Introduction - Evolution of the Mobile Market
The first radiotelephone service was introduced in the US at the end of the 1940s, and was meant to connect mobile users in cars to the public fixed network. In the 1960s, a new system launched by Bell Systems, called Improved Mobile Telephone Service” (IMTS), brought many improvements like direct dialing and higher bandwidth. The first analog cellular systems were based on IMTS and developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The systems were “cellular” because coverage areas were split into smaller areas or “cells”, each of which is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. This first generation (1G) analog system for mobile communications saw two key improvements during the 1970s: the invention of the microprocessor and the digitization of the control link between the mobilephone and the cell site. Second generation (2G) digital cellular systems were first developed at the end of the 1980s. These systems digitized not only the control link but also the voice signal. The new system provided better quality and higher capacity at lower cost to consumers. Third generation (3G) systems promise faster communications services, including voice, fax and Internet, anytime and anywhere with seamless global roaming. ITU’s IMT-2000 global standard for 3G has opened the way to enabling innovative applications and services (e.g. multimedia entertainment, infotainment and location-based services, among others). The first 3G network was deployed in Japan in 2001. 2.5G networks, such as GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) are already available in some parts of Europe. Work has already begun on the development of fourth generation (4G) technologies in Japan. It is to be noted that analog and digital systems, 1G and 2G, still co-exist in many areas.

5G and 3..5G standards. Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone. • High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps.75G. • Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps. • LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps. Recent 3G releases. • UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1. better known as 3G or 3rd Generation. and provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s according to the IMT-2000 specification. Compared to the older 2G and 2. video calls and mobile TV. all in a mobile environment. a 3G system must allow simultaneous use of speech and data services. all in a mobile environment. often denoted 3. Compared to the older 2G and 2. also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to laptop computers and smartphone The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G networks that descended from GSM.92 Mbps. mobile Internet access. a 3G system must allow simultaneous use of speech and data services. mobile Internet access. and provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s according to the IMT-2000 specification. is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications services fulfilling specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. Recent 3G . video calls and mobile TV.5G standards.3G Technology International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT--2000). • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps. Features Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows.

Access Technologies (FDMA. The base station continually switches from user to user on the channel. Other users share this same frequency channel at different time slots. TDMA allows each user to access the entire radio frequency channel for the short period of a call. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) improves spectrum capacity by splitting each frequency into time slots. e. The channel therefore is closed to other conversations until the initial call is finished. With FDMA. often denoted 3. Micro cell .releases. Pico cell . an entire city.the area of smallest coverage.75G. A “full-duplex” FDMA transmission requires two channels. TDMA. or until it is handed-off to a different channel. FDMA has been used for first generation analog systems. CDMA) FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is the most common analog system. one for transmitting and the other for receiving.the area of intermediate coverage. e. also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to laptop computers and smartphones.. .g.. a "hot spot" in a hotel or airport.g. Micro Cells.5G and 3. 3G Network Macro Cells. It is a technique whereby spectrum is divided up into frequencies and then assigned to users. and Pico Cells The 3G network might be divided up in hierarchical fashion: • • • Macro cell . e.. a city centre. only one subscriber at any given time is assigned to a channel.g.the area of largest coverage.

. • Fixed and variable data rates. will be a wideband version of CDMA with three modes (IMT-DS. security and reliability. CDMA increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the same time. Advantages Of 3G • New radio spectrum to relieve overcrowding in existing systems. it has long been used for military purposes. or IMT-2000. • Interoperability between services providers. which means that terminals can communicate with several base stations at the same time. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access is based on “spread” spectrum technology. IMT-MC and IMT-TC). and each voice or data call are assigned a unique code to differentiate from the other calls carried over the same spectrum. CDMA allows for a “ soft hand-off” . The dominant radio interface for third-generation mobile. Transmissions are spread over the whole radio band. • Asymmetric data rates. • More bandwidth. Since it is suitable for encrypted transmissions.TDMA is the dominant technology for the second generation mobile cellular networks.

Location-based services – a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the phone. Conclusion 3G is for high speed networks for variety of data intensive applications. • Health impact of electro magnetic waves. Video on demand – a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone. • Huge capital is required to build infrastructure for 3G services. • Battery life of 3G phones. video calls and broadband wireless data and also it provides advanced . • Rich multimedia services Disadvantages • High spectrum licensing fees for the 3g services. or the phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends. Video conferencing – subscribers can see as well as talk to each other. • Lack of coverage in some areas. Applications The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Tele-medicine – a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially isolated subscriber. • Prices are high for 3G mobile services. Some of the applications are: Mobile TV – a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the subscriber's phone where it can be watched.• Backward compatibility of devices with existing networks. • Takes time to catch up the service. 3G provides more advanced services like wide-area wireless voice Telephone.

e.multimedia access and global roaming. . 3G is giving way to new generation wireless networks i. 4G .

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