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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry

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Book Name: NCERT Solution

Question 1:
Define the term ‘amorphous’ give a few examples of amorphous solids .
Solution 1:
Amorphous solids are the solids whose constituent particles are of irregular shapes and have
short range order. These solids are isotropic in nature and melt over a range of temperature.
Therefore, amorphous solids are sometimes called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids. They
do not have definite heat of fusion. When out with a sharp-edged tool, cut into two pieces with
irregular surfaces. Examples of amorphous solid include glass rubber, and plastic.

Question 2:
What makes a glass different from a solid such as quartz? Under what conditions could quartz
be converted into glass?
Solution 2:
The arrangement of the constituent particles makes glass different from quartz in glass the
constituent Particles have short range order, but in quartz, the constituent particles have both
long range and short range orders.
Quartz can be converted into glass by heating and the cooling it rapidly

Question 3:
Classify each of the following solids as ionic, metallic, molecular, network (covalent) or
amorphous.
(i) Tetra phosphours decoxide (P4010) (vii) Graphite
(ii) Ammonium phosphate (NH4) 3PO4 (viii) Brass
(iii) SiC (ix) Rb
(iv)P4 (x) Si
Solution 3:
lonic  (ii) Ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4, (x)LiBr
Metallic  (viii) Brass, (ix) Rb
Molecular  (i) Tetra phosphours decoxide(P4O10), (iv) l2 (v) P4
Covalent (network)  (iii) SiC, (vii) Graphite, (xi) Si
Amorphous  (vi) Plastic

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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Question 4:
(i) What is meant by the term coordination number?
(ii) What is the coordination number of atoms:
(a) in a cubic close-packed structure?
(b) in a body-centred cubic structure?
Solution 4:
(i) The number of nearest neighbours of any constituent particle present in the crystal lattice
is called its coordination number.
(ii) The coordination number of atoms
(a) in a cubic close-packed structure 12, and
(b) in a body-centred cubic structure is 8

Question 5:
How can you determine the atomic mass of an unknow metal if you know its density and the
dimension of its unit cell? Explain.
Solution 5:
By knowing the density of an unknown metal and the dimension of its unit cell, the atomic mass
of the metal can be determined.
Let ‘a’ be the edge length of a unit cell of a crystal, ‘d’ be the density of the metal, ‘m’ be the
atomic mass of the metal and ‘z’ be the number of atoms in the unit cell.
Mass of the unit cell
Now, density of the unit cell =
Volume of the unit cell
zm
d=
a3
[Since mass of the unit cell = Number of atoms in the unit cell x Atomic mass
(Volume of the unit cell = (Edged length of the cubic unit cell)3
From Equation(i) we have:
d a3
m= (ii)
z
Atomic Mass (M)
Now, mass of the metal (m) =
Avogadro' s number (N A )
d a3 N A
Therefore, M  (iii)
z
Therefore,
If the edge lengths are different (say a, b and c), then equation (ii) becomes:

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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d (abc) N A
m= (iv)
z
From equation (iii) and (iv), we can determine the atomic mass of the unknown metal.

Question 6:
Stability of crystal is reflected in the magnitude of its melting point’. Comment. Collect melting
points of solid water, ethyl alcohol, diethyl ether and methane from a data book.
What can you say about the intermolecular forces between these molecules?
Solution 6:
Higher the melting point, greater is the intermolecular force of attraction and greater is the
stability. A substance with higher melting point is more stable than a substance with lower
melting point.
The melting points of the given substances are:
Solid water  273 K
Ethyl alcohol  158.8 K
Diethyl ether  156.85 K
Methane  89.34 K
Now, on observing the values of the melting points, it can be said that among the given
substances, the intermolecular force in solid water is the strongest and that in methane is the
weakest.

Question 7:
How you distinguish between the following pairs of terms:
(i) Hexagonal close-packing and cubic close-packing?
(ii) Crystal lattice and unit cell?
(iii) Tetrahedral void and octahedral void?
Solution 7:
(i) A 2-d hexagonal close-packing contains two types of triangular voids (a and b) as shown in
figure 1. Let us cell this 2-D structure as layer A. Now, particles are kept in the voids present
in layer A (it can be easily observed from figures 2 and 3 that only one of the voids will be
occupied in the process, i.e., either a or b). Let us cell the particles or spheres present in the
voids of layer A as layer B. Now, two types of voids are present in layer B (c and d). Unlike
the voids present in layer A, the two types of voids present in layer B are not similar. Void
C is Surrounded by 4 spheres and is called the tetrahedral void. Void d is surrounded by 6
spheres and is called the octahedral void.

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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Now the nest layer can be placed over layer B in 2 ways.


Case 1: When the third layer (layer C) is placed over the second on (layer B) in such a manner
that the spheres of layer C occupy the tetrahedral voids x. In this case we get hexagonal close-
packing. This is shown in figure 4. In figure 4.1, layer B is present over the voids a and layer C
is present over the voids x. In figure 4.2, layer B is present over the voids a and layer C is present
over the voids C. It can be observed from the figure that in this arrangement, the spheres present.
In layer C are present directly above the spheres of layer A. Hence, we can say that the layers in
hexagonal close-packing are arranged in an ABAB…….. pattern.

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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Case 2: When the third layer (layer C) is placed over layer B in such a manner that the spheres
of layer C occupy the octahedral voids d. in this case we get cubic close-packing. In figure 5.1,
layer B is present over the voids a and layer C is present over the voids d. In figure 5.2, layer B
is present over the voids b and layer C is present over the voids d. It can be observed from the
figure that the arrangement of particles in layer C is completely different from that in layers A
or B. When the fourth layer is kept over the third layer. The arrangement of particles in this layer
is similar to that in layer A. Hence, we can say that the layers in cubic close packing are arranged
in an ABCABC………. Pattern.

The side views of hcp and ccp are given in figures 6.1 and 6.2 respectively.

(ii) The diagrammatic representation of the constituent particles (atoms, ions, or molecules)
present in a crystal in a regular three-dimensional arrangement is called crystal lattice.
A unit cell is the smallest three-dimensional portion of a crystal lattice. When repeated again
and again in different directions, it generates the centire crystal lattice.
(iii) A void surrounded by 4 spheres is called a tetrahedral void and a void surrounded by 6
spheres is called an octahedral void. Figure 1 represents a tetrahedral void and figure 2 represents
and octahedral void.

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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Question 8:
How many lattice points are there in one unit cell of each of the following lattice?
(i) Face-centred cubic
(ii) Face-centred tetragonal
(iii) Body-centred
Solution 8:
(i) There are 14 (8 from the corners + 6 from the faces) lattice points in face-centred cubic.
(ii) There are 14 (8 from the corners + 6 from the faces) lattice points in face-centred tetragonal.
(iii) There are 9 (1 from the centre +8 from the corners) lattice points in body-centred cubic.

Question 9:
Explain
(i) The basis of similarities and differences between metallic and ionic crystals.
(ii) Ionic solids are hard and brittle.
Solution 9:
(i) The basis of similarities between metallic and ionic crystals is that both these crystal types
are held by the electrostatic force of attraction. In metallic crystals, the electrostatic force
acts between the positive ions and the electrons. In ionic crystals, it acts between the
oppositely charged ions. Hence, both have high melting points.
The basis of differences between metallic and ionic crystals is that in metallic crystals, the
electrons are free to move and so, metallic crystals can conduct electricity. However, in
ionic crystals, the ions are not free to move, As a result they cannot conduct electricity.
However, in ionic crystals, the ions are not free to move. As a result, the cannot conduct
electricity. However, in molten state or in aqueous solution, they do conduct electricity.
(ii) The constituent particles of ionic crystals are ions. These ions are held together in three-
dimensional arrangements by the electrostatic force of attraction. Since the electrostatic
force of attraction is very strong. The charged ions are held in fixed positions. This is the
reason why ionic crystals are hard and brittle.

Question 10:
Calculate the efficiency of packing in case of metal crystal for
(i) Simple cubic
(ii) body-centred cubic
(iii) face-centred cubic (with the assumptions that atoms are touching each other).

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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Solution 10:
(i) Simple Cubic
In a simple cubic lattice, the particles are located only at the corners of the cube and touch
each other along the edge.

Let the edge length of the cube be ‘a’ and the radius of each of each particle be r.
So, we can write:
a = 2r Now volume of the cubic unit cell = a3
= (2r)3
= 8r3
We know that the number particles per unit cell is 1.
4
Therefore volume of the occupied unit cell = r 3
3
Volume of one particle
Hence, packing efficiency =  100%
Volume of cubic unit cell
4 3
r
= 3  100%
8r 3
1
=   100%
6
1 22
=   100%
6 7
= 52.4%

(ii) Body-centred cubic

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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It can be observed from the above figure that the atom at the centre is in contact with the other
two atoms diagonally arranged.
From FED, we have:
b2 = a2 + a2
 b2 = 2a2
 b = 2a
Again, from AFD, we have:
c2 = a2 + b2
 c2 = a2 + 2a2 (Since b2 = 2a2)
 c2 = 3a2
 c = 3a
Let the radius of the atom be r.
Length of the body diagonal, c = 4n
 3a = 4r
4r
a=
3
3a
r=
4
or,
3
 4r 
Volume of the cube, a = 
3
3 
 
A body-centred cubic lattice contains 2 atoms.
4
So, volume of the occupied cubic lattice = 2π r 3
3
8
= πr 3
3
Volume occupied by two spheres in the unit cell
 Packing efficiency =  100%
Total volume of the unit cell
8 3
r
= 3  100%
3
 4 
 r 
 3 
8 3
r
= 3  100%
64 3
r
3 3

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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= 68%

(iii) Face-centred cubic


Let the edge length of the unit cell be ‘a’ and the length of the face diagonal AC be b.

From ABC, we have:


AC2 = BC2 + AB2
 b2 = a2 + a2
 b2 = 2a2
 b = 2a
Let r be the radius of the atom.
Now, from the figure, it can be observed that:
b = 4r
 2a  4r
 a = 2 2r

Now, volume of the cube, a3 = 2 2r 3

We know that the number of atoms per unit cell is 4.


4
So, volume of te occupied unit cell = 4π r 3
3
Volume occupied by four spheres in the unit cell
 Packing effciency =  100%
Total volume of the unit cell
4 3
4 r
3  100%
2 2r 3

16 3
r
= 3  100%
16 2r 3
= 74%

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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Question 11:
Silver crystallises in fcc lattice. If edge length of the cell is 4.07 × 108 cm and density is 10.5
g cm3, calculate the atomic mass of silver.
Solution 11:
It is given that the edge length, a = 4.07 × 108 cm and
density is d = 10.5 g cm3
As the lattice is fcc type the number of atoms per unit cell z = 4
We also know that, NA = 6.022 × 1023 mol1
Using the relation:
zM
d 3
a NA
d a3 N A
 M
z
10.5gcm3   4.077 108cm   6.022 1023 mol1
3

=
4
= 107.13 gmol 1

Therefore, atomic mass of silver = 107.13u

Question 12:
A Cubic solid is made of two elements P and Q. Atoms of Q are at the corners of the cube and
P at the body-centre. What is the formula of the compound? What are the coordination numbers
of P and Q?
Solution 12:
It is given that the atoms of Q are present at the corners of the cube.
Therefore, number of atoms of Q in one unit cell = 8 × (1/8) = 1
It is also given that the atoms of P are present at the body-centre.
Therefore, number of atoms of P in one unit cell = 1
This means that the ratio of the number of P atoms to the number of Q atoms, P:Q = 1:1
Hence, the formula of the compound is PQ
The coordination number of both P and Q is 8.

Question 13:
Niobium crystallizes in body-centred cubic structure. If density is 8.55 g cm3, calculate atomic
radius of niobium using its atomic mass 93 u.

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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Solution 13:
It is given that the density of niobium, d = 8.55 g cm3
Atomic mass, M = 93 gmol1
As the lattice is bcc type, the number of atoms per unit cell, z = 2
We also know that, NA = 6.022 × 1023 mol1
Applying the relation:
zM
d 3
a NA
zM
a3 
d NA
2  93 gmol 1

8.55 gcm 3  6.022  10 23 mol 1
= 3.612 × 1023 cm3
So, a = 3.306 × 10-8 cm
For body-centred cubic unit cell:
3
r a
4
3
  3.306  10 8 cm
4
= 1.432 × 108 cm
= 14.32 × 108 cm
= 14.32 nm

Question 14:
If the radius of the octachedral void is r and radius of the atoms in close packing is R, derive
relation between r and R
Solution 14:

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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A sphere with centre O, is fitted into the octahedral void as shown in the above figure. It can be
observed from the figure that POQ is right-angled
POQ = 90
Now, applying Pythagoras theorem, we can write
PQ2 = PO2 + OQ2
 (2R)2 = (R + r)2 +(R + r)2
 (2R)2 = 2(R + r)2
 2R2 = (R + r)2
 2R = R + r
r= 2 RR
r=  
2 1 R
 r = 0.414 R

Question 15:
Copper crystallises into a fcc lattice with edge length 3.61 × 108 cm. Show that the calculated
density is in agreement with its measured value of 8.92 g cm3.
Solution 15:
Edge length, a = 3.61 × 108 cm
As the lattice is fcc type, the number of atoms per unit cell, z = 4
Atomic mass, M = 63.5 g mol1
We also know that, NA = 6.022 × 1023 mol1
Applying the relation:
zM
d 3
a NA
4  63.5 g mol 1
=
(3.61 10 8 cm)3  6.022  10 23 mol 1
= 8.97 g cm3
The measured value of density is given as 8.92 g cm3. Hence, the calculated density 8.97 g cm3
is in agreement with its measured value.

Question 16:
Analysis shows that nickel oxide has the formula Ni0.98O1.00. What fractions of nickel exist as
Ni-2+ and Ni-3+ ions?
Solution 16:
The formula of nickel oxide is Ni0.98O1.00
Therefore, the ratio of the number of Ni atoms to the number of O atoms,

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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Ni : O = 0.98 : 1.00 = 98 : 100
Now, total charge on 100 O2 ions = 100 × (2)
=  200
Let the number of Ni-2+ ions be x.
So, the number of Ni-3+ ions is 98  x.
Now, total charge on Ni-2+ ions = x (+2) = +2x
And, total charge on Ni-3+ ions (98  x) (+3)
= 294  3x
Since, the compound is neutral, we can write:
2x + (294  3x) + (200) = 0
 x + 94 = 0
 x = 94
Therefore, number of Ni2+ ions = 94
And, number of Ni-3+ ions = 98  94 = 4
94
Hence, fraction of nickel that exists as Ni2+ = = 0.959
98

Question 17:
What is a semiconductor? Describe the two main types of semiconductors and contrast their
conduction mechanism.
Solution 17:
Semiconductors are substances having conductance in the intermediate range 10   6 to10  4
ohm  1m  1.
The two main types of semiconductors are:
(i) n-type semiconductor
(ii) p-type semiconductor
n-type semiconductor. The semiconductor whose increased conductivity is a result of
negatively-charged electrons is called an n-type semiconductor. When the crystal of a group 14
element such as Si or Ge is doped with a group 15 element such as P or As, an n-type
semiconductor is generated.
Si and Ge have four valence electrons each. In their crystals, each atoms forms four covalent
bonds. On the other hand, P and As contain five valence electrons each. When Si or Ge is doped
with P or As, the latter occupies some of the lattice sites in the crystal. Four out of five electrons
are used in the formation of four covalent bonds with four neighbouring Si or Ge atoms. Ge
atoms. The remaining fifth electron becomes delocalized and increases the conductivity of the
doped Si or Ge.

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p-type semiconductor. The semiconductor whose increased in conductivity is a result of


electoron hole is called a p-type semiconductor. When a crystal of group 14 elements such as Si
or Ge is doped with a group 13 element such as B, Al, or Ga (Which contains only three valence
electrons), a p-type of semiconductor is generated.
When a crystal of Si is doped with B, the three electrons of B are used in the formation of three
covalent bonds and an electron hole is created. An electron from the neighbouring atom can
come and fill this electron hole, but in doing so, it would leave an electron hole at its original
position. The process appears as if the electron hole has moved in the direction opposite to that
of the electron that filled it. Therefore, when an electric field is applied, electrons will move
toward the positively-charged plate through electron holes. However, it will appear as if the
electron holes are positively-charged and are moving toward the negatively-charged plate.

Question 18:
Non-stoichiometric cuprous oxide, Cu2O can prepared in laboratory. In this oxide, copper to
oxygen ratio is slightly less 2:1 Can you account for the fact that this substance is a p-type
semiconductor?
Solution 18:
In the cuprous oxide (Cu2O) prepared in the laboratory, copper to oxygen ration is slightly less
than 2:1. This means that the number of Cu+ ions is slightly less than twice the number of O2
ions. This is because some Cu+ ions have been replaced by Cu2+ ions. Every Cu2+ ion replaces

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Class XII Chapter 1 – The Solid State Chemistry
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two Cu+ ions, thereby creating holes. As a result, the substance conducts electricity with the help
of these positive holes. Hence, the substance is a p-type semiconductor.

Question 19:
Ferric oxide crystallizes in a hexagonal close-packed array of oxide ions with two out of every
three octahedral holes occupied by ferric ions. Derive the formula of the ferric oxide.
Solution 19:
Let the number of oxide (O2) ions be x.
So, number of octahedral voids = x
It is given that two out of every three octahedral holes are occupied by ferric ions.
2
So, number of ferric (Fe3+) ions = x
3
2
Fe3+ : O2 = x : x
3
2
= :1
3
Hence, the formula of the ferric oxide is Fe2O3.

Question 20:
Classify each of the following as being either a p-type or an n-type semiconductor.
(i) Ge doped with In (ii) B doped with Si
Solution 20:
(i) Ge (a group 14 element) is doped with In (a group 13 element). Therefore, a hole will be
created and the semiconductor generated will be a p-type semiconductor.
(ii) B (a group 13 element) is doped with Si (a group 14 element). So, there will be an extra
electron and the semiconductor generated will be an n-type semiconductor.

Question 21:
Gold (atomic radius = 0.144 nm) crystallizes in a face-centred unit cell. What is the length of a
side of the cell?
Solution 21:
For a face-centred unit cell:
a  2 2r

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It is given that the atomic radius, r = 0.144 nm


So a  2 2  0.144 nm
= 0.407nm
Hence, length of a side of the cell = 0.407 nm

Question 22:
In terms of band theory, what is the difference
(i) Between a conductor and an insulator
(ii) Between a conductor and a semiconductor
Solution 22:
(i) The valence band a conductor is partially-filled or it overlaps with a higher energy,
unoccupied conduction band.
On the other hand, in the case of an insulator, the valence band is fully – filled and there is a
large gap between the valence band and the conduction band.

(ii) In the case of a conductor, the valence band is partially-filled or it overlaps with higher
energy, unoccupied conduction ban, So, the electrons can flow easily under an applied electric
field. On the other hand, the valence band of a semiconductor is filled and there is a small gap
between the valence band and the next higher conduction band. Therefore, some electrons can
jump from the valence band to the conduction band and conduct electricity.

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Question 23:
Explain the following terms with sutable examples:
(i) Schottky defect
(ii) Frenkel defect
(iii) Interstitials and
(iv) F-centres
Solution 23:
(i) Schottky defect: Schottky defect is basically a vacancy defect shown by ionic solids. In
this defect, an equal number of cations and anions are missing to maintain electrical
neutrality. It decreases the density of a substance. Significant number of Schottky defects
is present in ionic solids. For example, in NaCl, there are approximately 106 Schottky pairs
per cm3 at room temperature. Ionic substances containing similarsized cations and anions
show this type of defect. For example: NaCl, KCl, CsCl, AgBr, etc.

(ii) Frenkel defect: ions containing large differences in the sizes of ions show this type of
defect. When the smaller ion (usually cation) is dislocated from its normal site to an
interstitial site, Frenkel defect is created. Also known as dislocation defect. Ionic solids
such as AgCl, AgBr, Ag,. and ZnS show this type defect.

(iii) Interstitials: Interstitial defect is shown by non-ionic solids. This type of defect is created
when some constituent particles (atoms or molecules) occupy an interstitial site of the
crystal. The density of a substance increases because of this defect.

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(iv) F-centres: When the anionic sites of a crystal are occupied by unpaired electrons, the ionic
sites are called F-centres. These unpaired electrons impart colour to the crystals. For
example, when crystals of NaCl are heated in an atmosphere of sodium vapour, the sodium
atoms are deposited on the surface of the crystal. The Cl ions diffuse from the crystal to its
surface and combine with Na atoms, forming NaCl. Durign this process, the Na atoms on
the surface of the crystal lose electrons. These released electrons diffuse into the crystal and
occupy the vacant anionic sites, creating F-Centres.

Question 24:
Aluminium crystallizes in a cubic close-packed structure. Its metallic radius is 125 pm.
(i) What is the length of the side of the unit cell?
(ii) how many unit cells are there in 1.00 cm3 of aluminium?
Solution 24:
(i) For cubic close-packed structure:
a  2 2r
= 2 2 = 125 pm
= 353.55 pm
= 354 pm (approximately)
(ii) Volume of one unit cell = (354 pm)3
= 4.4 × 107 pm3
= 4.4 × 107 × 1030 cm3
= 4.4 × 1023 cm3

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1.00cm3
Therefore, number of unit cells in 1.00 cm3 =
4.4  10  23 cm3
= 2.27 × 1022

Question 25:
If NaCl is doped with 103 mol % of SrCl2 what is the concentration of cation vacancies?
Solution 25:
It is given that NaCl is doped with 103 mol % of SrCl2.
This means that 100 mol of NaCl is doped with 103 mol of SrCl2.
10 3
Therefore, 1 mol of NaCl is doped with mol of SrCl2
100
= 105 mol of SrCl2
Cation vacancies produced by one Sr2+ ion = 1
 Concentration of the cation vacancies
Produced by 105 mol of Sr2+ ions = 105 × 6.022 × 1023
= 6.022 × 1018 mol1
Hence, the concentration of cation vacancies created by SrCl2 is 6.022 × 108 per mol of NaCl

Question 26:
Explain the following with suitable examples:
(i) Ferromagnetism
(ii) Paramagnetism
(iii) Ferrimagnetism
(iv) Antiferromagnetism
(v) 12-16 and 13-15 group compounds.
Solution 26:
(i) Ferromagnetism: The substances that are strongly attracted by a magnetic field are called
ferromagnetic substances. Ferromagnetic substances can be permanently magnetized even
in the absence of a magnetic field. Some examples of ferromagnetic substances are ion,
cobalt, nickel, gadolinium, and CrO2. In solid state, the metal ions of ferromagnetic
substances are grouped together into small regions called domains and each domain acts
as a tiny magnet. In an unmagnetised piece of a ferromagnetic substance, the domains are
randomly-oriented and so, their magnetic moments get cancelled. However, when the
substance is placed in a magnetic field, all the domains get oriented in the direction of the
magnetic field. As a result, a strong magnetic effect is produced. Thus the ferromagnetic
substance becomes a permanent magnet.

Schematic alignment of magnetic moments in ferromagnetic substances

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(ii) Paramagnetism: The substances that are attracted by a magnetic field are called
paramagnetic substances. Some examples of paramagnetic substances are O2, Cu2t, Fe3t, and
Cr3t
Paramagnetic substances get magnetized in a magnetic field in the same direction, but lose
magnetism when the magnetic field is removed. To undergo paramagnetism, a substance
must have one or more unpaired electrons. This is because the unpaired electrons are
attracted by a magnetic field, thereby causing paramagnetis.
(iii)Ferrimagnetism: The substances in which the magnetic moments of the domains are
aligned in parallel and anti-parallel directions, in unequal numbers, are said to have
ferrimagnetism. Examples include Fe304 (magnetite), ferrites such as MgFe204 and
ZnFe204.
(iv) Antiferromagnetism: Antiferromagnetic substances have domin structures similar to
ferromagnetic substances, but are oppositely-oriented. The oppositely-oriented domains
cancel out each other’s magnetic moments.

Schematic alignment of magnetic moments in antiferromagnetic substances

Question 1:
Why are solids rigid?
Solution 1:
The intermolecular forces of attraction that are present in solids are very strong. The constituent
particles of solids cannot move from their positions i.e., they have fixed positions. However,
they can oscillate about their mean positions. This is the reason solids are rigid.

Question 2:
Why do solids have a definite volume?
Solution 2:
The intermolecular forces of attraction that are present in solids are very strong.
The constituent particles of solids have fixed positions i.e., they are rigid. Hence, solids have a
definite volume.

Question 3:
Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids:
Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl
chloride, fibre glass, copper.
Solution 3:
Amorphous solids
Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass

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Crystalline solids
Naphthalene, benzoic acid potassium nitrate, copper

Question 4:
Why is glass considered a super cooled liquid?
Solution 4:
Similar to liquids, glass has a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, glass is
considered as a super cooled liquid. This is the reason that glass windows and doors are slightly
thicker at the bottom than at the top.

Question 5:
Refractive index of a solids is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment
on the nature of this solid. Would it show cleavage property?
Solution 5:
As isotropic solid has the same value of physical properties when measured along different
directions. Therefore, the given solid, having the same value of refractive index along all
directions, is isotropic in nature. Hence, the solid is and amorphous solid. When and amorphous
solid is cut with a sharp edged tool, it cuts into two pieces with irregular surfaces.

Question 6:
Classify the following solids in different categories based on the nature of intermolecular forces
operating in them:
Potassium sulphate, in benzene, urea, ammonia, water, zinc sulphide, graphite, rubidium, argon,
silicon carbide.
Solution 6:
Potassium sulphate  ionic solid
Tin  Metallic solid
Benzene  Molecular (non-polar) solid
Urea  Polar molecular solid
Ammonia  Polar molecular solid
Water  Hydrogen bonded molecular solid
Zinc sulphide  Ionic solid
Granhite  Covalent or network solid
Rubidium  Metallic solid
Argon  Non-polar molecular solid
Silicon carbide  Covalent or network solid

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Question 7:
Solid A is very hard electrical insulator in solid as well as in molten state and melts at extremely
high temperature. What type of solid is it?
Solution 7:
The given properties are the properties of a covalent or network solid. Therefore the given solid
is a covalent or network solid. Examples of such solids include diamond (C) and quartz (Sio2).

Question 8:
Ionic solids conduct electricity in molten state but not in solid state. Explain.
Solution 8:
In ionic compounds, electricity is conducted by ions. In solid state, ions are held together by
strong electrostatic forces and are not free to move about within the solid. Hence, in molten state
or in solution form, the ions are free to move and can conduct electricity.

Question 9:
What type of solids are electrical conductors, malleable and ductile?
Solution 9:
Metallic solids are electrical conductors, malleable, and ductile.

Question 10:
Give the significance of a lattice point.
Solution 10:
The significance of a lattice point is that each lattice point represents one constituent particle of
a solid which may be an atom, a molecule (group of atom), or anion.

Question 11:
Name the parameters that characterize a unit cell.
Solution 11:
The six parameters that characterize a unit cell are as follows.
(i) its dimensions along the three edges, a, b, and c
These edges may or may not be equal.
(ii) Angles between the edges
These are the angles  (between edges b and c), β (between edges a and c), and  (between edges
a and b).

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Question 12:
Distinguish between
(i) Hexagonal and monoclinic unit cells
(ii) Face-Centred and end-centred unit cells.
Solution 12:
(i) Hexagonal unit cell
For a hexagonal unit cell
a=bc
and  = β = 90
 = 120
Monoclinic unit cell.
For a monoclinic cell,
a bc
and  =  = 90
β  90
(ii) Face-centred unit cell
In a face-centred unit cell, the constituent particles are present at the corners and one at the
centre of each face.
End-centred unit cell
An end-centred unit cell contains particles at the corners and one at the centre of any two
opposite faces.

Question 13:
Explain how much portion of an atom located at (i) corner and (ii) body-centre of a cubic unit
cell is part of its neighboring unit cell.
Solution 13:
(i) An atom located at the corner of a cubic unit cell is shared by eight adjacent unit cells.
Therefore,1/8th portion of the atom is shared by one unit cell.
(ii) An atom located at the body centre of a cubic unit cell is not shared by its neighboring unit
cell. Therefore, the atom belongs only to the unit cell in which it is present i.e., contribution
to the unit cell is 1.

Question 14:
What is the two dimensional coordination number of a molecule in square close packed layer?
Solution 14:
In square close-packed layer, molecule is in contact with four of its neighbors. Therefore, the
two-dimensional coordination number of a molecule in square close packed layer is 4.

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Question 15:
A compound forms hexagonal close-packed structure. What is the total number of voids in 0.5
mol of it? How many of these are tetrahedral voids?
Solution 15:
Number of close-packed particles = 0.5  6.022  1023 = 3.011  1023
Therefore, number of octahedral voids = 3.011  1023
And, number of octahedral voids = 2  3.011  1023 = 6.022  1023
Therefore, total number of voids = 3.011  1023 + 6.022  1023 = 9.033  1023

Question 16:
A compound is formed by two elements M and N. The element N forms ccp and atoms of M
occupy 1/3rd of tetrahedral voids.
Solution 16:
The ccp lattice is formed by the atoms of the element N.
Here, the number of tetrahedral voids generated is equal to twice the number of atoms of ht
element N.
According to the question, the atoms of element M occupy 1/3rd of the tetrahedral voids.
Therefore, the number of atoms of M is equal to 2  13 = 2/3rd of the number of atoms of N.
Therefore, ratio of the number of atoms of M to that of N is M : N = (2/3):1 = 2:3 Thus, the
formula of the compound is M2 N3.

Question 17:
Which of the following lattices has the highest packing efficiency (i) simple cubic (ii) body-
centred cubic and (iii) hexagonal close-packed lattice?
Solution 17:
Hexagonal close-packed lattice has the highest packing efficiency of 74%. The packing
efficiencies of simple cubic and body-centred cubic lattices are 52.4% and 68% respectively.

Question 18:
An element with molar mass 2.7  10-2 kg mol1 forms cubic unit cell with edge length 405 pm.
If its density is 2.7  103 kg m3 what is the nature of the cubic unit cell?
Solution 18:
It is given that density of the element, d = 2.7  103 kg m3
Molar mass, M = 2.7  102 kg mol1
Edge length, a = 405 pm = 405  1012 m = 4.05  1010 m
It is known that Avogadro’s number, NA = 6.022  1023 mol1
Applying the relation,
z,M
d 3
a .N A

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d.a 3 N A
z
M


  3
2.7  10 3 kgm 3  4.05  10 10 m  6.022  10 23 mol 1
2.7  10 2 kg mol 1
= 4.004
=4
This implies that four atoms of the element are present per unit cell. Hence, the unit cell is face-
centred cubic (fcc) or cubic close-packed (ccp).

Question 19:
What type of defect can arise when a solid is heated? Which physical property is affected by it
and in what way?
Solution 19:
When a solid is heated, vacancy defect can arise. A solid crystal is said to have vacancy defect
when some of the lattice sites are vacant. Vacancy defect leads to a decrease in the density of
the solid.

Question 20:
What type of stoichiometric defect is shown by:
(i) ZnS (ii) AgBr
Solution 20:
(i) ZnS shows Frenkel defect.
(ii) AgBr shows Frenkel defect as well as Schottky defect.

Question 21:
Explain how vacancies are introduced in an ionic solid when a cation of higher valence is added
as and impurity in it.
Solution 21:
When a cation of higher valence is added to an ionic solid as an impurity to it, the cation of
higher valence replaces more than one cation of lower valence so as to keep the crystal
electrically neutral. As a result some sites become vacant. For example when Sr2+ is added to
NaCl, each Sr2+ ion replaces two Na+ ions. However, one Sr2+ion occupies the site of one ion
and the other site remains vacant. Hence, vacancies are introduced.

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Question 22:
Ionic solids, which have anionic vacancies due to metal excess defect, develop colour. Explain
with the help of a suitable example.
Solution 22:
The colour develops because of the presence of electrons in the anionic sites. These electrons
absorb enegy from the visible part of radiation and get excited. For example, when crystals of
NaCl are heated in an atmosphere of sodium vapours, the sodium atoms get deposited on the
surface of the crystal and the chloride ions from the crystal diffuse to the surface to form NaCl
with the deposited Na atoms. During this process, the Na atoms on the surface lose electrons to
form Na+ ions and the dreleased electrons diffuse into the crystal to occupy the vacant anionic
sites. These electrons get excited by absorbing energy from the visible light and impart yellow
colour to the crystals.

Question 23:
A group 14 element is to be converted into n-type Semiconductor by doping it with a suitable
impurity. To which group should this impurity belong?
Solution 23:
An n-type semiconductor conducts because of the presence of extra electrons. Therefore a group
14 element can be converted to n-type semiconductor by doping it with a group 15 element.

Question 24:
What type of substances would make better permanent magnets, ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic.
Justify your Solution.
Solution 24:
Ferromagnetic substances would make better permanent magnets. In solid state, the metal ions
of ferromagnetic substances are grouped together into small regions. These regions are called
domains and each domain acts as a tiny magnet. In an unmagnified piece of a ferromagnetic
substance, the domains are randomly oriented. As a result, the magnetic moments of the domains
get cancelled. However, when the substance is placed in a magnetic field, all the domains get
oriented in the direction of the magnetic field and a strong magnetic effect is produced. The
ordering of the domains persists even after the removal of the magnetic field. Thus the
ferromagnetic substance becomes a permanent magnet.

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