloeTis xalxebi da qveynebi adridanve mniSvne-


lovan rols asrulebdnen saqarTvelos samefos sagareo
politikur interesTa sferoSi, magram axali etapi sa-
qarTvelosa da Crdilo kavkasiis xalxebis urTierToba-

99
Si, rogorc es aRniSnulia Cvens samecniero literatu-
raSi, daviT aRmaSeneblis dros daiwyo.
daviT aRmaSenebeli kargad xedavda, rom im samkvd-
ro-sasicocxlo brZolaSi, romelsac saqarTvelo Turqe-
bis winaaRmdeg awarmoebda da agreTve saerTo mtris wi-
naaRmdeg kavkasiis xalxTa konsolidaciis saqmeSi mniSv-
nelovani rolis Sesruleba SeeZlo Crdilo kavkasiis
xalxebs, gansakuTrebiT ki osebsa da yivCayebs.
osebTan saqarTvelos urTierToba XI saukuneSi ke-
Tilmezobluri iyo: gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos mefeebi
oseTTan aseT urTierTobas maTTan damoyvrebiT (giorgi
I, bagrat IV) kidev ufro amtkicebdnen. daviT aRmaSeneb-
lis dros ki, roca mkveTrad daisva yivCayTa saqarTve-
loSi gadmoyvanis sakiTxi, osebTan saqarTvelos urTier-
Tobis axali formebis SemuSavebis saWiroebac dadga.
yivCayebs mtruli damokidebuleba hqondaT oseb-
Tan da Tuki oseTi saqarTvelos mefis neba-survilis
Semsrulebeli ar iqneboda, im gzebsa da gadasasvleleb-
ze, romelsac amjerad isini uwevdnen kontrols, saqar-
Tvelos mefe yivCayebs ver gamoatarebda. saWiro iyo
oseTis morCilebaSi moyvana, magram ara iaraRis wyalo-
biT, aramed mSvidobiani gziT.
daviT IV-m saamiso niadagi adreve moamzada. am mi-
zans isaxavda, rogorc Cans, saqarTvelos samefo saxlis
damoyvreba oseTis samefo dinastiasTan. Tamaris pirve-
li istorikosis cnobiT, daviT IV-is erT-erTi qaliSvi-
li oseTs yofila gaTxovili. saqarTvelos istoriis
mkvlevarebs _ m. brosesa da sxvebsac _ es sarwmunod mi-
aCniaT, Tumca sakuTriv daviTis istorikoss aseTi ram
ar moepoveba da arsaidan Cans, rom daviTs mesame qaliS-
vilic hyoloda. Tamaris pirveli istorikosis mier es
cnoba iqneb xelovnurad iyos Seqmnili daviT soslanis
bagrationobis dasamtkiceblad kidev erTi zedmeti sa-
buTis moSveliebis mizniT; magram igi mainc angariSgasa-

100
wevia _ Tu sakuTriv daviTis asuli ara, samefo saxlis
romeliRac wevri mainc unda iyos am dros oseTSi gaTxo-
vili. Tumca aseTi moyvroba jer kidev ar iyo sakmarisi
oseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis axali safexuris Sesaq-
mnelad. amitom iyo, rom daviT IV, Tavisi vaziris giorgi
Wyondidelis TanxlebiT, TviT „waremarTa ovseTs~. isto-
rikosis sityviT, daviTs „moegebnes ovsTa mefeni da mTa-
varni maTni da viTarca monani dadges winaSe missa~.
mefem uRalato erTgulebis sawindrad osebisagan
mZevlebi aiyvana, aseve yivCayebTanac Seariga isini, „yo
Soris maTsa siyuaruli da mSvidoba, viTarca ZmaTa~.
amis Semdeg ki, daviTma TviTve aiRo darialis, saerTod
kavkasiisa da oseTis yoveli gadasasvlelis (karebis) ci-
xeebi. am droidan oseTi saqarTvelos ymadnafic (vasa-
lur) qveyanad iqca da saqarTvelos gavlenac oseTze
didad gaizarda. ase daibruna daviT aRmaSenebelma sa-
qarTvelos uZvelesi gadasasvlelebi da cixeebi da, ro-
gorc istorikosi wers, „Seqmna gza mSvidobisa~ Crdilo-
eTisaken, ruseTis, volgispireTisa da sxva qveynebisaken.
amas ki im drois saqarTvelosaTvis uaRresad didi eko-
nomikuri, politikuri da samxedro mniSvneloba hqonda.
swored am gziT daamyara daviTma urTierToba yivCayeb-
Tan da kidev ufro Sorsac, Zveli kievis ruseTTanac.
Turquli modgmis tomebma, Suaazielma momTabare
yivCayebma TandaTan daiWires samxreT ruseTis stepebi
da didi safrTxe Seuqmnes kievis ruseTsa da mis miwa-
wyals. maT SeZles rusuli miwebisaTvis CamoeglijaT
tmutarakani, Zveli rusuli saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTia-
neba samxreTSi. kievis ruseTis mTavrebis, kerZod, vla-
dimir monomaxis mier yivCayTa winaaRmdeg gamarTuli
brZolebiT Seviwroebulma momTabareTa erTma nawilma
TandaTan Crdilo kavkasiaSi gadmoinacvla da kavkasiis
baris mniSvnelovani nawili daikava. aman ki osebsa da
yivCayebs Soris uTanxmoeba da konfliqti gamoiwvia.

101
momTabare da kargi meomari yivCayebi safrTxes uqmnid-
nen amierkavkasiis xalxebsac, kerZod, saqarTvelosac;
maTTan urTierTobis damyarebamde osebis brZola yivCa-
yebis winaaRmdeg da osebis mier CrdiloeTidan samxreT
kavkasiaSi gadasasvlelebis Caketva saqarTvelosaTvis sa-
sargeblo Canda. magram ase didxans ver gagrZeldeboda.
amitom daviT aRmaSenebelma TviTve gadawyvita uSu-
alo kavSiri daemyarebina yivCayebTan. daviT IV-m garkveu-
li politikuri mosazrebebiT, yivCayebTan urTierTobis
damyarebis mizniT, yivCayTa mTavris aTraqa SaraRanis Zis
asuli guranduxti SeirTo. es swored is aTraqaa (imdro-
indeli rusuli wyaroebi mas otroks uwodeben), rome-
lic saTaveSi edga Crdilo kavkasiis teritoriaze moTa-
reSe yivCayebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom daviTis istorikosis
cnobiT, guranduxtis saqarTvelos dedoflad Camoyvana
gacilebiT adre („mravalTa welTa mier~) moxda, vidre
daviTi TviT yivCayebs saqarTveloSi gadmoasaxlebda.
rogorc Cans, yivCayebTan urTierTobis mogvarebas da ma-
Ti gadmoyvanis momzadebas daviT IV adridanve Sedgomia.
yivCayebTan jer keTilmezobluri, xolo Semdeg
saymadnafico urTierTobis damyarebis aucileblobam
daviT aRmaSeneblis saxelmwifo kievis ruseTTan da mis
imdroindel mTavarTan, vladimir monomaxTan daakavSira.
rogorc irkveva, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca yivCayTa sa-
qarTveloSi gadmosaxlebis sakiTxi dadga, saqarTvelos
mefis mier maT gadmosayvanad sagangebod „warvnelini
kacni sarwmunoni~ ara marto yivCayeTSi, aramed kievSi
mis mTavarTanac unda misuliyvnen. yivCayebTan urTier-
Tobis damyareba da Semdeg maTi saqarTveloSi gadmosax-
leba SeuZlebelia kievis ruseTis did mTavarTan saTa-
nado molaparakebis gareSe momxdariyo. cxadia, es uka-
naskneli, romelic aTeuli wlebis manZilze ebrZoda
yivCayebs, saqarTvelos mefis yivCayebTan dakavSirebis
cdas mis sawinaaRmdego moqmedebad miiCnevda, Tuki sa-
Tanado cnobebi winaswar ar eqneboda.

102
Cvens amgvar mosazrebas mxars uWers, marTalia,
gviandeli, magram TavisTavad saintereso cnoba XII s.
pirveli meoTxedis ruseTisa da saqarTvelos urTier-
Tobis Sesaxeb. es cnoba ekuTvnis XVII s. moRvawes, anti-
oqiis patriarqis Svils pavle alepoels.
ruseTis imdroindel xelisufalTa TxovniT, pav-
le alepoelma saqarTveloSic imogzaura da Seadgina
XVII s. saqarTvelos aRweriloba, sadac aqa-iq, gakvriT,
moipoveba zogi cnoba adrindeli xanis saqarTvelos Se-
saxebac. es cnobebi gansakuTrebiT yuradRebas iqcevs
imis gamoc, rom igi saqarTvelosa da ruseTis urTier-
Tobis iseT periods Seexeba, romelic qarTul Tu ru-
sul wyaroebSi metad mwirad, an kidev srulebiT ar aris
warmodgenili. XII s. pirveli meoTxedi, saqarTvelosa da
kievis ruseTis urTierTobis is xanaa, roca orive qvey-
nis imdroindeli obieqturi pirobebi aseTi kavSiris ar-
sebobas usaTuod gulisxmobs.
swored aseTi kavSiris arsebobis kvali unda iyos
asaxuli pavle alepoelis CvenTvis saintereso Semdeg
cnobaSi: „saqarTveloSi arsebul [eklesiebsa da monas-
trebs] Soris aseTi sigrZe-siganis da sididis qviT [nage-
bi] qmnilebis msgavsi monasteri da taZari arc erTi ar
aris. es savane (igulisxmeba gelaTi _ S.m.) daviT saqar-
Tvelos mefem aago, rogorc amas Zveli wignebi weren.
rodesac uwmindurebma saqarTvelos dapyroba moiwadines,
maSin mefe daviTi ruseTSi movida, TayvaniscemiT daxmare-
ba iTxova da misces ra didi Zala, wavida da uwmindurni
Tavis samflobelodan gandevna da gaaTavisufla misgan~.
rogorc vxedavT, pavle alepoelis mixedviT TviT
mefe daviTi (cxadia, igulisxmeba gelaTis mSenebeli me-
fe, e. i. daviT IV aRmaSenebeli) Casula ruseTSi da dax-
mareba uTxovia. msgavsi ram sxva wyaroebSi ar moipove-
boda da alepoelis es cnoba am SemTxvevaSi sxva masaliT

103
ar dasturdeba, magram mas mainc raRac safuZveli unda
hqondes. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom yivCayeTs misul da-
viT mefis „sarwmuno kacebs~, mefis davalebiT, gza ru-
suli samTavroskenac gaegrZelebinaT. miT ufro, rom am
dros „yivCayTa miwa~ uSualod emijneboda rusul sam-
TavroTa sazRvrebs. daviTis „sarwmuno kacTa~ misvla
kievis mTavarTan ki, rogorc aRvniSneT, yivCayTa saqar-
TveloSi gadmosaxlebis Sesaxeb saTanado cnobis miwo-
debis mizniT, aucilebelic iyo.
daviTis „sarwmuno kacTa~ molaparakeba kievis mTa-
varTan unda hqondes mxedvelobaSi pavle alepoels, ro-
ca igi daviTis ruseTSi wasvlisa da iq „daxmarebis
Txovnis~ Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom
ama Tu im piris „TayvaniscemiT~ misvla meoresTan sru-
lebiT ar niSnavs erTis ymobas meorisadmi. „Tayvanisce-
ma~ an, rogorc rusebi ityodnen, „Celobitie~ oficia-
lur diplomatiur urTierTobaSi sayovelTaod miRebu-
li termini iyo da srulebiT ar gamoxatavda „Tayvanism-
cemelis~ damokidebul mdgomareobas.
pavle alepoelis cnobis mixedviT, daviTisa Tu mis
„sarwmuno kacTaTvis~ ruseTSi didi daxmareba aRmou-
CeniaT, miuciaT damxmare Zala da saqarTveloSi gaus-
tumrebiaT. rogorc Cans, im did „damxmare ZalaSi~, ro-
melic, pavles sityviT, rusebs qarTvelebisaTvis miuci-
aT, saqarTveloSi gadmosaxlebul yivCayTa didi rao-
denoba unda igulisxmebodes. sainteresoa, rom Zveli
rusi mematianeebi vladimir monomaxs miaweren yivCayebis
gandevnas „rkinis karebs~ iqiT, saqarTveloSi da ara sa-
qarTvelos mefes, romelmac es RonisZieba faqtobrivad
gaatara da uromlisodac, cxadia, kievis didi mTavari
am mxriv verafers gaakeTebda. magram rusi mematianis
ase kategoriuli cnoba monomaxis mier yivCayTa „rkinis
karebs~ iqiT, saqarTveloSi gandevnis Sesaxeb swored
imaze unda migviTiTebdes, rom am aqtSi (yivCayTa saqar-

104
TveloSi gadmosaxlebaSi) kievis mTavars, marTlac, ra-
menairi monawileoba unda mieRo, rac, ra Tqma unda, ki-
evis mTavrisa da daviTis „sarwmuno kacTa~ molaparake-
bisa da SeTanxmebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iyo. uamisod,
marTlac, SeuZlebeli iqneboda ase didi saqmis warmate-
biT dagvirgvineba.
kievis mTavarsa da saqarTvelos mefis „sarwmuno
kacTa~ Soris yivCayebis saqarTveloSi gadmosaxlebis
Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba advilad iqneboda miRweuli. vladi-
mir monomaxs amis sawinaaRmdego ra SeiZleboda hqonoda:
jer erTi, kievis mTavari „uwmindurTa~ (Turq-selCukTa)
winaaRmdeg mebrZoli saqarTvelos damxmared gamodioda
(yovel SemTxvevaSi, vladimir monomaxi da misi drois
sazogadoebac aseT ganmartebas aZlevda yivCayTa gandev-
nas) da amave dros kievis ruseTi yivCayTa 40 000 ojaxis
saqarTveloSi gadasaxlebiT Tavidan iSorebda dauZineb-
eli mtris erT did nawils. ase rom, kievis mTavari yiv-
CayTa saqarTveloSi gadasaxlebiT TviTonac didad iq-
neboda dainteresebuli; aseT viTarebaSi, mTavari vla-
dimiri ki ara, daviT mefe gamodioda yivCayTa winaaRm-
deg mebrZoli kievis ruseTis damxmared.
asec iyo. yivCayTa erTi didi nawilis Tavidan mo-
SorebisTanave kievis mTavarma mis narCenTa winaaRmdeg
daiwyo brZola. 1120 welsve, roca yivCayTa saqarTvelo-
Si gadmosaxleba damTavrda, kievis mTavarma xelsayreli
momenti xelidan ar gauSva da erTxel kidev gailaSqra
yivCayebis winaaRmdeg dons iqiT. magram yivCayTa ukve
Zalian SeTxelebul da dasustebul narCenebs brZoli-
saTvis Tavi auridebiaT, ukan dauxeviaT, ise rom, ru-
sebs verc unaxavT isini. amrigad, yivCayTa sakiTxSi miR-
weuli SeTanxmeba orive Zlieri qristianuli saxelmwi-
fosaTvis _ kievis ruseTisa da saqarTvelosaTvis _ sa-
sargeblo da sxvadasxva gziT mniSvnelovani Sedegebis
momtani SeTanxmeba iyo.

105
aRsaniSnavia, rom Zvel ruseTSi, rogorc es pavle
alepoelis cnobidan Cans, kargad scodniaT, Tu rogor
gandevna daviT mefem „uwmindurni Tavis samflobelo-
dan da ganTavisuflda maTgan~. daviTis aseT gamarjve-
bas kidev ufro unda ganemtkicebina kievis ruseTis kav-
Siri erTmorwmune saqarTvelosTan. gaZlierebul saqar-
TvelosTan Zvel ruseTs amJamad kavSiri TviT sWirde-
boda, miT ufro, rom am dros yivCayebi da osebi ukve
saqarTvelos ymadnaficebi iyvnen da yivCayTa Tavdasxme-
bis acileba da samxreT-aRmosavleTis sazRvrebze sim-
Svidis uzrunvelyofa saqarTvelosTan keTilmezoblu-
ri urTierTobis damyarebiT iyo SesaZlebeli.

g) saqarTvelos samxreT-aRmosavleTis mezoblebi


da urTierToba maTTan

Turq-selCukebis Semosevebma didad daaziana saqar-


Tvelos samxreTisa da samxreT-aRmosavleTis mezoblebi
_ somxeTi da Sirvan-arani, maTi teritoriebi Turq-damp-
yrobTa saTareSod iqca.
somxeTi, bizantiis ocwliani batonobis wyalobiT,
arsebiTad ganiaraRebuli Sexvda axali dampyroblis Se-
moWras. bizantiis mmarTveli wris warmomadgenlebi yo-
velnairad xels uwyobdnen somxuri mosaxleobis gansax-
lebas mcire aziasa da imperiis sxvadasxva teritoriaze.
amave dros, maTve gaiyvanes somxuri laSqari qveynidan
da amiT somex xalxs mouspes SesaZlebloba damoukideb-
lobisaTvis brZolisa.
amrigad, TviT somexi mkvlevarebis sityviT rom
vTqvaT, somxeTi TurqTa Semosevis win moklebuli iyo
Tavdacvis TiTqmis yovelgvar SesaZleblobas. amitom
iyo, rom wvrilma somxurma samefoebma an mware damar-
cxeba ganicades TurqebTan brZolaSi, an kidev zedized
ubrZolvelad damorCildnen Turqebis sultans (lore,

106
sivnieTi). qveynis zogierT raionSi ki _ warmoiqmna sel-
Cukuri saamiroebi; maT Soris met-naklebad mniSvnelova-
ni iyo dvinis, anisisa da aseve Sah-armenebis saamiroebi.
somxeTis mosazRvred mdebare ganZa, romelic Turqebma
1068 wels daipyres, erT-erT mniSvnelovan placdarmad
iqca Turq-selCukTa agresiisa amierkavkasiaSi, aqedan ew-
yoboda gamudmebuli laSqrobebi saqarTvelosa da som-
xuri samefoebis winaaRmdeg, rac zians ayenebda maT.
ganZis aRebiT daiwyo arsebiTad Turq-selCukTa
gabatoneba aranSi. aseve TurqTa sulTanma meliq-Sahma
aiZula Sirvan-Sahi fariburz I TurqTa sasargeblod er-
Tdroulad 70 000 dinari gadaexada, xolo Semdeg yo-
velwliurad selCukTa xazinaSi 40 000 dinari Seetana.
ase moeqca Sirvanica da aranic Turq dampyrobelTa uR-
lis qveS.
amrigad, saqarTvelos samxreTiTa da samxreT-aR-
mosavleTiT, uZvelesi droidan politikurad, ekonomi-
kurad da kulturulad mWidrod dakavSirebuli, moZme
xalxebis magivrad, axali Zlieri agresori gaumezoblda.
somxeTsa da Sirvan-aranSi TurqTa gabatoneba saqarTve-
los Tavdacvis unars Zlier asustebda, samxreT-aRmo-
savleTiT morRveuli sazRvrebi farTod uxsnida gzas
Turq-selCukebs Crdilo-dasavleTisaken, saqarTvelosa-
ken. da marTlac, amis Semdeg ar gasula didi xani, rom
saqarTveloSi „didi Turqoba~ daiwyo da saqarTvelomac
XI s. 80-iani wlebidan yovelwliuri saTurqo gadasaxadi
ikisra.
XI s. 70_80-iani wlebi maxlobel aRmosavleTSi Tur-
qTa Zlierebis wlebia. 1071 wels maT aiRes ierusalimi,
1089 wels bizantias waarTves antioqia, amave dros maT
daipyres damaskosa da siriis sxva qalaqebic. TurqTa
mflobelobaSi Sevida siriisa da palestinis didi nawi-
li. maTve mcire aziaSi Seqmnes met-naklebad myari sa-
xelmwifoebrivi erTeuli _ rumis sasulTno, centriT

107
jer nikeaSi, Semdeg ki koniaSi. XI s. 90-iani wlebis dam-
degs ki Turqebma TviT konstantinopolsac Seuties da
bizantias mZime safrTxe Seuqmnes. aleqsi komninosma
Zlivs ixsna Tavi mZime gansacdelisagan.
amrigad, maxlobel aRmosavleTSi Turq-selCukebi
umTavres gabatonebul Zalad iqcnen. Turq-selCukebs,
rogorc es erT-erTma frangma mecnierma uCvena, ar axa-
siaTebdaT fanatikuri religiuri Seuwynarebloba; Tur-
qTa mier dapyrobil qveynebSi (siriaSi, palestinaSi,
somxeTsa da saqarTveloSi) qristianuli mosaxleobis
mdgomareoba am mxriv ar gauaresebula. ar warmoebda
maTi religiuri devna-Seviwroeba... antioqia isev ise
rCeboda marTlmadidebeli patriarqis rezidenciad. ki-
dev meti, zogi mkvlevaris azriT, selCukTa gabatoneba
mcire aziasa, siriasa da palestinaSi niSnavda zogi
qristianuli rwmenis (monofizitebi, nestorianebi) xal-
xTa daxsnas bizantiis eklesiis religiuri da fiskalu-
ri Semotevebisagan... selCukTa gabatonebas maxlobel
aRmosavleTSi ar gamouwvevia agreTve aRmosavleTis da-
savleTTan savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierTobis Sewyveta.
maS, raSi mdgomareobda TurqTa batonobis simZimisa
da uaryofiTi Sedegebis mizezebi? pirvel rigSi, sameur-
neo cxovrebis im sistemaSi, romelsac Turqebi maT mier
dapyrobil qveynebSi nergavdnen. Turq dampyrobTa gaba-
toneba ganviTarebul feodalur qveyanaSi niSnavda naxev-
rad primitiuli momTabaruli meurneobis gabatonebas.
feodalur saqarTvelosa da saerTod, amierkavkasiaSi
Turq-selCukTa gabatoneba niSnavda am qveynebis socialu-
ri da ekonomikuri wyobis arsebiT Secvlas, mis ara mar-
to daqveiTebas, aramed Semotrialebas daRmavali xaziT,
patriarqaluri mejogeobisa da saojaxo monobisaken.
msoflio istoriaSi yofila SemTxvevebi, roca gan-
viTarebis dabal safexurze mdgom dampyroblebs maRali
ganviTarebis qveynebi dacemis im donemde miuyvaniaT,

108
rom saWiro gamxdara yvelafris Tavidan dawyeba. aseTi-
ve safrTxis winaSe daayenes ganviTarebuli feodaluri
qveyana momTabare meurneobis metad dabali sistemis
mqone Turq-selCukebma. amitom iyo, rom Turqi dam-
pyroblebis Semoseva da batonoba arsebiTad gansxvavde-
boda yvela im dampyrobelis batonobisagan, romelnic
manamde feodalur saqarTvelos enaxa bizantielebisa
Tu arabebis saxiT. Turq-selCukebi dapyrobil qveynebSi
mTeli TavianTi ojaxebiTa da jogebiT midiodnen da,
rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, intensiuri soflis meur-
neobisaTvis gamoyenebul miwebs saZovrebad iWerdnen.
dampyroblebma qarTl-kaxeTisa da mesxeTis Walebi
jogebis sazamTro saZovrebad aqcies, xolo mTiani zo-
nebi _ ialaRebad. „asisforni da klarjeTi zRvis piram-
din, SavSeTi, aWara, samcxe, qarTli, argveTi, samoqalaqo
da Wyondidi aRivso TurqTa~, _ werda am ambebis mom-
swre istorikosi. amiT ki ganviTarebul feodalur me-
urneobas mTlianad ecleboda safuZveli _ miwa _ darR-
vevisa da gadaSenebis safrTxe emuqreboda. ganviTarebis
maRal doneze asuli feodaluri meurneobis magivrad
TandaTan primitiuli momTabaruli mejogeoba da saoj-
axo monoba batondeboda, romelic qveyanas regresisaken
miaqanebda.
TurqTa gabatonebis, „didi Turqobis~ mZime Sede-
gebma saintereso asaxva pova gviandeli xanis qarTvel
istorikosTa TxzulebebSic. ai, ras mogviTxrobs amis
Sesaxeb ioane batoniSvili: „JamTa winaparTa ama (daviT _
S.m.) mefisaTa movidnen saqarTvelosa Sina agarianni (ig-
ulisxmeba Turqebi _ S.m.), saxleuliTurT TvisiT, vid-
re samasi aTasi mosaxle kacni da daipyres saqarTvelo,
da daeSvnen samTa mdinareTa sanapiroTa zeda, ese igi
mtkvarsa, alazansa da iorsa zeda. saxiTa amiT, romel
maT elisa (momTabareTa _ S.m.) mTavarTa ganiyves am sa-
xiT adgilni ese: erTi mTavarTagani asiaTasisa komlisa

109
kaciTa daesaxla mtkvris kidesa zeda amier da imier, su-
ramidgan vidre ganjamdis; meore mTavari daesaxla asi
aTasisa kaciTa ioris mdinaris kidesa zeda TianeTidgan
vidre alaznis SesarTavadmde, romelica erTvis maxlo-
bel samuxisa. xolo mesame mTavari daesaxla asiaTasisa
komlisa kaciTa pankisidgan alaznis sanapiros zeda,
vidre ivrisa SesarTavadmde, maxloblad samuxisa da da-
ipyres saxiTa amiT qarTli da kaxeTi da dauwyes devna,
tyveoba da aoxreba qarTlsa da kaxeTsa Sina mcxovrebTa.
da esreT cariel hyvnes adgilni ese, romel Tu ara mTa-
Ta da simagreTa Sina, arRa ipoeboden mcxovrebni erni
qarTvelTani~.
Cven ar viciT ra wyaroTi sargeblobda am SemTxve-
vaSi ioane batoniSvili da saidan aqvs mas aRebuli cno-
ba qarTl-kaxeTSi Camosaxlebul TurqTa aseTi raode-
nobisa da an kidev, maTi as-as aTasad mtkvarsa, iorsa da
alazans gansaxlebis Sesaxeb, magram, cxadia, rom yvela-
feri es safuZvels moklebuli ar aris; marTlac, mtkv-
ris, ivrisa da alaznis noyieri sanapiro zolebi metad
mimzidveli unda yofiliyo momTabare mejogeebisaTvis;
swored es raionebi iyo aRmosavleT saqarTvelos feod-
aluri meurneobis yvelaze wamyvani raionebi da cxadia,
aq mesaqonle TurqTa ase didi raodenobiT gansaxleba
mZime safrTxes uqmnida feodalur ekonomikas, mas gada-
Senebas uqadda. feodaluri meurneobis safuZvlebis
moSla, Tavis mxriv, niSnavda yvelafer imis gadaSenebas,
rac qarTvel xalxs saukuneTa manZilze Seeqmna.
meurneobis sistemis cvlilebis Sesabamisad icvle-
boda socialuri da saxelmwifoebrivi wyobac. feoda-
luri urTierTobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli, saukuneobiT
ganmtkicebuli sazogadoebrivi, socialuri klasebisa
da fenebis magier primitiuli wyobilebisaTvis Sesafe-
risi dayofa Semodioda; maTi warmodgeniT dapyrobili
qveynebis mosaxleoba arsebiTad or mTavar nawilad iyo-

110
foda: erTsa da pirvels TviT dampyrobelni, samxedro-
ni Seadgendnen, xolo meores _ yvela danarCeni raiaTe-
bi (maTi dapyrobili qveSevrdomebi). yovelive amas Sees-
abameboda maTi saxelmwifoebrivi xelisuflebac, rome-
lic arsebiTad dapyrobili xalxebis daundobeli Zar-
cvis Zlier aparats warmoadgenda.
erTi sityviT, Turq-selCukebis sameurneo, soci-
aluri Tu saxelmwifoebrivi wyoba savsebiT sawinaaRm-
dego, gamomricxveli iyo yvelafer imisa, rac am droi-
saTvis saqarTveloSi da saerTod, amierkavkasiaSi arse-
bobda, regresuli Zalebi upirispirdeboda progresul,
aRmavlobis gzaze Semdgar qveynebs. es kargad esmodaT
im drois moRvaweebs. daviTis istorikosma, rogorc es
zemoT mivuTiTeT, asaxa kidec is ubedureba, rac Turq-
selCukebis momTabarul meurneobas mohqonda ganviTa-
rebuli qarTuli feodaluri meurneobisaTvis.
amrigad, ara marto saqarTvelo, aramed arsebiTad
mTeli amierkavkasia didi safrTxis winaSe aRmoCnda. ami-
erkavkasiis xalxTa da misi mmarTveli zedafenis erT
upirveles amocanas TurqTa batonobisagan Tavis daxsna
da qveynebis normaluri ganviTarebis, progresis gzisa-
ken Semobruneba warmoadgenda. es ki, Tavis mxriv, kidev
erT metad mniSvnelovan, magram aseve metad rTul _
kavkasiis xalxTa Zalebis konsolidaciis, gaerTianebisa
da erTi saerTo miznisaken warmarTvis amocanas _ aye-
nebda.
s. janaSia savsebiT marTebulad miuTiTebda, rom
istoriis obieqturma msvlelobam kavkasiis xalxebis wi-
naSe daayena metad rTuli amocana _ tomobriv da ekle-
siur-religiuri TvalsazrisiT Wrel da aRreul, mrava-
lenovan kavkasiaSi, Sua saukuneebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel
urTierT SeuTavseblobisa da mouTmenlobis viTarebaSi
erTiani kavkasiuri mravalerovani saxelmwifos Seqmnisa.
misive mtkicebiT, aseTi tendencia da pirveli cdebi

111
kavkasiaSi mravalerovani saxelmwifos Seqmnisa jer ki-
dev X saukuneSi SeiniSneba. aseTi tendenciis matarebe-
li iyo imdroindeli somxeTi, magram X s. dasasrulidan
isedac daqucmacebuli somxeTi kidev nawevrdeba ufro
mcire erTeulebad, romelnic bizantiel Tu Turq agre-
sorTa wyalobiT zedized kargaven TavianT damoukideb-
lobas XI saukuneSi ise rom, araTu sagareo politikuri,
aramed sakuTriv Sinagani gaerTianebis, erTiani somxuri
samefos Seqmnis gegmebic ki ganuxorcielebeli iyo.
kavkasiaSi qveyana, romelic amgvarsave tendencias
aseve adridanve amJRavnebda, saqarTvelo iyo, romelmac,
rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, X s. miwurulsa da XI saukuneSi,
miuxedavad araxelsayreli sagareo viTarebisa, SeZlo
pirveli rigis amocanis gadawyveta _ Sinagani gaerTiane-
ba, erTiani saqarTvelos Seqmna... movlenebis Semdgomma
ganviTarebam kidev naTlad uCvena, rom kavkasiaSi mrava-
lerovani erTiani saxelmwifos Seqmnac amjerad SeeZlo
Tavis Tavze aeRo mxolod saqarTvelos.
kavkasiaSi mravalerovani saxelmwifos Seqmnis saWi-
roeba kidev ufro mZafrad daayena Turq-selCukTa wina-
aRmdeg kavkasiis xalxebis konsolidaciis aucileblobam.
ase rom, saqarTvelos meTaurobiT kavkasiis xalxTa ga-
erTianebis tendenciam dasrulebuli saxe daviT aRmaSe-
neblis epoqaSi miiRo. erT dros uZlevelad miCneuli
Turq-selCukebis winaaRmdeg amieridan maxlobel aRmo-
savleTSi, saqarTvelos samefos saxiT, uZlieresi sa-
xelmwifo idga. igi ucxo dampyrobTagan amierkavkasiis
xalxTa ganmaTavisufleblis rolSi gamodioda. misi war-
matebebis erTi umTavresi safuZvelic es iyo _ amierkav-
kasiis xalxebi misi droSis qveS erTiandebodnen Turq-sel-
CukTa uRlisagan ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZolaSi.

112
d) jvarosnebi da saqarTvelo

„kualad amas Jamsa gamovides frangni, aRiRes ie-


rusalimi da antioqia~. „frangni~, romelTa gamoCenis
Sesaxebac ase sagangebod miuTiTebs daviTis istorikosi,
evropeli jvarosnebi iyvnen; ase uwodebda mTeli maSin-
deli aRmosavleTi evropel feodalebsa da raindebs,
romelnic aq „qristes saflavis~ gasaTavisufleblad
modiodnen. „frangebis~ anu jvarosnebis gamoCena max-
lobel aRmosavleTSi marTlac didmniSvnelovani mov-
lena iyo Sua saukuneebis msoflioSi, da cxadia, es faq-
ti mxedvelobidan ar SeiZleboda gamoparvoda am ambebis
Tanamedrove qarTvel istorikoss.
Rarib-RatakTa pirveli jvarosnuli razmebi, ro-
gorc cnobilia, konstantinopolis misadgomebTan 1096
w. ivnisSi gamoCndnen, maT feodalTa razmebic mihyva,
xolo 1097 w. ivnisSi nikeaze gamarTul brZolaSi jva-
rosnebma da misma mokavSireebma pirveli gamarjveba ize-
imes, Tumca evropel feodalebs am gamarjvebidan mxo-
lod mcire nadavli ergoT. male jvarosnebma didi war-
matebebi moipoves _ 1098 w. zafxulSi, didi xnis brZo-
lisa da alyis Semdeg, antioqia aiRes, 1099 wels ki ie-
rusalimi... swored aq, ierusalimis aRebis dros, yvela-
ze ufro kargad gamoCnda „qristes saflavis~ da sxva
„wminda adgilTa~ „uwmindurTagan~ gasaTavisufleblad
mosul evropel feodalTa namdvili saxe.
jvarosnebi Zarcvavdnen aRmosavleTis ara marto
muslimur mosaxleobas, maT qalaqebsa da qveynebs, ara-
med qristianulsac. ise rom, „qristes mebrZolebis~ mi-
er Seviwroebuli da gaZarculi sakuTriv qristianuli
mosaxleoba araerTxel ajanyebula jvarosnebis winaaRm-
deg (mag., kilikiis somxebis ajanyeba 1098 wels) da daxma-
rebisaTvis selCukebisaTvis miumarTavT... magram miuxed-

8. SoTa mesxia 113


avad amisa, jvarosanTa laSqrobebs, maT brZolas Turq-
selCukebis winaaRmdeg mainc didi mniSvneloba hqonda
Turqebis mier dapyrobili xalxebis ganmaTavisuflebeli
brZolis Semdgomi warmatebisaTvis.
SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom daviTis istorikosi aR-
mosavleTSi „frangTa gamosvlas~, rogorc zemoT vnaxeT,
ukavSirebda daviTis mier saTurqo xarkis Sewyvetas,
qveynis moSenebasa da gaZlierebas. magram, ra Tqma unda,
Secdoma iqneboda saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebis
mier am dros mopovebuli warmatebebis mizezebi jva-
rosnebis gamosvlasa da maT mier Turqebis winaaRmdeg
gamarTul brZolebSi gveZebna, rogorc amas saqarTve-
los istoriis zogi mkvlevari varaudobs.
amas garda, arc is unda daviviwyoT, rom qarTveli
xalxis brZola Turq-selCukTa winaaRmdeg da mis mier
mopovebuli gamarjvebebi ganmaTavisuflebel omSi, ro-
melsac Turq-selCukTa Zalebis Sesusteba mohyva, cxa-
dia, xels umarTavda jvarosan-dampyroblebs axlo aR-
mosavleTSi, maT xSir SemTxvevaSi sakmaod SeTxelebul
da daqsaqsul Zalebs gaZlierebisa da Tavmoyris SesaZ-
leblobas aZlevda. amitom bunebrivia, Tu jvarosnuli
laSqrobis momwyobi saxelmwifoebi da aRmosavleTSi
jvarosanTa mier daarsebuli samefo-samTavroebi damo-
ukideblobisaTvis mebrZol saqarTvelos TavianT mokav-
Sired miiCnevdnen da mis mier am mxriv gadadgmul na-
bijs yovelnairad gamoexmaurebodnen. SemTxveviTi ar
aris, rom jvarosnuli omebis dasavleTevropeli isto-
rikosebi Turq-selCukTa winaaRmdeg daviTis laSqro-
bebs saTanado yuradRebas uTmoben da jvarosnebis
brZolebTan erT sibrtyeSi ganixilaven.
saqarTvelosa da jvarosnebis aseTi urTierTsa-
sargeblo moqmedeba axlo aRmosavleTSi aucilebels
xdida maT Soris saTanado kavSiris damyarebas. magram,
raki maTi miznebi Turq-selCukebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi

114
sul sxvadasxvagvari iyo, es urTierToba-kavSiric ar
SeiZleboda mtkice da mudmivi yofiliyo. jvarosnebi
aRmosavleTSi midiodnen, rogorc dampyroblebi, isini
cdilobdnen rac SeiZleba meti teritoriebi da nadavli
egdoT xelT, farTod gaexsnaT gzebi evropis qalaqebi-
saTvis da meti simdidre gaezidaT aRmosavleTidan.
jvarosnebisaTvis mxolod safari iyo maTi lozungi _
„brZola qristes saflavis dasacavad~, „urjuloTa gan-
devna wminda adgilebidan~. namdvilad ki isini axali mi-
wa-wylis xelSi Casagdebad da aRmosavleTis xalxebis
dasamorCileblad modiodnen da amitom ara marto „ur-
juloTa (araqristianTa), aramed, rogorc aRvniSneT,
aRmosavleTis TviT qristianuli saxelmwifoebis wina-
aRmdeg brZolasac ki ar eridebodnen. saqarTveloc xom
aRmosavleTSi ivaraudeboda da am qveynis qristianoba
jvarosnebs xels ar SeuSlida saWiro SemTxvevaSi mis
winaaRmdegac gaelaSqraT.
sul sxva miznebs isaxavda saqarTvelosa da qar-
Tveli xalxis brZola. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo, jva-
rosnebis msgavsad, muslimobas ki ar ebrZoda saerTod,
aramed im Turq dampyroblebs, romlebmac saqarTvelos
damorCileba da qarTveli xalxis gadaSeneba moindomes.
saqarTvelo Tavisi TviTmyofobis SenarCunebisaTvis ib-
rZoda, dampyroblebs erekeboda Tavisi qveynidan da ara
mahmadianebs, muslimebs.
muslimoba kavkasiaSi da saqarTveloSic sakmaod
mniSvnelovan adgilobriv movlenas warmoadgenda. qar-
Tvelebs didi xnis manZilze hqondaT muslimebTan eko-
nomikuri, politikuri da kulturuli urTierToba; am
urTierTobis gawyveta, misi uaryofa did zians moutan-
da saqarTvelos saxelmwifos ekonomikur da politikur
cxovrebasac. es kargad esmodaT imdroindel politi-
kur moRvaweebs da amitomac arc saqarTvelos terito-
riaze, arc mis mezoblad mosaxle mahmadianebisaTvis

115
„jvarosnuli omi~ arasodes gamoucxadebiaT; piriqiT,
Tu imdroindeli wyaroebis mixedviT vimsjelebT, saqar-
TveloSi mosaxle mahmadianebi aq sakmaod kargad grZ-
nobdnen Tavs, zog SemTxvevaSi ufro ukeTac, vidre Ta-
vianT qveyanaSi.
saqarTvelos samefos, romelic Tavis Tavs aRmo-
savleTSi qristianobis burjad acxadebda, muslimebis
mimarT aseTi politikis gatarebas ukarnaxebda saSinao
da sagareo pirobebi, misi mWidro urTierToba mahmadi-
anur samyarosTan da ara romelime mefis pirovnuli, ke-
Tili survilebi, an kidev, muslimebis didi gavlena sa-
qarTveloze, rogorc amas zogi mkvlevari fiqrobs.
cxadia, aseT viTarebaSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifosa
da evropeli jvarosnebis interesebi axlo aRmosavleT-
Si ar SeiZleboda erTmaneTs damTxveoda da amitomac
maTi kavSiri mxolod droebiTi, im momentisaTvis Seq-
mnili politikuri viTarebiT iyo gapirobebuli.
savsebiT bunebrivia, rom Turqi dampyroblebis wi-
naaRmdeg brZolaSi araerTgzis gamarjvebuli saqarTve-
lo pirveli jvarosnuli laSqrobis momwyob saxelmwi-
foebsa da pirovnebebs TavianT bunebriv mokavSired mi-
aCndaT da amitomac masTan uSualo kavSirs eZiebdnen;
pirvel rigSi, aRmosavleTis jvarosnuli samefo-sam-
Tavroebi. yovelive zemoxsenebuli imaze migviTiTebs,
rom jvarosnebsa da saqarTvelos Soris, Tu ufro adre
ara, „frangebis aRmosavleTSi gamoCenis~ droidan mainc
garkveuli urTierToba unda damyarebuliyo.
miuxedavad amisa, imdroindel qarTul wyaroebs,
kerZod, daviTis istorikoss, am mxriv TiTqmis araviTa-
ri cnoba ara aqvs daculi. magram am nakls nawilobriv
mainc avseben Semdegdroindeli (mag., Tamarisa da Semde-
gi xanis) qarTuli da aseve evropuli wyaroebi.
CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxis Seswavlis Tvalsaz-
risiT, yuradRebas iqcevs parizis RvTismSoblis taZris

116
xucesis, mefsalmunis, XII s. pirvel meoTxedSi ierusa-
limSi myofi anselusis werili da masSi daculi cnoba
saqarTvelosa da misi mefis daviTis Sesaxeb. anselusis
werils mkvlevarebi 1108_1109 wlebiT aTariReben, magram,
rogorc misi Sinaarsidan irkveva, igi ufro daviTis gar-
dacvalebis Semdeg unda iyos Sedgenili, rogorc amaze
Tavis droze miuTiTebda s. janaSia.
anselusis werili mogviTxrobs saqarTvelos mefis,
daviTis meuRlis (wyaros mixedviT, qvrivis) mier ieru-
salimSi Catanili jvris SeZenisa da parizis RvTismSob-
lis taZarSi misi gagzavnis Sesaxeb. werilis mixedviT,
anseluss es jvari TviT daviTis qvrivisagan SeuZenia da,
saTanado weriliTurT, didi pativiT gaugzavnia pariz-
Si, RvTismSoblis taZris sakrebulosaTvis.
anselusis werili, rogorc am jvris didi Rirse-
bis mauwyebeli dokumenti, jvarTan erTad dRemde da-
culia parizis xsenebul taZarSi. igi araerTxel gamoq-
veynebula evropaSi, rogorc laTinur, frangul, aseve
qarTul enazedac. Cven amJamad am jvris TavisTavad sa-
intereso istoria da masTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi ki
ar gvainteresebs, aramed is, Tu rogor vrceldeboda
cnobebi evropaSi saqarTvelosa da misi imdroindeli
mefis Sesaxeb. anselusi Tavis werilSi ityobineboda: „am
jvars daviT, mefe qarTvelTa, sanam icocxla, uaRres
Tayvaniscemas da siyvaruls uZRvnida, is daviTi, ro-
melsac misi winaprebiT, kaspiis kari _ gogsa da magogs
rom zRudavs _ eWira da edarajna, rasac Svili misi aqa-
momde asrulebs, visi qveyana da samefo midielT da spar-
sTa winaaRmdeg Cveni, ase vTqvaT, wina burjia.
daviTis sikvdilisa da misi Svilis gamefebis Semd-
gomad, meuRlem misma, ufro siwmindisa vidre gvariSvi-
lobisaTvis saTayvanom, Tavi gadaikriWa, sarwmunoebis
samoseli ineba da mcireodeni [mxlebliT] ierusalims
mivida am jvariTa da bevri oqroTi. da misi wadili iyo

117
Sin dabruneba ki ara, aramed aq mSvidobasa da myudroe-
baSi sicocxlis dasruleba. im wamoRebul oqroTgan wmi-
da qalaqis monastrebs wili dauriga, agreTve glaxakTa
da mgzavrTa misacemic gaiRo da Semdgomad amisa... ieru-
salimSi qarTvel dedaTa monasterSi Sevida... da wmida sa-
moseli moloznobisa miiRo. bolos wamoRebuli [oqro]
sul daeriga, gaeca da monastris saWiroebisaTvis dae-
xarja. da odes SimSilobam Cveni qveyana Seawuxa... iZule-
buli gaxda monastris moTxovnilebisaTvis... [jvari gae-
yida]. amas sakuTari xorcieli saWiroebisaTvis aras gziT
ar gaakeTebda. amrigad, is jvari veraviTari fasis Sesa-
dari, am mizeziT fasad iqca da aha gamogigzavneTo~.
rogorc vxedavT, werilSi bevri saintereso masa-
laa daculi, gansakuTrebiT daviT aRmaSeneblis meuR-
lis, yivCayTa mTavris asulis, guranduxtis (albaT, misi
yivCayuri, mdabiuri warmoSoba aqvs mxedvelobaSi anse-
luss, roca daviTis meuRlis ufro sulier siwmides
usvams xazs, vidre mis gvariSvilobas) ukanaskneli dRe-
ebis Sesaxeb. magram amjerad Cven ufro gvainteresebs
amave werilSi daculi cnobebi sakuTriv daviTisa da mi-
si qveynis Sesaxeb.
rogorc vxedavT, evropelma jvarosnebma kargad
icodnen saqarTveloSi im dros arsebuli viTareba da
rac mTavaria misi mniSvneloba rogorc CrdiloeTis,
„kaspiis karis~ damcvelisa da aseve „midielTa sparsTa
(igulisxmeba Turq-selCukTa) winaaRmdeg brZolis „wina
burjisa~, zRudisa. ra Tqma unda, anseluss saqarTvelo-
saTvis ar SeeZlo ewodebina „Cveni (e. i. jvarosanTa) wi-
na burji~, rom daviTis droindel saqarTvelosa da
jvarosnebs Soris marTlac kavSiri ar yofiliyo, rom
maT erTmaneTi kargad ar scodnodaT. rogorc Cans,
jvarosnebi saqarTvelos imedis TvaliT uyurebdnen,
rogorc „wina zRudesa da burjs~ TavianTi saqmianobis
warmatebisaTvis aRmosavleTSi. saqarTvelos mniSvnelo-

118
ba evropel jvarosanTa TvalSi gansakuTrebiT mas Sem-
deg gaizarda, rac daviT aRmaSenebelma did warmatebebs
miaRwia Turq dampyroblebTan brZolaSi, kerZod ki, XII
s. pirvel or aTeul wels, roca Turqebi arsebiTad ga-
reka saqarTvelos sazRvrebidan.
daviT aRmaSeneblisa da aRmosavleTis evropel sa-
xelmwifoTa mTavrebisa da mefeebis urTierTobis Sesaxeb
mogvepoveba, marTalia, gviandeli, magram TavisTavad Za-
lian saintereso qarTuli cnobac. igi ekuTvnis ioane ba-
toniSvils da daculia mis TxzulebaSi _ „kalmasoba~.
ioanes mixedviT, lores aRebis meore wels „movida da-
farviT, davriSis saxiT, meliqSas Svili tanRan meliq
sulTani gamstrobad iveriisa da xilvad mefisa daviTisa,
da agreTve amave saxed berZenTa mefe aleqsandre (iguli-
sxmeba, albaT, aleqsi _ S.m.), xolo amave ricxvsa Sina iyo
baldvoin ierusalimis mefe, romelmanca mravali Zleva
miiRo saricinelTa anu arabTa zeda. da ese baldvoin mo-
vida idumal qarTlsa Sina moTxrobisaebr sxvaTa isto-
riebTa... da vera romelTame qarTvelTa scnes amaTi idu-
mal moslvaY da ukuiqcnen masve welsa Sina~.
rogorc vxedavT, mravalmxriv saintereso cnobas-
Tan gvaqvs saqme daviT IV-sTan „dafarviT~, „idumal~ ara-
erTi im drois didi politikuri moRvawe mosula. zogi
maTganis mizani, daviTis naxvasTan erTad, „iveriis gam-
stroba~, e. i. dazverva iyo, zogs kidev samSvidobo, sa-
mokavSireo molaparakebis gamarTva surda.
amjerad CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa ioa-
nes cnoba aq ierusalimis mefis „baldvoinis~ mosvlis
Sesaxeb. rogorc Cans, mxedvelobaSi unda hqondes ieru-
salimis mesame mefe balduin II (1119-1131 ww.). ioane ba-
toniSvili garkveviT miuTiTebs, rom cnoba balduinis
qarTlSi mosvlis Sesaxeb mas Tavis „kalmasobaSi~ Seu-
tania „moTxrobisaebr sxvaTa istoriebTa~, e. i. sxva
xalxebis, albaT, TviT jvarosnebis qronikebidan, isto-

119
riidan. miuxedavad aseTi kategoriuli miTiTebisa, Cven
dRemde ar viciT ioanes am cnobis uSualo wyaro. magram
zemomotanil cnobaSi daujerebeli araferia. jer erTi,
lores aRebis meore, e. i. 1119 weli is droa, roca da-
viTma ZiriTadad moamTavra TurqebTan brZola saqarT-
velos SigniT da daiwyo Setevebi qveynis sazRvrebs ga-
reT; amasTanave, daviTis araerTi mniSvnelovani gamar-
jvebebi Turqebze, samSvildesTan, loresTan Tu sxvagan,
ukve sakmaod farTod iyo „xmagansmenili~ da SeuZlebe-
lia jvarosnebamde ver mieRwia am xmebs.
amas garda, 1119 weli mZime iyo TviT jvarosnebi-
saTvis; 1119 w. zafxulSi Turqebis saxelganTqmul sar-
dalTan, ilRazTan brZolaSi daiRupa antioqiis mTavari
roJeri da masTan erTad araerTi evropeli raindi. ie-
rusalimis mefe balduin II maSinve daiZra antioqiisaken
da TviT ikisra daoblebuli antioqiis mmarTvelobac da
mis SesanarCuneblad brZolac. man Tavi mouyara ilRa-
zis winaaRmdeg yvela raindsa da molaSqres, romelTa
Sekrebac ki im droisaTvis SesaZlebeli iyo. marTalia,
jvarosnebma SeZles antioqiis SenarCuneba, magram Zlier
dazaraldnen da ilRazmac araerTi mware damarcxeba
agema maT. aseT mZime wels, saeWvoa, rom balduin II-es
saqarTveloSi Camosasvlelad moecala, magram, faqtia,
rom 1119 wlis magaliTi, jvarosnebis marcxi ilRazTan
brZolaSi, mosvenebas ar miscemda jvarosnebs da aiZu-
lebda maT mokavSireebi eZebaT ara marto TavianT sam-
Tavroebsa da sagrafoebSi, aramed sxvaganac, qristia-
nul qveynebSi, kerZod, saqarTveloSi.
amrigad, Seqmnili viTarebis zemomotanili ganxil-
va savsebiT gvarwmunebs, rom aRniSnul cnobebSi, mar-
Tlac, araferi unda iyos saeWvo da daujerebeli _ ro-
gorc jvarosnebs, aseve saqarTvelosac erTmaneTTan
kavSiri am momentSi aucileblad sWirdebodaT. jvaros-
nebs saqarTvelo, rogorc qristianuli qveyana, surdaT

120
Turqebis winaaRmdeg gamoeyenebinaT, saqarTvelosa da
mis mefes ki jvarosnebis brZola Turq-selCukTa wina-
aRmdeg mdgomareobas umsubuqebda da dampyroblebze
gamarjvebisaTvis xelsayrel pirobebs uqmnida. amitom
am xelsayreli sagareo pirobebis SeqmnaSi TviT daviTis
monawileoba ar aris gamoricxuli. amas garda, ierusa-
limis mefeebsa da daviT IV-is urTierTobis Sesaxeb ioa-
ne batoniSvilis zemomotanili cnobis siswore dastur-
deba zogi sxva wyaros monacemebiTac. mag., erTi laTi-
nuri qronikis mixedviT, daviT IV, „afxazTa mefe~ ieru-
salimis mefes balduins (igulisxmeba balduin pirveli)
saCuqrebs ugzavnida.
ierusalimis mefeebisa da saqarTvelos mefis am-
gvar urTierTobaze unda migviTiTebdes agreTve erTi
saintereso cnoba, romelic Tavis droze z. avaliSvilma
moitana da manve eWvi Seitana mis sisworeSi: 1136 wels
erTs, normandiaSi myof mwerals Tavis qronikaSi jva-
rosan raindTagan gagonili Semdegi cnoba Seutania:
1123-1124 ww. daviT qarTvelTa mefes da kilikiis mTav-
ris Zmas Toross erT-erT sulTanTan tyved myofi rain-
debi dauxsniaT da maT saxlSi, antioqiaSi wauyvaniaT.
rogori saeWvoc ar unda iyos es cnoba, igi mainc sain-
teresoa.
jer erTi, XII s. pirveli naxevris evropeli qris-
tianebi ukve kargad icnobdnen daviT qarTvelTa mefes
da mis Sesaxeb cnobebi SehqondaT TavianT TxzulebebSi.
amas garda, es mefe, maTive warmodgeniTa da cnobebiT,
gamodis evropel raindTa tyveobidan damxsnelad. ga-
saTvaliswinebelia isic, rom swored am wlebSi, romel-
zedac normandieli mwerali migviTiTebs, araerTi sa-
xelganTqmuli raindi CauvardaT tyved selCukebs, xo-
lo 1123 wels TviT ierusalimis mefe balduin II aRmoCn-
da maTs tyveobaSi. vin icis, iqneb daviT IV-m marTlac
miiRo monawileoba Tavisi mokavSiris, balduin II-is da

121
sxva raindebis gamosyidvasa da gaTavisuflebaSi. yovel
SemTxvevaSi, normandieli qronistis cnobaSi aSkarad
igrZnoba im urTierTobis anarekli, romelic imdroin-
del saqarTvelos mefesa da aRmosavleTis evropel me-
fe-mTavarTa Soris arsebobda.
saqarTvelosa da jvarosnebis amgvar urTierTobaze
migviTiTebs zogi qarTuli wyaroc. ra Tqma unda, Sem-
TxveviTi ar SeiZleba iyos, rom daviTis istorikoss im
„mefeTa da xelmwifeTa~ Soris, romelnic „daviTis aCr-
dilsa (safarvels qveS, mfarvelobaSi) Sekrebili iyvnes~,
dasaxelebuli hyavs „mefeni da xelmwifeni frangeTisani~,
cxadia, aRmosavleTis „frangebisa~, jvarosnebisa.
qarTuli wyaroebiT, kerZod, Tamaris pirveli is-
torikosis cnobiT, daviT aRmaSenebeli Tavisi laSqriT
ierusalimisaTvis brZolebSic ki iRebda monawileobas;
Tamaris istorikosi werda: „axlisa daviTisni (e. i. da-
viT aRmaSeneblis _ S.m.) wyobaTa daviTisaTa ierusalems
erTobdeso~, e. i. daviT aRmaSeneblis jarebi ierusa-
limSi daviT winaswarmetyvelis razmebTan gaerTianebu-
li iyvnen. rogorc Tavis droze k. kekeliZem ganmarta,
daviT winaswarmetyvelis razmebad aq alegoriulad igu-
lisxmebian jvarosnebi, romelTac TiTqos miznad hqon-
daT daviT winaswarmetyvelis sataxto qalaqis, ieru-
salimis ganTavisufleba „urjuloTagan~.
Tamaris istorikoss, romelic daviTis droidan
erTi saukunis Semdeg cxovrobda, es cnoba Zveli wyaro-
ebisa, an kidev, gadmocemebis mixedviT eqneboda Setani-
li Tavis saistorio TxzulebaSi. aseTi cnoba misTvis
SeeZloT miewodebinaT TviT jvarosnebsac, romelnic,
misive sityviT, daviTis SviliSvilis, giorgi mesamisa
(1156-1184 ww.) da Tamaris drosac agrZelebdnen kavSir-
urTierTobas saqarTvelos saxelmwifosTan. Tamaris is-
torikoss im mefeTa Soris, romelnic giorgi mesamesTan
Zmobdnen da mas „sZRvenobdes~ (e. i. ZRvens ugzavnidnen),

122
mxsenebuli hyavs mefeni „ierusalims alamanTani~ („al-
manebs~ anu „alemanebs~ frangebi uwodebdnen germane-
lebs). ase rom, qarTveli istorikosis am cnobaSi ieru-
salimis germaneli (evropeli) feodal-mefeebis saqarT-
velos mefesTan urTierTobis Sesaxeb aris saubari.
Tamaris istorikosis zemomotanil cnobas unda em-
yarebodes saqarTvelos istoriis XIX s. cnobili mkvle-
vari p. ioseliani, romelic savsebiT garkveulad miu-
TiTebda daviT aRmaSeneblis mier laSqris araerTxel
gagzavnis Sesaxeb „qristes saflavisa~ da sxva „wminda
adgilTa~ gaTavisuflebisaTvis warmoebul brZolebSi
monawileobis misaRebad. p. ioselianis mixedviT, davi-
Tis mier am mizniT gagzavnili saxelovani qarTveli
mebrZolebis pirveli razmebi Savma zRvam STanTqa. mag-
ram arc amas SeuSinebia saqarTvelos mefe da meored ga-
ugzavnia „qristesTvis mebrZolTa~ didi laSqari, ro-
melmac, pl. ioselianisave mowmobiT, amjerad mSvidobi-
anad CaaRwia daniSnul adgils da SeuerTda siriis qris-
tianebsa da dasavleTis mxedarTmTavrebis droSis qveS
gaerTianebul somxebs. pl. ioselianis es cnoba, romlis
sxva wyaro CvenTvis ucnobia, Semdeg gaimeores saqar-
Tvelos istoriis sxva mkvlevarebmac (poto, n. urbneli
da sxv.). SesaZlebelia pl. ioselianis cnobebi realur
viTarebas zustad ver asaxaven, magram Cven mier zemomo-
tanili masalebidan kargad irkveva, rom daviT IV-sTan
jvarosnebs urTierToba daumyarebiaT da rom es urTi-
erToba orive mxaris mier TavianTi interesebis Sesaba-
misad da sasargeblod iyo gamoyenebuli.
aseTi iyo saqarTvelos saSinao da sagareo mdgoma-
reoba XII s. 20-iani wlebisaTvis, didgoris brZolis win.

123
Tavi III. didgoris brZolis mizezebi

sagareo mdgomareobis zemomotanili mimoxilvidan


kargad Canda, rom saqarTvelos samefos sagareo poli-
tikis upirveles amocanad rCeboda Turq-selCukTa sa-
kiTxis gadawyveta. samefo xelisuflebis sxva sagareo
politikuri mimarTulebani ZiriTadad am umTavresi amo-
canisadmi iyo daqvemdebarebuli; aman ganapiroba arsebi-
Tad saqarTvelos urTierTobaTa zemoganxiluli for-
mebi bizantiasTan, Zvel ruseTTan, osebsa da yivCayeb-
Tan, amierkavkasiis xalxebTan Tu aRmosavleTis jvaros-
nul samefo-samTavroebTan.
magram TurqebTan urTierToba amave dros iyo sa-
qarTvelos samefos saSinao politikis erT-erTi umTav-
resi sakiTxic. araerTi saSinao RonisZieba gatarda sa-
mefo xelisuflebis mier Turqi dampyroblebis proble-
mis gadaWris daCqarebis mizniT. da es yvelaferi imitom,
rom Turqebi da maTi sameurneo, ekonomikuri sistema,
rogorc zemoT iTqva, gadaSenebiT emuqreboda feodal-
uri saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikur wyobasa da, ma-
Sasadame, yvelafer imas, rac am wyobaze iyo aRmocene-
buli, e. i. yovelive qarTulsa da qarTvelurs.
amitom iyo, rom daviT aRmaSenebelma gamefebis
pirveli wlebidanve, jer kidev mcire razmebiT, brZola
gamoucxada Turq dampyrobelTa moTareSe gundebs, ra-
sac XII s. damdegidan ufro farTo xasiaTi mieca, gansa-
kuTrebiT erwuxis zemoganxiluli brZolis Semdeg.
Turqebis didi marcxi iyo saqarTveloSi qarTvel-
Ta laSqris mier, giorgi mwignobarTuxuces-Wyondide-
lis uSualo xelmZRvanelobiT, cixe-qalaq samSvildis
aReba 1110 wels. samSvildis aRebas qvemo qarTlis um-
ravles cixeTa gaTavisuflebac mohyva: „cnes ra TurqTa
aReba samSvildisa, umravlesi cixeni somxiTisani daut-
evneso~ _ wers daviTis istorikosi. Turq dampyrobTaT-

124
vis aseTi marcxi moulodneli iyo da, rogorc Cans,
mdgomareobis gamosworeba maT didi laSqris gamogzav-
niT scades. daviTis istorikosis sityviT, sultanma am
dros qarTlSi gamoistumra „yoveli Turqoba, kaci vi-
Tar asi aTasi~. rogorc Cans, TurqTa aseTi didi rao-
denobiT da isic ase swrafad da farulad (ugrZneulad)
Semosvla qarTvelebisaTvis moulodneli iyo. mefe am
dros naWarmagevs mdgara Tavis mxleblebiTurT, mas Se-
Ramebisas acnobes saqarTvelos sazRvrebze TurqTa ga-
moCena, ciskrisas ki ukve TrialeTTan Seegeba igi mters
da brwyinvale gamarjvebac moipova. es iyo saqarTvelos
laSqris pirveli didi gamarjveba TurqebTan brZolaSi
da am ukanasknelTa aseve pirveli didi marcxi saqarTve-
los teritoriaze. amasTanave, arabuli wyaros cnobiT,
1110 wels daviTma kidev erT warmatebas miaRwia _ ganZa
dalaSqra da aiRo. daviTis warmatebebma, TurqTa asi-
aTasian laSqarze gamarjvebam sabolood gafanta miTi
TurqTa uZlevelobis Sesaxeb da kidev ufro ganamtkica
gaTavisuflebisaTvis mebrZol qarTvelTa rwmena gamar-
jvebisadmi. amas garda, samSvildisaTvis brZolam da
TurqTa asiaTasiani laSqris damarcxebam Turq-selCu-
kebs daanaxva is qveyana, romelic maT winaaRmdeg axal
Zlier Zalad aRimarTa maxlobel aRmosavleTSi. Turqe-
bis winaSe amieridan, jvarosnebis problemasTan erTad,
saqarTvelos problemac dadga.
Turqebis didi laSqris damarcxebas samSvildesa
da TrialeTTan mohyva axal-axali gamarjvebebi. Tria-
leTis brZolis Semdeg ar gasula didi xani, rom isev
giorgi Wyondidelis xelmZRvanelobiT, qarTvelebma q.
rusTavi aiRes. es 1115 wels iyo. amis Semdeg, daviT aR-
maSenebelma gailaSqra taoSi vidre basianamde „uSiSrad
guldebiTa msxdomareTa~ TurqTa winaaRmdeg da „mos-
res simravle maTi uricxvi~. kaxeTSi cixe giSis aRebis
Semdeg ki brZola Turqebis winaaRmdeg faqtobrivad

125
gascilda saqarTvelos sazRvrebs. daviTis Zem demetrem
Sirvans gailaSqra, ufliswulma „qmnna omi sakvirvelni~
da qalaZoris cixec aiRo. Sirvanis Semdeg jeri TurqTa
mier dapyrobil yofil somxur wvril samefoebze midga.
1118 wels daviT aRmaSenebelma lore Turqebs waarTva
da saqarTvelos SemouerTa. amieridan, saqarTvelos sa-
mefo TurqTa mier dapyrobili somxuri teritoriebis
gamaTavisufleblad da damcvelad gamodioda.
lores gaTavisuflebasa da SemoerTebas uaRresad
didi mniSvneloba hqonda: igi somxeTTan da samxreTis
qveynebTan damakavSirebel ZiriTad gzebze mdebareobda.
samSvildis, rusTavis da lores aRebiT Tbilisi saqar-
Tvelos mefis mier SemoerTebuli da Semomtkicebuli
qalaqebisa da cixe-simagreebis alyaSi eqceoda. rkali
Tbilisis irgvliv TandaTan viwrovdeboda, magram Tbi-
lisis SemoerTebas daviT IV ar Cqarobda _ jer kidev sa-
Wiro iyo qveynis SigniT reformebis dasruleba da Tur-
qebis winaaRmdeg brZolis gagrZeleba saqarTvelos saz-
Rvrebs gareT.
oriode wlis Semdeg, roca daviTma daamTavra yiv-
CayTa gadmoyvana da axali laSqris organizacia, kidev
ufro farTo xasiaTi miiRo Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZo-
lam. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, rom saqarTvelos same-
fom farTo masStabiT Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZola swo-
red im dros ganaaxla, roca Turqebma, ilRazis sar-
dlobiT, warmatebebi moipoves jvarosnebis winaaRmdeg
brZolaSi. es 1119 w. miwuruli da 1120 w. damdegi iyo.
swored 1120 w. Tebervals daviT mefe Tavs daesxa Tur-
qebs bortiaSi da musri gaavlo maT. aqedan Ranxuas mi-
sulma qarTvelTa laSqarma SirvanSi gailaSqra da qala-
qi yabala aiRo. Semdeg mefe erTxans qarTlSi Semobrun-
da, „mswrafl Sekriba spa~ da maisis damdegs isev Sirvan-
Si gailaSqra da daarbia Turqebi „liJaTiT vidre qur-
devanamde da xiStalanTamde~. liJaTi anu lizani~, ro-

126
gorc es dRes garkveulia, mdebareobda Sirvanis Crdi-
loeT nawilSi, kavkasionis mTebis samxreT kalTebze, Se-
maxiidan Crdilo-dasavleTiT sul 30 km manZilze. aqve,
Semaxiasa da lizans Soris, iyo qurdevanic.
rogorc vxedavT, daviT aRmaSenebels aRmosavle-
TiT Turqebisa da Turquli orientaciis qveynebis wina-
aRmdeg brZolaSi didi warmatebebisaTvis miuRwevia.
magram es kidev ar Canda sakmarisi SirvanSi saqarTvelos
mefis poziciebis gansamtkiceblad. swored im dros,
roca saqarTvelos mefe SirvanSi utevda, darubande-
lebma SirvanSahis, afridonis winaaRmdeg gailaSqres da
SirvanSahi daRupes kidec; es saqarTvelos mefis monawi-
leobis gareSe ar unda momxdariyo _ daviTma, rogorc
Cans, Tavidan moiSora Turquli orientaciis afridoni
da mis adgilze, sanam misi siZe, manuCari taxts daiWer-
da, saqarTvelos mefisaTvis sasurveli kandidati gaame-
fa, Sirvani Turqul orientacias CamoaSora da selCukTa
winaaRmdeg brZolaSi CaiTria. es kidev erTi didi gamar-
jveba iyo Turquli garemocvis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi.
aRmosavleT sazRvrebze poziciebis SedarebiT gan-
mtkicebis Semdeg daviT aRmaSenebelma samxreTiT gaagr-
Zela Setevebi _ „iwyo rbevad _ sparseTisa... da somxeTi-
sa didisa~, ise rom, misi Tavdasxmebi am mxriv zogjer
uSualod msxvil mahmadian mflobelTa qveynebis saz-
Rvrebamde vrceldeboda. mag., 1120 w. miwuruls, davi-
Tis istorikosis sityviT, „warvida mefe aSornias, daes-
xa TurqmenTa, mosrna da iavaryvna~. aSornia ki, sadac
daviTs am dros gaulaSqria, arc ise daSorebuli iyo
ilRazis samflobeloebs _ mardinsa da maiafarikins.
aRsaniSnavia, rom erT-erTi aRmosavluri wyaros mixed-
viT, didgoris omis wina xanebSi qarTvelebs gaulaSqri-
aT siriaSic, romelic maT adrec mourbeviaT. rogorc
irkveva, XII s. 20-ian wlebSi daviTis brZola Turqebis
winaaRmdeg ramdenime frontze miznad isaxavda Turqe-

127
bis gandevnas ara marto saqarTvelosa da misi mezobeli
qveynebidan, aramed TurqTa Zalebis Sesustebas saer-
Tod maxlobel aRmosavleTSi. es ki Tavisi SedegebiT,
cxadia, savsebiT exmaureboda im molaparakebebs, rome-
lic saqarTveloSi swored am ambebis win gaimarTa daviT
IV-sa da balduin II-s Soris.
daviT IV-m Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZoliTve daiwyo
1121 w. zamTaric, afxazeTidan swrafad mobrunebulma
mefem dampyrobelTagan gawminda xunani, xolo Semdeg
bardavSic ilaSqra. am ganuwyvetel omebs erTgvari Se-
mosavalic mohqonda samefo xazinisaTvis. istorikosis
sityviT, nadavliTa da alafiT aivso qveyana. gauTavebe-
li omebiT miyenebul zarals mefis xelisufleba, nawi-
lobriv mainc, am alafiTa da nadavliT faravda. amasTan,
ukve aSkara iyo, rom qarTveli xalxi warmatebiT awar-
moebda brZolas Turq dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg da rom
mas ara marto saqarTvelodan, mosazRvre qveynebidanac
erekeboda. amave dros, saqarTvelos mefe Tavs esxmoda
TviT mahmadian mflobelTa qveynebs da maxlobel aRmo-
savleTSi Turquli gavlenisa Tu Turq-selCukTa gaba-
tonebuli mdgomareobis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi mniSvne-
lovan warmatebebs aRwevda. ai, swored es gaxda, daviTis
istorikosis sityviT, didgoris omis ZiriTadi mizezi.
20-ian wlebSi mowyobilma zemoaRniSnulma laSqrobebma,
istorikosis gadmocemiT, friad Seaviwrova Turqi dam-
pyroblebi: „amaT eseviTarTa WirTagan Seiwroebulni
Turqmanni... warvides sultansa winaSe~ daxmarebis saT-
xovnelado.
saqarTvelos mefis mier Turqebis winaaRmdeg war-
matebiT warmoebul brZolebs didgoris omis mizezad
Tvlis somexi istorikosi maTe urhaelic, oRond mas am
brZolis uSualo sababad ki daviTis mier 1121 wels
TurqTa didi laSqris damarcxeba miaCnia: „iyo vinme ami-
ra ganZakis qveynidan, saxelad xazi, kaci sisxlismRvre-

128
li, urcxvi da saSineli avazaki. igi iyo mosazRvre qar-
TvelTa qveynisa da siyvaruliT morCilebda qarTvelTa
mefes daviTs. am (1121 _ S.m.) wels man ganizraxa borote-
ba, xazim miiRo sami bevri (30 000 _ S.m.) TurqTa jari, Se-
vida qarTvelTa qveyanaSi, erTi nawili tyved waasxa... wa-
vida da dabanakda Tavis adgilas. rodesac es gaigo qar-
TvelTa mefem daviTma, gagzavna qarTvelTa qveynis ja-
rebi. isini Cumad mividnen da Tavs daesxnen TurqTa ja-
rebs. man maTgan amowyvita ocdaaTi aTasi kaci da yvela
maTi colebi, maTi Zeni da uricxvi cxvrisa fara tyved
waasxa. mravali da auracxeli nadavli waiRo qarTvelTa
qveyanaSi. maSin TurqTa jaridan darCenilebma didi
safrTxis gamo SeiRebes TavianTi samosi, Tavze miwa da-
iyares da Savi tansacmliT da Tavdauxuravni gahkiodnen
TavianT sulTanTan, qalaq ganZakSi, meliqTan tafaris
ZesTan da tiriliT Ciodnen mis winaSe TavianT daRupvas;
xolo sxvebi mividnen arabTa olqSi, karmianis qveyanaSi
amira RazisTan arduxis ZesTan da didi tiriliT uam-
bobdnen maTs momxdar daRupvas~ da am ukanasknelma ki-
dev omis Tadarigi daiWirao.
ase rom, maTe urhaelis cnobiT, omis uSualo mize-
zi ganZis amiras avazakuri saqcieli _ 30 000-iani laS-
qriT saqarTveloze Tavdasxma da daviTis mier am laS-
qris damarcxeba iyo. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom daviTis
istorikoss, romelic saerTod detalurad aRwers da-
viTis omebs, didgoris brZolis win qarTvelTa mier
ganZis amiras ase didi laSqris damarcxebis Sesaxeb ara-
feri aqvs naTqvami. am oms ar ixseniebs arc sxva wyaro.
yvelaferi es ki maTe urhaelis am cnobas saeWvos xdis.
magram faqtia, rom daviTis SeteviTi omebis wyalobiT,
Turqebi marTlac did gansacdelSi aRmoCenilan da sa-
erTo ZaliT ucdiaT misi SeCereba. amas garda, SemTxve-
viTi ar iyo agreTve isic, rom swored ganZa, erTi pir-
velTagani, TbilisTan da dmanisTan erTad, Caudga saTa-
9. SoTa mesxia 129
veSi daviTis winaaRmdeg koaliciis mowyobis saqmes; ase
rom, didgoris omis win Seqmnil saerTo viTarebas maTe
urhaelic, rogorc Cans, sworad asaxavs.
mahmadian istorikoss ibn al-asirsac didgoris
brZolis mizezad qarTvelebis SemosevebiT muslimebis
Seviwroeba miaCnia. misi azriT, aman aiZula muslimi ami-
rebi gaerTianebuliyvnen da saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg ga-
moelaSqraT.
aseT zogad safuZvels garda, didgoris brZolas
ufro konkretuli mizezebic gaaCnda. es iyo daviT aR-
maSeneblis politika, misi damokidebuleba saqarTvelos
qalaqebTan, saerTod, da kerZod, TbilisTan. Cven zemoT
ukve aRvniSneT, rom saqarTvelos samefo xelisufleba
qalaqebs, misi mosaxleobis zedafenas opoziciuri did-
gvarovnebis winaaRmdeg iyenebda. qveynis gaerTianeba da
Zlieri samefo xelisufleba qalaqebsac sWirdebodaT,
amitom garkveul dros qalaqebic gamodiodnen mefis
mokavSireebad qveynis gaerTianebisaTvis brZolaSi. mag-
ram maTi aseTi kavSiri didxans ar gagrZelebula. ro-
gorc ki gaZlierda saqarTvelos mefis xelisufleba,
romelmac daamarcxa mowinaaRmdege saeklesio da saero
feodalebi da Seqmna Zlieri, centralisturi xelisuf-
leba, TandaTan daiwyo brZola TviT qalaqebis morCi-
lebaSi mosayvanadac, maT Semosamtkiceblad da samefo
qalaqebad gadasaqcevad. qalaqebis damorCilebisaTvis
brZolis pirveli etapi daviT aRmaSenebelma XII s. 20-ia-
ni wlebisaTvis daasrula. magram jer kidev ar iyo Semo-
erTebuli saqarTvelos udidesi qalaqi Tbilisi da ag-
reTve dmanisic.
daviT IV Tbilisis mimarT gansakuTrebul frTxil
da moqnil politikas awarmoebda. mas qalaqisaTvis er-
TbaSad ar Seutevia, radgan Tbiliss am dros damouki-
debeli TviTmmarTveloba hqonda, aravis emorCileboda,
aravis uflebas ar scnobda _ igi qalaq-respublikas, qa-

130
laq-komunas warmoadgenda. amasTanave, daviTs kargad
esmoda Tbilisis mniSvneloba imdroindeli aRmosavle-
Tis ekonomikur cxovrebaSi da yovelnairad cdilobda
es didi Zala gonivrulad gamoeyenebina. gansakuTrebiT
im periodSi, roca mefe gadamwyvet brZolebs awarmoeb-
da saSinao da sagareo mtrebis winaaRmdeg, roca igi
didmniSvnelovan reformebs atarebda da gansakuTrebiT
sWirdeboda qalaqebis, kerZod ki, Tbilisis mxardaWera.
magram viTareba arsebiTad Seicvala mas Semdeg,
rac daviT IV-m Zlieri, TviTmpyrobeluri xelisufleba
da erTiani, centralizebuli monarqia Seqmna. amieridan
igi Tavis teritoriaze veRar moiTmenda qalaq-respub-
likebis, damoukidebeli erTeulebis arsebobas. gaZli-
erebul samefo xelisuflebas ukve SeeZlo Tavisi Zveli
mokavSiris damorCilebazec efiqra. es asec moxda: daiw-
yo qalaqebisadmi damokidebulebis meore etapi _ brZo-
la qalaq-respublikebis, komunebis gauqmebisaTvis, da-
morCilebisaTvis.
daviT aRmaSenebelma Tbilisis Seviwroeba da misi
SemoerTebisaTvis niadagis momzadeba ukve 1120 wlidan
daiwyo. qalaqis damoukideblobas realuri safrTxe Se-
eqmna; Tbilisis imdroindelma xelisuflebam, „qalaqis
uxucesebma~, maTma sabWom da „qalaqis Tavadma~ kargad
igrZnes es saSiSroeba da yovelnairad Seecadnen Tavi-
dan aecdinaT damoukideblobis dakargvis safrTxe. sa-
amiso damxmare Zalebis Zieba Tbilisis Tavkacebma saqar-
Tvelos mezobel Zlier mahmadian mflobelebSi daiwyes.
am mxriv friad saintereso cnoba aqvs daculi Cven mier
zemoxsenebul arab istorikoss al-fariks: „mefe daviTi,
mefe qarTvelTa da afxazTa, Zlier aviwroebda mas (Tbi-
liss _ S.m.). maSin isini (Tbiliselebi _ S.m.) wavidnen
sulTan ToRrulTan, romelic maSin imyofeboda ganZasa
da aranSi (gamgeblad _ S.m.). da man misca maT (Tbilise-
lebs _ S.m.) Sihna (nacvali _ S.m.). saqarTvelos mefis mi-

131
er TbiliselTa Seviwroeba mainc ar wydeboda. maSin isi-
ni (Tbiliselebi da mefe _ S.m.) SeTanxmdnen, raTa (qa-
laqs mefisaTvis _ S.m.) yovelwliurad gadaexada aTi
aTasi dinari da rom TbilisSi yofiliyo (mefis _ S.m.)
nacvali aTi mxedriT. da darCnen am pirobiT cota xans~.
rogorc am cnobidan Cans, Tbiliselebi, ganZisa da
aranis gamgeblis SemweobiT, mis mier Tbilisze mfarve-
lobis xelis dadebiT cdilobdnen SeenarCunebinaT da-
moukidebloba da Tavidan aecdinaT saqarTvelos mefis
Semoteva, magram gaZlierebul saqarTvelos mefes sul-
Tan ToRrulis moqmedebam ukan ver daaxevina da daviTi
Tbilisis Seviwroebas isev ganagrZobda. Tbilisis Tavka-
cebi iZulebuli gamxdaran eRiarebinaT mefis mfarvelo-
ba, risi simboluri niSanic TbilisSi mefis nacvlisa da
misi aTi mxedris gamogzavna iyo, magram qalaqi inarCu-
nebda Sinagan damoukideblobas da amis safasurad mefi-
saTvis yovelwliurad sakmaod did Tanxas _ 10 000 di-
nars _ ixdida. amrigad, Tbilisma imJamad faqtobrivad
iyida saqalaqo saqmeebis gamgeblobaSi damoukidebloba.
es mxolod droebiTi RonisZieba iyo. aseTi piroba
ar awyobda arc saqarTvelos mefes da arc Tbilisis
gamgeblebs. am pirveli nabijis Semdeg daviTi, cxadia,
qalaqis sruli damorCilebisaTvis samzadiss Seudgebo-
da. Tbilisis mmarTveli zedafena xedavda amas da cdi-
lobda gaTavisuflebuliyo mefis mfarvelobisa da aqe-
dan gamomdinare, dakisrebuli valdebulebisagan. urTi-
erToba qalaqsa da mefes Soris sul ufro da ufro
mwvavdeboda. amitomac Tbilisis uxucesebma, saqarTve-
los mefesTan SeTanxmebis miuxedavad, isev daiwyes axa-
li mfarvelis Zieba. al-farikis sityviT, maT 1121 wels
TxovniT mimarTes isev mahmadian mflobels, mardinisa
da maiafarikinis patrons nejm ad-din ilRazis, raTa
mosuliyo da qalaqi Caebarebina. am ukanasknelmac did-
Zali laSqari Sekriba da Tbilisisaken daiZra. Semdeg

132
al-fariki ukve didgoris brZolis ambebs gadmogvcems.
rogorc vxedavT, al-farikis mixedviT, didgoris
omis uSualo mizezad iqca saqarTvelos mefis brZola
Tbilisis SemosaerTeblad. amas arsebiTad adasturebs
da avsebs daviTis istorikosis cnobebic. misi monaceme-
biT, didgoris brZola gamoiwvia marto Turq-selCukTa
saerTo Seviwroebam, aramed saqarTvelos mefis cdamac
Tbilisisa da sxva qalaqebis xelSi Casagdebad. amitom
daviTis istorikosi daxmarebis maZieblebad acxadebs
ara marto „WirTagan Seiwrebul TurqmanT~, aramed gan-
Zel, Tbilel da dmanel Tavkacebsac, romelTac igi am
qalaqebis vaWrebad ixseniebs.
istorikosi wers: „amgvari gasaWiriT Seviwroe-
bulni Turqmanni da agreTve ganZel-dmanelni vaWarni
warvidnen sultnis winaSe da yovel sparseTSi, SeiRebes
Savad zogma piri, zogma xelebi, zogma kidev sruliad da
amgvarad mouTxres yoveli gasaWiri, maTze moweuli, ra-
Ta wyaloba aRmoeCinaT maTTvis da Seiqmna didi glova
maT Soriso~. amis Semdeg daviTis istorikosic, al-fa-
rikis msgavsad, mogviTxrobs koaliciuri laSqris Sed-
genisa da didgoris brZolis ambebs. ase rom, daviTis
istorikosis cnobiTac, didgoris brZola gamouwvevia
saqarTvelosa da misi mezobeli qveynebis qalaqTa gam-
geblebis elCobas sulTnis winaSe.
zemoxsenebuli cnobidan Cans, rom saqarTvelos me-
fe q. dmanisis mimarTac iseTsave politikas axorcieleb-
da, rogorsac Tbilisis mimarT, rom saqarTvelos damou-
kidebeli qalaqebis dasaxmareblad masTan kavSirSi aRmo-
Cenilan mezobeli qveynis qalaqebic, am SemTxvevaSi q.
ganZa (dRevandeli ganja, azerbaijanis respublika). davi-
Tis istorikosis cnobis mixedviT, TviTmpyrobeli mefis
winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad emzadebodnen ara marto sa-
qarTvelos mefis mier saerTod Seviwroebuli da qveyni-
dan gaZevebuli Turq-selCukebi, aramed damoukidebeli

133
qalaqi-komunebi, maTi kavSiri _ „qalaqTa kavSiri~. es gax-
da didgoris brZolis uSualo mizezi, aseTi brZola qa-
laqebs, maT kavSirebsa da mefis xelisuflebas Soris ara-
erTi icis Sua saukuneebis dasavleT evropis istoriam.
qalaq-respublikebis gaerTianebuli Zalebi mainc
sakmarisi ar Canda saqarTvelos mefis Semotevisagan
Tavdasacavad da amitom sTxoves maT daxmareba mezobel
qveynebs, kerZod imas, vinc isedac upirispirdeboda
Zlierebis gzaze ganuxrelad Semdgar saqarTvelos same-
fos. TurqTa sulTans saqarTvelos mefesTan Tavisi an-
gariSebic hqonda da saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg galaSqre-
bis aseT xelsayrel moments, roca qveynis SigniT Zlie-
ri qalaqebi mis momwvevad da damxmareebad gamodiodnen,
cxadia, xelidan ar gauSvebda. swored aman, aseTma xel-
sayrelma drom Semoabruna ilRazi, rogorc Cans, antio-
qia-ierusalimidan didgorisaken. swored aman aiZula
igi da misi vaJi suleimani, aTaribis cixis gamgebeli,
`frangebis~ winaaRmdeg amjerad (1121 w. maisSi) pirispir
brZolas moridebodnen da miuxedavad zavis mZime piro-
bebisa, sazavo molaparakeba gaemarTaT alepos dasapy-
robad gamzadebul jvarosnebTan.
rogorc vxedavT, didgoris brZolis ZiriTadi da
saerTo mizezi saqarTvelos samefos gaZliereba iyo.
Turqma dampyroblebma kargad dainaxes, rom saqarTve-
los saxiT Zlierdeboda axali da aranakleb saSiSi Zala,
vidre jvarosnebi da bizantielebi iyvnen. es axali Zala
warmatebiT erekeboda Turq dampyroblebs ara marto
sakuTari, aramed mezobeli qveynebidanac. ase rom, Tur-
qebi kargavdnen, saqarTvelosTan erTad, sxva maT mier
amierkavkasiaSi dapyrobil qveynebsac da saerTod, pir-
velobasac maxlobel aRmosavleTSi.
amas garda, selCukebis brZola jvarosnebis wina-
aRmdeg, momavali ieriSebi antioqiasa da ierusalimze,
pirvel rigSi, saqarTvelos damarcxebisa da am gziT

134
zurgis uSiSroebis uzrunvelyofis gareSe ver iqneboda
garantirebuli. amrigad, axlo aRmosavleTSi ori didi
Zala upirispirdeboda erTmaneTs _ mzardi saqarTvelo
da Turq-selCukTa saxelmwifo. erTmaneTisagan gansxva-
vebuli iyo maTi sameurneo, socialuri Tu saxelmwifo-
ebrivi wyoba. am or qveyanas Soris brZola arsebiTad
iyo brZola or gansxvavebul sameurneo sistemas Soris
_ ganviTarebul intensiur meurneobasa da jer kidev na-
xevradpatriarqalur, eqstensiur, momTabare-mejogur
meurneobas Soris. saqarTvelo, romelic damoukideb-
lobisa da progresisaTvis ibrZoda, did xelisSemSlel
dabrkolebad iqceoda axlo aRmosavleTSi Turq-sel-
CukTa politikis warmatebisaTvis. amitomac Turqebs
pirvelobis SenarCunebisaTvis brZola ukarnaxebda gzi-
dan CamoecilebinaT saqarTvelo, erTxel da samudamod
bolo moeRoT misTvis.
aseTi sagareo situacia, rogorc Cans, kargad hqon-
daT SemCneuli am ambebis Tanamedroveebs. gotie Tavis
qronikaSi didgoris omis mizezad swored amas, im droi-
saTvis Seqmnil sagareo viTarebas asaxelebs. misi sity-
viT, mahmadianTa gaerTianebulma Zalam ilRazis meTau-
robiT imitom gailaSqra saqarTveloSi, „raTa misi (da-
viTis _ S.m.) daRupvis an gandevnis Semdeg Tavisuflad
da daubrkoleblad Seudges antioqiis damorCilebas da
qristianebis amowyvetas~. rogorc Cans, Turq-selCu-
kebs surdaT saqarTvelos damarcxebiT maxlobeli aR-
mosavleTi gaewmindaT Zlieri da saSiSi metoqisagan;
isini saamiso xelsayrel aminds elodebodnen da aseTi
amindic male dadga: TviT saqarTvelos SigniT aRmoCnd-
nen iseTi Zalebi, romelnic Turqebs daxmarebisaTvis
iwvevdnen saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebis winaaRm-
deg sabrZolvelad. eseni, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, sa-
qarTvelos qalaqebi iyvnen, romelnic Zlieri mefis da-
marcxebiT fiqrobdnen TavianTi damoukideblobis Se-

135
narCunebas. ase rom, revanSisaTvis ganwyobil Turqebs
friad xelsayreli momenti eqmnebodaT da amitom maT,
rogorc ki saqarTvelodan daxmarebis mTxovnelni ga-
moCndnen, dauyovnebliv daiWires Tadarigi da didi
laSqrobis mowyoba gadawyvites.
zedmetia imaze laparaki, rom yvelaferi es mou-
lodneli ar yofila saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebi-
saTvis: daviTis saSinao Tu sagareo politika aucile-
bels xdida Turq-selCukebTan gadamwyvet brZolas, amas
moiTxovda qveynis damoukideblobisa da siZlieris Se-
narCunebis interesebi, TviT saqarTvelos brZola pir-
velobisaTvis maxlobel aRmosavleTSi.
amrigad, ori didi Zalis Sejaxeba orive mxarisaT-
vis garduvali Canda.

136
Tavi IV. didgoris brZola

1. mowinaaRmdegeTa laSqari, misi Sedgeniloba

imdroindeli saerTaSoriso viTareba, rogorc aR-


vniSneT, Turq-selCukebsa da saqarTvelos saxelmwifos
aSkarad upirispirebda erTmaneTs. yvelafridan cxadi
iyo, rom es Zlieri winaaRmdegoba dRes Tu xval iara-
RiT unda gadawyvetiliyo. magram gadaudebel amocanad
igi saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebis mier gandevnil
da Seviwroebul TurqTa da qalaqebis _ Tbilisis, dma-
nisis da ganZis _ TavkacTa elCobam aqcia. aman daaCqara
koaliciuri laSqris Seqmna da didgoris brZolac. yve-
la Tanamedrove istorikosis (daviTis istorikosi, maTe
urhaeli, al-fariki) mowmobiT, daviTis mier awiokebul-
ma Turqmanebma da zemodasaxelebuli qalaqebis mmarTve-
li zedafenis warmomadgenlebma, mwuxarebis niSnad xel-
pir Savad SeRebilebma, tansacmelSemofleTilebma da
Tavze nacardayrilebma gadawyvites „maT zeda mowevnuli
yovelni Wirni~ moeTxroT da daxmareba eZiaT Zlier mah-
madian mflobelebs Soris. es elCoba, daviTis istoriko-
sis cnobebis mixedviT, 1121 w. april-maisSi Semdgara.
vis mimarTes daxmarebisaTvis Turqebma da qalaqe-
bis warmomadgenlebma? am kiTxvaze saistorio wyaroebs
sxvadasxvagvari cnobebi aqvT daculi; magaliTad, davi-
Tis istorikosis cnobiT, „Seiwrebulni Turqmanni~ da
moqalaqeTa warmomadgenlebi „warvides sulTansa winaSe
da yovelsa sparseTsa~, e. i. isini pirvel rigSi sulTans
xlebian, magram amiTac ar dakmayofilebulan da sxva
mahmadiani mflobelebisaTvisac miumarTavT. istoriko-
sis gancxadeba _ „warvides... yovelsa sparseTsa~ _ swo-
red amaze miuTiTebs. somexi istorikosis, maTe urhae-
lis mixedviT ki, Savtansacmliani da Tavdauxuravi el-

137
Cebi „gahkiodnen TavianT sulTanTan qalaq ganZakSi me-
liqTan, tafaris ZesTan da tiriliT Ciodnen mis winaSe
TavianT daRupvas. xolo sxvebi mividnen arabTa olqSi,
karmianis (kabadokiis _ S.m.) qveyanaSi amira xazisTan, ar-
duxis ZesTan da didi tiriliT uambobdnen mas... xolo
man Tavisi Zlierebisa da zviadobis gamo brZana Sekrebi-
liyo Tavisi jarebis simravle~...
maTe urhaelis mier moxsenebuli sulTani meliqi
unda iyos daviTis istorikosis mier koaliciuri laS-
qris monawiled moxsenebuli da sulTnis Zed miCneuli
maliqi. ase rom, maTes cnobiT, TbilelTa sxvaTa warmo-
madgenelTa erT nawils pirvel rigSi ganZaSi myof ma-
liqisaTvis miumarTavs, xolo meore nawils _ amira Ra-
zisaTvis, arduxis ZisaTvis. maTe urhaelis Razi ardu-
xis Ze igivea, rac sxva wyaroebSi ilRazi arduxis Ze.
gansxvavebul cnobas iZleva agreTve al-farikic,
romlis mixedviTac, „Tbilisis xalxi wavida najm ad-din-
ilRazTan da sTxova mas mosuliyo da Caebarebina qalaqi~.
laSqrobis mTavar iniciatorad ilRazis miiCnevs gotiec.
rogorc vxedavT, zemomotanil cnobaTa Soris erTgvari
winaaRmdegobaa, magram es advilad asaxsnelia da am cno-
baTa urTierTSeTanxmebac mosaxerxebelia.
rogorc irkveva, upiratesoba am SemTxvevaSi qar-
Tul wyaros, daviTis istorikoss unda mieniWos. cxadia,
ufro sarwmunoa, rom Tbilisisa da sxvaTa warmomadgen-
lebs uSualod sulTanisaTvis miemarTaT, vidre ganZis
mflobel maliqis _ tafaris ZisaTvis, an kidev, ilRazi-
saTvis, romelic, marTalia, saxelganTqmul meomrad iyo
miCneuli, magram mahmadian mflobelebSi iseTi gavlena
ver eqneboda, rogoric TviT sulTans. amis garda, swo-
red sulTani SeiZleboda yofiliyo koaliciuri (gaer-
Tianebuli) laSqris Semdgeneli. mas eqneboda ufleba
sxvadasxva mahmadian mflobelTa mowodebisa da erTi
droSis qveS maTi Tavmoyrisa.

138
amrigad, udavoa, rom Tbilisis mosaxleobis war-
momadgenlebma daxmareba pirvel rigSi sTxoves sulTans,
erayis selCukianTa imdroindel gamgebels mahmud moha-
medis Zes (1117-1131 ww.), es iyo mahmadianTa laSqris sa-
qarTveloze Tavdasxmis organizatori. yuradsaRebia
agreTve daviTis istorikosisa da maTe urhaelis cnobe-
bi, romelTa mixedviT, TbiliselTa warmomadgenlebi ar
dakmayofilebulan martooden sulTanTan misvliT da
sxva mahmadian mflobelebTan, „yovel sparseTsa~ Tu
„arabTa olqebSi~, TviT, uSualod gaumarTavT molapa-
rakeba.
advili asaxsnelia al-farikisa da goties mcire
uzustobac, roca isini am saqmis mTavar iniciatorad
ilRazis miiCnevdnen; rogorc Cans, al-farikma da goti-
em TbilelTa elCobis Sedegad saqarTvelosaken daZru-
li koaliciuri laSqrobis saTaveSi myofi ilRazi CaT-
vales im pirovnebad, romelsac „Tbilisis xalxma~ did-
goris brZolis win mimarTa TxovniT.
sulTan mahmud mohamedis Ze maSinve gamoexmaura
TbilelTa Txovnas da saswrafod didi laSqris organi-
zaciis Tadarigi daiWira. man mahmadian mflobelTa erT
nawils mouwoda, xolo meoreT ubrZana; „vinc ki sadme
iyo damasko da alepodan mokidebuli, yvelas, molaS-
qreobis SemZlebels~ monawileoba mieRo saqarTvelos
winaaRmdeg omSi.
vin iyvnen isini, romelTac sulTnis am mowodebiTa
Tu brZanebiT koaliciur laSqarSi Tavi moiyares? Cvens
wyaroebs am mxrivac daculi aqvT saintereso cnobebi.
daviTis istorikosis mixedviT, „sultanma mouwoda ara-
beTis mefe durbeizs, sadayas Zes da mosca Ze Tvisi ma-
liqi da yoveli Zali misi, da aCina spasalarad elRazi Ze
arduxisa... da ubrZana... amaT Tana aTabagsa ganZisasa mi-
siTa ZaliTa da yovelTa somxeTisa amirTa~ monawileoba
mieRoT laSqrobaSi. amrigad, daviTis istorikosis cno-
139
biT, sulTnis mowodebiTa da brZanebiT, saqarTvelos
winaaRmdeg unda gaerTianebuliyvnen durbeiz sadayas Ze,
sulTnis Ze maliqi Tavisi ZaliT, aTabagi ganZisa „misiTa
ZaliTa~ da somxeTis yvela mahmadiani amira. gaerTianebu-
li laSqris sardlad ki sulTnis mier daniSnuli iyo
ilRazi Ze arduxisa.
maTe urhaelis cnobiTac, saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg
laSqrobaSi monawileoba miiRo ilRazi arduxis Zem, misma
siZem, arabTa mefem saRa tupaisis Zem1 da ganZis sulTanma
meliqma tafaris Zem. koaliciuri laSqris monawileni Ca-
moTvlili hyavs al-fariksac; misi sityviT, ilRazTan
erTad saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg wamovidnen: dubeis sada-
yas Ze, romelsac Tan axldnen yadi elm-ad-dini da misi
Svili abul-faTxi, q. mardinis maSindeli yadi da veziri
Tamam-ibn-abduni. ai, aseTi SemadgenlobiT mosulan isini
arzrumSi. sulTani toRruli mosula ganZis mxridan, xo-
lo TuRan arslan kuziani dvinidan unda daZruliyo. am
ukanasknels koaliciis monawiled asaxelebs al-jauzic.
istorikosi ibn al-asiric, ilRazisa da dubeisis
garda, didgoris brZolis monawileebad miiCnevs meliq
ToRruls mohamedis Zes da mis aTabags qen-ToRdis.
rogorc vxedavT, sulTan mahmud mohamedis Zes di-
di samzadisi Cautarebia da saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg mo-
uwvevia maSindeli maxlobeli aRmosavleTis cnobili da
gavleniani mflobelebi. gaerTianebuli laSqrobis mo-

1
maTe urhaelis mier aq moxsenebuli saRa tupaisis Ze, mkvle-
varTa azriT, namdvilad aris abul aaz-dubeisi, Svili seif
ed-dula sadakisa da ara TviT saRa anu sadaka, rogorc es am
somxuri wyaros mixedviT aris warmodgenili. am mxriv savse-
biT zustni arian: daviTis istorikosi, al-fariki da ibn al-
asiri, romelnic didgoris brZolis monawileTa Soris asaxe-
leben durbeizs, anu dubeis sadayas (sadakas) Zes da ara TviT
sadakas.

140
TaveTa Semadgenloba, zemoganxiluli wyaroebis urTi-
erTSejerebis Semdeg, amgvarad warmogvidgeba:
a. nejm ad-din ilRazi, sulTnis mier baRdadis gam-
geblad daniSnuli, auReblad miCneuli cixis, mardinis
mflobeli, alepos dampyrobi, xolo 1121 wlidan maia-
farikinis gamgebeli. ilRazi, daviTis istorikosis da-
xasiaTebiT, iyo „kaci dahmani (marjve _ S.m.) da mraval-
Rone~, „zviadsa da Zliers~ uwodebs mas maTe urhaeli;
„uaRresi ampartavnebiT Tavgasulad~ miaCnia igi gotie-
sac. ilRazma, rogorc sardalma, didad gaiTqva saxeli
jvarosnebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi, gansakuTrebiT 1119
wels, amitomac airCia igi sulTanma mahmudma gaerTiane-
buli laSqris spasalarad.
b. durbeiz (dubeis) sadayis Ze, qalaq hilas (md. ev-
fratze) patroni, daviTis istorikosisa da maTe urhae-
lis sityviT, „arabeTis mefe~. „es iyo, _ wers maTe urha-
eli, _ kaci guladi da mebrZoli. man daatyveva q. baRda-
di da sami brZola gadaixada sparsTa sulTanTan _ ta-
fasTan... man karviT daibanaka eTiopiasa da indoeTs So-
ris da maSin movida da daesiZa sparsTa amira Razis~.
marTlac, didgoris brZolis erTi wliT adre, dubeizs
colad SeurTavs ilRazis asuli gohar-xaTuni, albaT,
amgvari damoyvrebac iyo erTi mizezi imisa, rom dubeisi
ilRazis mowodebas maSinve gamoexmaura da aqtiuri mo-
nawileobac miiRo misi sardlobiT mowyobil brZolaSi.
g. ToRrul mohamedis Ze, yazvinis, zenjanis, gila-
nis da sxvaTa, xolo 1121-1122 ww. aranisa da ganZis gam-
gebeli; sicocxlis bolo sam wels sulTanic iyo; ibn
al-asiri mas meliq ToRrul mohamedis Zed ixseniebs.
swored es meliq ToRruli unda iyos daviTis istori-
kosis mier „sulTnis Zed~ miCneuli meliqi da maTe ur-
haelis mier qalaq ganZakSi myof sulTnad dasaxelebuli
meliq tafaris Ze. didgoris omis win q. ganZas swored
meliq ToRruli flobda. amave dros, es meliq ToRru-

141
li iyo mohamedis Ze, e. i. Zma imdroindeli sulTnis mah-
mudisa. iqneb daviTis istorikosis Txzulebis Tavda-
pirvel xelnawerSi asec ewera: sulTanma „mosca Zma Ta-
visi maliqi~ da ara „Ze Tavisi maliqi~, rogorc es am
Txzulebis Semdegdroindel gadanawerebSia, Tu es asea,
maSin yvelaferi naTeli iqneba _ Zma sulTnisa maliqi
sxva aravin SeiZleba iyos, Tu ara meliq ToRruli.
sulTan mahmuds hyavda Zec, meliqSahad wodebuli,
magram igi am dros dabadebuli ar iqneboda da, cxadia,
daviTis istorikosi mas omis monawileTa Soris ver daa-
saxelebda. amrigad, qarTul da somxur wyaroebSi moxse-
nebuli „sulTnis Ze maliqi~, an kidev, ganZis sulTani me-
liq tafaris Ze namdvilad aris arabuli wyaroebis meliq
ToRruli mohamedis Ze.1 aRsaniSnavia Semdegi garemoebac:
ToRruli didgoris brZolis droisaTvis sul Tormeti-
ode wlisa yofila, da, cxadia, misi piradi monawileoba
laSqrobaSi ufro formaluri iqneboda. ToRrulis laS-
qars am dros saTaveSi, albaT, misive aTabagi, qen-ToRdi
edga, wyaroebSi ganZis aTabagad da laSqrobis monawi-
led moxseniebuli. amitomacaa, rom ToRrulis uSualo
monawileoba didgoris brZolaSi zog mkvlevars saeW-
vod eCveneba.
d. TuRan arslan kuziani, Turqi amira, biTlisisa
da arzanis patroni da q. dvinis dampyrobi.
e. ganZis aTabagi, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, am Sem-
TxvevaSi unda igulisxmebodes ganZis imdroindeli mf-
lobeli, ToRrulis aTabagi qen-ToRdi. ganZis aTabagi
ara marto ToRrulis laSqars uZRveboda, aramed mas
hyavda sakuTaric. daviTis istorikosis cnobiT, sul-
Tanma mas ubrZana „misiT ZaliTa~ gamosvla.
1
ToRrulis mama mohamedi, rogorc wyaroebidan Cans, zogjer
mohamed-tafad, an kidev, ubralod „tafaradac~ iwodeboda.
amitomac mouxsenebia maTe urhaels sulTani meliqi tafaris
Zed.

142
v. daviTis istorikosi SemTxveviT ar moixseniebs
laSqrobis monawileTa Soris „yovelTa somxeTisa amira-
Ta~, e. i. somxeTis teritoriis wvril-wvril mahmadian
gamgeblebs, amirebs, maTac, sulTnis brZanebiT, laSqro-
baSi monawileoba unda mieRoT.
zemodasaxelebulTa garda, koaliciur laSqrobaSi
monawileoba unda mieRoT, dubeisTan erTad, am mizniT
arzrumSi (erzrumSi) mosulT da dabanakebulT: yads elm-
ad-din-ibn jabris, mis Svils, q. mardinis yads abul-
faTxis da vezirs abu-Tammam-ibn-abdunas; magram yadi da
vaziri, al-farikis cnobiT, arzrumSi erTmaneTTan waki-
debulan, koaliciur laSqars Camoscilebian da arzrum-
Sive darCenilan.
amrigad, sulTans marTlac Tavi mouyria yvela-
saTvis _ „sadRac vin iyo... mxedrobad SemZlebeli~ da
mis saTaveSi imdroisaTvis saxelmoxveWili da didi ga-
mocdilebis mqone, mravalomgadaxdili sardali ilRazi
Cauyenebia. ilRazi, cxadia, sulTnis saxeliT moqmedeb-
da da yvela zemoxsenebuli gavleniani mflobeli Tu
sardali, misi droSis qveS gaerTianebulni, mis gankar-
gulebebsa da brZanebebs unda damorCileboda.
ukanasknel xanebSi saistorio-samecniero litera-
turaSi eWvis qveS iqna dayenebuli zog zemodasaxele-
bul pirTa monawileoba didgoris omSi, kerZod, aseTi
eWvi gamoTqva ingliselma mecnierma v. minorskim, ro-
melmac Tavis werilSi _ „kavkasia maiafarikinis istori-
aSi~ _ gamoaqveyna al-farikis cnobebis inglisuri Tar-
gmani da gzadagza, SeniSvnebSi, didgoris brZolasTan
dakavSirebuli bevri sakiTxic gaarkvia. kerZod, man sa-
eWvod miiCnia ToRrulisa da TuRan-arslanis monawile-
oba didgoris brZolaSi. misi azriT, ToRrulisa da mi-
si aTabagis ajanyeba sulTan mahmudis winaaRmdeg iyo is
mizezi, romelmac CaSala maTi monawileoba am brZolaSi.

143
r. kiknaZis mosazrebiTac, „muslimTa koaliciuri
laSqroba qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg nawilobriv mainc CaS-
lila... qarTvelTa pirispir darCa mxolod nejm-ed-dini
(ilRazi) Tavisi siZiTurT~. jer erTi, rogorc zemoT
vnaxeT, yvela wyaro (daviTis istorikosi, maTe urhaeli,
al-fariki, ibn-al-asiri da TviT al-jauzic1 ki) erTxmad
miuTiTebs, ToRrulis monawileobas am omSi. maTe urha-
eli, romelic kargad icnobda didgoris brZolis ambebs,
ToRruls didgoris velze damarcxebulTa da TavianT
qveyanaSi samarcxvinod gaqceulTa Sorisac asaxelebs.
garda amisa, is ajanyeba, romelzedac v. minorski
miuTiTebs, Cveni azriT, maincdamainc xels ar SeuSlida
ToRruls monawileoba mieRo saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg
mowyobil laSqrobaSi; rogorc irkveva, ToRruli da mi-
si aTabagi qen-ToRdi 1120 w. dekembersa da 1121 w. ian-
varSi ajanyebulan. am dros daupyriaT maT ganZac da sa-
nam qen-ToRdi cocxali iyo, e. i. 1121 w. dekembramde,
rogorc Cans, sulTnisagan arc ise Seviwroebulni yofi-
lan. kidev meti, sulTnisagan gamdgar Zmas, ToRruls
zogierTi sulTansac ki uwodebda da daxmarebis saT-
xovnelad uSualod mas mimarTavda. maTe urhaelis ze-
moxsenebuli cnobis mixedviT, daviT aRmaSeneblis mier
araerTgzis damarcxebulma Turq-selCukebma swored am
dros masac mimarTes daxmarebisaTvis q. ganZaSi.
1
al-jauzi koaliciur laSqrobaSi monawileobis misaRebad mo-
wveulTa Soris, ilRazTan da Sams ad-daula TuRianTan erTad,
asaxelebs ToRrulsac da sxvebsac, magram misi sityviT, Sex-
vedris adgilze, Tbilisis karTan, garda ilRazisa, „mxareebis
laSqarTagan arc erTi ar mosuliyo~. ase rom, al-jauzi ara
marto ToRrulis, aramed yvela sxva danarCenis monawileobasac
uaryofs, es SemTxveviTi ar aris; rogorc am wyaros axlaxan
gamomcemelma o. cqitiSvilma marTebulad SeniSna, al-jauzi ue-
Wvelad tyuis, raTa Seanelos STabeWdileba da daakninos mniS-
vneloba im didi marcxisa, rac koaliciam ganicada didgorTan.

144
sagulisxmoa Semdegi garemoebac: al-jauzis cno-
biT, ilRazma werilebi miswera sxvadasxva qveynebSi Tu-
Ran arslans, sulTan ToRruls da sxvebs. rogorc Cans,
sulTan ToRruls laSqrobaSi monawileobisaken mouwo-
da ara TviT sulTanma, rogorc amas daviTis istoriko-
si werda, aramed ilRazma; es cnoba sarwmuno unda iyos.
sulTani misgan gamdgar Zmas am laSqrobaSi monawileo-
bas ver ubrZanebda, ilRazs ki amis safuZveli hqonda:
ilRazTan erTad brZolaSi midioda misi siZe dubeisi,
romelmac ramdenime Tvis win iaraRiT daxmareba aRmou-
Cina TviT ToRruls sulTnis winaaRmdeg ajanyebis dros.
axla ki, roca siZe-simamrs misi daxmareba sWirdeboda,
ToRruli amaze uars ar ityoda, miT ufro, rom Tbili-
sel vaWarTa mier is TviTon iyo miwveuli qalaqze
mfarvelobis xelis dasadebad da saqarTvelos mefis wi-
naaRmdeg laSqrobis mosawyobad.
rogorc aRvniSneT, didgoris brZolis monawile
dubeis sadakas Ze, ilRazis siZe, 1120 w. dasasruls ajan-
yebul ToRruls miemxro. sulTanma dubeisis dasja ga-
dawyvita da 1121 w. damdegs kidevac daiZra mis winaaR-
mdeg didi laSqriT. dubeisi gaiqca da simamrs Seafara
Tavi. magram yovelive amas dubeisisaTvis xeli ar SeuS-
lia Tavisi 10 000-iani laSqriT monawileoba mieRo did-
goris brZolaSi. cxadia, sulTnisagan gandgoma 1120 w.
dasasruls verc ToRruls SeuSlida xels 1121 w. agvis-
toSi monawileoba mieRo didgoris omSi, miT ufro, rom
ToRrulis winaaRmdeg gadamwyveti brZola sulTanma
swored didgoris omis Semdeg, 1121 w. dekembridan, qen-
ToRdis sikvdilis Semdeg daiwyo da 1122 w. martSi
ToRrulis damorCilebiT daamTavra.
didgoris velze ToRrulis damarcxebam da misi
mravalricxovani laSqris ganadgurebam, Tavis mxriv, ki-
devac Seuwyo xeli sulTan mahmuds gamdgari Zmis, ToR-
rulis ase male damorCilebaSi.

10. SoTa mesxia 145


amrigad, zemodasaxelebul wyaroTa erToblivi mi-
TiTeba didgoris brZolaSi ToRrulis monawileobis
Sesaxeb sandod unda iqnes miCneuli. Cveni azriT, did-
goris velze qarTvelTa pirispir idgnen ara marto il-
Razi da misi siZe, aramed ToRruli da misi aTabagi qen-
ToRdi sakmaod mravalricxovani laSqriT.
rogorc aRvniSneT, v. minorski eWvis qveS ayenebs
agreTve muslimTa koaliciur laSqarSi TuRan arslanis
monawileobasac. marTalia, didgoris omis monawiled
TuRan arslans Cven mier zemodasaxelebul avtorTagan
mxolod al-fariki da masze damyarebuli al-jauzi asa-
xeleben, magram v. minorskis daeWvebis safuZveli am Sem-
TxvevaSi imdenad mcirea, rom ara gvgonia igi al-fari-
kis utyuari cnobebis Sesasworeblad gamodges.
yvelafer zemoaRniSnuls Tu imasac davumatebT,
rom sxva, dasaxelebul mahmadian mflobelTa monawileo-
ba didgoris brZolaSi saeWvod ar aris miCneuli, advili
warmosadgeni iqneba saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg mowyobili
laSqrobis farTo masStabi; cxadia, es imas ar niSnavs, rom
yvela am laSqrobaSi moxmobili uklebliv iRebda masSi
monawileobas. TviT Turq-selCukTa Sinagani winaaRmde-
gobani, urTierTbrZola da dapirispireba, rogorc ze-
moT vnaxeT, erTsulovani gaerTianebis SesaZleblobas
ar iZleoda. amitom iyo, rom zogi adre Camoscilda ko-
alicias, zogic saerTod ar SeerTebia mas. magram faq-
tia, rom umTavres Zalas ilRazis meTaurobiT 1121 w.
10 agvistos Tbilisis misadgomebisaTvis miuRwevia.
didgoris omSi monawileobis misaRebad mowode-
bulTa vinaobis garkvevis Semdeg saWiroa daaxloebiT
mainc ganvsazRvroT maT mier gamoyvanili laSqris rao-
denoba. es metad saintereso sakiTxic isev imdroindeli
wyaroebis mixedviT unda gavarkvioT, Tumca aqve unda
SevniSnoT, rom zog avtors arc aqvs saamiso cnoba, zo-
gi kidev gazviadebul, daujerebel monacemebs gvTava-

146
zobs; ase rom, Cven am mxriv mxolod varaudis gamoTqmis
SesaZlebloba gveqneba.
daviTis istorikosi arafers ambobs arc mahmadian-
Ta gaerTianebuli laSqrisa da arc saqarTvelos jaris
raodenobis Sesaxeb. magram misi cnobidan kargad Cans,
rom saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg didZali laSqari daZrula;
misi sityviT, mtris laSqari yofila „simravliTa vi-
Tarca qviSa zRvisa, romliTa aRivso qveyana... romel
TviT ferxTa zeda ver eteodes amaT adgilTa~. mahmadi-
anTa „didi laSqris Tavmoyris~ Sesaxeb wers agreTve
al-farikic, Tumca arc igi miuTiTebs mis raodenobaze.
koaliciuri laSqris raodenobaze cnobebi moepo-
vebaT somex istorikosebs, ibn al-asirsa da goties. ma-
Te urhaelis sityviT, ilRazma „brZana Sekrebiliyo Ta-
visi jarebis simravle, yoveli tomi TurqmanTa, berZen-
Ta qveynidan vidre aRmosavleTisaken yoveli karmiani
da qmna ricxvi Tavisi jarisa asormocdaaTi aTasi~. ase
rom, marto ilRazs, maTes cnobiT, 150 000 molaSqre ga-
mouyvania, mis mier mowodebul „arabTa mefes~ dubeiss
aTi aTasi da mokavSireni 160 000-iani laSqriT ganZaSi
dabanakebulan. imave istorikosis cnobiT, ganZaSive „mo-
vida sulTani meliqi (e. i. ToRruli mohamedis Ze _ S.m.)
oTxasi aTasi mxedriT, guladi kacebiT. isini daiZrnen
saSineli simravliT da Sevidnen qarTvelTa qveyanaSi qa-
laq Tbilisis mxares~. amrigad, Tu maTe urhaels davu-
jerebT, mahmadian mflobelTa gaerTianebuli laSqris
ricxvs 560 000-isaTvis miuRwevia. 1 es monacemebi swori
1
miuxedavad imisa, rom maTe urhaeli savsebiT garkveviT miu-
TiTebs koaliciuri laSqris Sedgenilobasa da raodenobaze
(560 000), zogi mkvlevari mainc fiqrobs, TiTqos maTe urhae-
lis cnobiT, mahmadianTa gaerTianebuli laSqari mxolod 400
aTass aRwevda. rogorc Cans, am mkvlevarebs, maTes cnobiT,
mxolod meliq ToRrulis mier gamoyvanili laSqari (400 000),
SecdomiT, koaliciur laSqrad miuCneviaT, an kidev, maTes

147
ar unda iyos, rogorc Cans, igi gazviadebulia. dauje-
rebelia, rom am sam mahmadian mflobels ase didi laS-
qris gamoyvana SeZleboda.
kidev ufro gazviadebulia antioqiis samTavros
kancleris, goties monacemebi. misi cnobiT, „alepodan
wamosulma ilRazim Sekriba Turqmanebisa da arabebis
uricxvi jari, rodesac man naxa SekrebilTa simravle,
uaRresi ampartavnebiT Tavgasulma gadawyvita, erT xo-
rasnel sulTanTan erTad moewyo laSqroba daviT mefis
winaaRmdeg... sulTani da TviT ilRazi eqvsasi aTasi me-
omriT salaSqrod Sevidnen mefis qveyanaSi~. rogorc
vxedavT, maTe urhaelisa da goties monacemebs Soris
maincdamainc didi gansxvaveba ar aris _ maTe 560 000
molaSqres asaxelebs, gotie ki _ 600 000-s.
samwuxarod, Cven ara gvaqvs sxva istorikosTa ise-
Ti sando monacemebi, romlebic SesaZleblobas mogvcem-
da dagvezustebina koaliciuri laSqris monawileTa ra-
odenoba. ibn al-asiris Txzulebis arabul dedanSi mxo-
lod „aTasi~ weria, magram ramdeni aTasi, aRniSnuli ar
aris. zogi mkvlevari ibn al-asiris am naklul teqsts,
al-jauzis mixedviT, 30 000-iT aRadgens, zogi kidev 300
000-iT. ase rom, ibn al-asiris cnoba zemomotanil masa-
laTa sakontrolod ar gamodgeba. aseve, saamisod ar ga-
modgeba XIII s. somexi istorikosis smbat sparapetis mo-
nacemebic, romelTa mixedviT amira ilRazs saqarTve-
loSi 150 000-iani jariT ulaSqria. rogorc Cans, smbat
sparapeti sakuTriv ilRazis mier gamoyvanil molaSqre-
Ta raodenobis miTiTebiT dakmayofilebula.
udavoa, rom maTe urhaelisa da goties cnobebi
koaliciuri laSqris raodenobis Sesaxeb gazviadebulia.
yvelafers rom Tavi davaneboT, naxevarmilioniani Tu

udavod gazviadebuli monacemebi SeumcirebiaT, raTa misTvis


ase Tu ise sarwmuno cnobis saxe miecaT.

148
eqvsasaTasiani laSqari TrialeT-manglis-didgoris sa-
naxebSi araTu ver gaiSleboda sabrZolvelad, verc ki
daeteoda, magram, amave dros, isic udavoa, rom mowina-
aRmdegis laSqari bevrad, ramdenimejer aRemateboda sa-
qarTvelos samefo xelisuflebis mier am brZolaSi ga-
moyvanil laSqars. iv. javaxiSvilis varaudiT, mtris ja-
ri 300 000 meomrisagan unda yofiliyo Semdgari. asea
Tu ise, yvela monacemidan savsebiT aSkaraa, rom didgo-
ris velze, ricxobrivi raodenobis mixedviT, araTanaba-
ri Zalebi Sexvdnen erTmaneTs. amaze erTxmad miuTiTebs
Cven mier zemoganxiluli yvela wyaro, rogorc qar-
Tul-somxur-laTinuri, aseve TviT arabulic.
axla imasac SevexoT, Tu saidan da ra gziT modio-
da es koaliciuri laSqari. daviTis istorikoss mxolod
is aqvs aRniSnuli, rom mtris uricxvi laSqari, „viTar-
ca qviSa zRvisa~, movida „TrialeTs, manglissa da did-
gors~. maTe urhaelis zemomotanili cnobidan ki Canda,
rom, rogorc ilRazi da dubeisi, aseve sulTani meliqi
(ToRruli) ganZidan daZrulan da iqidan „saSineli sim-
ravliT Sevidnen qarTvelTa qveyanaSi q. Tbilisis mxa-
res, mTaSi, romelsac qvia dekor (didgori _ S.m.)~.
am sakiTxze sxva cnoba aqvs al-fariks. misi monace-
mebiT, arzrumidan ilRazi gaemarTa „yarsisaken da Sevi-
da iq (saqarTveloSi _ S.m.) TrialisiT (TrialeTiT _
S.m.). Seikriba didi laSqari, sulTani ToRruli movida
ganZis mxridan, xolo faxr ad-din TuRan arslan kuziani
_ dvinis mxridan. da iara am laSqarma imdeni, rom massa
da Tbiliss Soris darCa mTa naxevardRis savali~. am
cnobiT, didgorTan Seyrili koaliciuri laSqari aq sami
mxridan mosula: yarsidan TrialeTis gziT, ganZidan da
dvinidan. cnobidan Cans, rom Tbilisidan naxevari dRis
savalze imyofeboda ara marto ilRazis laSqari, ro-
gorc zogierTi mkvlevari varaudobs, aramed sulTani,
ToRruli da TuRan arslan kuzianic Tavisi jarebiT.

149
iv. javaxiSvilis mixedviT, es laSqari qarTlSi man-
glis-TrialeTis gziT aris Semosuli. am mxriv savsebiT
sworia daviTis istorikosi. uZvelesi droidan Sida
qarTlSi Sesvla swored am gziT SeiZleboda, romelsac
ara marto im droisaTvis, aramed Semdegac. XIX saukune-
Sic, did strategiul mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen; rogorc
n. berZeniSvili miuTiTebs, „mangliss friad xelsayreli
adgili uWiravs. manglisis mxare ekvris Sida qarTls,
Tbiliss, somxiT-sabaraTianos da walka-javaxeTs. imyo-
feba ra algeTis, TeZmis, kavTuras da veres gamosavleb-
Si, manglisis xeoba strategiulad batonobs aRniSnul
mxareze... somxiTidan Sida qarTlSi, javaxeTidan kaxeT-
Si umoklesi gzebi swored manglisze gadioda~. amitom
iyo, rom vinc ki am gziT fiqrobda saqarTvelos damor-
Cilebas, manglisze gadmovliT modioda. swored aqedan
unda iyos Semosuli, n. berZeniSvilis varaudiT, „Turq-
selCukTa koalicia daviT aRmaSeneblis winaaRmdeg~.
laSqris Tavmoyra manglis-didgorze 1121 w. agvis-
tos 10 ricxvamde unda momxdariyo. marTalia daviTis
istorikosi 12 agvistos asaxelebs maTi mosvlis TariRad,
magram, rogorc qvemoT davinaxavT, es TariRi TviT
brZolisa unda iyos da ara koaliciuri laSqris saqar-
Tvelos teritoriaze Semosvlisa.
Cven, samwuxarod, araviTari cnoba ara gvaqvs imis
Sesaxeb, Tu rogor emzadeboda saqarTvelos samefo xe-
lisufleba am gadamwyveti brZolisaTvis. magram, cxadia,
mas ar gamoepareboda sulTnisa da sxva mahmadian mflo-
belTa mier mTeli 4-5 Tvis manZilze gatarebuli Ronis-
Ziebani. amitom iyo, rom daviT aRmaSenebeli da misi
laSqari savsebiT mzad iyo brZolis misaRebad.
goties sityviT, „mefe daviT ormoci aTasi... meom-
riT idga erT xeobaSi _ ors mTas Soris mdebare dabu-
rul tyeSi~. rogorc mtris, ise qarTvelTa laSqris ra-
odenoba goties gazviadebulad unda hqondes mocemuli.

150
am mxriv ufro sarwmuno Cans somexi istorikosi maTe ur-
haeli, romelic ara marto laSqris raodenobis, TviT
misi Semadgenlobis Sesaxebac gvaZlevs friad saintere-
so cnobebs.
daviT mefe, wers maTe urhaeli, brZolis velze
„mivida TurqTa jarebis winaaRmdeg ormoci aTasi Zlie-
ri da guladi kaciT da gamocdili meomriT. mas hyavda
sxva jarebic yivCayTa mefisagan, TxuTmeti aTasi gula-
di da rCeuli, xolo alanTa tomisagan xuTasi kaci da
frangi asi~.1 ase rom, daviT aRmaSeneblis laSqris rao-
denoba, am cnobis mixedviT, 56 000-ic ki ar yofila.
1
d. baqraZe, iv. javaxiSvili, s. kakabaZe da agreTve sxvebi, vi-
sac ki daviT aRmaSeneblisa da didgoris brZolis Sesaxeb
dRemde raime dauweriaT, miuTiTeben, TiTqos maTe urhaelis
cnobiT, daviT aRmaSenebels didgoris brZolaSi xuTi aTasi
alani (osi) gamoeyvanos. CvenTvis gaugebaria, raze aris damya-
rebuli zemoxsenebul mkvlevarTa aseTi monacemebi. didgo-
ris brZolaSi gamoyvanili qarTuli laSqris raodenobisa da
Sedgenilobis Sesaxeb cnoba, garda maTe urhaelisa, aravis
moepoveba. maTe urhaelis Txzulebis, rogorc ierusalimis
1869 wlis, iseve vaRaraSapatis 1898 wlis gamocemaSi ki, rom-
lebiTac am mkvlevarebs usargebliaT, garkveviTaa miTiTebu-
li didgoris brZolaSi ara xuTi aTasi, aramed mxolod xuTa-
si alanis monawileobis Sesaxeb. aseve gadmowera da Targmna
es cnoba Tavis droze m. brosem, magram esec mxedvelobaSi ar
iqna miRebuli da dRemde Cvens samecniero Tu saswavlo li-
teraturaSi damkvidrda maTe urhaelis cnobis aseTi araswo-
ri interpretacia. aseve, qarTul literaturaSi zog SemTxve-
vaSi arasworad aris gadmocemuli maTes cnoba qarTvelTa
laSqarSi „frangebis~ monawileobis Sesaxeb. zogi mkvlevari,
isev maTe urhaelze dayrdnobiT, am brZolis monawiled aTas
„frangs~ miiCnevs, maSin, roca es somxuri wyaro mxolod `as
frangs~ asaxelebs. TviT gotiec ki, romelic yovelnairad az-
viadebda `frangebis~ rols da erTiorad zrdida didgoris
brZolis monawileTa ricxvs, mxolod `oras frangs~ asaxeleb-
da am omis monawiled.

151
yuradRebas iqcevs TviT laSqris Sedgeniloba; ro-
gorc Cans, meomarTa ZiriTadi nawili mefes sakuTriv
qarTvelebisagan Seudgenia: ormoci aTasi Zlieri da ga-
mocdili qarTveli molaSqre „samefo spis~ nawils Sead-
genda. miuxedavad imisa, rom daviT aRmaSenebels, rogorc
es zemoT aRvniSneT, yivCayTa 40 000-iani mudmivi laSqari
hyavda, am gadamwyvet brZolaSi mas mxolod 15 000 yivCayi
gamouyvania. da es SemTxveviTi ar iyo: rogorc Cans, me-
fe ZiriTad sayrden Zalad isev „samefo spas~, qarTvelTa
laSqars Tvlida; gansakuTrebiT aseT gadamwyvet brZo-
laSi TurqTa winaaRmdeg, marTlac, mxolod rCeuli, yo-
velmxriv misandob qarTvelTa gamoyvana Tu SeiZleboda.
saqarTvelos laSqris mesame nawils „roqis spa~,
alanTagan (osTagan) daqiravebuli jari Seadgenda. Sem-
TxveviTi ar iyo xuTasi osi molaSqris daqiraveba da sa-
amisod Tanxis gaReba, maSin roca mefes rezervSi ocda-
xuTi aTasi mudmivi molaSqre yivCayi hyavda. esec, cxa-
dia, daviTis saTanado taqtikuri gegmis mixedviT iyo
gakeTebuli da garkveul mizans emsaxureboda.
garkveuli mizniT iyo Seyvanili qarTvelTa laS-
qarSi, Tumca arc ise didi raodenobiT, „frangebic~. ma-
Te urhaeli am omSi asi „frangis~ monawileobis Sesaxeb
wers, gotie ki oras „frangs~ asaxelebs. rogorc Cans,
„frangebi~ marTlac monawileobdnen am omSi. 1 „fran-
1
zogi mkvlevari (mag., s. eremiani) uaryofs „frangTa~ monawi-
leobas didgoris brZolaSi. maTi mtkicebiT, maTe urhaelis
Txzulebis Sesabamis adgilze „frang~-is magier, konteqstis
mixedviT (?) unda wavikiTxoT „vrang~ anu „varang~. ase rom,
didgoris brZolaSi „frangebi~ ki ar monawileobdnen, aramed
„varangebi~, tmutarakanis, Savi zRvispireTis ruseTidan. s.
eremianis es mosazreba gaiziara q. CxataraiSvilma. kidev meti,
man kategoriulad uaryo „daviT aRmaSeneblis dros saqarTve-
loSi jvarosanTa yofnis SesaZlebloba~. jer erTi, maTe ur-
haelis arc erT gamomcemels ar aRuniSnavs terminebis amgva-

152
gebs~ qarTvelebi maSin da Semdegac, didi xnis manZilze,
„evropelebs~ eZaxdnen. ase rom, es „frangebi~ im evro-
pel jvarosanTa warmomadgenlebi iyvnen, romlebsac am
dros maxlobel aRmosavleTSi brZolebi hqondaT Turq-
selCukebTan. evropel raindebs, „frangebs~ didi gamoc-
dileba hqondaT am mxriv da maTi monawileoba qarTvel-
Ta am gadamwyvet brZolaSi, cxadia, sasargeblo iqnebo-
da. amasTanave, maTi monawileoba didgoris omSi im ur-
TierTobiTac iyo gamowveuli, rac am drosac jvaros-
nebsa da qristianul saqarTvelos Soris arsebobda. Tu-
ki adre jvarosnebis warmatebebi Turq-selCukebTan om-
Si xels umarTavda saqarTvelos damoukideblobisaTvis
brZolaSi, amJamad ukve gaZlierebuli saqarTvelos Se-
teviT omebs saerTo mtris winaaRmdeg didi mniSvneloba
hqonda jvarosnebisaTvis. amitom savsebiT SesaZlebelia,

ri aRrevis SesaZleblobisa da arc maTes xelnawerebSi „fran-


gis~ sxvadasxva variantuli monacemebis kiTxva sxvaobis Sesa-
xeb. amas garda, saqarTvelos laSqarSi mcire raodenobiT
„frangebis~ monawileobis Sesaxeb cnoba daculi aqvs, maTes-
gan savsebiT damoukideblad, TviT frang kanclersa da qro-
nists goties. igi didgoris ambebis Sesaxeb cnobas gvawvdis
CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxze Txrobisas, da cxadia, maTe ur-
haelis Txzulebebis saTanado adgilis Sesworeba savsebiT ga-
umarTlebeli iqneboda, Tumca verc amiT uarvyofdiT fran-
gebis monawileobas didgoris brZolaSi. dasasrul, jvarosne-
bisa da saqarTvelos urTierTobis zemoT gakeTebuli mimo-
xilvisa da isedac sayovelTaod cnobili faqtebis Semdeg,
cota ucnaurad SeiZleba mogveCvenos mosazreba, romelic ka-
tegoriulad uaryofs jvarosnebis, Tundac mcire raodeno-
biT (100 molaSqre), yofnas daviTis laSqarSi. amrigad, zemo-
motanil mosazrebaTa gaziareba SeuZlebelia _ wyaroebi (maTe
urhaeli, gotie) monacemebi da TviT jvarosnebisa da saqar-
Tvelos urTierTobis sayovelTaod cnobili faqtebi ueW-
vels xdian jvarosnebis monawileobas didgoris brZolaSi.

153
rom saqarTvelos samefos samzadisi TurqebTan gadam-
wyveti brZolisaTvis jvarosnebs mxedvelobidan ar ga-
morCenodaT da masSi erTgvari monawileobac mieRoT.
rogorc vxedavT, daviT aRmaSeneblis mier yvelafe-
ri winaswar iyo mofiqrebuli da gakeTebuli gamarjvebis
uzrunvelsayofad. daviTis istorikosis sityviT, omis
win „mefeman daviT, uSiSarman da yovlad uZravman guli-
Ta... wina ganawyo spa misi, yoveli saqme mSvenivrad da Ro-
nierad yo, rabam rame uSfoTvelad da gamocdilebiT da
yovlad brZnad ganago~. msoflios „brZenTa ena ver Sem-
Zlebel ars moTxrobad zedmiwevniT yovelsave~, rac im
dros mefem gaakeTao _ werda daviTis istorikosi.

2. „ZlevaY sakvirveli~

1121 w. agvistos aTisaTvis Turq-selCukTa koali-


ciuri laSqris ZiriTad Zalebs TrialeT-manglis-did-
goris midamoebi, misi yvela ZiriTadi gza da misadgomi
dakavebuli hqondaT.
koaliciuri laSqris nawilma, rogorc irkveva,
walkis mxareSi, manglissa da didgorSi daibanaka, meore
nawilma kidev, didgoris kalTebidan Semosulma, diRmis
xeoba daiWira, ase rom, mtris laSqriT gaivso rogorc
qvemo, aseve zemo didgori, romelTac daviTis istori-
kosi erT geografiul punqtad moixseniebs, oRond
mravlobiTi ricxviT _ „didgorni~. didgoris veli Se-
sayrel punqtad mtris mier SemTxveviT ar iyo SerCeuli
_ aqeTken moemarTeboda araerTi gza da gadasasvleli.
kldekari, saidanac erTi gza didgoriskenac modioda,
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani gadasasvleli iyo qarTlisaken
mimavali dampyroblebisaTvis, didgoridan kidev gza ex-
sneboda Tbilisisaken; zogi Zveli istorikosis mixedviT,
mtris laSqris didgorTan Sekreba Tbilisis karTan Sek-
rebas niSnavda. amas garda, aqedan maT SeeZloT, mcxeTis

154
SemovliT, gasvla Sida qarTlSi da daviTis laSqris ga-
remocva. gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi isini Tbilisisaken ai-
Rebdnen gezs. aqedan Tbilisamde ki mxolod naxevari
dRis savali iyo. erT ZiriTad mizans, rogorc aRvniS-
neT, am qalaqis xelSi Cagdeba Seadgenda.
saqarTvelos samefos laSqari, daviT aRmaSeneblis
mTavarsardlobiT, didgoris vels, rogorc amaze miTi-
Tebulia Cvens samecniero literaturaSi, niCbisis sakma-
od gaSlili xeviT miuaxlovda. swored niCbisis xevs
mihyveba gza didgor-manglisisaken. es xeoba unda hqon-
deT mxedvelobaSi maTe urhaelsa da goties, roca isini
qarTvelTa laSqris or mTas Soris dabanakebasa da aq
gamarTul brZolaze mogviTxroben. goties mixedviT, da-
viTis laSqari dabanakebuli iyo „or mTas Soris mdebare
daburul tyeSi, romlis mimarTulebiTac mteri apirebda
Setevas~. rogorc al-farikis cnobidan irkveva, saqar-
Tvelos laSqris erTi nawili, daviTis memkvidris, demet-
res sardlobiT, erT am mTaTagans afarebda Tavs da iqi-
dan apirebda moulodnel Tavdasxmas. pirveli brZola
ZiriTad nawils unda mieRo, aq ki TviT daviTi idga. mas,
al-farikis sityviT, dasavleTidan unda Seetia. amrigad,
yvelaferi mzad iyo gadamwyveti brZolisaTvis.
goties mowmobiT, daviT aRmaSenebelma brZolis
dawyebis win mowodebis sityviT mimarTa Tavis laSqars.
mas TviT am sityvis teqstic aqvs motanili Tavis qroni-
kebSi. samwuxarod, Cven SesaZlebloba ara gvaqvs Seva-
mowmoT, Tu ramdenad Seefereba es ambavi sinamdviles
da ramdenad sworadaa igi Cawerili, magram mis motanas
aq mainc saWirod miviCnevT, miT ufro, rom bevr mkvle-
vars goties cnobis sisworeSi eWvi ar epareba da zog
maTgans daviTis am sityvis gotieseuli teqsti qarTve-
li mWevrmetyvelebis nimuSebis krebulSic ki aqvs Seta-
nili. ai, es sityva: „eha, meomarno qristesano! Tu RvTis

155
sjulis dasacavad TavdadebiT vibrZolebT, aramc Tu
eSmakis uricxvi mimdevari, aramed TviT eSmakebsac advi-
lad davamarcxebT, da erTs rasmes girCevT, rac Cveni pa-
tiosnebisa da sargeblobisaTvis kargi iqneba: Cven yve-
lam, xelebis cisaken apyrobiT, Zlier RmerTs aRTqma
mivceT, rom misi siyvarulisaTvis am brZolis velze da-
vixocebiT da ar gaviqceviT. da raTa ar SegveZlos gaq-
ceva, kidec rom movindomoT, am xeobis Sesavali, romli-
Tac SemovsulvarT, xeTa xSiri xorgebiT SevkraT da
mters, roca mogviaxlovdeba Cvenze ieriSis mosatanad,
mtkice guliT daundoblad SevutioT~.
am sityvaSi, romelic ZiriTadad mowodebaa mahmadi-
anTa koaliciuri laSqris winaaRmdeg qristianTa Tavda-
debuli brZolisaken, istorikosisaTvis bevri ram aris
RirsSesaniSnavi. aqedan Cans, rom daviTis laSqari dabana-
kebula xeobaSi, romlis viwro Sesasvlelic xeTa xorge-
biT SeukravT.1 amiT mefes Tavisi laSqrisaTvis ukandaxe-
vis es erTaderTi SesaZleblobac mouspia. etyoba, da-
viTs Tavis laSqarSi jer kidev eguleboda iseTebi, ro-
melTaTvis martooden „RvTis siyvaruli~ TavdadebisaT-
vis sakmarisi ar aRmoCndeboda. ucxo tomis (yivCayebis)
molaSqreebs ki arc qveynis, saqarTvelos siyvaruli
aRafrTovanebdaT maincdamainc TavdadebisaTvis. amito-
mac sWirdeboda daviT aRmaSenebels Tavisi laSqrisaT-
vis ukandasaxevi gzis winaswar moWra. marTlac, amgvari
RonisZiebis Semdeg mebrZolebs an unda gaemarjvaT, an-
da mtrisadmi zurgSeuqceveli sikvdiliT daemtkicebi-
naT TavianTi Tavdadeba RvTisa da mefisaTvis.
1
aRsaniSnavia, rom diRmis xeobis TavSi, romelic brZolebis
erT-erTi asparezi iyo, dRemde daculia toponimi, adgilis
saxelwodeba _ „Caxergila~. iqneba es daviTis mier sagangebod
gadaketili, Caxergili punqtis im droidan Serqmeuli da
dRemde SemorCenili saxeli iyos.

156
amave dros, es RonisZieba mefis laSqris zurgsac
uvnebelyofda. jebirebi mniSvnelovnad Seaferxebda am
mxridan mtris mxedrobis mosalodnel ieriSebs. zedme-
tia imaze laparaki, rom xorgebisa da jebirebis gakeTe-
bas sakmao dro, mravalricxovani muSaxeli da masala
dasWirdeboda.
saistorio wyaroebiT didgoris brZolis dawyebis
dRe da ricxvi sxvadasxvanairad aris warmodgenili. ma-
galiTad, daviTis istorikosis Txzulebis XV da XVIII ss.
gadanawerebSi 18 agvistoa dasaxelebuli, xolo XVII s.
da zog XVIII s. gadanawerSi _ 12 agvisto. aRsaniSnavia,
rom daviTis istorikosis Txzulebis Zvel somxur Tar-
gmanSi, romelic mkvlevarTa azriT, XII saukuneSivea Ses-
rulebuli, agreTve 12 agvistoa miTiTebuli. rogorc
Cans, daviTis Txzulebis Tavdapirvel xelnawerSi swo-
red 12 agvisto yofila. am mosazrebas amagrebs maTe
urhaelis monacemebic. urhaeli ara marto Tve da
ricxvs, brZolis dResac ki asaxelebs, rac Cven SesaZ-
leblobas gvaZlevs ufro davazustoT sxvadasxva wya-
roTa monacemebi. urhaelis Txzulebis erTi, 1869 w. ga-
mocemis mixedviT, brZola momxdara 1121 w. 15 agvistos.
„RvTismSoblis marxvis xuTSabaTs dRes~, meore, 1898 w.
gamocemis mixedviT ki _ 13 agvistos. xuTSabaTs; ro-
gorc Cans, maTe urhaelis Txzulebasac daviTis isto-
rikosis Txzulebis bedi gauziarebia, mis Semdegdroin-
del gadamwerebs ricxvebi aureviaT, radgan, xuTSabaTi
dRe ar yofila 1121 w. arc 15-sa da arc 13 agvistos;
xuTSabaTi dRe im wlis agvistos zemodasaxelebuli
ricxvebidan (12-dan 18-mde) 11-12-sa da 18-19 agvistoze
modioda, magram raki 18-sa da 19 agvistos „RvTismSob-
lis marxva~ ukve damTavrebuli iyo, zemodasaxelebul
ricxvTa Soris „RvTismSoblis marxvis xuTSabaT dRed~
mxolod 12 agvisto SeiZleba miviCnioT. miT ufro, rom

157
amasve gvTavazobs daviTis istorikosis Txzulebis de-
dani da misi uZvelesi somxuri Targmanic.
amrigad, didgoris brZola 1121 w. 12 agvistos
dawyebula. zogierTi monacemiT, Setevaze pirvelad mus-
limTa koaliciuri laSqari gadmosula: „myisve, _ wers
gotie, _ xeobis meore nawilSi anu frontze molaSqre-
Ta Zlieri yiJiniT, cxenTa da abjarTa ukiduresi xmau-
riT, urjuloTa zardamcemi bairaRebiT gamoCndnen
(mtrebi). da mTa da baric bans aZlevda sxvadasxva sakra-
vebis xmaurs. magram mefe daviTi aseT kadnierebas ubra-
lo moTminebiT Sehyurebda, Tavisianebs amxnevebda da
anugeSebda mamaci suliT... didi xnis Semdeg es uricxvi
simravle, ampartavnobis suliT aRtyinebuli, saSineli
yviriliT Tavs daesxa maT~.
sxva istorikosTa (maTe urhaeli, al-fariki, ibn
al-asiri) cnobiT ki, Setevaze pirvelad qarTvelTa laS-
qari gadasula da brZolis dawyebis win daviT aRmaSene-
bels kidev erTi taqtikuri xerxisaTvis miumarTavs. Tu
ibn al-asirs davujerebT, roca orive mowinaaRmdege
laSqari saomrad gamwkrivda, saqarTvelos mxedrobas
orasi yivCayi gamoeyo da mtris razmisaken gaemarTa.
mahmadianTa laSqris sardlobas egona, yivCayebma albaT
mefes uRalates da Sewyalebisa da dandobis saTxovne-
lad modiano. amitom isini daubrkoleblad SeuSves Ta-
vianT ganlagebaSi; magram yivCayebma uecrad iaraRi iSiS-
vles da mtris meomarTa xocva daiwyes. es savsebiT mou-
lodneli iyo mowinaaRmdegisaTvis. aseTma xerxma, cxa-
dia, mteri daabnia.
ai, ras wers TviT ibn al-asiri: „yivCayebi Seerivnen
maT jars da mSvild-isriT srola dauwyes. muslimTa ja-
rebis wina razmebi airivnen. ukan mdgom razmebs egonaT
davmarcxdiTo da gaiqcnen. TavdaviwyebiT garbodnen
muslimni da ise eCqarebodaT gansacdelidan Tavis daR-
weva, rom erTmaneTze gadadiodnen da bevric daixoca~.

158
ibn al-asiris mier moTxrobili es saintereso de-
tali ara aqvT aRniSnuli arc daviTis istorikossa da
arc maTe urhaels; goties erT cnobaSi swored es faqti,
orasi meomris mewinaveoba da Tavdadeba unda igulis-
xmebodes, oRond mas, rogorc evropels, yvelaferi es
im orasi „frangisaTvis~ (jvarosnisaTvis) miuweria, rom-
lebic im dros daviT aRmaSeneblis laSqarSi ibrZodnen.
movusminoT TviT goties: „mefem TiToeuli razmi daawyo,
xolo orasi frangi meomari daayena mowinaveebad, pirvel
dakvraTa mosaxdenad... [da mteric] ecemoda Zirs frange-
bis xelisagan da uwesrigod ifanteboda~. rogorc Cans,
goties, „frangebis~ damsaxurebis gazviadebiT daintere-
sebuls, albaT, Taviseburad gadaukeTebia imdroindeli
saistorio wyaroebiT Tu gadmocemebiT Semonaxuli cno-
ba daviT aRmaSeneblis mier didgoris brZolis dros ga-
moyenebuli taqtikuri xerxis Sesaxeb.
aRsaniSnavia, rom daviT aRmaSeneblis am taqtikur-
ma xerxma samxedro xelovnebis istoriis mkvlevarTa yu-
radReba miiqcia. a. strokovs mefis mier mtris banakSi
arc ise didi razmi (orasi meomari) sagangebo davalebiT
gagzavna da maTi uecari Tavdasxma mterze im erT-erT
efeqtur RonisZiebad miaCnia, romelmac mniSvnelovnad
Seuwyo xeli qarTvelTa laSqris warmatebas TurqTa
orive flangze Tavdasxmis dros.
Cven saeWvod ar migvaCnia, rom „mefeman daviT, uSi-
Sarman da yovlad uZravman guliTa~, marTlac, gamoiyena
es efeqturi xerxi. cnobil qarTvel sardlebs daviTis
Semdegac miumarTavT aseTi taqtikisaTvis; magaliTad,
erekle meorem didi brZola azat-xanTan 1751 wels am-
gvarad moigo. ase rom, es taqtikuri xerxi ucxo ar iyo
qarTuli samxedro xelovnebisaTvis. magram, sxva saqmea,
Tu vis miando daviTma am didi da rTuli saqmis ganxor-
cieleba, vis misca aseTi sagangebo davaleba? cxadia, sa-
eWvoa, rom es didmniSvnelovani operacia, romelic qvey-

159
nis da mefisaTvis Tavganwirvas moiTxovda, yivCayebisaT-
vis da, miT ufro „frangebisaTvis~ (jvarosnebisaTvis)
miendo; aRsaniSnavia isic, rom ibn-al-asiri daviTis sam-
xedro Zalebs saerTod „yivCayTa laSqars~ uwodebda da
mxolod amitom ixseniebda im 200 mebrZols yivCayebad.
amrigad, arc ise didi razmis moulodnelma Tav-
dasxmam erTxans daabnia mteri, amave dros, saqarTvelos
laSqarma mtris flangebs ori mxridan Seutia. laSqris
erTi nawili, TviT mefis sardlobiT, niCbisis xeviT,
al-farikis cnobiT, dasavleTidan utevda mters; xolo
didgoris erT-erTi mTidan demetre daviTis Ze daeSva
Tavisi laSqriT da mTis ZirSi saomrad dawyobil Turq-
selCukTa laSqars medgrad Seutia. „iqmna sastiki brZo-
la ori mTis Soris, ise rom laSqarTa saSineli xmaurisa-
gan es mTebic iZaxdneno (xmaurobdneno)~ _ wers maTe ur-
haeli. rogorc ki brZola SenivTda, Seikra da gamarjve-
bis saswori qarTvelTa mxares gadaixara, mtris laSqris
didma nawilma zurgi Seaqcia brZolis vels, SemTxveviTi
ar aris, rom daviTis istorikosi sagangebod aRniSnavs,
„rameTu pirvelsave omsa (pirvelsave Setakebis dros _
S.m.) iota (aiyara _ S.m.) banaki maTi da ivltodao (gaiq-
cao _ S.m.)~. aseve wers maTe urhaelic _ brZolis Sek-
vrisas (qarTvelebma) gaaqcies TurqTa mTeli jario.
daviTis istorikoss Tu davujerebT, es sisxlismRv-
reli brZola raRac sam saaTamde gagrZelebula; igi wers:
„mefesa daviTisi eseodenTa (ase mravalricxovan molaS-
qreTa _ S.m.) mimarT Sinaganwyoba (Seteva _ S.m.) sam Jamam-
de iyo (sam saaTamde gagrZelda _ S.m.) da verca pirvel-
sa kueTebasa (Setakebas _ S.m.) SeuZles winadadgomad~-o.
Turq-selCukTa damarcxebulma laSqarma didi za-
rali naxa: „im dRes, _ wers maTe urhaeli, _ iqmna sasti-
ki da saSineli amowyveta TurqTa jarebisa da aRivsnen
gvamebiT mdinareni da mTaTa velebi da yovelni mTaTa
qarafni daifarnen~ mtris gvamebiTo. muslimTa laSqris

160
didi nawilis amowyvetaze miuTiTebs TviT al-farikic:
„moikla muslimTagan uTvalavi raodenoba da darbeuli
iqneno~. ibn al-asiris sityvebiTac, „mahmadianTa laS-
qris umetesoba daiRupa brZolis velze~. „aRivsnes vel-
ni, mTani da Releni mZorebiTao~, _ wers daviTis isto-
rikosic; daxocilTa Soris, misive sityviT, iyvnen „saxe-
lovanni igi mebrZolni arabeTisani~. mahmadian molaS-
qreTa didi nawili ki tyved Caigdes qarTvelebma.
didgoris brZolis aRmwer istorikosebs zogierTi
cnoba aqvT daculi Turq-selCukTa laSqrisadmi miyene-
buli zaralis Sesaxebac. ra Tqma unda, daujerebelia
goties cnoba, romlis mixedviTac am brZolis dros sa-
qarTvelos „mefis maxviliT moispo 400 000 kaci~. aseve,
sarwmuno ar aris am mxriv maTe urhaelis monacemebic:
misi sityviT, „iqmna ricxvi TurqTa amowyvetili jarisa
ormoci bevri (400 000 _ S.m.), xolo Seipyres ocdaaTi
aTasi kaci~. saerTod ki, maTes cnobiT, mtris yoveli
aTasi molaSqridan asic ki ar darCenila cocxali. mar-
Talia, al-fariki ar miuTiTebs datyvevebulTa raode-
nobaze, magram misi zogadi xasiaTis cnobidanac kargad
Cans, rom qarTvelebs tyved CavardniaT „muslimTa da
arabTa auracxeli raodenoba~; ase rom, didgoris brZo-
lidan ocdaTormeti wlis Semdegac, al-farikis Tbi-
lisSi yofnis dros, zogi maTgani jer kidev cocxali
iyo. qarTvelTa laSqars tyved wamouyvania ara marto
ubralo molaSqreni, aramed maTi sardlebica da golia-
Tebic. daviTis istorikosi aRfrTovanebuli werda:
„glexebmac ki naxes, roca qarTvel molaSqreebs arabTa
mefeebi mohyavdaT tyved, xolo tyved wamoyvanil sxva
goliaTebze sityvis Tqma raRa saWiroao~.
ra Tqma unda, didgoris brZolam, daWrilebisa Tu
daxocilebis saxiT, bevri qarTveli, yivCayi, Tu osi mo-
laSqrec Seiwira. magram saqarTvelos laSqris danakli-

11. SoTa mesxia 161


si, mtris jaris danaklisTan SedarebiT, imdenad mcire
yofila, rom arc erT Zvel istorikoss misi aRniSvna sa-
Wirodac ar miuCnevia. daviTis istorikosi imasac ki
wers, rom mefem „Tvisni spani daicvna uvneblad~, yo-
velgvari mniSvnelovani zaralis gareSeo.
saqarTvelos laSqarma, mravalricxovan tyveebTan
erTad, didZali alafic (nadavli) igdo xelT. maTe urha-
elis sityviT, mtris upatrono „cxenebisa da dayril ia-
raR-saWurvlisagan daifara yovelni pirni velTani~. al-
farikic ki iZulebulia aRniSnos: am omSi „maT (qarTve-
lebma _ S.m.) didZali simdidre waarTves muslimebs~-o.
am nadavls TviT molaSqreni da samefo xelisufleba
daeufla. daviTis istorikosis sityviT, „xolo spani
Cuenni da ufrosad (ufro metad _ S.m.) yoveli samefo
aRivso oqroTa da vercxliTa, arabuliTa cxenebiTa,
asuruliTa jorebiTa, sra-fardagebiTa da sxvaTa ucxo-
Ta WurWlebiTa (iaraRebiTa _ S.m.) sabrZolveliTa Tvi-
To saxeTaTa, qosTa da filakavanTaTa,1 sasmurTa turfa-
Ta (ZvirfasTa _ S.m.) da sanadimoTaTa, sabanelTa da sam-
zareuloTaTa-romelman qartaman (qaRaldman _ S.m.) da
melanman daitios aRwerad~ yvelaferi is, rac am dros
qarTvelebis mier nadavlis saxiT iqna aRebulio. vaxuSti
bagrationi kidev aRniSnavda: „alafTa mravalricxovno-
bis Sesaxeb arafers vambob, radgan glexebic ki oqro-
vercxlis garda sxvas ar aiRebdnen nadavlisagano~.
am auracxel nadavlSi mravlad iyo brZolis mona-
wile mTavarsardalTa, did mahmadian mflobelTa pira-
di nivTebic. friad saintereso cnoba daucavs am mxriv
Tamar mefis (1178-1213 ww.) pirvel istorikoss, cnobili
Txzulebis _ „istoriani da azmani SaravandedTanis~ _
avtors.
1
qosi anu qosnaRara _ spilenZis sakravi, Casaberi; filakavani
_ „sasroli iaraRi zRudeebis (simagreebis) dasangrevad~.

162
Tamaris es istorikosi didgoris brZolis ambebs
ixseniebs saqarTvelos laSqris mier 1195 w. Samqoris
omSi mopovebuli brwyinvale gamarjvebis aRweris dros da
sxvaTa Soris aRniSnavs: Tamarma iwyo Samqoris brZolis
Semdeg mopovebuli nadavlis Sewirva: „xalifas droSa,
romelic Salva axalcixelma moitana, man gagzavna did
monasterSi xaxulis RvTismSoblisaTvis, msgavsad Tavi-
si mamis papisa (e. i. daviT aRmaSeneblisa), romelsac did-
goris gaqcevis (brZolis) Semdeg durbeiz sadiyas Zis
qedisagan (kisrisagan) moZarculi Zvirfasi TvlebiT
Semkuli oqros maniaki~ Seuwiravs amave monastrisTviso.
rogorc Cans, didgoris brZolaSi damarcxebuli
da gzaabneuli „arabeTis mefis~ durbeizisaTvis qar-
Tvel molaSqreebs kisridan mouglejiaT misi mflobe-
lis Zlierebisa da zviadobis mauwyebeli Zvirfasi, moT-
valul-momargalitebuli yelsabami, romelic am didi
gamarjvebis aRsaniSnavad daviT aRmaSenebels gelaTis
monastrisaTvis Seuwiravs.
Tamaris istorikosis am saintereso cnobidan isic
kargad Cans, Tu rogor mZime gansacdelSi aRmoCenili
„arabTa mefe~ _ igi mxolod saswaulebriv SemTxvevas ga-
daurCenia samarcxvino tyveobisagan.
didgoris brZolaSi mopovebuli nadavlis nawilis
gelaTis monastrisaTvis Sewirvis Sesaxeb cnobas gvaw-
vdis TviT daviTis istorikosic. misi sityviT, mefem ax-
lad aSenebul gelaTs sxva mraval „yovlad didebul~ da
„Znelad sapovnel nivTTa~ garda, uxvad Seswira „iavarad
moxmulni~ (nadavlad aRebuli), „didTa da xorasanTa me-
feTa taxtni, sayrdarni (misayrdnobelTani sasxdomebi),
kidelni ferad-feradi da kvalad gvirgvinni da maniaki...
romelni mouxuna (waarTva) mefeTa arabeTisaTa, raJams
TviT iginica tyved moiyvanna, masve taZarsa Sina Sewirna
RmrTisa saxsenod da samdlobelad Zlevisa mis sakvirve-
lisa~. aSkaraa, rom am SemTxvevaSi daviTis istorikoss

163
pirvel rigSi mxedvelobaSi aqvs didgoris brZolis mo-
nawile „mefeni arabeTisani~ da am brZolaSi mopovebuli
marTlac „sakvirveli Zleva~ (gamarjveba). rogorc vxe-
davT, daviTs gelaTisaTvis, „gamarjvebis samadlobelad~
da „RvTis saxseneblad~, Seuwiravs didgoris brZolaSi
rogorc „iavarad moxmuli~ nivTebi, aseve tyveebic.
amrigad, qarTvelTa laSqarma 1121 w. 12 agvistos
didgoris velze Turq-selCukTa koaliciur jarebTan
gadamwyvet brZolaSi brwyinvale gamarjveba moipova.
magram mowinaaRmdegis damarcxeba didgoris velze jer
kidev ar niSnavda masze sabolood gamarjvebas. es kar-
gad esmodaT am did warmatebaTa organizatorebs da
amitom iyo, rom daviT aRmaSenebelma gadawyvita kval-
dakval mihyoloda zurgSeqceul mters, raTa misTvis
daqsaqsuli da damarcxebuli Zalebis xelaxla gaerTia-
nebisa da Semotevis SesaZlebloba ar mieca.
gaqceuli Tu ukandaxeuli mtris devniT didgoris
brZolis meore, aranakleb mniSvnelovani, etapi daiwyo.
aqac gamoCnda didi mxedarTmTavris niWi da unari. davi-
Tis istorikosis cnobiT, mefe „meotTa (gaqceulebs _
S.m.) simarjviT da gankrZalulad (frTxilad _ S.m.)
sdevnida~. damarcxebuli da uwesrigod ukandaxeuli
mtris devna ramdenime dRes grZeldeboda. maTe urhae-
lis mixedviT, qarTvelTa da yivCayTa laSqarma rva dRe
qalaq anisis sazRvramde sdia ilRazis daqsaqsul ja-
rebs da didi ziani miayena mas. goties sityviT ki, devna
TiTqos mxolod sami dRe gagrZelda da mterma am dros
gacilebiT meti zarali naxa, vidre TviT brZolis vel-
ze. ibn al-asirsac ar gamorCenia mxvedvelobidan yove-
live es da sagangebod miTiTebuli aqvs kidec, rom qar-
Tvelebma Turqebs 10 farsagis1 manZilze sdieso.

1
farsagi, farsaxi _ gzis sazomi sparsuli erTeulia, udris
daaxloebiT eqvs-Svid kilometrs.

164
rogorc Cans, qarTvelTa laSqars marTlac mou-
xerxebia devnili mtris sruli damarcxeba da ganadgu-
reba. ise rom, maTma sardlebma, TviT ilRazmac ki, ver
SeZles met-naklebad mniSvnelovani Zalis Semokreba da
damarcxebuli, brZolaSi daWrili mTavarsardali, Tavis
siZesTan erTad, TviT al-farikis cnobiT, mxolod oci-
ode mxedriTurT dabrunebula Tavis qveyanaSi.
ilRazis daWrisa da samarcxvino gaqcevis Sesaxeb
weren rogorc maTe urhaeli, ise gotie. am ukanasknelis
mixedviT, „TviT ilRazi, TavSi daWrili, TiTqmis yvela
Tavisianis sikvdilis TviTmxilveli... gadarCa, mcire
pirTa TanxlebiT da usaWurvlo da sanaxevrod mkvdari
dabrunda saxlSi, arabTa mefis (dubeisis _ S.m.) daxmare-
biT~. damarcxebuli da Sercxvenili dabrundnen, ilRaz-
Tan erTad, maTe urhaelis sityviT, sxva sardlebic:
„Zlivs moaxerxes ra gaqceva, sparsTa sulTani meliqi
(ToRruli _ S.m.) da xazi (ilRazi _ S.m.) dabrundnen di-
dad Sercxvenilni TavianT qveyanaSi~.
amrigad, rogorc didgoris velze, aseve mtris
kvaldakval devnisa da xocvis dros, qarTvelTa Sedare-
biT mcirericxovanma laSqarma didi gamarjveba moipova.
Turq-selCukTa didma koaliciurma laSqarma sastiki
damarcxeba igema ara marto didgoris velze, saqarTve-
los teritoriaze, aramed mis sazRvrebs gareTac, maT
mierve dapyrobil teritoriaze.
didgoris velze mopovebuli gamarjveba pirvel
rigSi, cxadia, iyo qarTveli xalxis gamarjveba damouki-
deblobisa da TviTmyofobisaTvis brZolaSi, magram igi
amasTanave exmaureboda amierkavkasiisa da saerTod, kav-
kasiis xalxTa saerTo interesebs, maT erTobliv brZo-
las ucxo dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg. amitomac iyo, rom kav-
kasiis xalxebma TavianTi wvlili Seitanes am brZolis mo-
gebaSi. qarTvelTa laSqarSi Sedioda saqarTvelos mflo-

165
belobasa da gavlenis qveS myofi qveynebis mosaxleobac:
yivCayebi, osebi, somxebi, Sirvanelebi da sxva.
didgoris brZola moigo saqarTvelos samefos laS-
qarma da qarTvelma xalxma, romelmac uzrunvelyo es
laSqari cxenebiT, iaraR-saWurvliT, sursaT-sanovagiTa
da yvelafer imiT, rac saWiro iyo gamarjvebisaTvis.
zedmetia imaze laparaki, rom aseT uTanasworo
brZolaSi gamarjvebis miRwevisaTvis uaRresad didi
mniSvneloba hqonda laSqris xelmZRvanelobas, sardlo-
bas; am mxrivac saqarTvelos laSqari unaklo iyo: mis sa-
TaveSi idga Zveli saqarTvelos yvelaze gamoCenili mxe-
darTmTavari da udidesi politikuri moRvawe daviT me-
oTxe, aRmaSenebeli.
zemoTqmulis Semdeg yvela saRad moazrovne mkiTx-
velSi gaocebas gamoiwvevs goties cnobisadmi mindobi-
li zogi istorikosis mosazreba didgoris velze gamar-
jvebaSi „orasi frangisaTvis~ gadamwyveti rolis mikuT-
vnebis Sesaxeb.
ai, ras werda s. kakabaZe didgoris brZolis 820
wlisTavisadmi miZRvnil, Cven mier zemoxsenebul weril-
Si: „goties am metad sayuradRebo cnobaSi gansakuTrebiT
yuradRebas ipyrobs is adgili, sadac avtori ambobs, rom
omis bedi orasma frangma (evropelma) gadawyvita. eWvs ga-
reSea, aq igulisxmebian evropeli raindebi, romelnic
daviTis samsaxurSi imyofebodnen da romelnic moqme-
debdnen qarTvel raindebTan erTad. maTi ricxvi ramde-
nime asi da SesaZlebelia, erTi-ori aTasi yofiliyo (igu-
lisxmebian mZimed SeiaraRebuli da saukeTesod gawvrT-
nili raindebi). marTlac savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom
didgoris brZolaSi am mZimed SeiaraRebul raindebs ga-
damwyveti roli SeesrulebinoT, magram marto es, rasak-
virvelia, ar kmaroda. saWiro iyo saTanado mxedarT-
mTavrobac~ (xazgasma SoTa mesxiasi).

166
rogorc vxedavT, s. kakabaZe savsebiT SesaZleblad
miiCnevs didgoris gamarjvebaSi gadamwyveti roli mia-
kuTvnos mZimed SeiaraRebul im oras (Tundac erT-or
aTas) „frangs~, jvarosans, romelic am dros daviTis
laSqarSi iTvleboda.
Cven zemoT ukve mivuTiTeT, Tu rogor azviadebda
gotie yvelafers da gansakuTrebiT ki „orasi frangis~
rols didgoris brZolaSi. yvela istorikos-mkvlevari-
saTvis es advilad SesamCnevia da gana vinme daijerebs,
rom iq, sadac qveynis damoukideblobisaTvis ibrZoda 40
000 qarTveli, 15 000 yivCayi da 500 osi, gamarjveba moe-
povebinos mxolod 200 „frangs~, Tundac kargad Seiara-
Rebuls, im „frangebs~ (jvarosnebs) romelnic, ufro
mravalricxovanni, araerTxel sastikad daumarcxebiaT
swored didgoris brZolis wina wlebSi Turq-selCukebs,
maT arc ise mravalricxovan molaSqreebs. goties cno-
bis ase ukritikod gameoreba, misi friad sayuradRebod
da sandod gamocxadeba, sxva araferi SeiZleba iyos, Tu
ara didgoris saxalxo brZolis mravalricxovan monawi-
leTa Tavganwirvis da saerTod, am brZolis didi mniS-
vnelobis Seufasebloba.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, „orasma mZimed Seiara-
Rebulma frangma~ ki ara, saqarTvelos laSqris Tavgan-
wirvam, molaSqreTa marjved moqneulma xmalma, qarTveli
glexisa da xelosnis marjvenam da mamaci laSqris gonier-
ma xelmZRvanelobam uzrunvelyo didi gamarjveba didgo-
ris gadamwyvet brZolaSi.
„ZlevaY sakvirveli~ _ „gamarjveba sakvirveli~ _ ase
uwoda daviTis istorikosma didgoris velze mopovebul
gamarjvebas. qarTlis gulSi SemoWrili mravalricxovani
mtris ganadgureba qarTvelTa SedarebiT mcirericxovani
laSqriT, marTlac, „sakvirveli Zleva~ iyo.
didgoris velma, „sakvirveli gamarjvebis~ adgilma,
dRemde Semoinaxa 850 wlis winaT momxdari brZolis ara-

167
erTi nakvalevi. aRsaniSnavia, rom mweral levan goTuas
mier gamoqveynebuli masalebiT, didgoris qedze, saTov-
liasa da nabaRrebis Tavze aRmarTul mTas xalxi dResac
„daviTis mTas~ eZaxis. es mTa amave saxelwodebiT aRniSnu-
lia rukebzedac. swored fiqrobs Cveni saxelovani mwe-
rali, rom mTis amgvari saxeli „daviT aRmaSenebelTan da
didgoris gamarjvebasTan~ unda iyos dakavSirebuli.
amas garda, didgoris umaRlesi wertilis xelovnu-
robis utyuari niSnebis mqone yorRani, xalxSi Semonaxu-
li gadmocemiT, „didgoris brZolaSi daRupul ZmaTa sa-
erTo samarea~. didgoris erT-erTi macxovreblis sity-
viT, am saerTo samares gamarjvebulma „laSqarma auar-Ca-
mouara da muWa-muWa, zogma ki kalTa-kalTa miayara did-
goris miwa~ _ da ase Seiqmna es xelovnuri borcvic.
es da sxva msgavsi gadmocema ar aris safuZvels
moklebuli _ didgoris veli, misi borcvebi, albaT,
marTlac mravlad inaxavs CvenTvis ucnob da usaxelo
Tavdadebul mebrZolTa ukve mtvrad qceul naSTebsa da
maT iaraR-saWurvels. am adgilebis arqeologiuri Ses-
wavla, rogorc zemoTac iTqva, mniSvnelovan axal masa-
las SegvZenda aq gamarTuli brZolisa da mopovebuli
gamarjvebis mravali detalis dasazusteblad.
SemTxveviTad ar migvaCnia isic, rom „didgorobis~
xalxuri, yovelwliuri dResaswauli agvistoSi, main-
cdamainc, didgoris brZolis damTavrebisa da mariamo-
bis (15 agvisto) momdevno kviras imarTeba. iqneb es xal-
xuri dResaswauli amave dros aris „sakvirveli Zlevis~
yovelwliuri dResaswauli da damoukideblobisa da
progresisaTvis mebrZolTa _ didgorobis gmirebis _
xsovnasac eZRvneba...

168
Tavi V. didgoris brZolis Sedegebi
da mniSvneloba

1. Tbilisis SemoerTeba

didgoris velze mtris koaliciuri laSqris da-


marcxebis, misi sakmaod xangrZlivi devnisa da sabolo-
od ganadgurebis Semdeg daviT aRmaSenebels gza xsnili
hqonda Tbilisisaken. didgoris brZolaSi mefem daamar-
cxa ara marto Turq-selCukTa koaliciuri laSqari,
aramed man mospo im qalaqebis damoukideblobaca da ga-
erTianebac, romlebic aq koaliciur laSqars iwvevdnen
daviTis winaaRmdeg. didgoris velze arsebiTad gadawy-
da Tbilisis, dmanisisa da sxva qalaqTa bedic, dadga ma-
Ti damoukideblobis aRsasruli. mas Semdeg, rac saqar-
Tvelos qalaqebis kavSirma (Tbilisma da dmanisma) ase
didi omi gaumarTa samefo xelisuflebas, daviTi dar-
wmunda, rom saqarTvelos jer kidev damoukidebeli qa-
laqebi ubrZolvelad ar daTmobdnen poziciebs da maT
kidev axali damxmare Zalebis mowveva rom ar ecadaT,
mefem gezi pirdapir Tbilisisaken aiRo. ase rom, brZo-
la Tbilisisa da sxva qalaqebis dasamorCileblad arse-
biTad didgoris brZolis gagrZelebas warmoadgenda.
Tbilisis SemoerTebisaTvis brZola daviT IV-is
dros ar dawyebula. brZolas TbilisisaTvis xangrZlivi
istoria aqvs da misi ZiriTadi etapebis mimoxilva kidev
ufro kargad dagvanaxebs didgoris brZolis erTi um-
Tavresi Sedegis did mniSvnelobas Cveni qveynis Semdgo-
mi ganviTarebisaTvis.
Tbilisis istoria mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli
qarTveli xalxis istoriasTan. Tbilisi, rogorc qalaqi,
warmoSobis dRidan (V s. Sua wlebi) ara marto qarTlis
samefos politikuri, aramed mTeli qveynis ekonomikuri
centric iyo.
169
VIII saukunidan saqarTveloSi arabi dampyroblebis
laSqrobebma, xolo Semdeg gabatonebam da Tbilisis saa-
miros Camoyalibebam, qalaqi erTxans moswyvita qveyanas
da daabrkola misi normaluri ganviTareba; magram xali-
fatis feodalizaciisa da Tbilisis saamiros TandaTan
gamocalkevebis Semdeg qalaqma isev daamyara SedarebiT
mWidro ekonomikuri urTierToba saqarTvelos zog
kuTxesTan, mezobel qveynebTan da qalaqebTan... Tbilisi
male ara marto saqarTvelos, mTeli maxlobeli aRmo-
savleTis erT-erT mniSvnelovan qalaqad iqca.
X-XI ss. mijnaze warmoqmnil erTian saqarTvelos
da mis samefo xelisuflebas, Semdgomi gaZlierebisa da
ganmtkicebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT sWirdeboda qalaqebi.
maTi, kerZod Tbilisis, gaTavisufleba ucxo dampyrob-
Ta batonobisagan da SemoerTeba, didad Seuwyobda xels
feodaluri monarqiis ganmtkicebas. saqarTvelos qala-
qebsac ukve Camoyalibebuli, gaerTianebuli saqarTve-
los samefo xelisuflebis mfarvelobis qveS yofna er-
CiaT ucxoelTa batonobas da amitomac isini, Tavis
mxriv, mxars uWerdnen samefo xelisuflebis miswrafe-
bas Semdgomi gaZlierebisa da ganmtkicebisaken.
gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos pirvelma mefem, bag-
rat III-m mniSvnelovnad Seaviwrova Tbilisis saamiros
teritoria. Tbilisi ukve saqarTvelos mefis samflobe-
loebiT iyo garSemortymuli da dRes Tu xval qalaqic
maT unda SeerTeboda. magram igi jer kidev mainc mahma-
dian mflobelTa xelSi rCeboda. giorgi I-is mefobis
dros, rogorc zemoTac aRiniSna, saqarTvelos samefos
mTeli Zalebi didmniSvnelovani sagareo amocanebis ga-
dawyvetas Seelia da qarTuli miwa-wylis sabolood
Tavmoyra da Semomtkiceba ver dasrulda _ Tbilisi ga-
erTianebuli saqarTvelos gareT rCeboda isev.
saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebam Tanmimdevruli
brZola TbilisisaTvis XI s. 30-iani wlebidan daiwyo. am

170
dros saqarTveloSi bagrat IV mefobda, xolo TbilisSi
amira jafari ijda. qarTvelma didebulebma, kldekaris
erisTavma liparitma da ivane abazasZem, 1032 wels Tbi-
lisis amira Seipyres da mefes mihgvares. saqarTvelos
mefes gza xsnili hqonda Tbilisisaken, magram mefis gaZ-
lierebis mowinaaRmdegeebma uasako bagrats Seacodes
Sepyrobili jafari da gaTavisufleba da isev Tbilisis
amirad datoveba urCies. bagratma marTlac Seiwyala
jafari da „gauteva tfiliss zeda amirad~.
magram ramdenime wlis Semdeg Tbilisis SemoerTe-
bisaTvis brZola isev ganaxlda, 1037 wels bagrat IV-m
Tavisi laSqriT alya Semoartya Tbiliss. amjerad qar-
Tvelebma Tbilisis aReba xangrZlivi garemocviT scades;
alya or wels gagrZelda. TbilisSi mZime mdgomareoba
Seiqmna, qalaqi ukve danebebasac apirebda, roca bagrat
IV-m, isev mowinaaRmdege didebulTa STagonebiT, Tbi-
liss uecrad alya moxsna da qalaqs gaecala. Tbilisi
isev gasaqcevad gamzadebul jafars darCa _ 1039 wels
bagrat IV-m meored dakarga Tbilisis SemoerTebis SesaZ-
lebloba.
1045 wels Tbilisis amira jafari gardaicvala. mis
memkvidreTa Soris daiwyo brZola Tbilisis xelSi Ca-
sagdebad. amiT isargebles qalaqis TviTmmarTvelobis
warmomadgenlebma, jafaris memkvidreebi qalaqidan gaa-
Zeves da qalaqi TviT daiWires. Tbilisis ganmgebloba
amgvarad „qalaqis uxucesebis~ anu, rogorc qarTveli
istorikosi uwodebs, „Tbilisis berebis~ xelSi gadavida.
moqalaqeni da maTi xelisufalnic, „qalaqis berebic~ am-
jerad saqarTvelos mefis momxreni aRmoCndnen da ga-
dawyvites Tbilisi bagrat IV-isaTvis CaebarebinaT da sa-
qarTvelosTan SeeerTebinaT. amitom mouwodes „qalaqis
berebma~ bagrat IV-s. saqarTvelos mefe Tbilisisaken ga-
moemarTa; diRmis velze mefes moqalaqeni da qalaqis
uxucesebi Seegebnen da igi didi zeimiT qalaqSi Seiyva-
171
nes: „iyo xmoba bukTa da dumbulTa... romlisa xmiTa iZ-
rvoda qveyana da iyo sixaruli yovelmxriv gasakvirve-
li~ _ mogviTxrobs istorikosi. mefe qalaqs Semoatares,
moqalaqeTa wesisamebr, bagrat IV-s Tavze ayridnen oq-
rosa da vercxlis fulebs, Semdeg ki qalaqis karebisa
da cixeebis gasaRebebi Caabares da qalaqis yofili ami-
ras sasaxlis darbazSi Seiyvanes. mefem qalaqsa da mis
cixeebSi Tavisi moxeleebi Caayena, magram sanam igi qala-
qis meore nawilsac (mtkvris marcxena, Tbilisis gamag-
rebul napirs) Semoimtkicebda, amoqmeddnen mefis mowi-
naaRmdegeni, gansakuTrebiT kldekaris erisTavi aqtiu-
robda. mefe iZulebuli gaxda Tbilisi daetovebina da
javaxeTs gadasuliyo.
XI s. 50-ian wlebSi bagrat IV-m erTxel kidev daiWi-
ra Tbilisi, magram ara didi xniT, amjeradac isev did-
gvarianTa wyalobiT ukve meoTxed dakarga mefem Tbili-
sis SemoerTebis SesaZlebloba. am droidan ramdenime
weli ise gavida, rom saqarTvelos mefes TbilisisaTvis
brZola ar uwarmoebia. am xnis manZilze qalaqs isev,
Zveleburad, „Tbilisis berebi ganagebdnen~.
Turq-selCukebis meore laSqrobam saqarTveloSi
1068 wels. kidev ramdenime wliT gadado Tbilisis Semo-
erTebisaTvis brZola. am laSqrobis dros sulTanma al-
farslanma Tbilisic aiRo da Tavis mokavSires ganZis
imdroindel mahmadian mflobels, fadlons gadasca.
Tbiliss axali batoni gauCnda, magram fadlonis bato-
noba xanmokle aRmoCnda; magrat IV-m SeZlo xelT egdo
igi. mefes amJamad aravin uSlida xels Tbilisis sabo-
lood SemoerTebaSi, magram am SemTxvevaSic mefis gaZ-
lierebis mowinaaRmdege didgvarianebi Caerivnen saqmeSi
da bagrati aiZules TbilisSi ganmgeblad isev Zveli
amirebis STamomavali moeyvana. qarTveli istorikosis
sityviT, mefem „siTlarabi Zebna, Semoiyvana tfilisad
memamuled da misca mas tfilisi~; TviT ki _ Tbilisis

172
irgvliv mdebare cixeebis aRebiT dakmayofilda. amri-
gad, TbilisSi isev amiras xelisufleba gaCnda, magram
Tbilisis amira saqarTvelos mefis ymadnaficobas (vasa-
lobas) aRiarebda da bagrat IV-s 44 000 drahkansac ux-
dida. ase aRdga TbilisSi erTxel kidev jafaridebis
STamomavalTa mflobeloba. magram XI s. 80-iani wlebi-
dan jafaridebis es ukanaskneli mflobelic aRar ixse-
nieba. rogorc wyaroebidan Cans, am droisaTvis jafari-
debis sagvareulos ukanaskneli warmomadgenelic gada-
Senebula.
al-farikis cnobidan irkveva, rom jafaridebis
mflobeloba TbilisSi mxolod 1069 wlidan 1082 wlamde
gagrZelebula. amis Semdeg ki, al-farikisave cnobiT,
„ormoci wlis ganmavlobaSi Tbilisi iyo misi xalxis xel-
Si... da yovel Tves ganagebda qalaqs erTi maTgani~. rogorc
vxedavT, jafarianTa gadaSenebis Semdeg, XI s. 80-iani
wlebidan mokidebuli, qalaqis ganmgebloba isev moqala-
qeTa, mis uxucesTa, anu, rogorc wyaro ambobs, „misi
xalxis xelSi~ gadasula. TbilisSi amgvari mmarTveloba,
imave avtoris cnobiT, ormoci weli gagrZelebula. qala-
qis ganmgeblobis „xalxis xelSi~ gadasvla qalaqis TviT-
mmarTvelobis qalaqis damoukideblobaSi gadazrdas, anu
Tbilisis qalaq-komunad gadaqcevas niSnavda.
Tbilisis gadaqceva qalaq-komunad, rogorc vxe-
davT, giorgi II-is dros momxdara. TviT giorgis mefo-
bis xasiaTi, Tavis mxriv, xels uwyobda Tbilisis moqa-
laqeTa warmomadgenlebis gamarjvebas. giorgi II-is dros
Seqmnili sagareo da saSinao pirobebi saqarTvelos me-
fes SesaZleblobas ar aZlevda yuradReba mieqcia Tbi-
lisisaTvis da qalaqis damoukideblobis mospoba da mi-
si SemoerTeba ecada.
daviT aRmaSenebelic, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, me-
fobis pirvel naxevarSi arsebiTad niadags amzadebda
Tbilisis SemosaerTeblad da amitomac igi, saTanado pi-

173
robebis momwifebamde, qalaqisa da mis xelisufalTa Se-
viwroebas saWirod ar miiCnevda. kidev meti, daviTis me-
foba obieqturad xels uwyobda Tbilisis damoukideb-
lobis ganmtkicebas _ saqarTvelos gaZlierebuli mefis
SiSiT, mezobeli mahmadiani mflobelebi ver bedavdnen
ecadaT Tbilisis dapyroba, miT ufro, rom daviTi war-
matebiT erekeboda maT ara marto saqarTvelodan, ara-
med misi mezobeli qveynebidanac.
amasTanave, samefo xelisufleba, rogorc es kar-
gad Cans evropis qalaqebis istoriis magaliTebidan, yo-
velTvis erTnair da mtrul damokidebulebas ar iCenda
damoukidebeli qalaqebisadmi. pirvel xanebSi, e. i. manam,
sanam samefo xelisufleba daadgeboda mtkice centra-
lizaciis gzas, igi mxars uWerda qalaq-komunebs, damou-
kidebel saqalaqo TviTmmarTvelobas da maT kidec iye-
nebda msxvili feodalebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. qalaqe-
bic am periodSi samefo xelisuflebis mokavSireebad ga-
modiodnen. saqalaqo TviTmmarTvelobis amgvari damoki-
debuleba Cven ukve davinaxeT bagrat IV-isa da „tfilel
berTa~ urTierTobis magaliTze; samefo xelisuflebisa
da Tbilisis urTierToba kidev ufro unda ganmtkice-
buliyo daviT aRmaSeneblis mefobis pirvel periodSi,
roca igi daundobel brZolas awarmoebda samefo xeli-
suflebis winaaRmdeg mebrZol msxvil saero da sasuli-
ero feodalebTan. amitom, bunebrivia, Tuki samefo xe-
lisufleba am periodSi jer kidev ar fiqrobda damou-
kidebeli qalaqebis Seviwroebas, qalaq-komunebis gauq-
mebasa da maT SemoerTebas.
magram XII s. 20-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi dairR-
va samefo xelisuflebasa da qalaqebs Soris manamde ar-
sebuli kavSiri. mtkice centralizaciis gzaze Semdgar
samefo xelisuflebas erTiani saqarTvelos teritoria-
ze arsebuli damoukidebeli qalaqi-respublikebis da-
morCilebisaTvis unda ezruna, rom daesrulebina qar-
Tuli miwa-wylis Semomtkicebis procesi. cxadia, damou-

174
kidebeli qalaqebi, Tavis mxriv, ubrZolvelad ar daT-
mobdnen ukve sakmao xnis manZilze mopovebul Tavisuf-
lebas. amitom iyo, rom daviTis mier Tbilisze mfarve-
lobis xelis dadebis cdebs Tbiliseli moqalaqeebi, mi-
si mmarTveli zedafena, mtrulad Sexvdnen da damxmare
Zalebis Zieba daiwyes mezobel qalaqebsa da qveynebSi.
ase rom, damoukidebeli qalaqebis klasobrivma intere-
sebma gansazRvres TbilelTa da dmanelTa elCoba mahma-
dian mflobelebTan da ara nacionalurma momentebma _
mahmadianuri mosaxleobis siWarbem qalaqebSi, da an ki-
dev, Turq-selCukTa Semosevebis Semdeg qarTvelebsa da
mahmadianebs Soris gamwvavebulma urTierTobam.
Tavis droze iv. javaxiSvili miuTiTebda TbilisSi
„moqalaqeTa Soris mahmadianTa~ siWarbeze. udavoa, rom
jer arabTa mravalsaukunovani batonobis, xolo Semdeg
Turq-selCukTa Semosevebis wyalobiT, TbilisSi musli-
muri mosaxleoba SedarebiT mravalricxovani unda yo-
filiyo saerTod, kerZod ki, Tbilel vaWarTa Soris.
magram es srulebiT ar niSnavda Tbilisis mosaxleobis
am nawilis gadamwyvet rols saqalaqo cxovrebasa da
marTva-gamgeblobaSi. qarTuli dokumenturi, numizma-
tikuri Tu sxva saxis arqeologiuri masala, aseve zogi
ucxouri wyaros monacemebic, savsebiT gvarwmuneben qa-
laqis qristianuli (qarTul-somxuri, gansakuTrebiT ki
qarTuli) mosaxleobis siZlieresa da mniSvnelovan rol-
Si. amas garda, saukuneebis manZilze TbilisSi mcxovre-
bi da mosaqme muslimuri mosaxleoba SeuZlebelia adgi-
lobrivi qarTuli Tu saerTod, qristianuli mosaxleo-
bisadmi dapirispirebul da misgan gamoTiSul Zalad mi-
viCnioT. iv. javaxiSvilis savsebiT marTebuli gancxade-
biT, „muslim moqalaqeTa Svilebi da SviliSvilebi~, e. i.
maTi saqarTveloSi, mis qalaqSi aRzrdili STamomavlebi,
„saqarTvelos Zlierebisa da bednierebisaTvis imnairad-
ve zrunavdnen, rogorc Cveni eris RviZli Svilebi~.

175
qarTuli qristianuli da muslimuri mosaxleobis
saukuneTa manZilze Tanacxovreba TbilisSi da saqar-
Tvelos zog sxva qalaqSi, mahmadianTa mflobelobis
xangrZliv periodSi Tbilisis mWidro kavSiri saqarTve-
los calkeul kuTxeebTan da saerTod qarTul samya-
rosTan, Tbilisis garemocva gansakuTrebiT XI s. damde-
gidan saqarTvelos axlad warmoqmnili feodaluri mo-
narqiis mier da, aqedan gamomdinare, qarTuli saxelmwi-
foebrivi wyobis didi gavlena qalaqze gansazRvravda
Tbilisis saqalaqo wyobis, mmarTvelobis, saqalaqo
cxovrebisa da yofis Taviseburebas. yvelafers rom Ta-
vi davaneboT, marto amitomac ar SeiZleba sworad mi-
viCnioT Sua saukuneebis aRmosavleTis qalaqebis qar-
Tvel mkvlevarTa Soris fexmokidebuli Sexeduleba,
romlis mixedviTac „Tbilisis saqalaqo wyobileba 1122
wlamde warmoadgenda aRmosavluri saqalaqo wyobilebis
zust ganmeorebas~.
ase rom, XII s. 20-iani wlebidan daviT IV-isagan Se-
viwroebuli Tbiliselebis mier erTxans mahmadian mflo-
belebze aRebuli orientacia, „qalaqis mfarvelis~ Zeb-
nasTan dakavSirebiT, Tbilisis „aRmosavlurobiT~, mis
mosaxleobaSi muslimebis siWarbiT da saqalaqo cxovre-
baSi maTi gadamwyveti roliT ar SeiZleba aixsnas.
amaSi Cven, zemoTqmuls garda, TbiliselTa mier
araerTgzis gadadgmuli sawinaaRmdego nabijic gvarwmu-
nebs. jer kidev XI s. Sua wlebSi, rogorc aRvniSneT,
„Tbilelma berebma~ TviT mahmadian mflobelTa (jafa-
ris memkvidreTa) winaaRmdeg pirvel rigSi saqarTvelos
mefe moiwvies. amgvaradve, Seqmnili saSinao da sagareo
viTarebis Sesabamisad moqmedebdnen Tbiliselebi Semde-
gac. amitom iyo, rom raki toRrulis mowvevam ver gaa-
marTla imedebi, isini saqarTvelos mefes SeuTanxmdnen
da, rogorc aRiniSna, masTan dades mfarvelobiTi xel-
Sekruleba.

176
magram Tbilisis, rogorc saqarTvelos organuli
nawilis, sakiTxi verc amiT gadawydeboda; saqarTvelos
mefis mier XII s. 20-ian wlebidan Tbilisis mimarT warmo-
ebul politikidan aSkarad Canda, rom igi Tbilisis Se-
moerTebas cdilobda. Tbiliselebi ki, Tavis mxriv, da-
moukideblobis SenarCunebisaTvis ibrZodnen da saami-
sod yovelgvari Zalis gamoyenebaze fiqrobdnen. mezo-
beli mahmadiani mflobelebi ki saqarTvelos mefisa da
Tbilisis urTierTdapirispirebis TavianT sasargeblod
gamoyenebaze, Tbilisis dapyrobaze ocnebobdnen. amitom
iyo, rom mahmadianTa koaliciurma laSqarma swored
didgors, Tbilisis karTan, mis misadgomebTan daibanaka
da gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi upirveles amocanad Tbili-
sis aReba gaixada.
es yvelaferi savsebiT naTeli iyo daviT aRmaSeneb-
lisaTvis da rogorc ki didgoris velze „sakvirveli ga-
marjveba~ moipova, Tbilisisaken gaemarTa. amitomaa, rom
yvela Cven mier zemodasaxelebuli Zveli istorikosi,
didgoris brZolis aRweris Semdeg, uSualod Tbilisis
aRebis ambebs mogviTxrobs. yvela maT, rogorc Cans, sav-
sebiT samarTlianad, Tbilisis damorCileba didgoris
brZolis erT-erT pirvel Sedegad miaCniaT.
daviTis istorikosi wers: didgoris brZolis „meo-
resa welsa aRiRo mefeman qalaqi tfilisi, pirvelsave
omsa... da daumkvidra SvilTa TvisTa saWurWled da sax-
lad Tvisad saukunod~.
Tbilisis aReba, al-farikis cnobiTac, Turq-sel-
CukTa koaliciuri laSqris ganadgurebisTanave momxda-
ra: „mas Semdeg, rac damarcxebul iqna (muslimTa _ S.m.)
laSqari, dabrunda afxazTa mefec da TbilisTan dabana-
kebulma alya Semoartya mas, xolo Semdeg maxviliT dae-
ufla (Tbiliss) da Sevida qalaqSi xuTas TxuTmet wels
(_1122 wels _ S.m.). man gaZarcva igi da cecxls misca misi
didi nawili. Semdeg ki Seiwyala mcxovrebni da kargad

12. SoTa mesxia 177


epyroboda maT. daudgina maT (moqalaqeebs _ S.m.) is pi-
robebi, romelic TviT airCies~.
mefis mier Tbilisis imave wels brZoliT aRebis
Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs sxva imdroindeli wyaroebic. maTe
urhaeli, magaliTad, wers: „amave wels aiRo qarTvelTa
mefem daviTma qalaqi Tbilisi... da sastikad amowyvita
qalaqi, xolo xuTasi kaci Zelze gasva da wamebiT moakv-
dina~.
al-jauzis cnobiTac, didgoris gamarjvebisTanave
„daeSva daviTi Tbiliss da daipyro igi maxviliT. man ga-
dawva da gaZarcva igi~. Tbilisis aRebis Sesaxeb Sedare-
biT vrceli da saintereso cnoba moepoveba ibn al-asirs:
misi sityviT, mahmadianTa koaliciuri laSqris devnis
dros qarTvelebma isev aaoxres muslimuri qveynebi da
ukan Semobrunebulebma „alya Semoartyes Tbiliss, isini
(qarTvelebi) ebrZodnen maT, vinc iyo masSi (qalaqSi _
S.m.); Zlier Seaviwroves isini da misi (Tbilisis _ S.m.) mo-
saxleoba saSinel mdgomareobaSi Caagdes. alya gagrZel-
da 1122 wlamde, roca maT ZaliT aiRes igi (Tbilisi _ S.m.).
qalaqis mosaxleobam, roca dainaxa daRupvis saSiSroeba,
gagzavna qarTvelebTan yadi da qaTibi da mSvidoba iTxo-
va; magram qarTvelebma ar Seismines maTi Txovna, Seu-
racxyves isini (yadi da qaTibi) da ZaliT Sevidnen qalaqSi,
daangries da gaZarcves igi. gaqceulebma moaRwies 516
(_ 1122-1123 _ S.m.) wels baRdadamde da mouwodes maT da-
saxmareblad da dasacavad. roca gaiges, rom sulTan mah-
mudi imyofeboda hamadanSi, isini gaemarTnen misken dax-
marebis saTxovnelad da igic (sulTani _ S.m.) gaemarTa
azerbaijanisaken da SeCerda TavrizSi... saidanac man gag-
zavna qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg laSqari~.
rogorc vxedavT, daviTis istorikoss garda, yve-
la sxva danarCeni wyaro erTxmad miuTiTebs didgoris
brZolis welsve (1121 w.) daviTis galaSqrebis Sesaxeb
Tbilisis asaRebad. maTe urhaelis mixedviTac, mefes Tbi-

178
lisi, imave, didgoris brZolis welsave auRia. magram es
swori ar unda iyos. rogorc sxva wyaroebidan irkveva
(al-fariki, ibn al-asiri), daviTs, marTalia imave welsve
gaulaSqria Tbilisis winaaRmdeg, magram qalaqi mxolod
Semdeg, meore wels, e. i. 1122 wels auRia; Tbilisis aRe-
bis TariRad 1122 wels miiCnevs daviTis istorikosic.
wyaroebis urTierTSejerebiT kargad irkveva, rom
daviTs, didgoris velze damarcxebulTa devnis damTav-
rebisa da gzadagza mahmadianTa samflobeloebis dalaS-
qvris Semdeg ukan Semobrunebuls, TbilisisaTvis alya
Semourtyams, magram qalaqis aReba maSinve ar ucdia. es
gasagebicaa, did omgadaxdil da, albaT, sakmaod SeTxe-
lebul laSqars SetevisaTvis, qalaqis ieriSiT aRebisaT-
vis Sevseba, axali Zalebi sWirdeboda. amasTanave, mefe
xangrZlivi alyiT Seecdeboda qalaqi moewyvita im me-
zoblebisagan, saidanac mas SeiZleboda daxmarebis imedi
hqonoda da amave dros, erTgvarad gaetexa damoukideb-
lobas SeCveul moqalaqeTa winaaRmdegobac. es asedac
momxdara: alyaSemortymuli qalaqis mosaxleoba mZime
mdgomareobaSi Cavardnila da moqalaqeTa elCebs mSvido-
bac uTxovnia, magram zavis pirobebs, rogorc Cans, qala-
qis SemoerTebisaTvis gamzadebuli mefe da misi laSqari
ver daukmayofilebia da qalaqi iaraRiT auRiaT.
ieriSiT aRebuli qalaqi, pirvel sam dRes, mefem
Tavis laSqars mianeba saZarcvavad, TviT ki qalaqis xe-
lisufalT sastikad gausworda: xuTasi Tavkaci, maTe
urhaelis cnobiT, daviTma sastiki wamebiT daxoca.
Tbilisis alya, rogorc motanili cnobebidan ir-
kveva, didgoris brZolis damTavrebisTanave, 1121 w. ag-
visto-seqtemberSi unda dawyebuliyo, xolo Tbilisis
aReba 1122 w. damdegs momxdara.
amrigad, 1122 wlidan Tbilisi saqarTvelos Semou-
erTda da amiT daasrula daviT aRmaSenebelma qarTuli

179
miwa-wylis SemoerTeba-Semomtkicebis xangrZlivi isto-
riuli procesi.
Tbilisis SemoerTeba amave dros niSnavda qalaqis
damoukideblobis gauqmebas. Tbilisi amieridan samefo
qalaqad, mefisa da misi STamomavlobis mkvidr qalaqad
iqca. magram, rogorc wyaroebidan irkveva, qalaqs TviT-
mmarTveloba erTxans kidev SeunarCunebia. amaSi Cven,
al-farikis zemomotanili cnobis garda, daviTis isto-
rikosis erTi metad saintereso miTiTebac gvarwmunebs.
daviTis istorikosi Tbilisis SemoerTebaSi or periods
arCevda _ pirvels, roca qalaqi jer kidev „arasrulad
Semoyenebul iyo uRelsa qveSe morCilebisasa~. es is
droa, roca mefem qalaqi aiRo da, marTalia, samefod ga-
moacxada, magram mas jer kidev SeunarCuna TviTmmarTve-
loba, e. i. is jer kidev ar iyo mTlianad damorCilebuli.
magram es periodi didxans ar gagrZelebula. male da-
iwyo meore periodi _ mefem Tbilisi „sruliad Semoaye-
na~ „uRelsa qveSe morCilebisasa~, e. i. mTlianad daimor-
Cila, es ki TviTmmarTvelobis gauqmebaSi gamoixata.
rogorc irkveva, brZola samefo xelisuflebasa da
qalaqs Soris Tbilisis iaraRiT aRebis Semdegac gagrZe-
lebula. Tbilisma, marTalia, aRiara mefis morCileba, e. i.
dakarga damoukidebloba, Tavisufleba, magram misma gam-
geblebma jer kidev moaxerxes TviTmmarTvelobis Senar-
Cuneba. saqarTvelos mefe, romelmac es-es aris daamTavra
didi omi didgoris velze da TbilisisaTvis brZola, iZu-
lebuli iyo erTxans Serigeboda aseT mdgomareobas. esec
mefis erTgvari taqtikuri nabiji iyo. erTi wlis Semdeg,
roca mefe kidev ufro gaZlierda, Tbilisis bedic ga-
dawyda _ daviT aRmaSenebelma TbilisSi TviTmmarTvelo-
bac gaauqma da qalaqi Tavis moxeleebs Caabara saganmgeb-
lod. es ukve namdvilad iyo ara qalaqis ganTavisufleba,
rogorc aqamde wers zogierTi istorikosi, aramed Tbi-
lisis „sruliad Semoyeneba uRelsa qveSe morCilebisasa~.

180
Tbilisis damorCileba, anu misi Semoyeneba „uRel-
sa qveSe morCilebisasa~, pirvel rigSi niSnavda damouki-
debeli saqalaqo mmarTvelobis gauqmebasa da qalaqSi
mefis moxeleebis daniSvnas. Cven, samwuxarod, ar viciT,
Tu vin iyo TbilisSi saqarTvelos mefis mier daniSnuli
pirveli ganmgebeli, qalaqis amirad daniSnuli moxele,
magram ueWvelia, rom igi mefis axlobelTa wridan iqne-
boda. ra Tqma unda, sarwmuno ar aris s. eremianis mo-
sazreba, TiTqos daviTs vahram arwrunisaTvis eboZebi-
nos amiraT-amiras, e. i. Tbilisis ganmgeblis Tanamdebo-
ba, romelic Semdeg arwrunTa STamomavlobis privile-
giad, memkvidreobiT Tanamdebobad qceula. es mosazreba
ar dasturdeba arc masalebiTa da arc Tbilisis Semdeg-
droindeli istoriiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom daviT aRmaSene-
bels araTu TbilisSi, aramed TviT anisSiac ki, misi Se-
moerTebis Semdeg, ar dauniSnavs somexi moxele. samwuxa-
rod, Cven TiTqmis araviTari masala ar mogvepoveba ax-
lad SemoerTebuli Tbilisis samoxeleo wyobis Sesas-
wavlad da amgvari zepiri varaudebi SeiZleba mxolod
garkveuli tendenciiT SeTxzulad miviCnioT.
daviTi kargad xedavda, rom TbilisSi vaWroba-xe-
losnobis erT-erT wamyvan Zalas mahmadianuri mosaxle-
oba warmoadgenda. maTi Seviwroeba, darbeva da qalaqis
saukuneobiT ganmtkicebuli wesebis erTbaSad mospoba
Tbiliss maxlobeli aRmosavleTis erT-erTi didi eko-
nomikuri centris mniSvnelobas daukargavda. amitom,
rogorc TviT mahmadiani istorikosebi weren, male
dacxra mefis guliswyroma da man Tbilisel mahmadia-
nebs mravalgvari SeRavaTi uwyaloba. mas Semdeg, rac qa-
laqi ieriSiT aRebul iqna, daviTma aRuTqva mcxovrebT
mfarveloba da kargi mopyroba. darbeuli mosaxleoba
gaaTavisufla im wlis gamosaRebebisagan da muslimTa
Txovnisamebr, Tavisi brZanebiT, qalaqis sxvadasxva eT-

181
nikur erTeulTa Soris urTierTobis garkveuli wese-
bic SeimuSava.
magaliTad, al-farikis cnobiT, daviTma, qalaqSi
mosaxle muslimebisaTvis Tavisufali cxovrebis piro-
bebis Seqmnis mizniT, „daadgina, rom qalaqis im nawilSi,
sadac muslimebi cxovrobdnen, aravis hyoloda Rori da
aravis daekla igi maT Soris. man moWra maTTvis moneta
(fuli _ S.m.) xalifasa da sultnis saxeliT, da misca maT
ufleba azanisa (locvaze mowodebisa _ S.m.) da Tavisuf-
lad locvisa. daudo maT piroba agreTve, rom arc qar-
Tveli, arc ebraeli da arc somexi ar Sevidoda ismailis
(muslimebis _ S.m.) abanoSi da rom paraskev dRes minbari-
dan (kaTedridan _ S.m.) ilocon xalifa da sulTnisaTvis.
da ara misTvis (saqarTvelos mefisaTvis _ S.m.). man daa-
wesa gamosaRebi yovelwliuri, qarTvelisaTvis _ 5 dina-
ri, ebraelisaTvis _ 4 dinari, xolo muslimisaTvis _ 3
dinari. igi ise keTilad epyroboda muslimebs da agreT-
ve maT sarwmunoebas, mecnierebas, xalxsa da sufiebs,
rogoric maT ar hqondaT TviT muslimebs Soris. me TviT
vnaxe, roca mivedi maTTan (Tbilisel muslimebTan _ S.m.)
1153 wels, Tu rogor ZalaSia muslimTaTvis dadebuli
yvela es pirobebi aqamdeo~.
saqarTveloSi mosaxle muslimebTan samefo xeli-
suflebis amgvari damokidebulebis Sesaxeb amasve imeo-
reben sxva mahmadiani istorikosebic: al-jauzi, al-yaimi
da sxvebi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom al-jauzis axlaxan qarTulad ga-
moqveynebuli cnoba am mxriv erTgvarad gansxvavebul da
saintereso masalas gvawvdis: „Semdeg (mefem) moalbo qa-
laqis mcxovrebTa guli da maT Txoves mas zogi ram. man
(daviT mefem) misca maT zogierTi privilegia. isini aqam-
de arseboben. im (privilegiebSi Sedioda), rom igi (davi-
Ti) ar daklavda iq (TbilisSi) Rors, amokveTda dirhe-
mebze da dinarebze allahis, misi mociqulisa da xali-

182
fas saxelebs, Seasrulebdnen (muslimi) mcxovreblebi
paraskev dRes azansa da xutbas; ar Sevidoda (urwmuno)
abanoSi muslimebTan erTad da rom ar Seaviwroebda ur-
wmuno muslims. yvelas es (privilegia) dResac aqvT maT.
daviTi yovel paraskevs Sedioda meCeTSi, masTan erTad
iyo xolme misi Svili dimitri, ismenda xutbasa da yura-
nis kiTxvas da aZlevda xatibsa da muizinebs mraval oq-
ros, man aaSena qarvaslebi stumarTaTvis da saxlebi mqa-
dagebelTaTvis, sufiebisa da poetebisaTvis; daawesa
maTTvis stumarTmoyvareoba. da Tu moisurvebdnen isini
wasvlas Tbilisidan, nebas darTavda da moamaragebda
maT mravali qonebiT. igi (daviTi) met pativs scemda mus-
limebs, vidre maT scemdnen pativs islamis mflobelebi~.
rogorc vxedavT, al-farikisa da al-jauzis cno-
bebs Soris, msgavsebasTan erTad, arsebiTi gansxvavebac
aris. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom al-jauzi ara-
fers ambobs im sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis Sesaxeb, rome-
lic daviTs, al-farikis cnobiT, Tbilisis muslimuri
mosaxleobisaTvis miuniWebia. es rom marTlac ase yofi-
liyo, Zneli warmosadgenia al-jauzs, romelic yovel-
nairad cdilobs gaazviados saqarTvelos mefis Ronis-
Ziebani am mxriv, aseTi mniSvnelovani sagadasaxado SeRa-
vaTis aRniSvna gamorCenoda. marTlac, savsebiT gaugeba-
ria, Tu ratom unda daebegra daviT aRmaSenebels yve-
laze metad Tbiliseli qarTvelebi, da ratom unda mie-
niWebina SeRavaTebi am mxriv ebraelebisa da gansakuTre-
biT ki muslimebisaTvis da isic ara erTi wliT, aramed
yovelwliurad, magram isic unda aRiniSnos, rom al-fa-
riki Tanamedrovea im ambebisa, romlebzedac is wers,
amitom, cxadia, mas ufro sruli da swori informacia
eqneboda am mxriv, vidre XIII s. meore naxevris avtors,
al-jauzs. ase rom, al-farikis cnoba safuZvels mokle-
buli ar unda iyos da iqneb, imaze migviTiTebs, rom me-
fem muslimur mosaxleobas, romelic Tbilisis aRebis

183
dros ufro dazaralda, vidre sxva danarCeni, marTlac
mianiWa garkveuli sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi ara mudmi-
vad, aramed erTi an oriode wlis vadiT.
rogorc erTs, ise meore avtorsac saintereso
cnobebi moepovebaT fulis erTeulebis arabuli warwe-
rebiT moWris Sesaxebac. oRond, al-farikis cnobiT, me-
fes fulze xalifasa da sulTnis saxelebi unda amoekve-
Ta, al-jauzis cnobiT ki _ alahis, misi mociqulisa da
xalifas saxelebi. am gansxvavebul cnobas fulze amo-
sakveT saxelTa Sesaxeb amJamad CvenTvis gadamwyveti
mniSvneloba ara aqvs; mTavaria, rom daviT aRmaSenebeli
Tbilisis mosaxleobas Sehpirebia arabul warweriani,
mahmadian mflobelTa saxelebis miTiTebiT, monetebis
moWras. arc es cnoba unda iyos safuZvels moklebuli.
aseTi monetis moWra udavod xels Seuwyobda Tbilisis
saerTaSoriso savaWro asparezis Semdgom gafarToebas.
marTalia, zustad imgvari monetebi, romelTa Sesa-
xebac miuTiTeben al-fariki da al-jauzi, monetebi xa-
lifasa da sulTnis, alahisa da misi mociqulis saxele-
biT, daviTis drois dRemde cnobil monetTa Soris jer-
jerobiT ar Cans, magram am tipis monetebis moWris SesaZ-
leblobis gamoricxva swori ar iqneboda: marTalni unda
iyvnen is mkvlevarebi (e. paxomovi, d. kapanaZe), romelnic
daviT aRmaSenebels miakuTvneben erTaderT, „uwesod~
moWril monetas, Sublze samstriqoniani arabuli warwe-
riT _ „mefeTa mefe (maxvili mesiisa) daviT~. amave mone-
tis zurgze moTavsebul dazianebul warweraze kidev
numizmatebi muhamedisa da barqiaruqis (1094-1105) saxe-
lebs kiTxuloben. magram saqme imaSia, rom es moneta
Tbilisis SemoerTebisa da Tbilisel muslimTa „Txovni-
sa~ Tu pativiscemis~ niSnad moWrilad ar SeiZleba miC-
neul iqnes. rogorc Cans, igi gacilebiT adrea moWrili,
vidre daviT aRmaSenebeli Tbiliss SemoierTebda da ma-
Sasadame, im monetaTa ricxvs ar SeiZleba miekuTvnos,

184
romelzedac ase sagangebod miuTiTebdnen al-fariki da
al-jauzi. magram miuxedavad amisa, Cven mainc vfiqrobT,
rom msgavsi monetebi daviTs didgorisa da Tbilisis Se-
moerTebis Semdegac unda moeWra. amas gvafiqrebinebs
daviTis memkvidris, demetre I-is (1125-1156) dros swo-
red am tipis monetebis moWra arabuli warwerebiT, sa-
qarTvelos mefis, „mesiis maxvilisa~, xalifasa da sul-
Tnis saxelebis moxseniebiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom demetre I-
is drosac, al-farikisa da al-jauzis cnobebiT, Tbili-
seli mahmadianebi imave SeRavaTiT sargebloben, rac maT
daviT aRmaSenebelma mianiWa.
q. dmanisi, rogorc irkveva, Tbilisis msgavsad, da-
moukideblobiT sargeblobda da amitom ibrZoda sxva
qalaqebTan erTad saqarTvelos mefis winaaRmdeg damo-
ukideblobisa da TviTmmarTvelobis SenarCunebisaTvis,
magram mas Semdeg, rac am qalaqebis TavkacTa elCobis
Sedegad mowveuli samxedro Zala sastikad damarcxda
da Tbilisic damorCilebuli iqna, dmaniss winaaRmdego-
bis gaweva aRar SeeZlo da TiTqmis ubrZolvelad daneb-
da saqarTvelos mefes. 1123 w. marts dasavleT saqar-
Tvelodan qarTlSi gadmosulma daviTma „aRiRo qalaqi
dmanisio~, _ wers daviTis istorikosi, ise rom, igi ara-
fers ambobs qalaqis mier gaweuli raime winaaRmdegobis
Sesaxeb.
Tbilisisa da dmanisis damorCilebiT bolo moeRo
ukanaskneli damoukidebeli politikuri erTeulebis –
qalaq-respublikaTa arsebobas saqarTvelos feodaluri
monarqiis teritoriaze. qalaqebis damoukideblobis ga-
uqmebam, maT morCilebaSi moyvanam kidev ufro gaaZlie-
ra TviTmpyrobeli mefe, amieridan igi Tavis interesebs
ukarnaxebda ara marto saero da saeklesio feodalebs,
aramed qalaqebsac; mas kidev ufro meti SesaZlebloba
mieca qalaqebis gamoyenebisa.

185
Tbilisisa da dmanisis SemoerTebas uaRresad didi
mniSvneloba hqonda feodaluri saqarTvelos politi-
kuri da ekonomikuri cxovrebis Semdgomi ganviTarebi-
saTvis. Tbilisisa da dmanisis SemomtkicebiT dasrulda
saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebis mravalsaukunovani
brZola qarTuli miwa-wylis Tavmoyrisa da gaerTianebi-
saTvis.
Tbilisis SemoerTebis Semdeg daviT aRmaSenebelma
samefo rezidencia gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos pirveli
sataxto qalaqidan, quTaisidan TbilisSi gadmoitana.
amieridan Tbilisi iqca gaerTianebuli da zrdadasrule-
buli feodaluri saqarTvelos politikur centrad; amie-
ridan feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri cxovrebis
mesaWis roli Tbiliss daekisra, am droidan iwyeba Tbili-
sis, rogorc erTiani saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis istoria.
amasTanave, Tbilisis SemoerTeba niSnavda qalaqis nam-
dvili ayvavebis xanis dawyebas. Tbiliss mSvidobiani gan-
viTarebis dro daudga da igi male ara marto mTeli sa-
qarTvelos, aramed maxlobeli aRmosavleTis mniSvnelo-
van ekonomikur centrad iqca. Tbilisma udidesi roli
Seasrula qarTveli xalxis istoriaSi, igi yovelTvis,
aRmavloba-gaZlierebisa Tu daknineba-gansacdelis Jams,
qveynis erTianobisa Tu politikuri daSlilobis xana-
Sic, iyo qarTveli xalxis politikuri, ekonomikuri
cxovrebisa da kulturis centri, qarTuli miwa-wylis
Sekreba-Tavmoyris iniciatori, qarTveli xalxis dam-
razmveli erovnuli damoukideblobisa Tu socialuri
ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZolasa da mSvidobian mSeneb-
lobaSi.
850 weli Sesrulda Tbilisis SemoerTebis, misi sa-
qarTvelos dedaqalaqad gadaqcevis droidan da dResac
xandazmuli, magram marad axalgazrda qalaqi warmatebiT
uZRveba qarTveli xalxis politikur, socialur-ekono-
mikur da kulturul cxovrebas.

186
amrigad, Tbilisis, rogorc saqarTvelos dedaqa-
laqis, mravalsaukunovanma istoriam savsebiT daadastu-
ra daviT aRmaSeneblis politikuri alRos siswore da
didgoris velze da Tbilisis SemoerTebisaTvis mebr-
ZolTa Tavganwirvis didi istoriuli mniSvneloba.

2. cvlilebebi saqarTvelos sagareo


urTierTobaSi

saqarTvelos sazRvrebs SigniT Turq-selCukebze


sruli gamarjvebisa da maTi Zalebis daqsaqsva-Sesuste-
bis Semdeg, saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebas didi Se-
saZlebloba mieca brZola dampyroblebis winaaRmdeg
ufro farTo masStabiT, saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gare-
Tac warmatebiT ewarmoebina. daviT aRmaSenebelma mezo-
beli qveynebis qalaqebi gawminda Turq-selCukebisagan
da isini saqarTvelos daumorCila. magaliTad, man jer
kidev didgoris brZolamde Sirvanis q. yabala aiRo, xo-
lo Tbilisis SemoerTebis Semdeg q. ganjis dasjac ga-
dawyvita da mis winaaRmdeg gailaSqra. al-farikis cno-
biT, 1122 wels „qalaq ganZaSi miwisZvra moxda, misi nawi-
li daingra da daiqca misi kedlebic. mefe daviTi gamo-
vida da misken gaemarTa, man mcxovrebTagan didZali
tyve waiyvana da cxvrebiviT gagzavna isini urmebiT. man
gaZarcva yvelaferi, rac ki iyo qalaqSi da misi xalxi
TbilisSi moiyvanao~.
ganZis amgvar aoxrebasa da gaZarcvas misi dapyroba
ar mohyolia. igi erTxans kidev darCa TurqTa erT-erT
ZiriTad sayrdenad saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg brZolaSi.
magram ganZis dalaSqvas am dros mainc didi mniSvneloba
hqonda Turq dampyrobelTa Zalebis Sesustebis Tval-
sazrisiT. amas garda, ganZis winaaRmdeg galaSqreba, ise
rogorc Tbilisisa da dmanisis SemoerTeba, didgoris
brZolis erTgvari gagrZelebac iyo. swored Tbilel-

187
dmanel-ganZelni iyvnen uSualo wamomwyebni saqarTve-
los winaaRmdeg mowyobili didi mahmadianuri koalicii-
sa da cxadia, Tbilisisa da dmanisis SemoerTebis Semdeg,
ganjis dausjelad datoveba saqarTvelos mefes, ro-
gorc Cans, SeuZleblad miuCnevia.
amas garda, ganZaSi mowyobili laSqroba, didgoris
Semdeg, daviT IV-is gadadgmuli pirveli nabiji iyo ra-
nisa da Sirvanis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad. amas kargad
grZnobdnen imdroindeli mahmadiani mflobelebi da ma-
Sinve Seecadnen ukve saqarTvelos mefes mimxrobili
SirvanSahi daesajaT da morCilebaSi moeyvanaT. amitom
iyo, rom saqarTvelos samefos winaaRmdeg mowyobili
koaliciuri laSqrobis organizatori da am laSqrobis
didi marcxiT gamwarebuli sulTani mahmudi, didgoris
brZolis meore wels, SirvanSi SeiWra, Seipyro SirvanSa-
hi, aiRo Semaxia da saqarTvelos mefesac daemuqra: „Seni
ymadnafici xelTa myavs, xarajas varTmev, Sen ki an ZRve-
ni gamomigzavne an Tu ginda samalavidan gamodi da mna-
xeo~. gaTavxedebuli sulTnis werils mefem ormocdaaTi
aTasi molaSqris saomrad gamzadebiT da Sirvanisaken ga-
laSqrebiT upasuxa. rogorc ki gaigo sulTanma daviT
aRmaSeneblis ase swrafad mosvla, „Zali da simravle
spaTa misTa~, qalaqSi Caiketa da daviTis istorikosis
sityviT, „mravali dRis SimSiliTa da wyurviliT Seviw-
roebulma~, „mravali vedrebis, ZRvenisa da mudaris SeT-
vliT, rogorc monam gaWirvebulma, ara Tu ZRveni da omi,
aramed gasaqcevi gza iTxova, friad simdabliT da ara
sulTnurad~. xolo roca daviT aRmaSenebelma SemaxiaSi
Caketili sulTnis dasaxmareblad wamosuli ranis aTaba-
gi sastikad daamarcxa, baqia sulTani „masve Ramesve gai-
para da sasduniT (mwviris gasadinari xvreliT _ S.m.)
gaqceuli sxva gziT warvida soflad Tvisad~.
rogorc zemoTac vnaxeT, ibn al-asiri sulTnis ga-
laSqrebas SirvanSi uSualod didgoris brZolas ukavSi-

188
rebda da mis gagrZelebad miiCnevda. misi sityviT, did-
goris brZolaSi damarcxebulma da aqedan „gaqceulma
516 (1122-1123 _ S.m.) wels miaRwies baRdadamde da mou-
wodes maT dasaxmareblad da dasacavad. roca gaiges,
rom sulTani mahmudi imyofeboda hamadanSi, isini gae-
marTnen misken daxmarebis saTxovnelad da igic (sulTa-
nic _ S.m.) gaemarTa azerbaijanisaken da SeCerda Tav-
rizSi... saidanac man gagzavna laSqari qarTvelebis wina-
aRmdeg... im wels (1123 w. _ S.m.) erTob gaZlierda qar-
TvelTa borotmoqmedeba islamis qveynebSi da xalxi,
gansakuTrebiT derbend-Sirvanis mosaxleoba, did ga-
WirvebaSi Cavarda. amitom maTi sazogadoebis bevri di-
debuli [warmomadgeneli _ S.m.] sulTanTan wavida da
SesCivles [TavianTi gaWirveba _ S.m.], rasac ganicdidnen
maTgan (qarTvelebisagan _ S.m.) da Tan acnobes, rom sus-
tni arian da maT TavianTi qveynis dacva ar SeuZliaTo.
sultani gaemarTa maTken~.
amrigad, ibn al-asiris mixedviT, SirvanSi sultnis
mier mowyobili laSqroba ganupirobebia, erTi mxriv,
didgoris brZolaSi maT damarcxebas da meore mxriv,
daruband-Sirvanis mosaxleobis Seviwroebas qarTvele-
bis mier. sxva mahmadiani istorikosi kidev sulTanis
laSqrobis mizezad, Sirvanis saqarTvelos ymadnaficad
Sesvlis Semdeg, sulTnis xazinisaTvis yovelwliuri xar-
kis, 40.000 dinaris, Sewyvetas miiCnevda. rogorc Cans,
ymadnafici Sirvanis yovelwliuri xarki amieridan saqar-
Tvelos samefos xazinaSi midioda.
rogorc qarTuli, aseve mahmadianuri wyaroebidan
irkveva, rom imjerad gaqceul sulTansa da daviTis
laSqars Soris brZola ar momxdara, daviT aRmaSenebels
amjerad sulTnis laSqris devna ar uwarmoebia da arc q.
Semaxiis da arc sxva cixeebis aReba ucdia; magram erTi
Tvec ar iyo gasuli amis Semdeg, daviTi „kvlav warvida
Sarvans, aRiRo gulistani... moirTo (SemoierTa _ S.m.)
189
Sarvani~, gawminda is Turq-selCukebisagan da saqarTve-
los samefo xelisuflebas daumorCila. amgvarad, mezo-
beli Sirvanic (azerbaijanic) amjerad gadaurCa Turq
dampyrobelTa gamanadgurebel batonobas.
magram jer kidev ar iyo gadawyvetili Sirvanis sa-
mefos SemoerTebis sakiTxi. daviT IV-s SirvanisaTvis
sulTnis winaaRmdeg gamarTulma brZolam kargad daa-
naxva, rom Sirvans ymadnaficobis pirobiT veRar Seinar-
Cunebda. saWiro iyo kidev ufro kategoriuli RonisZie-
bis miReba. amiT aixsneba, rom somxeTis sakiTxis ZiriTa-
dad mogvarebis Semdeg, daviTma isev gailaSqra Sirvans.
„aRiRo qalaqi Samaxia da cixe biriti, sruliad yoveli
Sarvani da dauteva cixeTa da qalaqTa Sina laSqarni didni,
herni da kaxni~. rogorc vxedavT, mravalwlovani brZola
SirvanisaTvis, didgorze gamarjvebis Semdeg, saqarTve-
los samefo xelisuflebis sagareo politikis warmate-
biT damTavrda _ Sirvani mTlianad gaTavisuflda Tur-
qi dampyroblebisagan da saqarTvelos SemouerTda, mis
umTavres cixeebsa da qalaqebSi saqarTvelos sakmaod
mravalricxovani laSqari iqna Cayenebuli; xolo Sirva-
nis „ganmgeblad da zedamxedvelad yovelTa saqmeTa man-
daurTa (mefem _ S.m.) aCina mwignobarTuxucesi Tvisi
svimon, Wyondideli mTavarepiskoposi... kaci yovli-
TurT sruli da brZeni. da ganago mefeman yovelni saqme
Sirvanisa, aRavsna keTiliTa da saboZvriTa qurdni, lek-
ni da Tarasni~ _ wers daviTis istorikosi.
Sirvanis SemoerTebis droidan, rogorc es Cvens
samecniero literaturaSia aRniSnuli, unda iyos Semo-
tanili qarTvel mefeTa titulaturaSi „SirvanSahis~
wodebac. marTlac, daviTs (da cxadia, mis memkvidreeb-
sac) amieridan SeeZlo Tavisi TavisaTvis ewodebina ara
marto „mefe afxazTa, qarTvelTa, ranTa, kaxTa da so-
mexTa~, aramed agreTve „SirvanSahic~, magram radgan
Sirvanis SemoerTeba daviTis mefobis bolo, ukanasknel

190
wels, ufro sworad, ukanasknel TveebSi moxda, Cven sa-
Tanado masala, sadac mefe am tituliTac iyo moxsenie-
buli, ver Semogvenaxa.1
amrigad, Sirvanis gaTavisufleba Turq-selCukTa
batonobisagan da misi SemoerTebac didgoris brZolis
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Sedegi iyo.

***

didgoris velze mopovebuli gamarjvebis Semdeg


saqarTvelos samefos warmatebiT SeeZlo waremarTa ag-
reTve brZolebi mezobeli somxeTis yofili samefoebis
teritoriebis Turq dampyrobelTagan gaTavisuflebi-
saTvis. daviT aRmaSenebelma ganZis dalaSqvrisa da Sir-
vanSi sulTnis winaaRmdeg gamarTuli pirveli brZole-
bis Semdeg, 1123 wels, aiRo „cixeni somxeTisani, gagni,
teronakali, qavazinni, norbedi, minasgomoni da talan-
jiqari~. ase daiwyo saqarTvelos laSqris Zlevamosili
1
bolo wlebSi azerbaijanul samecniero literaturaSi, gan-
sakuTrebiT a. a. ali-zades werilebiT, gavrcelda Sexedule-
ba, romlis mixedviTac qarTuli wyaroebis monacemebi saqar-
Tvelosa da Sirvanis zemoaRniSnuli damokidebulebis Sesaxeb
tendenciurad aris gamocxadebuli da savsebiT uaryofilia
ara marto saqarTvelos samefos mier Sirvanis SemoerTebis
faqti, aramed Sirvanze saerTod saqarTvelos raime politi-
kuri gavlenac ki. am da msgavsi, yovelgvar safuZvels mokle-
buli, Tvalsazrisis Sesaxeb amJamad sityvas ar gavagrZelebT,
radgan am sakiTxisadmi miZRvnil sagangebo vrcel werilSi n.
asaTianma saTanado pirvelwyaroebis (qarTuli, somxuri, mah-
madianuri) moSveliebiT, naTlad uCvena aRniSnul mosazreba-
Ta uniadagoba. aRsaniSnavia, rom zogi azerbaijaneli istori-
kosi (mag., z. buniatovi) iziarebs n. asaTianis werilis Ziri-
Tad daskvnebs da am sakiTxze usagno kamaTis gagrZelebas sa-
Wirod ar miiCnevs.

191
brZolebi somxeTis gasaTavisufleblad. somexi xalxi
imedis TvaliT uyurebda daviTis gamarjvebebs ucxoel
dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg brZolaSi da yovelnairad xels
uwyobda mis Semdgom warmatebebs. swored somexma Tavka-
cebma miiwvies daviT IV q. anisidan mahmadian mflobelTa
gasadevnad da qalaqis gasaTavisufleblad.
anis-Siraqis yofili samefos dedaqalaqi, maxlobe-
li aRmosavleTis erT-erTi udidesi ekonomikuri cen-
tri q. anisi, im dros qurTuli warmomavlobis mahmadian
mflobelebs _ Sedadidebs epyraT. daviTis dros anisis
erT-erTi mflobeli manuCari 1118 w. gardaicvala, xo-
lo misi adgili misma Svilma abulasvarma daiWira. igi
qalaqis mosaxleobis mimarT agresiul politikasa da
religiuri Seviwroebis gzas daadga. XIII s. somexi isto-
rikosis vardanis sityviT, anisis am „qalebis moyvarul-
ma da mamacobas moklebulma~ mflobelma, q. xlaTidan
moatanina vercxlisagan sagangebod gamoWedili uzarma-
zari naxevarmTvare (vardani mas „uzarmazar nalad~ mo-
ixseniebs) da brZana igi daedgaT somxuri „kaTolike ek-
lesiis~ gumbaTze.
amas garda, abul-asvarma, Turqi dampyroblebis Si-
SiT, gadawyvita 60.000 dinarad q. anisi q. karis selCuk
amirasaTvis mieyida. yovelive aman q. anisis ZiriTadi,
qristianuli mosaxleobis umayofileba da mRelvareba
gamoiwvia, Turqi dampyroblebis anisSi mowveviT SeSine-
bulma somxebma, q. anisis mosaxleobis Tavkacebma, anu
rogorc wyaroebSia, miemarTaT saqarTvelos mefisaTvis.
daviTis istorikosis sityviT, „agvistossa ocsa movi-
des mwignobarni anelTa TavadTani da moaxsenes mocema
qalaqisa da cixeTa boJanasa wyaroTa zeda mdgomsa~.
amasve adasturebs vardanis cnobac: anisis „aRelvebuli
qristianebis mier daviTis mowvevisa da qalaqis misTvis
micemis~ Sesaxeb. XII s. somexi istorikosis anelis cno-
biTac „qalaq anisisa da Sirakis olqis [mcxovreblebma]

192
gadawyvites gamosavali epovaT imiT, rom Txovnis xeli
gaewodaT qarTlis mefisaTvis _ daviTisaTvis. maT uRa-
lates amira abul-suvars manuCaris Zes, romelic flob-
da qalaqs mamis sikvdilis Semdeg da gauRes ra qalaqis
kari, SemouSves SigniT is mefe [daviTi]~.
daviT IV-m, rogorc ki miiRo „anel TavadTa~ (Tav-
kacTa) mowveva, maSinve gasca gankarguleba samefoSi
laSqris saswrafod „wvevis wignebi~ daegzavnaT. mar-
Tlac, sami dRis Semdeg, istorikosis sityviT, mefes
„samoci aTasi mxedari winaSe udga. waremarTa da viTar-
ca miiwia, mesamesa dResa aiRo qalaqi anisi da cixeni mis-
ni uWirvelad, sofelni da queyanani mimdgomni anisisa-
ni~. anisisa da misi „mimdgomi qveynebis~ aReba da gaTavi-
sufleba, rogorc qarTveli istorikosi wers, „uWirve-
lad~ didi siZneleebis gareSe momxdara. amasve adastu-
reben somexi istorikosebic; mag., samuel anelis mixed-
viT, „maSin Sesvlisas (qalaqis aRebisas _ S.m.) erT sul-
sac ar mosvlia sisxlis ziani~. da es imitom, rom qar-
TvelTa laSqroba anissa da mis „mimdgom qveynebSi~ gama-
Tavisuflebeli laSqrobis xasiaTs atarebda da somexi
xalxi didi xnis survilis ganxorcielebas isaxavda miz-
nad. amitom iyo, rom anisis gaTavisuflebas didi sixa-
ruliT Sexvda somexi xalxi.
Cven mier zemoxsenebuli, XII s. somexi istorikosi
maTe urhaeli aRfrTovanebiT werda: „ganTavisuflda
monobisagan sataxto qalaqi anisi, romelic tyveobaSi
iyo samoci weli da didebuli da didi eklesia anisisa,
wminda kaTolike, romelic mizgiTad gadaeqciaT. [da-
viTma] Sekriba episkoposebi, xucesebi da berebi somexTa
qveynisa da akurTxa wminda kaTolike didi zeimiT. da iq-
mna sixaruli yovlisa saxlsa somexTasa, rameTu naxes
wminda kaTolike gaTavisuflebuli monobisagan~... „da
iyo daviT mefe wmida da saTno yovlad Semkuli RmTis
mosavobiTa da keTili samarTlianobiT. igi gamouCnda

13. SoTa mesxia 193


Semwynarebeli da moyvaruli somexTa toms~... „didi sixa-
ruliTa da aRfrTovanebiT eqceoda mas mTeli somexi
xalxi~.
q. anisi da misi „mimdgomi qveyana~, ise rogorc ad-
reve gaTavisuflebuli lore da lore-taSiris yofili
samefos teritoriebi, daviT aRmaSenebelma saqarTvelos
SemouerTa; anisis mcvelad ki, qarTveli istorikosis
sityviT, „dautevna aznaurni mesxni~, xolo qalaqisa da
misi qveynebis ganmgebloba, vardanis mixedviT, qarTvel
didebulebs, abuleTsa da mis Svils ivanes, Caabara. ani-
sis yofili mflobeli abulasvari ki, Tavisi rva SviliT,
zogi cnobiT, afxazeTis Waobian, ciebcxelebian adgileb-
Si gagzavna. sxva cnobiT kidev _ Tbiliss Camoiyvana.
anisis gaTavisuflebisa da SemoerTebis Semdeg da-
viTma, vardanis cnobiT, kidev ufro ganavrco saqarTve-
los sazRvrebi, daipyro vanandisa da araratis provin-
ciaSi mdebare olqebi, yvela qveyana, romelic ki erT
dros somexTa mefeebs _ kvirikesa da abass _ ekuTvno-
daT, kavkasiis mTa da qveynebi TviT kaspiis zRvamde, xa-
banda didi somxeTis arcaxis provinciaSi da sxva.
amrigad, daviT aRmaSeneblis dros gaTavisuflda
da saqarTvelos uSualod SemouerTda Turq-selCukebis
mier dapyrobili somxuri provinciebis ZiriTadi nawili.
qveyanaSi Seiqmna met-naklebad mSvidobiani cxovrebis
pirobebi. amasTan erTad, daiwyo jer kidev ucxoelTa
batonobis qveS myof somexTa masobrivi gadasaxleba da
damkvidreba sakuTriv saqarTvelosa da mis mier Semom-
tkicebul provinciebSi; somxeTis umTavresi olqebisa
da qalaqebis saqarTvelosTan SeerTebis droidan dadga
axali xana qarTveli da somexi xalxebis urTierTobaSi
_ maTi kavSiris axali formebis Semdgomi ganmtkicebisa
da ekonomikuri da kulturuli TanamSromlobis gafar-
Toebis xana. es kidev erTi didi istoriuli mniSvnelo-
bis Sedegi iyo didgoris velze mopovebuli gadamwyveti
gamarjvebisa.

194
Sirvanisa da somxeTis SemoerTebiT, Crdilo kavka-
siis xalxebze ymadnaficobis xelis dadebiT da saqar-
Tvelos gavlenis gaZlierebiT arsebiTad daiwyo saqar-
Tvelos meTaurobiT erTiani kavkasiuri saxelmwifos Ca-
moyalibebisa da mravalerovani saxelmwifos Seqmnis xan-
grZlivi istoriuli procesi. amas moiTxovda, erTi
mxriv, calkeuli sameurneo olqebis ekonomikuri daax-
loebis interesebi, xolo meore mxriv, mravalricxovan
ucxoel dampyrobelTa winaaRmdeg brZolaSi gaerTiane-
bis, erTiani Tavdacvis uzrunvelyofis aucilebloba.

***

Turq-selCukebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi mopovebul-


ma warmatebebma, dampyroblebis gandevnam, somxeTisa da
Sirvanis didi nawilis ganTavisufleba-SemoerTebam mni-
Svnelovnad gaafarTova saqarTvelos samefos politi-
kuri sazRvrebi da gazarda misi saerTaSoriso avtori-
tetic. saqarTvelos samefo, imdroindeli wyaroebis mi-
xedviT, vrceldeboda „nikofsiTgan (dRevandeli kras-
nodaris mxareSi, soWsa, da tuafses Soris) darubandam-
dis (dRevandeli derbetis sazRvramde) da ovseTidan
(igulisxmeba Crdilo oseTi) aregawamde~ (somxeTSi). da-
viT aRmaSenebeli ukve sakmaod vrceli da Zlieri qveye-
nis mefe iyo. Tavisi siZliere saqarTvelos samefom jer
kidev didgoris brZolaSi daamtkica.
kidev ufro gaizarda gaZlierebuli saqarTvelos
samefos saerTaSoriso gavlena. misi Soreuli Tu axlo
mezobeli qveynebi iZulebulni xdebodnen angariSi gae-
wiaT misTvis. maxlobeli aRmosavleTis mahmadiani mf-
lobelebi xom araerTgzis TviTve darwmundnen mis uZ-
levelobaSi: „aravin win aRudga mas (saqarTvelos mefes
_ S.m.). _ wers daviTis istorikosi, _ rameTu TviT sul-

195
Tani sadac ar unda yofiliyo, Zrwoda SiSisagan misisa
da arcaRa TviT Zvelad qonebulTa qalaqTa da queyana-
Ta miiCnevda Tavis qonebad~ da ra Sorsac ar unda yo-
filiyo daviT mefe, sulTans mainc „eoceboda (Tvalwin
edga _ S.m.) mZinaresa SiSi da mRviZaresa sikvdili~-o.
daviT aRmaSeneblis mier araerTxel damarcxebuli
mahmadiani mflobelebi, raki iaraRiT verafers gaxdnen,
aTasgvari saCuqrebiTa da ZRveniT eZiebdnen misgan mSvi-
dobasa da megobrobas. daviTis istorikosis sityviT,
mefis SiSiT ZilgamkrTali sulTani „zedized warmoav-
lenda mociqulebs ZRveniT mis (daviTis) dasamSvideb-
lad da agzavnida did saganZurs, Zvirfass, mravalfers,
ucxo da iSviaTad sapovnel frinvelebsa da nadirT da
eZebda mSvidobasa da siyvaruls da yivCayTagan daurbev-
lobas. arafrad miiCnevda warsageblis simravles (xar-
jis sidides _ S.m.), oRond TviTon moepovebina simSvide
da sicocxle Tavisa Tvisisao~. amrigad, erT dros sa-
qarTveloze gabatonebuli sulTani, amjerad mis mefes-
Tan uTvalavi ZRveniTa da saCuqrebiT mSvidobis maZie-
beli, arsebiTad saqarTvelos samefos moxarked iyo
qceuli. amitom ambobda daviTis istorikosi _ mefem
„sultani dasva moxarked Tvisao~.
daviT IV-is mier mahmadianur samyarosTan damyare-
buli aseTi urTierTobis Semdeg, gaugebrad unda miviC-
nioT zogierTi mkvlevris Tvalsazrisi daviTisa da misi
memkvidris, demetre I-is drois saqarTveloze muslimo-
bis didi gavlenisa da muslimebisadmi vasalobis Sesaxeb.
jer kidev cnobili numizmati e. paxomovi, demetre I-is
zemoaRniSnul monetaze xalifasa da sulTnis saxelebis
moxseniebis mixedviT, mivida amgvar daskvnamde. misi az-
riT, saqarTvelos mefe iZulebuli gamxdara ecno Tavisi
vasaluri damokidebuleba muslimi mflobelebisadmi. iv.
javaxiSvilma 1912 w. Tavis recenziaSi e. paxomovis naS-
romze naTlad uCvena amgvari mosazrebis arasworoba da

196
miuTiTa, rom qarTul monetebze muslim mflobelTa
moxsenieba politikuri damokidebulebis Sedegi ar yofi-
la, rom amgvari warwerebi qarTul monetebs ucxoelTa
Soris saqarTveloSi da mis sazRvrebs gareTac gansakuT-
rebiT mahmadianur aRmosavlur samyaroSi, farTo, Tavi-
sufali mimoqcevis saSualebas aZlevda.
miuxedavad amisa, zogierTi mkvlevari dResac ime-
orebs am araswor mosazrebas. ingliseli mecnieris, v.
minorskis azriT, saqarTvelos mefis mier Tbilisis mah-
madianuri mosaxleobisadmi miniWebuli iseTi SeRavaTebi,
romlebzedac Cven zemoT gvqonda saubari da daviTis
ase frTxili damokidebuleba muslimi qveSevrdomebi-
sadmi aixsneba muslimTa didi gavleniT Tbilisze (gansa-
kuTrebiT misi SemoerTebis Semdeg) da saerTod saqar-
Tveloze. amis sabuTad v. minorski asaxelebs imdroin-
del saqarTveloSi arabuli enis gamocxadebas umTavres
diplomatiur, mezoblebTan urTierTobis enad, arabuli
warwerebis gaCenas qarTul monetebze, bizantiuri tipis
fulebis magier muslimuri tipis monetebis moWras da
qarTvel mefeTa bizantiuri titulebis gaqrobas.
saqarTvelos samefosa da aRmosavleTis mahmadiani
mflobelebis urTierTobis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT
kidev ufro Sors wavida da araswor daskvnamde mivida
rusi mkvlevari o. vilCevski. misi mtkicebiT, e. paxomov-
ma udavod daadastura demetre I-is vasaluri damokide-
buleba abasid xalifebisa da iranel-selCuk sulTnebi-
sadmi. xolo iv. javaxiSvilis sawinaaRmdego Tvalsazri-
si, romelic Semdeg ukritikod gaimeores a. bikovma da
d. kapanaZem, „moklebulia yovelgvar mecnierul safuZ-
vels~. o. vilCevskim Tavis am Tvalsazrisis gasamtkiceb-
lad „axali sabuTic~ moiSvelia, romelic misi azriT,
savsebiT naTels xdis demetre I-is monetebze gakeTebu-
li warwerebis mniSvnelobas. es „axali sabuTi~ demetre
I-is Tanamedrovis da mexotbis Sirvaneli poetis fala-

197
kis odis erT-erTi adgilia, sadac demetre I Turme
„xarkis dasavleTidan aRmosavleTSi momtanad~ aris ga-
mocxadebuli. es ki, o. vilCevskis daskvniT, imas niSnavs,
rom „demetre daviTis Ze, bagrationTa sagvareulodan~
selCukebs xarks uxdida.
SeiZleba dabejiTebiT iTqvas, rom daviTis, demet-
re I-is Tu giorgi III-is da sxvebis mier moWrili monete-
bi, arabuli warwerebiTa da mahmadian mflobelTa saxe-
lebis moxseniebiT, saqarTvelos mefeebis mezobel mah-
madian mflobelebTan damokidebulebis formebis gansa-
sazRvrad ar gamodgeba.
es savsebiT naTeli gaxdeba, Tu gavixsenebT, rom
msgavsi arabulwarweriani da muslimuri tipis monetebi
iWreboda ara marto saqarTveloSi, romelsac uSualo
kontaqti hqonda mahmadianur samyarosTan, aramed sakma-
od Soreul evropul qveynebSi da iseT samefoebsa da
samTavroebSi, romlebic „jvarosnul oms~ ucxadebdnen
mahmadian mflobelebs. magaliTad, hercogma robert si-
cilielma (1072-1085 ww.) mis mier moWrili muslimuri
tipis monetaze arabuli warwerebiT moixsenia ara mar-
to Tavisi, aramed agreTve muhamedis saxelic. amgvarad-
ve, siciliis pirveli mefis roJer II-is (1130-1154), saer-
Tod, muslimuri ieris arabulwarwerian monetaze mox-
senebulia fatimiani xalifa. msgavs monetebs Wridnen
normandiis mefeebi vilhelm I (1066-1087), vilhelm II
(1153-1189) da tankredi II (1189-1194); xolo Semdeg, impe-
ratorebis _ henrix IV-is (1194-1197) da fridrix II-is
(1197-1220) dros, samxreT italiisa da siciliis mone-
tebze, marTalia, xalifas saxeli ar moixseneboda, mag-
ram Cveulebriv amokveTili iyo arabuli warwerebi da
simboloebi qristianulTan erTad.
amas garda sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom romis pa-
pebi palestinis episkoposebs winadadebas aZlevdnen ek-
lesiidan moekveTaT yvela is, vinc ki ierusalimis same-

198
foSi, antioqiis samTavroSi Tu tripolis sagrafoSi
moWrida monetebs muhamedis saxeliT. cnobilia, rom pa-
pis amgvar miTiTebebs angariSs aravin uwevda da aRmo-
savleTis jvarosnul (evropul) samefoebsa da samTav-
roebSi grZeldeboda monetebis moWra arabuli warwere-
biTa da muhamedisa da xalifas saxelebis moxseniebiT.
magram, miuxedavad amisa, aravis mosvlia azrad, rom si-
ciliis, normandiis, italiisa Tu sxva Sua saukuneebis
evropuli Tu jvarosnuli aRmosavluri saxelmwifoebis
mefe-mTavrebi aRmosavleTis mahmadian mflobelTa vasa-
lebad da moxarkeebad gamoecxadebina.
amrigad, aSkaraa, rom muslimuri tipis arabulwar-
weriani monetebi, muhamedisa da xalifas saxeliT saqar-
Tulosa Tu evropis qveynebSi iWreboda ara am saxelmwi-
foebis aRmosavleTis mahmadiani mflobelebisadmi vasa-
luri damokidebulebis gamosaxatavad, aramed im saerTa-
Soriso savaWro-ekonomikur urTierTobaSi aqtiuri mona-
wileobis misaRebad, romelsac aRmosavleTsa da dasav-
leTs Soris am droisaTvis ase farTo xasiaTi hqonda.
zemoTqmulis Semdeg SeiZleba zedmeti iyos, magram
mainc saWirod miviCnieT oriod sityviT SevexoTo. vil-
Cevskis mier ase gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis mqoned miCne-
ul sabuTsac _ Sirvaneli poetis, falakis saxotbo
sityvebs. falaki, ise rogorc misi maswavlebeli xakani,
demetre I-is mexotbe iyo. demetre I-is gardacvalebas
falakim sagangebo oda uZRvna, sadac sxvaTa Soris naT-
qvamia: „mefeT-mefe (SahinSahi) afxazeTisa da Saqisa (de-
metre), meufe horizontisa (es fraza o. vilCevskis gamo-
tovebuli aqvs), romelmac xarki (baJi) moitana aRmosav-
leTSi dasavleTidan~.
falakis oda, iranuli saxotbo poeziisaTvis dama-
xasiaTebel Cveulebriv yasidas warmoadgens da cxadia,
masSi realuri istoriuli Sinaarsis danaxva gaZnelde-

199
boda. rogorc vxedavT, falaki demetre I-s „horizonte-
bis~, „samyaros mTeli Tvalsawieris meufed~ miiCnevs.
qvemoT kidev, saqarTvelos mefe mis mier „qristes max-
vilad, mTeli ciur samyaroTa Tavis brwyinvale droSis
qveS gaerTianebulad~ aris gamocxadebuli. yvelaferi
es, ra Tqma unda, SeuZlebelia realuri istoriuli vi-
Tarebis amsaxvelad miviCnioT. magram Tu o. vilCevskis
msgavsad falakis zemomotanil sityvebSi mainc realuri
Sinaarsis Zebnas daviwyebT, savsebiT sawinaaRmdego das-
kvna unda gagvekeTebina: jer erTi, falakis mier „miwie-
ri da zeciuri samyaros~, „mTeli horizontis~ mefed
miCneuli demetre rogor SeiZleboda muslim mflobel-
Ta moxarked warmogvedgina; an kidev, ra safiqrebelia,
rom TviT falakis, romelmac ar daiSura saxotbo sity-
vebi demetres siZlierisa da sididis Sesaqebad, mis mier
ase gandidebuli mefe, masve, amave sagangebo odaSi sxve-
bis moxarked gamoecxadebina.
amas garda, saqme SeiZleba imaSic iyos, rom „aRmo-
savleTSi~, romelsac am SemTxvevaSi falaki ixseniebs da
sadac demetre I-ma „moitana~ xarki dasavleTidan~, swo-
red im drois politikuri saqarTvelo (romelSic fa-
lakis samSoblo Sirvanic ivaraudeboda) igulisxmeboda.
sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom imdroindel wyaroeb-
Si (maT Soris qarTulSic) saqarTvelo „dasavleTisagan~
(bizantiisagan da misi yofili mcireaziuri teritorie-
bisagan) gansxvavebulad „aRmosavleTad~ moixsenieboda.
amas garda, ar aris gamoricxuli isic, rom falaki Sir-
vaneli, romelmac ase sagangebo oda Seqmna demetres
gardacvalebis gamo, misi dakrZalvis dros swored sa-
qarTveloSi yofiliyo, amaze unda migviTiTebdes am Sem-
TxvevaSi naxmari zmna „moitana~ (spars. „avard~).
ase rom, Tuki falaki Sirvanelis _ odaSi realuri
viTarebis Zebnas daviwyebdiT, demetre I sxva qveynebidan,
„dasavleTidan~, xarkis „aRmosavleTSi~ (saqarTveloSi)

200
„momtanad~ unda migveCnia da ara piriqiT _ aRmosavle-
Tis mahmadiani mflobelebisadmi xarkis „mimtanad~, ro-
gorc es o. vilCevskis warmoudgenia.
amrigad, daviT aRmaSenebeli Tu misi memkvidre,
romelnic TavianT Tavs „mesiis (qristes) maxvils~ uwo-
debdnen da romlebmac moRvaweobis mTeli wlebi Turq
dampyroblebisagan, maTi batonoba-gavlenisagan saqar-
Tvelos ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZolas Sealies da am
brZolaSi gadamwyveti gamarjvebebic moipoves XII sauku-
neSi, saqarTvelos istoriis gayalbeba iqneboda musli-
mebis gavlenis Tu moxarkeobis qveS myofi saxelmwifos
mefeebad CagveTvala. magram Turq dampyrobTa winaaR-
mdeg brZola, rogorc aRvniSneT, mahmadianur samyaros-
Tan kavSiris gawyvetas ki ar niSnavda, aramed am kavSi-
ris axali saxiT gagrZelebas da gaRrmavebasac. arabul-
warweriani da muslimuri tipis monetebis moWra, arabu-
li enis aseTi mdgomareoba Tu mefeTa bizantiuri saka-
riskaco titulebis gaqroba saqarTveloze muslimobis
gavlenis gazrdiT ki ar aixsneba, aramed imiT, rom im-
droindeli saqarTvelo umTavresad muslimuri qveyne-
bis garemocvaSi imyofeboda da am garemosTan ekonomi-
kuri Tu politikuri erTianoba aseTi RonisZiebis gata-
rebas moiTxovda. Tumca isic unda SevniSnoT, rom da-
viT aRmaSenebeli ara marto arabulwarwerian, aramed
mxolod qarTulwarwerian monetebsac Wrida, rogorc
es am bolo wlebSi gamoarkvia ingliselma mecnierma d.
langma. amas garda, rogorc aRvniSneT, swored daviT aR-
maSeneblis droidan gaqra ara marto bizantiuri sakaris-
kaco titulebi, aramed masTan erTad yvela is simbolu-
ri niSanic, rac saqarTvelosa da misi mefis romelime
ucxo saxelmwifosagan damokidebulebas gamoxatavda.

201
***

didgoris velze da saerTod Turq-dampyroblebis


winaaRmdeg brZolaSi daviT IV-is mier mopovebulma is-
toriuli mniSvnelobis gamarjvebebma kidev ufro ganam-
tkica saqarTvelos gavlena Crdilo kavkasiis xalxebze.
saqarTvelos roli am xalxebis Semdgom politikur
cxovrebasa da kulturaSi kidev ufro gaizarda daviTis
mefobis bolo wlebidan, gansakuTrebiT didgoris Sem-
deg. kidev ufro ganmtkicda kievis mTavrisa da saqar-
Tvelos mefis urTierToba gansakuTrebiT daviTis mem-
kvidris, demetre I-is dros. zogi mkvlevaris azriT, ki-
evis mTavris farTo, saerTaSoriso saeklesio brZolaSi
saqarTveloc iRebda monawileobas da saeklesio sakiT-
xis gadawyvetaSi mxars uWerda kievis mTavars. gaZliere-
bul saqarTvelosTan kavSiris Semdgom ganmtkicebas isa-
xavda miznad, cxadia, kievis mTavris iziaslav mstisla-
vis Zis qorwineba saqarTvelos mefis asulze. kievis
mTavari saqarTvelos samefo saxlTan damoyvrebiT fiq-
robda Tavisi samTavros samxreT-aRmosavleTi sazRvre-
bis simSvidis uzrunvelyofas, yivCayTa Tavdasxmebis Ta-
vidan acilebas. miT ufro, rom yivCayebi saqarTvelos
gavlenis qveS iyvnen moqceulni da kievSi didis pativiT
Cayvanili qarTveli mefis asulic xom dediT yivCayTa
mTavaris aTraqa SaraRanisZis SviliSvili iyo.
daviTis mier warmoebul farTo Setevebs Turq-
selCukebis winaaRmdeg saqarTvelosa da mis mezobel
qveynebSi, Zlevamosil gamarjvebas didgorSi uaRresad
didi mniSvneloba hqonda aRmosavleTis jvarosnuli sa-
xelmwifoebis mefe-mTavrebisaTvis, kerZod, dasavleT
evropis saxelmwifoebisaTvis. amitom iyo, rom isini da-
viTsa da mis qveyanas TavianT „wina burjad~ Tvlidnen
Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. amiTve aixsneba agreTve,
rom Turq-selCukebma jvarosnebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi

202
warmatebis mopovebis erT-erT pirobad gaZlierebuli
saqarTvelos mefis damarcxeba, misi Tavidan moSoreba
miiCnies.
rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, frangi kancleris sityviT,
didgorTan gamarjveba ilRazs SesaZleblobas miscemda
Tavisuflad Sesdgomoda „antioqiis damorCilebas da
qristianobis amowyvetas~. magram didgoris velze il-
Razisa da koaliciuri laSqris damarcxebam TurqTa es
gegmebi CaSala. saqarTvelos gamarjvebam gamaTavisuf-
lebel omSi xeli gaumarTa jvarosnebs axlo aRmosav-
leTSi, TurqTa Zalebi Seasusta da daqsaqsa. ilRazma
ver SeZlo jvarosnebis winaaRmdeg XII s. 20-ian wlebSi
warmatebiT dawyebuli brZolebis gagrZeleba, man, ro-
gorc mxedarTmTavarma da pirovnebam, arsebiTad didgo-
ris velze daamTavra Tavisi moRvaweoba da cxovrebac.
1122 wels igi (iqneb didgors miRebuli Wrilobisagan)
gardaicvala.
aRsaniSnavia, rom Cven mier zemoxsenebuli germane-
li istorikosi b. kugleri XII s. 20-ian wlebSi jvarosne-
bis winaaRmdeg brZolebSi araerTxel gamarjvebuli il-
Razis dacemas didgoris ambebs ukavSirebs. misi sityviT,
swored im dros, roca ilRazma did warmatebebs miaRwia
jvarosnebTan brZolaSi, mas CrdiloeTSi gamouCnda
mrisxane mowinaaRmdege saqarTvelos mefis, daviTis sa-
xiT, romelmac sisxlismRvrel brZolaSi sastikad gaa-
nadgura ilRazi da amiT mis mier araerTxel damarcxe-
bul jvarosnebs amosunTqvis SesaZlebloba misca.
didgoris brZolaSi mopovebuli gamarjvebis saer-
TaSoriso mniSvnelobaze migviTiTebs agreTve is gamox-
maurebanic, rac am gamarjvebam pova imdroindeli evro-
puli saxelmwifoebis Sesabamis qronikebSi. amitom, vfiq-
robT, rom saqarTvelosTan evropelebis urTierToba
jvarosnebisa da saqarTvelos urTierTobiT ar unda yo-
filiyo Semofargluli _ gaZlierebul aRmosavlur qris-

203
tianul qveyanasTan, saqarTvelosTan kavSiris maZiebeli
dasavleT evropis zogi saxelmwifoc unda yofiliyo,
magram saamiso saTanado wyaroebi, samwuxarod, jer ki-
dev ar aris gamomzeurebuli.
didgoris brZolis Semdegdroindeli saqarTvelos
sagareo politikuri mdgomareobis zemogakeTebuli mok-
le mimoxilvidan kargad Cans is didi saerTaSoriso as-
parezi, romelzedac im droisaTvis saqarTvelo aRmoC-
nda. Seqmnili saerTaSoriso viTarebis met-naklebad
swor asaxvad SeiZleba miviCnioT daviTis istorikosis
mier saqarTvelos imdroindeli mefis Sesaxeb xatovnad
naTqvami Semdegi sityvebi: daviTis „aCrdilsa (Crdil-
qveS, safarvelqveS _ S.m.) Sekrebil iyvnes erni, tomni da
enani, mefeni da xelmwifeni ovseTis da yivCayeTisani, som-
xeTisa da frangeTisani (evropisani _ S.m.), Sarvanisa da
sparseTisani~.
Turq-selCukebze gadamwyvet gamarjvebas didi
mniSvneloba hqonda qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
TvalsazrisiTac. igi moaswavebda progresuli, intensi-
uri meurneobis gamarjvebas primitiul-eqstensiur me-
urneobaze. Turqebisa da maTi jogebis gandevnam, brZo-
lis asparezis saqarTvelos sazRvrebs iqiT gatanam qar-
Tveli glexi daubruna Tavis mamapapeul miwa-wyals da
mas dovlaTis mSvidad warmoebis SesaZlebloba Seuqmna.
kidev ufro dawinaurda da gafarTovda xelosnoba da
vaWroba, qalaqebi da saqalaqo cxovreba. marTalia, zog-
ma qalaqma damoukidebloba da TviTmmarTveloba dakarga,
magram Zlieri mefis mfarvelobis qveS myofma, kidev uf-
ro gaafarTova saSinao Tu sagareo vaWroba. Zlieri sa-
mefo xelisufleba uzrunvelyofda vaWris pirovnebisa
Tu qonebis dacvas, savaWro gzebis keTilmowyobasa da
uSiSroebas. daviT aRmaSenebelma am mxrivac araerTi
mniSvnelovani RonisZieba gaatara, magram masze amJamad
sityvas ar gavagrZelebT.

204
feodaluri saqarTvelos ekonomikuri aRmavloba
im droisaTvis imdenad didi iyo, rom daviTis istori-
kosi aRfrTovanebiT werda: „vgoneb, viTarmed mamaTa da
papaTagan (maT dros _ S.m.) waRebulni qveyanani, tyueni
da simdidreni, mravalwilad ukumoizRuna (ukanve daib-
runa _ S.m.) aman (mefem _ S.m.) xmneman. damSuida qveyana,
aRivso da gardaeca (moifina _ S.m.) yovliTa keTiliTa,
ganavso da aRaSena yoveli oxerqmnili (gaukacrielebu-
li _ S.m.) da gardaemeta yovelTa JamTa (dros _ S.m.)
mSvidobiTa da simdidriTa samefo Cveni, nacvlad garda-
sulTa oxrebaTasa~-o.
rogorc vxedavT, yvela am warmatebasa da gamar-
jvebas, mtrebis mier mitacebuli teritoriebis mraval-
wilad ukan dabrunebas, mSvidobis damyarebas, gaoxre-
bul adgilTa moSenebas, qveynis dovlaTiT avseba-gam-
didrebas daviTis istorikosi sakuTriv mefes miawers
da misi pirovnuli RirsebiT xsnis. namdvilad ki yvela-
feri es qarTveli xalxis sisxliT, SromiTa da ofliT
iyo mopovebuli. xalxi iyo saSinao Tu sagareo gamar-
jvebis Semoqmedi, qveynis Zlierebis fuZe, misi xmali da
guTani; magram am xalxs maorganizebeli, warmmarTveli
Zala sWirdeboda. aseT Zalas ki feodalur qveyanaSi me-
fe da misi xelisufleba warmoadgenda. cxadia, bevri iyo
damokidebuli samefo xelisuflebis gonivrulobasa da
unarianobaze, xalxis didi Zalis swori, kanonzomieri
gziT warmarTvaze, amitom feodaluri xanis oficialuri
istorikosebi mxolod mefesa da mis Zalas xedavdnen,
xalxs ki iviwyebdnen, maTi gmirobisa da Tavdadebis Sesa-
xeb arafers ambobdnen. amiT aixsneba, rom Cvens Zvel sa-
istorio TxzulebebSi ar Cans im qarTvel gmirTa, xalxis
SvilTa saxelebi, romelTac Tavi dasdes didgoris vel-
ze Tu sxva brZolebSi da TavganwirviT uzrunvelyves Ta-
visi xalxis gamarjveba, misi naTeli momavali.

205
***

didgoris velze momxdari „ZlevaY sakvirveli~ im-


denad didmniSvnelovani iyo da ise farTo gamoxmaureba
pova imdroindel msoflioSi, rom am brZolasa da daviT
aRmaSenebelze Seiqmna da gavrcelda sxvadasxvagvari
legendebi. aseTi legendebis warmoSobas xels uwyobda
sxvadasxva enaze dawerili saistorio moTxrobebi Tu
werilebi daviTisa da am saxelganTqmuli brZolis Sesa-
xeb. didgoris brZolaSi daviTis laSqris mier mopove-
buli gamarjvebis Sesaxeb werdnen am ambebis Tanamedro-
veni qarTulad, somxurad, arabulad da laTinurad, e. i.
im drois msoflios TiTqmis yvela enaze. es imas niSnavs,
rom am „sakvirveli Zlevis~ Sesaxeb cnobebi vrceldebo-
da msoflios yvela kuTxeSi.
daviTisa da didgoris brZolis Sesaxeb gavrcele-
bulma amgvarma cnobebma da im urTierTobam, romelic
saukunis manZilze saqarTvelosa da jvarosnebs Soris
arsebobda, rogorc Cans, dasabami misca farTod gav-
rcelebul legendas „mefe-mRvdelmTavar ioaneze~. es
legenda warmoiSva jvarosanTa laSqrobebis xanaSi da
gavrcelda CinelebSi, TurqebSi, monRolebSi, sparse-
lebSi, indoelebSi, arabebSi somxebsa da yvela im evro-
pel xalxSic, romelnic monawileobas iRebdnen jvaros-
nul omebSi. legendam literaturuli gziT SeaRwia ru-
seTSic. ase rom, igi faqtobrivad mTel msoflioSi
farTod moarul legendad aris miCneuli. misi erT-er-
Ti uZvelesi varianti motanilia germaneli mematianis
oto fraizingenis qronikaSi.
misi Sinaarsi, qronikis mixedviT aseTia: „yabalas
kaTolike episkoposi 1145 wels evropaSi Camovida, raTa
papisTvis SeeCivla sxvadasxva saqmeTa Sesaxeb da amave
dros germaniis imperatori da safrangeTis mefe aemoZ-
ravebina mokle xnis winaT dakarguli edesis xelaxla

206
dapyrobisaTvis. amasTan, yveboda igi: ramdenime wlis wi-
naT viRac mefe da beri ioane, romelic sparseTisa da
somxeTis gaRma, ukidures aRmosavleTSi cxovrobs da
Tavis xalxTan erTad qristianul, magram nestorianul1
eklesias ekuTvnis, sparselTa da midielTa mefe Zmebs sa-
xelad semiardad cnobilT, Tavs daesxa da maTi reziden-
cia ekbatana... daipyro, dasaxelebuli mefeebi (Zmebi) Ta-
vianTi sparsuli, midiuri da asuruli jarebiT gaemar-
Tnen mis winaaRmdeg: brZola sami dRe gagrZelda, vinai-
dan orive mxare gaqcevas sikvdils arCevda. da bolos,
mRvdelmTavarma ioanem, romelsac ase uwodeben Cveuleb-
riv, sparselebi gaaqcia da gaimarjva. am gamarjvebis Sem-
deg... mRvdelmTavar ioanes surda swrafad daxmareboda
ierusalimis taZars, magram jari, romelic tigross mi-
adga, ver gadavida gadasasvlelebis uqonlobis gamo, Sem-
deg igi CrdiloeTiT mibrunda, vinaidan mas moaxsenes,
rom iq mdinare yinuliTaa dafarulio~.
am legendam saukuneTa manZilze mravalgvari cv-
lileba ganicada, rac aZnelebs im istoriuli pirovne-
bis amocnobas, romelic ioane mefe-mRvdelmTavris qveS
igulisxmeboda, saamisod araerTi mosazreba gamoiTqva
evropul literaturaSi.
Tu davukvirdebiT TviT qronikis Txroba, davina-
xavT, rom masSi sruliad aSkarad moCans am naxevrad le-
gendaruli cnobis anarekli, romelic daviT aRmaSeneb-
lisa da didgoris brZolis Sesaxeb aRwevda evropel
jvarosnebTan. rogorc anselusis zemomotanili weri-
lidan Cans, jvarosnebis mier daviT aRmaSenebeli jer
kidev adre, „midielebisa da sparselebis~ winaaRmdeg
brZolaSi winaburjad yofila miCneuli, misi qveyanac
1
nestorianoba _ erT-erTi mimdinareoba qristianul religi-
aSi, warmoiSva V saukunis bizantiaSi da gavrcelda aRmosav-
leTis qveynebSic.

207
xom „armeniisa da sparseTis miRma~ mdebareobda, ase
rom, „armeniisa da sparseTis miRma mcxovrebi~ „mefe-
mRvdelmTavari~ sxva vin unda iyos, Tu ara daviT aRma-
Senebeli, aRmosavleTis im uZlieresi qristianuli sa-
xelmwifos mefe, romelic maSin farTo masStabis gadam-
wyvet brZolebs awarmoebda Turq-selCukebis winaaRmdeg.
marTlac, rogorc es ukanasknel xanebSi gairkva, am le-
gendis Tavdapirvel variantSi mTavar gmirad ioane me-
fe-mRvdelmTavari ki ar yofila dasaxelebuli, aramed
mefe daviTi. laTinur enaze Sedgenil XIII s. inglisur
qronikaSi naTqvamia: „mTel saqristianoSi gavrcelda
xma, rom mefe daviTi, ioane presviterad saxeldebuli,
auracxeli jariT daiZra indoeTidan da ukve daipyro
midia da sparseTio~.
amrigad, imdroindel msoflioSi ase farTod gav-
rcelebuli es legenda daviT aRmaSenebelsa da mis
dros gadaxdil omebze iyo Seqmnili.
didgorisa da, saerTod, daviT aRmaSeneblis brZo-
lis legendarul samoselSi gaxvevis safuZveli iyo is
istoriuli wyaroebi, romelnic, marTlac naxevrad fan-
tastikurad warmogvidgenen patara qveynis mefis mcire,
ormocdaaTaTasian laSqris gamarjvebas didi qveynebis
mflobelTa naxevarmilionian da eqvsasaTasian laSqarze.
is ucxouri Tu qarTuli wyaroebi, romlebic am omis
Sesaxeb maSin arsebobda, didgoris velze gamarjvebasa
da mis sardals, daviT aRmaSenebels Zveli istoriis
bevr saxelganTqmul omsa da did istoriul pirebze
maRla ayenebda da meti Seqebis Rirsad miiCnevda.
daviTis istorikosis sityviT, didgoris brZola
Rirsi iyo aReweraT da SeeqoT Zveli drois „did da sa-
xelovan gamometyvelebs~, sityvis ostatebs _ homeross,
aristobuls Tu ioseb flavioss. magram arc homeross,
romelmac troadelTa omi Seaqo, arc aristobuls, ro-
melic aleqsandre makedonelis brZolebs adidebda da

208
arc ioseb flavioss, romelic vespasianes cxovrebas aR-
werda, „nivTni saqmeTani ara aqundes kmad misaTxrobe-
lad~ e. i. bevri araferi hqondaT mosaTxrobi Sedare-
biT imasTan, rac daviTma gaakeTao. maT rom hqonodaT
„nivTad saqmeni daviTisani~, kerZod, didgoris brZolaSi
misi ase swrafi da brwyinvale gamarjveba da es aReweraT
„jerovnad maTisaebr ritorobisa~, ai, maSin dasaxelebu-
li „saxelovanni gamometyvelni~ Rirsni iqnebodnen „je-
rovanisa qebisao~. ra saqebaria troadelTa omi, rome-
lic ocdarva weliwads gagrZelda, maSin roca daviTma
didgoris velze es didi brZola sam saaTamde gamarjve-
biT daagvirgvinao, _ acxadebs istorikosi.
rogorc vxedavT, daviTis istorikosis azriT,
didgoris brZola ufro meti Seqebisa da didebis Rir-
sia, vidre troadelTa Tu aleqsandre makedonelis ome-
bi. magram Tu es ukanasknelni ase didad Canan istoriaSi,
vidre daviTi da misi didgoris brZola, es mxolod imi-
tom, rom isini TviT ki ar iyvnen didi, aramed „didsa
miemTxvnen maqebelsao~ (didi hyavdaT maqebarni) home-
rosisa Tu aristobulis saxiT. daviTis istorikosi ami-
Tac ar kmayofildeba; misi sityviT, TviT aleqsandre
makedonelic martooden qarTvelTa laSqriT „vercaras
iqmoda kargsa~. daviT aRmaSenebelma ki, am patara qvey-
nis mefem Tavisi mcire laSqriT didi saqmeebi gaakeTa _
„kuerTxi mefobisa esoden damdablebuli~ „ipyra esreT
maRlad, viTar vervin sxvaman~. da rom „daviTs sparsTa
hqoneboda mefoba, an berZenTa da hromTa Zali, an sxvaTa
didTa samefoTa, maSinamca genaxnes naqnarni misni, uaR-
res sxvaTa qebulTanio~.
ase adidebda didgoris brZolasa da, saerTod, da-
viTis moRvaweobas misi Tanamedrove istorikosi. magram
mas esec sakmarisad ar miaCnda da daviTisa da didgoris
brZolis Sesaqebad Zvel meistoriebsa da enawylian „ga-
mometyvelebs~ mouxmobda: me ver SevZeli yvelafris ise
14. SoTa mesxia 209
moTxroba, rogorc es daviTsa da mis namoRvawars ekad-
reboda: me ki ara, Zveli drois „saxelovan gamometyve-
lebs~ unda hqonodaT daviTis saqme saqebrado, _ wers igi.
didgoris brZolas aseTive Sefasebas aZleven davi-
Tis sxva Tanamedroveni. XII s. pirveli naxevris cnobil
qarTvel moRvawes arsen iyalToels epitafiis saxiT da-
uweria daviT aRmaSeneblis Sesaxeb oTxtaepiani leqsi,
romelic Semdeg, rogorc Cans, xalxSi gavrcelebula da
araerTxel gamoqveynebula, rogorc xalxuri poeziis
nimuSi. am leqsma, literaturuli Tu xalxuri Semoqme-
debis gziT, Cvenamde aseTi saxiT moaRwia:

`vin naWarmagevs1 mefeni Tormetni purad damesxnes,


Turqni, sparsni da arabni sazRvarTa gare gamexsnes,
Tevzni amerTa wyalTagan imerTa wyalTa STamexsnes,
awe amaTsa moqmedsa gulzedan xeli damesxnes~.2

rogorc vxedavT, qarTveli xalxis warmodgeniTac


daviTi iyo is, vinc mZime brZolebiT qveynis sazRvrebs
iqiT gadareka yvela juris dampyrobeli Turqebis, spar-
selebisa da arabebis saxiT, vinc gaaerTiana da erTian
kulturul-politikur erTeulad aqcia imer-ameri, vinc
axlo Tu Soreuli qveynebis mefeni „missa Crdilsa (mfar-
velobis) qveSe~ Sehyara, „naWarmagevs purad dasxa~ da
mraval omgadaxdil qveyanas mSvidoba moupova...

1
naWarmagevi _ mefeTa sadgomi qarTlSi, goris maxloblad,
mis CrdiloeTiT.
2
XIX s. cnobil qarTvel moRvawes m. sabinins es „iambiko xu-
cesi asoebiT warwerili~ daviTis saflavis qvaze gelaTSi
TviT unaxavs da ukve TiTqmis gadaSlili „friadis RonisZie-
baTa da tanjviT~ amoukiTxavs. sainteresoa, rom mis mier amo-
kiTxuli oTxstriqoniani warwera Sinaarsobrivad savsebiT em-
Txveva Cven mier zemomotanil leqss.

210
ase daukavSira madlierma qarTvelma xalxma saku-
Tari sisxliTa da ofliT mopovebuli gamarjvebani Zve-
li saqarTvelos gamoCenili moRvawis _ daviTis saxels.
daviT IV-s qarTvelma xalxma „aRmaSenebeli~ uwoda.
es SemTxveviTi ar aris _ am erTi sityviT xalxma is di-
di damsaxureba, rac daviT IV-s qarTuli saxelmwifoeb-
riobis Senebasa da qarTuli kulturis ganviTarebaSi
miuZRvis. dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Zvel saqar-
Tvelos daviT aRmaSenebelze ufro didi da mraval-
mxrivi moRvawe ar hyolia. daviT aRmaSenebelma daasru-
la mravalsaukunovani brZola qarTuli miwa-wylis ga-
erTianeba-Semomtkicebisa da erTiani centralizebuli
saxelmwifos SeqmnisaTvis. mis saxelTan aris dakavSire-
buli mravali gamarjveba brZolis velze, saqarTvelosa
da misi mezoblebis gaTavisufleba ucxo dampyrobTa ga-
batonebisagan da agreTve Tbilisis SemoerTeba da ga-
daqceva gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos dedaqalaqad _
qveynis politikur, ekonomikur da kuluturl centrad.
mravalmxrivi iyo daviT aRmaSeneblis saSinao re-
formebi samoxeleo wyobaSi, saeklesio, samxedro, sasa-
marTlo sferoSi da sxvagan, romelic srul analogias
ver poulobs imdroindeli civilizebuli msoflios
verc erT qveyanaSi. farTo iyo TviT daviT aRmaSeneb-
lis sagareo politikuri urTierTobani: misi drois sa-
qarTvelos mWidro politikuri urTierToba hqonda
somxebTan, azerbaijanelebTan, _ kavkasiis xalxebTan,
osebTan, yivCayebTan; daviTis dros saqarTvelom urTi-
erToba daamyara Zvel (kievis) ruseTTan, bizantiasTan,
dasavleT evropis qveynebTan, jvarosnebTan. aRsaniSna-
via, rom Turqi dampyroblebis mier gawamebuli somexi
xalxi daviT aRmaSenebels „somexi eris ganmaTavisuf-
leblad, mfarvelad da megobrad~ miiCnevda; evropis
zogi qveyana kidev daviT aRmaSenebelsa da misi drois

211
saqarTvelos „urwmunoTa~ (Turq dampyrobTa) winaaR-
mdeg brZolis mTavar burjad~ Tvlida.
daviT aRmaSenebeli, Tavisi drois didi progresu-
li moRvawe, gansakuTrebul RonisZiebebs atarebda qar-
Tveli xalxis konsolidaciisa da qarTuli kulturis
ganviTarebis mizniT. arsebiTad daviT aRmaSeneblis
dros dasrulda qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebis xan-
grZlivi istoriuli procesi. daviT IV, TviT didad ga-
naTlebuli adamiani da mwignobari, qarTuli mwignobro-
bis, qarTuli enis da saerTod qarTuli kulturis Sem-
dgomi gavrcelebisa da ganviTarebis mizniT, qmnida
kulturis axal da Zlier centrebs. daviTis dros, misi
iniciativiT daarsda gelaTis monasteri da gelaTis
akademia, romelsac, damaarseblis gegmiT, iseTive roli
unda Seesrulebina qarTuli mecnierebisa da kulturis
ganviTarebaSi, rogorsac asrulebda aTeni antikur sam-
yaroSi. gelaTSi _ Sua saukuneebis qarTuli umaRlesi
ganaTlebis centrSi _ daviTma Semoikriba im dros sazR-
vargareT moRvawe qarTveli mecnierebi: kerZod, gelaT-
Si, daviTis piradi mfarvelobiT, moRvaweobdnen cnobi-
li filosofosebi _ ioane petriwi da arsen iyalToeli,
romelTa brZolam azrovnebisa da samecniero kvleva-Zi-
ebis TavisuflebisaTvis Rrma kvali daamCnia imdroinde-
li qarTveli sazogadoebis Segnebas.
daviTis xelSewyobiT arsen iyalToelma safuZveli
Cauyara kulturis meore did centrs, iyalTos akademi-
as kaxeTSi; xolo qarTlSi daviT aRmaSenebelma kidev
ufro gaaZliera SiomRvimis monasteri. sami udidesi
centri saqarTvelos sam sxvadasxva kuTxeSi emsaxurebo-
da qarTveli xalxis kulturuli erTobis Semdgomi gan-
mtkicebis did erovnul saqmes.
daviT IV, adgilobrivi qarTveli kulturis axali
centrebis CamoyalibebasTan erTad, aZlierebda da afar-
Toebda ukve arsebuls, rogorc qveynis SigniT, aseve

212
mis sazRvrebs gareTac _ aTonis mTaze, palestinaSi da
sxvagan. amasTan erTad, daviT IV saTanado codnisa da
umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebad sazRvargareT agzavnida
axalgazrdobas, kulturis centrebs aarsebda ara mar-
to monastrebTan, aramed agreTve qalaqebSic, kerZod,
TbilisSi man aaSena sagangebo saxli mahmadian mecnierTa,
filosofosTa da poetebisaTvis, TavSesayarad da pativ-
sacemad.
amrigad, daviT aRmaSeneblis saxelTan dakavSire-
bulia ara marto didmniSvnelovani RonisZiebani saqar-
Tvelos saSinao Tu sagareo politikaSi, aramed agreTve
qarTuli mecnierebisa da kulturis ganviTarebaSic.
ase Seeqmna XII s. pirvel meoTxedSi myari safuZve-
li qarTveli xalxis momavals...
mravali saukune gavida daviTis cxovrebisa da
moRvaweobis droidan. 850 weli Sesrulda „sakvirveli
Zlevidan~ da Tbilisis SemoerTebidan. am xangrZliv is-
toriul periodSi qarTvel xalxs araerTxel hqonia
gansacdelisa da lxinis dReebi, araerTxel uzeimia ga-
marjveba Tu gauziarebia damarcxebulis mZime xvedri,
araerTxel ganucdia didgoris sixaruli da krwanisis
tragedia, magram arasodes daviwyebia Tavisi warsuli,
qveynisaTvis Tavdadebuli gmiri winaprebis saxeli.
ilia WavWavaZe daviT aRmaSeneblisadmi miZRvnil
erT-erT werils ase iwyebda: „ar vici sxva rogor fiq-
robs da Cven ki ase gvgonia, rom eris dacema da gaTaxsi-
reba maSin iwyeba, roca eri, Tavis saubedurod, Tavis is-
torias iviwyebs~... „daviwyeba istoriisa momaswavebelia
eris suliT da xorciT moSlisa... warsuli mkvidri sa-
Zirkvelia awmyosi, rogorc awmyo _ momavlisa. es sami
sxvadasxva xana, sxvadasxva Jami eris cxovrebisa isea er-
TmaneTze gadabmuli, rom erTi umeorod warmoudgene-
li, gaugebari da gamoucnobia~.

213
marTlac, qarTveli xalxis gmiruli brZolisa da
Sromis mravalsaukunovan, mdidar warsulzea aRmocene-
buli Cveni dRevandeli dRe. amitomaa, rom qarTvelma
xalxma ar daiviwya Soreuli istoriuli warsulis did-
mniSvnelovani movlenebi da Tavis axal matianeSi, sxva
mravalTa Soris, Rirseuli adgili dauTmo didgoris
brZolaSi progresisa da ukeTesi mermisisaTvis mebrZol
Tavdadebul gmirebs.

214
sarCevi

didgoris epopeis piruTvneli matiane


SoTa mesxias `Zlevaჲ sakvirveli~ ..................................... 5

Tavi I. wyaroebisa da literaturis mokle


mimoxilva ..................................................................... 37

Tavi II . saqarTvelo didgoris brZolis win

1. bagrat III-dan daviT IV-mde .......................................... 57


2. daviT IV aRmaSeneblis saSinao RonisZiebebi
da reformebi ............................................................... 65
3. saqarTvelos sagareo politikuri
mdgomareoba didgoris brZolis win

a) urTierToba bizantiasTan ................................ 94


b) urTierToba CrdiloeTis qveynebTan
da xalxebTan ...................................................... 99
g) saqarTvelos samxreT-aRmosavleTis
mezoblebi da urTierToba maTTan ................ 106
d) jvarosnebi da saqarTvelo ............................ 113

Tavi III. didgoris brZolis mizezebi ............................... 124

Tavi IV. didgoris brZola


1. mowinaaRmdegeTa laSqari, misi Sedgeniloba .......... 137
2. „ZlevaY sakvirveli~ ................................................... 154

Tavi V. didgoris brZolis Sedegebi da


mniSvneloba

1. Tbilisis SemoerTeba ................................................ 169


2. cvlilebebi saqarTvelos sagareo
urTierTobaSi ............................................................ 187

215
daibeWda Tsu gamomcemlobis stambaSi

0179 Tbilisi, ilia WavWavaZis gamziri 14


14 Ilia Tchavtchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi 0179
www.press.tsu.edu.ge

216