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Anagh Astavans

Jackson Hall

Annotated Bibliography (MLA)

Primary Sources

Source 1: "Aerial View of a Segment of the Berlin Wall." World History: The Modern
Era, ABC-CLIO, 2018, Accessed 16 Feb.

 This image shows an aerial view of a particular segment of the Berlin Wall, and was
taken in 1989. It is able to really illustrate how much effort was put into make this insane
barrier, and how the wall was actually constructed. This image shows an earlier stage of
the wall.

Source 2: alanheath3. “Announcement that DDR border will open.” YouTube, YouTube, 21 Sept.
 Explanation: This was a video by a prior news broadcast that showed the political leaders
making a speech that says the immigrations parts of the wall will be reopened. One can
view this in our conflict and compromise tab.

Source 3: “Archive: The Capital City of Berlin - Documentation.” Archive: The Capital City of
Berlin - Documentation / Senate Departement for Urban Development Berlin,
 This website was quite useful, as it provided us with an image that we could use in our
website. This image was used in the “Timeline” section of our website, and it displays the
meeting for the “Reunification of Germany.”
Source 4: "Berliners Dancing on the Berlin Wall." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-
CLIO, 2018, Accessed 16 Feb. 2018.
 This image portrays Berliners dancing on top of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 after
East Germans were given the right to visit West Berlin. This image is a really good image
for showing the wall in its final stages, right before being demolished completely in a few
weeks thereafter.
Source 5: “Berlin Wall: 50 Years since Construction of the Wall Began.” The Telegraph,
Telegraph Media Group, 12 Aug. 2011,
 This image is one of the many taken during the construction of the Berlin Wall, during
the mid to late 1900’s. It shows some workers laying the initial groundwork of the Wall,
similar to many of our other images. We were able to use this image on our “Timeline”
page of our website.

Source 6: Berlin Wall Speech | Ronald Reagan Presidential Library - National Archives and
Records Administration,
 This website was of use to us, as it was able to provide us with a good image. This image
depicts the wall in the earlier stage, and even features some graffiti on the wall,
welcoming Reagan. We decided to use this image in our “Timeline” section of our
Source 7: "Berlin Wall." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2018, Accessed 16 Feb. 2018.
 This image shows a view of the wall from a particular area. It is able to show the graffiti
marks on the West Berlin side, and how the East side is spotless. The graffiti represents
West Berlin’s resentment to the wall, and the image does a good job of showing the wall
in its later phase.
Source 8: "Berlin Wall in 1961." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2018, Accessed 16 Feb. 2018.
 This picture shows West Berlin soldiers guarding the Berlin Wall- a concrete barrier,
built in 1961, that separated democratic West Berlin from communist East Berlin
throughout much of the Cold War – in 1961. This is one of our images to illustrate the
start of the wall.
Source 9: "Berlin Wall under Construction." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2018, Accessed 16 Feb. 2018.
 This image shows an East Berlin police officer adding bricks to heighten the Berlin Wall
in September 1961. The wall remained a physical and psychological barrier between East
and West Germany for the duration of the Cold War. This image is a perfect illustration
of the wall in its earliest phase – construction.
Source 10: (, Deutsche Welle. “German man finds 80 meters of Berlin Wall |
News | DW | 23.01.2018.” DW.COM,
 Explanation: This source provided us with one of our title pictures. This was important
on letting us know the true amount of people associated with the wall coming down.

Source 11: "East Berliners Cross into West Berlin." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-
CLIO, 2018, Accessed 16 Feb. 2018.
 This image shows East Berliners crossing over to the West as a crane is used to dismantle
the Berlin Wall at Potsdamer Platz, November 14, 1989. This image is good to illustrate
the end of the “Berlin Wall Era.”
Source 12: Newseum. “President John F. Kennedy at the Brandenburg Gate.” YouTube,
YouTube, 24 June 2011,
 This video is crucial to our overall topic of the Berlin Wall, and features President John
F. Kennedy giving an inspiring speech at the Brandenburg Gate to boost morale in West
Berlin, on June 26, 1963.
Source 13: “Site Navigation.” Warfare History Network,

 This image displays some Axis Power generals during the time of World War Two.
Although this image doesn’t have much of a relation to the Berlin Wall, it does relate to
WWII, and therefore, we decided to use it in our introductory section “Leading up to the
Source 14: “The Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall - Photo Essays.” Time, Time Inc.,,29307,1631993_1383224,00.html.
 Explanation: This source provided us with images of the actual Berlin Wall. These
pictures can be seen all throughout our project.

Source 15: "West Germans Peer over Berlin Wall." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-
CLIO, 2018, Accessed 16 Feb. 2018.
 This image shows a group of West Germans peering over the Berlin Wall, a barricade
constructed by the East German government in 1961 that closed the border between
West Berlin and East Germany for 28 years. This image suggests the wall in its earlier
phase, quite well.

Secondary Sources
Source 1: Berlin Time Line.,
 Explanation: This source provided vital information for our timeline and it gave us the
viewpoints that both sides of the issue held, relative to the current events going on at the
time, as well as in maintaining or trying to keep peace.

Source 2: "Berlin Wall Memorial." Berlin Wall Memorial,
 Explanation: This source gave us information about the true significance of the wall. It
suggested how some people were affected, as well as the actions that the government
enforced to maintain strict rules in the area. Finally, this source helped us in our
construction of the conflict and compromise tab.
Source 3: "Berlin Wall." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 13 Mar. 2015.
Accessed 2 Oct. 2017.
 Explanation: We used this source to develop our thesis and other claims. Moreover, this
source provided key background information including dates, to build our timeline.
Finally, this source informed us of information about the physical and emotional strains
that people faced during this long event.

Source 4: Cato institute,

 Explanation: This source showed us that equality was an issue on both sides of the wall,
and also helped give us some of the information we used in the conflict part of our

Source 5: digitalarchive. Wilson center,

 Explanation: This was another timeline that we used in to help build our project. It
provided another viewpoint for our timeline, and gave us information to construct our
conflict and compromise tab. We used it along with the other timelines to construct the
final version of the combined timeline.

Source 6: Gerben J. Westerhof, Corey L. M. Keyes; After the Fall of the Berlin Wall:
Perceptions and Consequences of Stability and Change Among Middle-Aged and
Older East and West Germans, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Volume
61, Issue 5, 1 September 2006, Pages S240– S247,
 Explanation: This source provided very little information for our project, but it still
provided some. This source was most used when determining the effects of the wall after
it was destroyed. It also gave an alternative view on the events after the wall, which
turned out to be vital in determining how the wall really did affect the citizens of Berlin.

Source 7: History. Staff, 2009,

Accessed 7 Oct. 2017.
 Explanation: This was one of our most important sources throughout creating our project.
It provided all the background information that we built on during this experience. It also
described some of the personal feelings that people went through before and after the
wall. Finally, we used this source to get some vital quotes for our project.

Source 8: Jfklibrary,

 Explanation: This was an important source to determine the actions taken by the United
States during the time of the Berlin Wall. It discussed President John F. Kennedy’s
actions including visiting the Berlin Wall, and what he said to the political leadership of
the Soviet Union. This source also gave us some key quotes to analyze.
Source 9: koreanconfidential. “Berlin Wall for Kids: Teaching the Cold War to Children
(” YouTube, YouTube, 25 Apr. 2013,
 This video is a great explanation of the background of the Cold War, as well as the Berlin
Wall. It is also able to provide a lot of key info on the wall, which relates well to the
content on our website.

Source 10: "Let's Begin.", ted,

 Explanation: This was an animated video that described the creation of the Berlin Wall. It
played an important role in establishing how and why the wall was created in the first
place. We used this information in our timeline.

Source 11: Newsela | Politics After WWII and Cold War Tensions,
 This picture is humorous display of the two sides of the Cold War – U.S and the Soviet
Union – and appeals to all audiences. For these reasons, we decided to make it our main
title pixture on our “Importance of the Cold War” page.

Source 12: Press Books.

 Explanation: This source provided us with some background information and info about
the effects of the wall on the ordinary people at the time. We used some of the
information in this text in our timeline, as well as in the conflict and compromise portion
of the website.

Source 13: Resources For History Teachers,

 This website is able to assist us, through providing us with an image that we could use for
our “Importance of the Cold War” page of our website. The picture displays the two sides
of the Cold war, effectively.

Source 14: “Russia vs. the United States.” The Douglas Review, 5 Aug. 2016,

 This picture, although very graphical, is able to display a powerful message, the two sides
of the Cold War – U.S, versus the Soviet Union. We decided to use this image on our
Importance of the Cold War Page, with other similar pictures.

Source 15: The Fall of the Berlin Wall. WSWS,

 Explanation: This source described the fall of the Berlin wall from personal accounts
of people who lived in that time period, and suggested how the wall affected the people
of Berlin, before and after it was destroyed.. We used this source to construct our
compromise section.

Source 16: Throughtco,

 Explanation: This source was important in giving us differences between the two portions
of Germany that were created from the divide. This source was important as it provided
information about the wall being built and the consequences that came from it.