37403260 Access to Information for Youth and Their Communities in Uganda Final | Internet Access | Load Balancing (Computing)


Access  to  Information   For  Youth  and  their  Communities   in  Uganda  
Report  prepared  by:  Seth  Herr,  Paradox  Alley   March  –  June  2010                    

Handover  Notes  from  Meeting  with  UNICEF  Fellow  Jean-­  Marc   Lefebure  
  Digital  Drum  Reconstruction/  Information  Access   A  majority  of  what  was  discussed  during  the  handover  meeting  with  Jean-­‐Marc   Lefebure  was  details  of  the  design  and  manufacture  process  of  the  Drum  as  it   currently  exists    (second  revision  prototype).    Jean-­‐Marc  detailed  the  current   revision  and  we  discussed  the  areas  of  the  design  that  could  be  improved  for  the   next  revisions     Basic  DD  design  and  build  process  needs  to  be  addressed   • • • • • • •   Overall  needs  to  be  addressed:   • • • • •   We  discussed  some  possible  approaches  to  interest  the  private  sector  in  developing   and  maintaining  the  Drum  such  as  it’s  potential  to  be  used  as  a  pay-­‐per-­‐use  internet   access  point,  potential  use  as  a  cellular  phone  charging  station  and  subsidizing   production  and  operating  expenses  through  advertising  on  the  device  (physical   branding  on  the  case).   Locate  suppliers  of  routinely  used  parts  in  Kampala   Identify  local  businesses  capable  of  supporting  drum  build,  painters,  metal   shops,  electronic  technicians,  etc.   Develop  sustainable  model  for  support  and  maintenance  of  the  Drum   Develop  a  user-­‐friendly  interface  for  Drum   Refine  security  of  operating  system  on  the  Drum   Waterproofing   Reduce  keyboard  expense   Harden  solar  power  data  collection  system   Create  out-­‐of-­‐band  management  system  (GPRS,  power  management)   Display  brightness  concerns   Lower  overall  power  envelope   Explore  alternative  battery  chemistries  and  compare  TCO  /  lifespan  /  impact   of  operating  environment  /  availability  

Solar  Power  in  Rural  Uganda:  Use  Cases  and  Recommendations  
  The  purpose  of  this  document  is  to  detail  potential  use  cases  for  solar  power  in  rural   Uganda  as  well  as  providing  some  purchasing  recommendations  for  solar  systems  to   suit  each  use  case  based  on  currently  available  technology.     As  technology  becomes  more  involved  in  every  aspect  of  our  lives,  the  need  for   generation  of  sustainable,  clean  electricity  to  power  the  devices  we  rely  upon   increases.    While  advances  are  being  made,  Uganda  lacks  a  reliable  electrical  utility   infrastructure  beyond  the  cities  of  Entebbe  and  Kampala,  driving  a  need  for  small-­‐ scale  generation  systems.  While  fossil  fuel-­‐based  generators  have  a  place  in  some   environments,  they  prove  to  be  too  expensive  and  difficult  to  maintain  for  smaller-­‐ scale  installations.  There  are  quite  a  few  situations  where  power  generation  is   required  but  the  cost  of  installing,  maintaining  and  fuelling  a  traditional  generator   outweighs  the  benefit.  Solar  power  is  a  solution  perfectly  suited  for  these   installations.     This  document  will  focus  on  three  primary  use-­‐cases:  Youth  Center  computer   facilities,  Primary  teacher  colleges  and  Maternity  clinics  in  rural  health  centers.  All   three  facilities  require  more  power  than  is  generally  available  to  them  via   conventional  means  but  rarely  have  the  funding  to  install  and  upkeep  fossil-­‐fueled   generating  systems.  These  facilities  have  been  identified  as  having  the  greatest   potential  impact  for  Unicef  Uganda's  Keep  Children  Alive  and  Keep  Children   Learning  initiatives.         I.  The  available  and  emerging  technologies:     Currently  available  solar  collector  technologies  can  be  summarized  as  being  of  two   available  categories:  Crystalline  and  Thin-­‐film.  Both  have  their  advantages  and  are   suitable  for  certain  installations.  Crystalline  modules  are  generally  more  efficient   (20%-­‐28%  as  opposed  to  7%-­‐15%)  and  have  a  lower  power  generating  threshold   than  thin-­‐film  collectors.  This  means  that  crystalline  modules  will  output  useable   power  even  on  overcast  days  whereas  thin-­‐film  modules  generally  require  direct   sunlight  to  output  close  to  their  rated  capacity.  An  advantage  of  thin-­‐film  modules   over  crystalline  modules  is  that  they  are  flexible  and  can  be  adapted  to  many   installations  not  suited  for  traditional  modules  or  in  areas  where  glass-­‐based   modules  are  simply  not  rugged  enough.       Development  is  underway  on  various  forms  of  printed  solar  cells.  These   technologies  are  generally  manufactured  using  roll-­‐to-­‐roll  processing  which  allows   for  large  scale  rapid  production  at  extremely  low  cost.  Printed  thin-­‐films  can  be   integrated  into  building  technologies  allowing  for  relatively  theft  proof  installations   without  the  additional  costs  associated  with  traditional  solar  installations.      

The  decision  of  what  type  of  technology  is  appropriate  must  be  made  on  a  case  by   case  basis  with  the  primary  influencing  factor  being  what  technology  is  widely   available  at  the  time  of  installation.  Historically,  crystalline  modules  have  been  the   most  commonly  imported  technology  in  Uganda  and  will  likely  be  the  solution  of   choice  for  the  next  2  to  5  years.  It  should  be  noted  that  as  production  of  thin-­‐film   and  roll-­‐to-­‐roll  printed  solar  cells  increases,  the  cost-­‐per-­‐Watt  of  this  technology   should  dramatically  decrease.  Thin-­‐film  and  printed  modules  are  more  tolerant  of   impact  and  resistant  to  damage  during  shipping  than  crystalline  modules,  which   should  make  them  more  widely  available  in  the  coming  years.  It  is  likely  that  thin-­‐ film  technology  will  become  a  viable  replacement  in  the  mid  to  long  term  but  as  it  is   not  currently  widely  available,  we  will  focus  on  crystalline  panels  for  the  duration  of   this  document.       II.  The  use  cases:       Youth  Centers:   Many  rural  communities  have  no  libraries  and  very  little  access  to  information.  The   presence  of  computers  with  readily  available  reference  materials  and  educational   programs  has  proven  to  have  a  significantly  positive  influence  on  children  and   young  adult.  Not  only  does  having  information  available  to  them  encourage  learning,   the  ability  of  young  people  to  familiarize  themselves  with  computers  will  give  them   a  significant  advantage  later  on  in  life.    Another  key  element  is  the  provision  of   lighting  to  facilitate  learning  and  safety  after  dark.  There  are  very  few  places   accessible  to  youth  in  rural  communities  that  have  artificial  lighting  so  school  work   cannot  be  done  after  sunset  which  competes  with  (and  is  usually  forsaken  for)  other   tasks  such  as  water  collection  and  husbandry.     Installation  recommendations     1  Digital  Drum  unit  -­‐  to  act  as  both  server  and  client  access  point  (Power   requirement:  60W  @  12VDC  for  1440Watt  hr/day  at  full  load  full  runtime)     20  12W  fluorescent  type  LED  bulb  (Power  requirement:  240W  @  12VDC  for  total  of   1440  Watt  hr/  day  at  6  hours  of  use  per  day  for  all  lights)     This  gives  a  preliminary  requirement  of  ~3KW  hours  per  day  for  laptops  and   lighting.       6  pcs  130W  solar  panels   4  pcs  12VDC  225  Ah  Gel  deep  cycle  batteries   1  50  Amp  charge  controller     Wire,  switches  and  circuit  breakers  as  needed  per  installation  and  safety  code   requirements   Mounting  brackets  and  hardware  as  needed  for  solar  panels    

  Expected  solar  power  system  costs  (Preliminary  cost  estimate  based  on  most  recent   information):  $8,000     See  Appendix  A  for  notes       Primary  Teacher  Colleges:     Primary  Teacher  Colleges  (PTCs)  are  the  starting  point  for  Uganda's  future   educators.  The  education  students  receive  in  their  PTC  will  set  the  stage  for  the   education  of  thousands  of  Ugandan  children.  It  is  vital  that  the  students  following   the  course  for  graduation  from  the  Primary  Teacher  Colleges  have  the  best   foundation  of  knowledge  so  they  can  better  serve  as  educators  to  the  thousands  of   children  that  will  pass  through  their  classrooms  later  in  life.  A  massive  jump  in  the   quality  of  education  students  in  PTCs  receive  can  be  realized  by  simply  providing   access  to  educational  materials  and  basic  lighting  for  students.  Most  PTCs  have  at   least  limited  access  to  electricity  during  the  early  evening  but  could  benefit  from   reliable  and  self-­‐sufficient  power  systems,  this  will  allow  PTC  students  to  extend   their  learning  day  well  into  the  evening  and  provide  unprecedented  access  to   information  in  even  the  most  remote  PTCs  in  Uganda.       Installation  recommendations     2  Digital  Drum  units  (1  unit  per  approximately  150  students)  -­‐  (Power  requirement:   120W  @  12VDC  for  2,880Watt  hr/day  at  full  load  full  runtime)   12  low-­‐cost  laptop  -­‐  to  be  used  in  computer  lab  (Power  requirement:  10W  @  12VDC   /  ea.  for  total  of  1200Watt  hr/day  at  10hours  of  use  per  day  for  all  laptops)   40  12W  fluorescent  type  LED  bulb  (Power  requirement:  480W  @  12VDC  for  total  of   2880  Watt  hr/  day  at  6  hours  of  use  per  day  for  all  lights)     Preliminary  power  requirement  is  ~7KW  hours  per  day.  The  Digital  Drums  for  this   installation  should  be  fitted  with  mains  power  supplies  as  well  as  standard  solar   systems  to  allow  for  reduced  solar  requirements.       12  pcs  130W  solar  panels   8  pcs  12VDC  225  Ah  Gel  deep  cycle  batteries   1  50  Amp  charge  controller   Wire,  switches  and  circuit  breakers  as  needed  per  installation  and  safety  code   requirements   Mounting  brackets  and  hardware  as  needed  for  solar  panels     Expected  solar  power  system  costs  (Preliminary  cost  estimate  based  on  most  recent   information):  ~$16,000.00     See  Appendix  B  for  notes  

    Maternity  clinic  in  a  rural  health  center   In  Uganda,  UNICEF  supported  health  centers  consist  of  “type  2”  and  “type  3”   designations.  Type  2  health  centers  are  smaller,  just  above  village  level  clinics.  They   provide  basic  primary  care,  immunization,  natal  care  and  limited  normal  deliveries   when  a  midwife  is  available.  Type  3  health  centers  provide  the  same  care  with  the   addition  of  minor  surgery  and  caesarian  birth.    Both  facilities  suffer  from  lack  of   consistent  power  supply  creating  limited  hours  of  available  care  and  difficulty   during  emergency  procedures.       Installation  recommendation     6  12W  fluorescent  type  LED  bulb  (Power  requirement:  72W  @  12VDC  for  total  of  ~   460  Watt  hr/  day  at  6  hours  of  use  per  day  for  all  lights)   4  24W  LED  surgical  lights  (Power  requirement:  96W  @  12VDC  for  total  of  ~  400   Watt  hr/day  at  4  hours  of  use  per  day)     2  -­‐  60  Amp-­‐hour  SLA  or  Gel  deep  cycle  battery   1  –  Phocos  CX10  10  A  charge  controller   2  –  100  Watt  Solar  panel   2  –  LED  headlamps  with  internal  rechargeable  battery  or  AAA  rechargeable   batteries   4  –  sets  batteries  for  LED  headlamps  and  12VDC  charging  station   Wire  and  switches  as  needed  per  lighting  and  installation  requirements   Mounting  brackets  and  hardware  as  needed  for  solar  panels     Expected  system  costs  (Preliminary  cost  estimate  based  on  most  recent   information):  ~$2,000.00     see  Appendix  C  for  notes     III.  Looking  forward:   These  use  cases  outlines  should  serve  to  act  as  a  basic  template  for  sizing  and   estimating  systems.  They  are,  however,  based  on  a  number  of  generalizations  and   assumptions  and  will  likely  need  tailoring  to  specific  applications.  Every  scenario  is   influenced  by  numerous  variables  that  are  far  beyond  the  scope  of  this  document   but  this  should  serve  as  a  starting  point  for  estimating  power  solutions  in  rural   Uganda  and  will  be  updated  with  real-­‐life  Use  cases,  solutions,  pricing,  systems   sizing  and  outcomes  as  they  become  available.        

Notes:   In  every  case,  solar  sizing  is  based  on  a  20%  overage  to  allow  for  battery  charge   states  to  remain  over  50%  thus  prolonging  battery  lifespan.  All  price  estimates  for   Digital  Drum  are  based  on  prototype  costs  and  are  likely  to  decrease.  Solar  system   cost  estimates  are  based  on  competitive  bid  pricing  form  Kampala  circa  April  2010   and  are  likely  to  fluctuate.    

Access  to  Information  and  Internet  Connectivity  Solutions  for   Rural  Areas  
The  maxim  that  knowledge  is  power  has  never  been  truer  than  it  is  today.  In  the   developed  world  we  have  a  virtually  unlimited  amount  of  information  available   which  enables  us  to  make  much  better  and  more  informed  decisions  in  much  less   time.  In  the  past,  critical  decisions  would  be  held  up  or  misdirected  by  a  lack  of  full   information.  This  lack  of  timely  communication  can  result  in  anything  from  poor   education  to  the  death  of  those  unfortunate  enough  to  be  on  the  wrong  side  of  the   gap.       UNICEF  is  exploring  how  greater  connectivity  can  facilitate  not  only  the   dissemination  of  educational  materials  in  rural  Uganda  but  also  the  collection  of   relevant  data  to  allow  a  more  streamlined  logistics  process.  Up-­‐to-­‐the  minute   information  on  vital  indicators  will  allow  UNICEF  Uganda  to  divert  medication,   supplies,  and  other  resources  to  areas  where  they  can  have  the  most  impact  to  those   in  need.  The  first  step  in  this  process  will  be  the  introduction  of  self-­‐contained  solar-­‐ powered  "hub"  systems.  These  will  be  located  in  areas  such  as  Youth  centers,  Health   centers  and  PTCs.  They  will  primarily  serve  the  purpose  of  dissemination  of   educational  materials  but  will  also  serve  web-­‐based  applications  for  logistics  and   supply  management  that  are  currently  being  developed  by  Uganda’s  T4D  team  as   well  as  the  Innovation  section  in  New  York.    The  eventual  aim  is  to  have  a  two-­‐way   communications  network  that  covers  the  most  under  served  areas  in  Uganda  and   provides  a  conduit  for  educational,  safety  and  health  information  to  the   communities  where  they  are  installed.   There  are  three  basic  steps  to  the  rollout  of  this  type  of  infrastructure:     1. Remote  stand-­‐alone  sites  with  limited  internet  connectivity   2. Linking  remote  site  to  each  other  via  high-­‐speed  wireless  or  other  available   technology  to  create  webs  of  sites   3. Linking  the  webs  to  each  other  and  the  internet  as  a  whole  once  funding  and   connectivity  options  allow  for  greater  bandwidth   The  first  step  requires  that  content  and  applications  are  stored  locally  on  devices   installed  in  remote  communities.  There  are  two  major  aspects  to  the  initial  phase  of   this  process,  device  development  and  deployment  (hardware)  and  content  and   interface  development  (software).  Development  of  the  hardware  is  well  under  way   in  Uganda  with  projects  such  as  the  Digital  Doorway,  the  Community  Computing   system  (Digital  Drum),  the  Rachel  Initiative,  Inveneo  and  others.    The  Community   Computing  system  is  now  entering  it’s  third  round  of  development  and  will  be   drawing  on  the  lessons  we  have  learned  to  overcome  some  of  the  last  remaining   obstacles  relating  to  hardware  deployments  in  rural  areas.     One  of  the  most  crucial  aspects  of  this  phase  of  development  is  the  cohesive   collection  of  relevant  content  and  development  of  an  intuitive  and  easy  to  use   interface  to  that  content.  This  will  require  the  active  participation  of  all  sections  and  

Ministries  that  intend  to  contribute  to  the  project.  Content  will  need  to  be   standardized  into  a  format  that  is  not  only  truly  portable  and  accessible  across  all   available  computing  platforms  today  but  also  free  from  the  encumbrances  of   restrictive  licensing.  It  is  vital  to  the  success  of  this  phase  of  the  project  that  all   content  can  be  distributed  through  any  available  channel  to  drive  interest  and  co-­‐ operation  from  as  many  parties  as  possible.     During  the  initial  phases  of  the  rugged  computing  rollout,  it  is  to  be  expected  that   some  if  not  all  sites  will  have  limited  to  no  Internet  access,  the  main  channel  for   distribution  and  collection  of  data  will  therefore  have  to  rely  on  human-­‐based  data   transportation.  Technicians  who  are  trained  to  maintain  the  machines  at  the  initial   installation  sites  will  be  responsible  for  the  distribution  and  collection  of  data  via   external  drives  which  will  than  be  collated  and  approved  at  the  central  update   server  prior  to  being  distributed  to  the  remainder  of  the  network  on  subsequent   visits.     Once  stand-­‐alone  sites  have  been  established  in  central  areas,  it  will  be  possible  to   link  nearby  areas  via  high-­‐speed  wireless  internet  solutions  as  have  been   demonstrated  by  organizations  such  as  BOSCO  in  the  Acholi  region  (See  Annex  D).   This  will  allow  many  sites  to  share  content  and  create  communications  channels   between  currently  separated  facilities.    Internally  developed  curriculum  and  content   collected  from  connected  sites  will  be  sharable  though  all  connected  facilities   instantaneously.  Communities  can  be  developed  around  common  interests  and   information  about  surrounding  areas  will  be  quickly  available  to  linked  installations.   This  extending  of  the  networks  will  allow  schools,  PTCs  and  Community  Centers   with  their  own  computer  labs  to  freely  access  the  content  and  communities   established  around  the  Digital  Doorway  and  Community  Computing  sites.   The  final  phase  of  this  project  will  be  the  interconnecting  of  the  phase  two  “webs”   and  connecting  the  greater  networks  to  the  Internet  as  a  whole.  This  phase  will   require  a  close  re-­‐evaluation  of  the  technology  available  and  the  overall  cost  to   maintain.  It  is  hoped  that  interconnected  sites  would  be  able  to  share  the  cost   burden  of  Internet  access  thus  lowering  the  overall  cost  to  connect  diverse  sites.     Currently  available  technology  for  internet  connectivity  in  rural  Uganda:   3g  /  GPRS  /  cellular  connectivity  –  this  technology  is  available  in  almost  all  parts   of  Uganda.  Cellular  connectivity  is  relatively  inexpensive  but  does  not  have  the   bandwidth  to  support  more  than  1  or  2  users  in  a  live  environment.    Speeds  vary   from  14kbps  to  1300kbps  depending  on  provider,  infrastructure,  transmission   technology  and  environmental  factors.  It  is  possible  to  allow  for  time-­‐delayed   synchronizing  of  data  over  a  cellular  connection  and  it  is  being  considered  as  a   management  and  maintenance  channel  for  the  initial  ruggedized  computing   systems.  Cellular  connectivity  tends  to  be  billed  on  a  “total  traffic  per  month  basis”   where  inbound  and  outbound  bandwidth  is  aggregated  and  a  set  limit  is  imposed  on  

devices.  As  of  August  2010,  3G  cellular  connectivity  in  Uganda  at  the  rate  of  3GB   transferred  per  month  is  85,000  /=  (UGX)(1)(2),  EDGE/GPRS  64kbps  unlimited   transfer  plans  are  available  from  UTL  for  220,000  /=  (UGX)(3)  and  Zain  for   200,000/=  (UGX)(4).   VSAT  –  this  technology  is  available  at  virtually  any  rural  location.  It  is  more   expensive  than  cellular  connectivity  but  can  provide  much  greater  bandwidth.    Due   to  it’s  high  latency,  VSAT  connectivity  is  not  recommended  for  environments  where   VoIP  or  similar  live  audio  /  video  conferencing  applications  will  be  required.  Low   cost  VSAT  solutions  tend  to  have  a  much  higher  download  bandwidth  than  upload   bandwidth,  this  would  allow  for  relatively  fast  deployment  of  data  and  content  but  a   relatively  slow  path  for  collection  of  data.  Most  low  cost  VSAT  systems  operate  on  a   bandwidth-­‐sharing  basis  where  actual  available  bandwidth  will  fluctuate  based  on   total  number  of  users  on  a  provider’s  network  (usually  referred  to  as  a  “shared   contention  ratio”).  VSAT  startup  costs  are  usually  fairly  high  in  comparison  to  other   connectivity  solutions  with  average  equipment  costs  exceeding  $2000.00  (USD).  As   of  August  2010,  VSAT  from  Intersat  Africa  is  available  at    $550  (USD)  /  mo.  For   128kbps  uplink  and  384kbps  downlink(5)  and  $350  (USD)  for  a  64kbps  uplink   256kbps  downlink(6)  both  at  1:16  shared  contention  ratio.     DSL  –  this  technology  is  starting  to  become  more  available  in  rural  locations  but  is   usually  limited  to  relatively  short  distances  from  population  centers  (5-­‐10Km  from   telephone  “Central  Offices”).  DSL  can  provide  symmetric  or  asymmetric  bandwidth   and  is  generally  sold  as  an  unlimited  bandwidth  product.  DSL  is  a  fairly  stable   product  but  can  be  affected  by  mains  outages  and  is  vulnerable  to  outages  due  to   failures  in  the  carrier  telephone  cabling  it  travels  on.  DSL  startup  costs  are  fairly  low   but  monthly  costs  can  increase  dramatically  beyond  256kbps.  Most  low-­‐cost  DSL   services  use  a  sharing  contention  scheme  similar  to  VSAT,  no  numbers  are  currently   available  detailing  contention.  Current  pricing  for  shared  bandwidth  through  UTL  as   of  August  2010(7)  is:  64kbps  -­‐  $100  (USD)/mo.  ;  128kbps  -­‐  $180  (USD)  /  mo.  ;   256kbps  –  $310  (USD)/month.  Pricing  for  dedicated  bandwidth  from  UTL  as  of  June   2010  in  the  Gulu  area  is:  512kbps  symmetric  ~  $350-­‐$425/mo.;  768kbps  ~  $575-­‐ $675/mo.  Both  require  ~$3200  (USD)  startup  costs  in  equipment  and  installation.   WiMax  –  WiMax  is  a  relatively  new  wireless  technology  that  operates  on  line-­‐of-­‐site   at  high  speed  and  non-­‐line-­‐of-­‐site  at  lower  speeds.  Pricing  of  WiMax  is  generally   similar  to  DSL  but  front-­‐end  equipment  costs  can  be  considerably  higher.  WiMax  is  a   fairly  stable  technology  but  is  susceptible  to  radio  and  environmental  interference.   It  is  expected  that  WiMax  will  likely  supplant  DSL  as  a  more  rural  connectivity   option  due  to  lower  deployment  costs  for  the  provider.  Pricing  for  Wimax  solutions   is  not  currently  available  but  will  be  appended  upon  receipt.        

Notes  regarding  connectivity  solutions:   Any  of  these  connectivity  solutions  may  be  extended  via  802.11  wireless  over  100s   of  Kilometers  to  join  more  installations.  The  major  benefit  of  this  option  is  overall   higher  bandwidth  and  lower  expense  for  connected  facilities.    When  sharing  a  single   point  of  connectivity  between  multiple  sites,  it  should  be  expected  that  at  times   there  will  be  contention  for  bandwidth.  QOS,  conservative  firewall  rules  at  gateways,   liberal  gateway  proxy  caching  and  vigilant  network  administration  are  all  methods   that  can  be  used  to  counter  this  effect.   Pricing:   1. 2. 3. 4. http://orange.ug/mobile-­plans/internet-­everywhere.php   http://mtn.co.ug/MTN-­Internet/MTN-­Mobile-­Internet.aspx   http://utl.co.ug/utl.php?i=124   http://www.ug.zain.com/opco/af/core/home/channel.do;jsessionid=3 9EB09F5FE7D0B242DC16D0A0E38F1DE.node14?channelId=-­ 10682&selectedChannels=-­10556,-­10682#&lang=en   5. http://www.intersatafrica.com/index-­‐products3.html   6. http://www.intersatafrica.com/index-­‐products2.html   7. http://utl.co.ug/utl.php?i=9  


Appendix  A  (Youth  Center  Solar  Power  Use  Case)  
The  lighting  specified  for  this  use  case  should  be  sufficient  to  provide  illumination  to   read  for  a  single  100  square  meter  space.  It  is  expected  that  the  Digital  Drum  should   operate  continuously  in  this  environment  and  be  reachable  at  all  times  via  network   access  but  only  physically  accessible  during  the  normal  operating  hours  of  the  Youth   Center.   Recommendations  are  based  on  the  following  conditions:   The  youth  center  has  no  existing  mains  power   The  public  space  will  be  lit  for  a  maximum  of  6  hours  per  day  and  is  100  square   meters    

Appendix  B  (PTC  Solar  Power  Use  Case)  
40  lights  should  be  enough  to  provide  sufficient  illumination  to  read  for  200  square   meters  of  space,  if  this  space  is  divided  into  multiple  areas,  the  overall  illumination   will  decrease.  I  am  operating  on  the  assumption  that  it  is  safe  to  divide  the  200   square  meters  into  two  spaces  before  more  supplemental  lighting  will  need  to  be   provided  but  this  should  be  tested  in  actual  use  cases  before  it  is  committed  to.  The   solar  system  specified  in  this  use  case  is  not  intended  to  provide  power  for  the  PTC   in  the  absence  of  available  mains  power,  it  is  merely  intended  to  supplement   unreliable  mains  supplies  for  lighting  and  the  overall  accessibility  of  mains  power  is   a  necessity  for  this  system  to  function  correctly.   Recommendations  are  based  on  the  following  conditions:   PTC  has  limited  access  to  mains  power  for  at  least  3  hours  per  day   PTC  has  a  lockable  room  that  can  be  dedicated  to  act  as  a  computer  lab  and  someone   will  be  monitoring  the  lab  when  access  is  allowed   PTC  has  a  student  population  of  approximately  300  who  all  live  on-­‐site  in  dorms   PTC  has  requirements  for  lighting  in  public  spaces  such  as  libraries,  classrooms  and   dorms    

Appendix  C  (Health  Center  Solar  Power  Use  Case)  
Recommendations  are  based  on  the  following  conditions:   Health  Center  has  no  mains  power   Health  Center  has  a  secure  area  where  batteries  and  charge  controller  and   headlamp  battery  chargers  can  be  installed   Health  Center  has  a  secure  location  for  headlamps  to  be  stored  when  not  in  use  



Annex  D:  BOSCO  bandwidth  distribution  model  

  BOSCO  is  an  NGO  that  has  been  operating  a  rural  wireless  network  in  the  Acholi   region  of  Uganda  for  the  past  four  years  based  around  the  concept  of  sharing  a   single  connection  to  the  internet  with  a  number  of  disparate  sites  linked  by  low-­‐ power  wireless  networks.    Over  the  course  of  the  past  year,  the  number  of  users   being  served  by  BOSCO’s  network  has  more  than  doubled  from  485  to  the  current  of   approximately  960  (with  total  number  of  users  doubling  in  the  last  year.  Over  the   same  period  of  time,  BOSCO’s  Internet  egress  has  only  increased  from  256kbps  to   512kbps.    While  the  overall  results  of  BOSCO’s  network  have  been  overwhelmingly   positive,  the  capacity  of  the  network  has  been  overshadowed  by  its  users’  demands.     BOSCO  estimates  that  to  supply  their  current  user  load  they  will  need  to  increase   egress  bandwidth  to  1Mbps.      The  pricing  model  of  Uganda’s  DSL  providers  favors  the  low-­‐end  and  shared  line   user.  In  an  effort  to  maximize  return  from  their  fixed  operating  costs,  UTL  resells   their  available  bandwidth  many  times  over  and  offers  it  to  consumers  as  a  ‘shared   line’  DSL  connection  with  a  maximum  bandwidth  of  512kbps.  These  connections  are   considerably  less  expensive  than  a  DSL  connection  that  has  a  fixed,  dedicated   bandwidth  and  a  majority  of  the  time  the  end  user  is  unaware  or  unaffected  by  the   nature  of  sharing  overall  bandwidth.  Once  the  number  of  users  on  a  connection   increases  beyond  a  certain  point,  the  shared  connection  can  no  longer  support  the   demands  and  the  connection  must  be  upgraded  to  a  “dedicated  bandwidth”  line,   which  can  be  provisioned  for  up  to  1.5Mbps.          Throughout  it’s  history,  BOSCO  has  distributed  the  cost  of  internet  connectivity  to   it’s  25  installed  sites.  The  pricing  difference  between  dedicated  lines  and  shared   lines  creates  a  gap  in  the  ability  of  the  users  on  a  BOSCO  style  network  to  pay  for  the   connection.    Currently  BOSCO  pays  approximately  $300  USD/mo.  for  internet   access,  increasing  available  bandwidth  to  1Mbps  will  increase  monthly  cost  to   ~$800  USD.  This  presents  a  financial  dilemma  for  the  hosting  organization.   Traditionally,  increasing  the  monthly  contributions  of  the  users  would  solve  this   bourdon.  Some  of  the  organizations  that  BOSCO  provides  bandwidth  to  cannot   afford  the  added  expense  and  would  likely  drop  out  of  the  program  altogether  if   presented  with  this  increase,  thus  increasing  the  financial  load  on  BOSCO  and  it’s   networks  users.     Subsidy  of  internet  access  until  the  network  is  extended  to  the  point  that  the  overall   cost  to  users  is  the  same  as  it’s  current  rate  of  approximately  $0.32USD  /  user  would   require  about  2500  users  to  distribute  the  financial  load  and  would  quickly  create   the  same  disparity.    An  alternative  solution  would  be  to  install  additional  egress   points  and  provide  distributed  access  for  the  network  depending  on  overall   bandwidth  availability  at  egress  points.  This  combined  with  aggressive  caching  and   distributed  cache  storage  on  the  network  would  allow  for  slow  growth  of  the   network  without  undue  economic  constraints  on  it’s  users.    

Internet Cellular connectivity

VSAT 802.11 Wireless link

Gateway Site

Youth Center


Health Center

Community Center

Traditional distribution model has one egress point and distributes to all sites along a relatively linear path

Internet Cellular connectivity Internet

VSAT 802.11 Wireless link

Gateway Site with load balancing and caching proxy

Gateway Site with load balancing and caching proxy

Youth Center

Community Center


Health Center

Distributed connectivity allows for load balancing across connections as well as maintaining a cache of requests to accelerate browsing at all egress points

Update Server

Content is delivered via external drive from Update Server to remote sites during routine maintenance

Youth Center School

Content propagates to additional machines over 802.11 links

802.11 Wireless link

802.11 Wireless link 802.11 Wireless link PTC

802.11 Wireless link Health Center Community Center

Technician-based data distribution for installations with no internet connectivity

Update Server

Content is collected via external drive from remote sites and delivered to Content Server during routine maintenance

Youth Center School

Content propagates from additional machines over 802.11 links

802.11 Wireless link

802.11 Wireless link 802.11 Wireless link PTC Health Center 802.11 Wireless link

Community Center

Users generate content at remote sites

Technician-based data collection for installations with no internet connectivity

External contributor Update Server


Cellular Modem VSAT Main (Gateway) Drum installation Stores locally available content and serves to connected facilities 802.11 Wireless link

802.11 Wireless link 802.11 Wireless link PTC

802.11 Wireless link Health Center Community Center

When Internet connectivity is provided,data collection and distribution are handled automatically

20 week drum production timeline
SEPTEMBER week 1 define weeknesses in current design and engineer solutions for next iteration week 2 week 3 week 4 OCTOBER week 5 NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY week 6 week 7 week 8 week 9 week 10 week 12 week 13 week 14 week 15 define weeknesses in current design and engineer solutions for deploy and field testlimited deployment (4-5 units) next iteration week 16 week 17 FEBRUARY week 18 week 19 week 20

Drum hardware development

build and document limited number of prototypes (4-5 units)

Build and document large scale deployment (25-50 units)

Note: This timeline is dependant on all materials and equipment being available at the start of production cycle (week2 and week 16). Any delays in procurement or delivery of components will cause a similar delay in production.

General configuration of second revision Digital Drum prototype

Electrical and network system block diagram


Charge Controller

Solar Panels

12V DC Power Voltage and Amperage sensors

USB or Serial Communication


Relay controls

Backhaul wireless 5Ghz 802.11a 100 Mbps Ethernet Gateway Computer with cellular modem

Switched Power

Secondary Computer


100 Mbps Ethernet

!00 Mbps Ethernet switch

Local wireless 2.4Ghz 802.11b/g

2 USB connectors for handset charging

Power control and sensor schematic for Digital Drum

+12V 1K VR Hall Effect Sensor

8.2K v+ vLM324 Arduino analog in Arduino GND

100K Pot Sensor Schematic for battery voltage monitoring and load current monitoring

Voltage spike protection Load Driver circuit

Arduino Digital I/O Arduino ground Grayhill 70-ODC5 Relay schematic for controlling loads

Basic Solar powered "Digital Drum" installation with local and long-distance wireless links, fully self-contained power

Rugged community computer (as we are focusing on the components, I will not
estimate the cost of the shell of this unit) 2 pcs OIT LITE vandal-resistant keyboards with P.O.M. keys & integrated touchpad (1) 2 pcs WinMate R15I93S-OFA2 Panel PC - (2) 1 pc GSM/GPRS/HSDPA cellular modem (usb with external antenna) Such as ZadaCOM 3G+ 7.2 (3) 1 pcs B&B Electronics EIR205 5 port ethernet switch (4) or Garrettcom S14H-12VDC Ethernet switch (5) 1 pc Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller (6) 1 pc Arduino Ethernet shield (7) 2 pcs Bulgin PX0839/IDC IP68 Ethernet connectors (8) 2 pcs Bulgin PX0845/A IP68 USB connectors (9) 4 pcs Bulgin PX0713 Caps for IP68 connectors (10)

Wireless equipment
1 1 1 1 pc pc pc pc Ubiquiti Bullet 2HP (11) 7 dbi omni directional antenna w/ Female N connector Ubiquiti Bullet M5 (13) 29dbi parabolic antenna w/ female N connector (14)

Solar system
Phocos CX20 Charge controller (15) 3 pcs ~125 W solar modules (or equivalent 350W+) (16) 4 pcs 31.6Ah 12V Gel (maintenance-free) deep cycle batteries (Deka 8GU1-DEKA or equivalent 125Ah+) (17)

Misc components
4 pcs 30V 3A schottky diodes - ST Microelectronics 1N5821 or similar (18) 20 meters 24 gauge solid copper cat5e or cat6 (19) 20 meters 10 gauge (3.25mm - 3.5mm) two conductor copper power leads for solar system (20) 32 Amp 2 pole 12-24VDC DIN rail-mount circuit breaker - CHINT NB1-B32-2P or equivalent (21) 5 pcs MAX232 (22) 1 pc Arduino Screw Shield (23) 1 meter DIN rail (35mm standard height) (24) 4 Pcs 3-60VDC 3.5A solid state relay - Grayhill 70-ODC5 or equivilent (25)

http://www.oitkeypad.com/pdf/QVPPlastickeyfront.pdf http://www.winmate.com.tw/PanelPc/ PPcSpec.asp?Prod=03_0581&Typeid=B0108010901&Typeid=B0108010901 (3) http://shop.zadako.com/hsdpa_3g_modemy/usb/zadacom_3g_plus_7.2.html
(1) (2)

http://www.bb-elec.com/ product_multi_family.asp?MultiFamilyId=68&TrailType=Sub&Trail=4 (5) http://www.garrettcom.com/s14.htm (6) http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardDuemilanove (7) http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=9026 (8) http://www.bulgin.co.uk/Products/Buccaneer/Buccaneer_Ethernet.html (9) http://www.bulgin.co.uk/Products/Buccaneer/Buccaneer_USB.html (10) http://www.bulgin.co.uk/Products/Buccaneer/Buccaneer.html (11) http://ubnt.com/bullet (12) http://lairdtech.thomasnet.com/item/ice-provider-wisp-base-station-and-clientantennas/omnidirectional-antennas/od24-9?&seo=110 (13) http://ubnt.com/bulletm (14) http://www.mtiwe.com/uploads/product/485.pdf (15) http://www.phocos.com/datasheet_sm_cx.html (16) http://www.bp.com/ sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9019638&contentId=7036951 (17) http://www.eastpenn-deka.com/default.aspx?pageid=443 (18) http://mouser.com/ProductDetail/STMicroelectronics/1N5821/ ?qs=sGAEpiMZZMutXGli8Ay4kOnWbBYZueaHA8JfCq5pWm4%3d (19) locally sourced (20) locally sourced (21) http://www.bb-elec.com/bb-elec/literature/NB1-63_CircuitBreakers.pdf (22) need to speak to J-M about exact part numbers for this (23) http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=9282 (24) http://www.bb-elec.com/bb-elec/literature/ers35.pdf (25) http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail&name=GH7019-ND

Costs: 1. $200/ea - $400 2. $1,150/ea - $2,300 (includes $800/ea base price and $350/ea shipping to Uganda) 3. $215 4. $89 5. $100 6. $45 7. $50 8. $20/ea - $40 9. $10/ea - $20 10. $6/ea - $24 11. $80 12. $60 13. $80 14. $80 15. $100 16. $650/ea - $1950 17. $100/ea - $400 18. $0.50/ea - $2 19. $ 20. $ 21. $15 22. $ 23. $15 24. $10 25. $10/ea - $40

Other Potential Keyboard vendors: Key Tek K-TEK-B420TP http://www.key-tek.cn/en/productsview.asp?id=174 iKey PMU-5K-TP2 http://www.ikey.com/ProductsList/ index.aspx?productID=45&menu=1&prodListID=2&

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