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ENGINEERING MATERIALS CHAPTER 6.0 TIMBER (IMP FOR 15 MARKS) Prepared By: Er. Pramesh Hada M.E
ENGINEERING MATERIALS
CHAPTER 6.0 TIMBER
(IMP FOR 15 MARKS)
Prepared By:
Er. Pramesh Hada
M.E Urban Planning
B.E Civil Engg (Asst. Professor),
Civil Engineering Dept.
Nepal Engineering College
Pramesh Hada M.E Urban Planning B.E Civil Engg (Asst. Professor), Civil Engineering Dept. Nepal Engineering College
T IMBER Sources of Timber Types of Timber Structure of Exogenous Plants Characteristics of Common

TIMBER Sources of Timber Types of Timber Structure of Exogenous Plants Characteristics of Common Timber trees Physical & Mechanical Properties of Timber

Strength Along & Perpendicular to the grain

S

i

f Ti

eason ng o

b

m

er

Defects in Wood Wood Based Products – Veneer, Plywood, Boards,Laminated Boards.

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec TIMBER •Is one of the
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec TIMBER •Is one of the
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
TIMBER
•Is one of the important construction materials.
•Used as structural elements in buildings, widely for
doors, windows and partitions and find large use through
secondary wood products like plywood, particle boards
and laminated boards, etc.
•Wood Which is useful for engineering or Other
structural Purpose is called “Timber”
•Mostly uses timber – plywood Posts et. in Formwork in
RCC,RBC etc.
•Both hard as well as soft woods are in use.
,
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec TIMBER • When tree has
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
TIMBER
• When tree has been cut down and its stem and branches are
roughly converted into pieces of suitable length, then it is
known as Rough Timber.
• When roughly converted timber is further sawn and
converted into commercialized the planks,battens, posts etc is
called converted Timber.
(Planks – board,plyboard,woodboards),
(battens-Partition, Roofing, something to hold)
Mostly Timber used in load bearing
structure is called structural timber
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh Hada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering Department,nec
Er. Pramesh Hada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering Department,nec
Er. Pramesh Hada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering Department,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec PROPERTIES OF TIMBER/WOOD Physical Properties
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec PROPERTIES OF TIMBER/WOOD Physical Properties
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
PROPERTIES OF TIMBER/WOOD
Physical Properties :
1.
Density
-
light — very light: density less than 550 kg/m3, eg.
bamboo
-
moderately heavy: density 550 kg/m3 — 750 kg/m3, eg.
deodar
-
heavy-very heavy: density greater than 750 kg/m3, eg. Sal
2.
Bulk Density - Defined as the mass of many particles of the material
divided by the total volume they occupy.
-
Depends on air voids present in wood.
3.
Moisture Movement
-
Wood is liable to shrink or swell with the movement of
moisture. (increase or decrease)
4.
Shrinkage :
Is a Reduction in linear and volumetric dimension due to
drying of moisture.
-
P ROPERTIES OF T IMBER / WOOD 5. Swelling (Increase in size) - It is

PROPERTIES OF TIMBER/WOOD

5. Swelling (Increase in size)

- It is increase in linear and volumetric dimension on absorbing moisture. 6. Sound conductivity

- Has high Sound Conductivity

- Sound velocity in wood is greater than others.

7. Thermal Conductivity

- Has very low thermal conductivity.

- so uses for maintain heat temperature in rooms.

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF
TIMBER/WOOD:
As
wood
is
natural
material
there
is
different
mechanical properties for different wood
Mechanical
properties
are
governed
by
soil
type,
climate and other factors.
Properties
affected
by
specific
gravity,
moisture
content, knots and other defects.
Wood can’t resist fire and burnt easily.
It will be better to take precautions to save timber
structure from thermal action
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TIMBER (PU
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TIMBER (PU
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TIMBER (PU 2010)
Uniform color, strong, durable and workable
Straight and compacted fibers
Fresh cut surface : sweet smelling
Struck: clear ringing sound
Relatively heavier
Free from all types of defects and disease of timber like
knots.
Planning surface: bright appearance with silky.
Sawing: Cut with a saw - not clogging (clogging -Become
or cause to become obstructed)
Firm adhesion of fibers and compacted medullary rays
Well seasoned
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Fibers in timber Defects of
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Fibers in timber Defects of
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Fibers in timber
Defects of Timber
Sawing
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER: (PU 2011)
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER: (PU 2011)
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER: (PU 2011)
availability: source and transportation
strength: light weight and higher strength
easy to handle and planed easily
joining: simple
Repair and Modification: Easy
superior, thermal insulation, sound and electrical resistive
uses: furniture and decorative purpose
strong and flexible
corrosion resistance: excellent
higher shock and impact strength .
Quick and easy to build.
Cheaper than other types of building materials.
Easy to heat and cool depending on the weather.
More eco-friendly than other materials
Can last many years if proper maintenance is carried out.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec USES OF TIMBER It is
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec USES OF TIMBER It is
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
USES OF TIMBER
It is mainly used for following categories of works
(i) It is used for construction purposes including building
construction, houseposts, beams, rafters, bridges, piles,
poles etc.
(ii) It is used for furniture and cabinet making.
(iii) Used for door and window frames.
iv)
Uses for Formwork, scaffolding etc,
iv)
It is also used for heavy packing cases such as
machinery and similar stores.
(v) It is used for manufacturing agricultural implements
and tool handles.
(vii) It is used for manufacturing veneers, plywoods,
boards etc.

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec H OUSE P OSTS S CAFFOLDING
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec H OUSE P OSTS S CAFFOLDING

HOUSEPOSTS

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec H OUSE P OSTS S CAFFOLDING
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec H OUSE P OSTS S CAFFOLDING
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec H OUSE P OSTS S CAFFOLDING

SCAFFOLDING

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec H OUSE P OSTS S CAFFOLDING
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DISADVANTAGES OF TIMBER: (PU2011) Defects
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DISADVANTAGES OF TIMBER: (PU2011) Defects
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
DISADVANTAGES OF TIMBER: (PU2011)
Defects in timber can reduce the life of wood.
Affected by relative humidity, fungi, insects.
Modification of general arrangement drawings if based
on masonry construction
Transportation and carriage access
Exposure to weather before enclosed
vulnerability to decay of timber when exposed to
excessive moisture.
If left untreated, timber become water logged and
crack or chip.
Timber is more susceptible to fire than other building
materials unless treated and maintained.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec TYPES OF TIMBER/WOOD Wood is
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec TYPES OF TIMBER/WOOD Wood is
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
TYPES OF TIMBER/WOOD
Wood is a product obtained from the tree.
In simple classification of tree, it can be classified as:
1. Standing timber - if a tree is living then the timber is
termed as Standing Timber.
2. Rough timber - if a tree is fallen then the timber is
termed as Rough timber.
3
.
Converted timber - If a tree is modified into desired
size and shape then the timber is termed as Converted
timber.
on the basis of mode of growth , the types of trees are :
1. Endogenous Tree
2. Exogenous Tree
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec 1. ENDOGENOUS TREE Trees grow
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec 1. ENDOGENOUS TREE Trees grow
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
1. ENDOGENOUS TREE
Trees grow in inward direction with the addition of fibrous (like
of jute) layer at tip portion, i.e the growth is longitudinal.
Trees are hollow at the core and have flexible stem.
e.g- Bambo, coconut, Sugarcane etc.
For construction purpose only bamboo can be used.
Are very flexible due to which they are not generally used for
construction material.
2. EXOGENOUS TREE
Trees increase in bulk by growing outwards and distinct
consecutive rings are formed in the horizontal section of such
trees.
These rings are called annual rings, because one such ring added
every year, such trees grow bigger in diameter as well.
Life of trees can be find by counting the annual rings.
e.g – Sisham, Sal, Pine etc.
Timber from these suitable for construction purpose
These are further classified as
1. Deciduous tree
2. Coniferous tree
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec EXOGENOUS TREE Deciduous tree Are
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec EXOGENOUS TREE Deciduous tree Are
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
EXOGENOUS TREE
Deciduous tree
Are characterized by flat and broad
leaves which fall in autumn season and
new one appear in spring season
HARD WOOD is obtained by such tree
which can be used for superior structural
and engineering work.
e.g – Sal, Sisham, Teak etc.
Coniferous tree
Trees are characterized by needle
shaped thin leaves which are evergreen
Trees bear conical shaped fruits and
yield resins ( viscous substance )
SOFT VARIETY OF WOODS are obtained
Used is general constructional purpose
- e. g Pine, deodar etc.

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Deciduous Tress Coniferous Tress
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Deciduous Tress Coniferous Tress

Deciduous Tress

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Deciduous Tress Coniferous Tress
Coniferous Tress
Coniferous Tress
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Deciduous Tress Coniferous Tress
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
D IFFERENCE BETWEEN HARD WOOD AND SOFT WOOD (C HARACTERISTICS ) Aspects hard wood soft

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HARD WOOD AND SOFT WOOD (CHARACTERISTICS)

Aspects

hard wood

soft wood

(Deciduous)

(Coniferous)

Annual rings

Indistinct

Clearly distinct

Medullary rays

Distinct

indistinct

Color

Dark

Light

Strength

Strong: tens, comp, shear

Strong: direct pull Weak: shear

Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil

Structure

Non resinous

Resinous and split easily

 

Weight

Heavy

Light

Uses

Structural purpose

Aesthetic and light structural purpose

Sources

Deciduous

Conifers/evergreen trees

 

Branches

Less branches

More branches

Example

Sal, teak, deodar, shisam

Pine, chir, kail etc

Example Sal, teak, deodar, shisam Pine, chir, kail etc
  Branches Less branches More branches Example Sal, teak, deodar, shisam Pine, chir, kail etc
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec SISHAM TREES
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec SISHAM TREES
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
SISHAM TREES
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec SISHAM TREES
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec SAL TREE
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec SAL TREE
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
SAL TREE
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec TEAK WOOD
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
TEAK WOOD
PINE TREES
PINE TREES
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
D EODAR TREES Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

DEODAR TREES

D EODAR TREES Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
S TRUCTURE O F A EXOGENEOUS TREE ( PU 2009,2010) • Pith/Medulla/Core • Heart wood

STRUCTURE OF A EXOGENEOUS TREE (PU 2009,2010)

S TRUCTURE O F A EXOGENEOUS TREE ( PU 2009,2010) • Pith/Medulla/Core • Heart wood •

Pith/Medulla/Core Heart wood Sap wood Cambium Layer Inner Bark Outer Bark Medullary rays (Pit Rays)

Inner Bark • Outer Bark • Medullary rays (Pit Rays) Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor,
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec S TRUCTURE O F A

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

STRUCTURE OF A EXOGENEOUS TREE

Pith/ medulla/core:

It is first formed portion of trees. It consist entirely cellular tissues and nourishes the plant in young age. It is found as dead part of the trees incase of matured trees and decayed.

Annual rings:

Grows extra layer around the circumference of the trees per year Circular concentric rings Each rings indicates the age of tree in year

Heart wood:

Annual rings around the pith at the innermost central portion of the tree section Strong, durable and compact part of trees Darker in color Best part of trees in engineering views Imparts rigidity to the trees

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec S TRUCTURE O F A

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil

Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

STRUCTURE OF A EXOGENEOUS TREE

Sap wood:

Outer annual rings between heart wood and the cambium layer Light in color and weight as well Indicates recent growth and contains sap

(Sap = A watery solution of sugars, salts, and minerals that circulates through the vascular system of a plant )

Annual rings of sap wood are less sharply defined in comparison to

heart wood Cambium layer:

Thin layer of sap between sap wood and inner bark Inner bark:

Inner layer covering the cambium layer Protect cambium layer from any injury Outer bark:

A protective layer, outer skin covering the trees Contains cracks and fissures sometimes Medullary rays: (Pit rays ) Radial fibers extending from pith to cambium layer Hold the annual rings of heart wood and sap wood together

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Resinous wood Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Resinous wood Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

Resinous wood

Resinous wood Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DEFECTS IN TIMBER (PU 08,09,10,12,13)
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DEFECTS IN TIMBER (PU 08,09,10,12,13)
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
DEFECTS IN TIMBER (PU 08,09,10,12,13)
Defects are either due to growing phases of tree or defect
occurring after cutting trees
Defects reduce the usefulness of wood as aesthetic
appearance as well as strength
1. Heart Shake
This defect usually occurs in over matured trees due to
shrinkage of heart wood
-
These cracks are mostly confined to heart wood portion
and diminishing towards outward .
-
D EFECTS IN TIMBER 2. Star Shake - It is confined in the outward portion

DEFECTS IN TIMBER

2. Star Shake

- It is confined in the outward portion and diminishing towards center.

- It occurs due to frost action and strong heat of sun.

- It is the most serious defect because it tends to separate single log into small pieces.

3. Radial Shake

- These are radial cracks extending from

centre towards bark .

- These are similar to star shake but are irregular and numerous.

- It occurs due to drying of sap or moisture .

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
D EFECTS IN TIMBER 4. Cup or Ring Shake - Is the separation of tissue

DEFECTS IN TIMBER

4. Cup or Ring Shake - Is the separation of tissue along annual rings

- If the shake is whole round the annual

ring then it is called ring shake and if it is

half way round the ring then it is called cup shake.

- It is due to unequal seasoning and change in humidity.

5. Rind Gall

- Is the curved irregular swelling on surface.

- Due to development of new sap layer on

wound left after branches have been irregularly cut.

- New layer fails to unite with old one and decay starts from that point

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DEFECTS IN TIMBER 6. Knots
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DEFECTS IN TIMBER 6. Knots
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
DEFECTS IN TIMBER
6. Knots
This defect occurs due to formation of annual rings at right
angles to surface and also due to twisting of fibers.
-
The roots of the branches yet embedded(Enclosed firmly) by the
tissue and knots are formed
-
- Knots reduce the aesthetic value and effects tensile strength
-
Knots may be round or oval shaped
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DEFECTS IN TIMBER 7. Twisted
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DEFECTS IN TIMBER 7. Twisted
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
DEFECTS IN TIMBER
7.
Twisted fibers
This defect occurs due to wind velocity constantly turning trees in
one direction only.
-
8. End Splits
- Occurs only at the ends of log due to exposed conditions during
seasoning.
May be prevented by painting the ends of log or covering with
metallic cap.
-
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DEFECTS IN TIMBER 9. Druxiness
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec DEFECTS IN TIMBER 9. Druxiness
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
DEFECTS IN TIMBER
9. Druxiness and Foxiness
(Druxiness is a term that is defined as a disease that is
found in timber or wood. It is caused or brought about by
a wound located in the layer known as the cambium
which is attacked by fungus.)
(Foxiness is caused due to poor ventilation during storage
or due to over maturity of the tree).
- These are stains or patches on the surface of timber
which destroy the appearance and may cause decay
of timber
- Stain may be in form of white patches or mottled
reddish colour.
(stains - A soiled or discolored appearance)
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil

Engineering D epartment,nec

H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec S EASONING OF TIMBER : ( PU 09,10,11)
H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec S EASONING OF TIMBER : ( PU 09,10,11)

SEASONING OF TIMBER: (PU 09,10,11)

Wood is hygroscopic material, dry wood absorbs moisture from surroundings

Freshly cut wood may contains more than 50% water in the form of sap and moisture After removal of such water from wood then it can be used in diff. engineering works

Thus drying process of timber is known as seasoning of

timber

Moisture must be extracted during seasoning under controlled

conditions as nearly as possible at a uniform rate from all parts

of the timber

If the drying is irregular, the shrinkage of timber will also be

irregular and it will set up internal stresses between the fibers

Moisture content in wood may be:

Free moisture: present in cell cavities (major part)

Bound moisture: present in cell wall ( associated with the body of timber) o Free moisture/ water evaporated first and the point at which cell cavities no longer contain free water is known as fiber saturation point.

evaporated first and the point at which cell cavities no longer contain free water is known
DIFFERENT OBJECTIVES OF SEASONING ARE : Timber to burn readily, if used as fuel Decreased

DIFFERENT OBJECTIVES OF SEASONING ARE:

Timber to burn readily, if used as fuel Decreased the weight of timber: easy handling and low cost Impart hardness, stiffness, strength, better electrical

resistance. (stiffness - hard to bend)

To increase resisting power of timber against the cause of defects To maintain the shape and size of the component of the timber To make it fit for painting and other treatment For effectively gluing and joining To reduce the shrinkage, warping, twisting

(shrinkage - becoming less or smaller) (Warping - Bend out of shape, as under pressure or from heat)

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil

Engineering D epartment,nec

H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec M ETHODS OF SEASONING OF TIMBER : Natural
H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec M ETHODS OF SEASONING OF TIMBER : Natural

METHODS OF SEASONING OF TIMBER:

Natural seasoning

Artificial seasoning Natural seasoning

Air seasoning/ drying Water seasoning Air seasoning:

Method used with the timber stacked in the open air. requires the following:

It

Stacked stable and safely with horizontal or vertical spacing

of at least 25 mm.

Ends of boards sealed by using a suitable sealer or cover to prevent too rapid drying out via the end grain. The stack raised well clear of the ground, vegetation, etc to provide good air circulation and free from rising damp, frost, etc.

Over head cover from effects of direct sunlight and driving weather.

circulation and free from rising damp, frost, etc. Over head cover from effects of direct sunlight
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
A IR SEASONING : This method is economical one Takes 2 to 4 years Covers

AIR SEASONING:

This method is economical one Takes 2 to 4 years Covers more space No need of skilled labor Timber can stack either horizontally or vertically

labor Timber can stack either horizontally or vertically Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec AIR SEASONING:
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
AIR SEASONING:
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec AIR SEASONING:
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
AIR SEASONING:
W ATER SEASONING Log of wood is kept completely immerged in stream of water Sap,

WATER SEASONING

Log of wood is kept completely immerged in stream of water

Sap, sugar etc are leached out of wood and replaced by water Then log is kept out of water after 2 to 4 weeks and placed in air Quick process and also remove organic matters/ materials

Elasticity

reduced

and

may

make timber brittle

is

another rather quick process Takes long time to be dried but less than air seasoning

timber

Boiling

of

in

water

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Wood logs floating on water
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Wood logs floating on water kept for
seasoning near echo point at lake
Munnar; Kerala ; India
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec ARTIFICIAL SEASONING: This is quick
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec ARTIFICIAL SEASONING: This is quick
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
ARTIFICIAL SEASONING:
This is quick process of seasoning and moisture content
can be controlled.
o Popular method of artificial seasoning is KILN
SEASONING.
Reason for carrying artificial seasoning are :
Shrinkage, cracking and warping are minimized
Drying is controlled and no chances for the attack of
fungi and insects
Drying surface is even and uniform
Reduced duration of seasoning
Desired moisture content can be attainable
(shrinkage – becoming less or smaller)
(warping - Bend out of shape, as under pressure or from heat)
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Artificial kiln seasoning
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Artificial kiln seasoning
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec KILN SEASONING: This process consists
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec KILN SEASONING: This process consists
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
KILN SEASONING:
This process consists basically of introducing heat.
May be directly, using natural gas and/or electricity or
indirectly, through steam-heated heat exchangers,
although solar energy is also possible.
In the process, deliberate control of temperature,
relative humidity and air circulation is provided to give
conditions at various stages (moisture contents or
times) of drying the timber to achieve effective drying .
Timber is stacked in chambers, called wood drying
kilns, which are fitted with equipment for manipulation
and control of the temperature and the relative
humidity of the drying air and its circulation rate
through the timber stack.
Provides a means of overcoming the limitations imposed
by erratic(inconsistent) weather conditions.
Almost all commercial timbers of the world are dried in
industrial kilns.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec KILN SEASONING: Advantages of conventional
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec KILN SEASONING: Advantages of conventional
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
KILN SEASONING:
Advantages
of
conventional
kiln
drying
include
higher
throughput and better control of the final moisture content.
Conventional kiln and solar drying both enable wood to be
dried to any moisture content regardless of weather
conditions.
For
most
large-scale
drying
operations
solar
and
conventional kiln drying are more efficient than air drying.
Compartment-type kilns are most commonly used in timber
companies.
A compartment kiln is filled with a static batch of timber
through which air is circulated. In these types of kiln, the
timber remains stationary. Drying conditions are
successively varied from time to time in such a way that the
kilns provide control over the entire charge of timber being
dried.
Method is well suited to the needs of timber companies,
which have to dry timbers of varied species and thickness.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Kilns are used because the
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Kilns are used because the
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Kilns are used because the process speeds up seasoning
and it can be used to accurately control the moisture
content of the wood.
Wood is carefully stacked inside the brick kiln.
Water is heated and the resulting steam allowed to enter
the kiln, circulating inside and around the wood boards.
Over time, the amount of steam (humidity) is reduced until
the wood has the desired moisture content.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Compartmental kiln A compartment kiln
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Compartmental kiln A compartment kiln
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Compartmental kiln
A compartment kiln is a single enclosed container or
building, etc.
Timber is stacked as described above and the whole
stack is seasoned using a program of settings until the
whole stack is reduced to the moisture content
required.
Progressive:
A progressive kiln has the stack on trolleys that
‘progressively’ travel through chambers that change
the conditions as it travels through the varying
atmospheres. (trolleys - An wheeled vehicle that runs on rails and is
propelled by electricity)
The advantage of this system, although much larger,
has a continuous flow of seasoned timber coming off
line.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Solar kiln A solar kiln
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec Solar kiln A solar kiln
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Solar kiln
A solar kiln is a cross between kiln drying and air drying.
These kilns are generally a greenhouse with a high-
temperature fan and either vents or a condensing system.
Solar kilns are slower and variable due to the weather, but
are low cost.
OTHER SEASONING OF TIMBER ARE
Boiling or Steam seasoning
Submersion in boiling water or the application of steam
speed the drying of wood. This method is said to cause less
s
hrink
age
"
but
it
i
s expe
n i
s ve
t
o
u
se,
a
nd
r
e
du
ces
th
e
strength and elasticity of the timber."
Chemical or salt seasoning
Salt seasoning is the submersion of wood in a solution of
urea, sodium nitrate or sodium chloride, all of which act as
dehydrating agents. Then the wood is air dried.
Electrical seasoning
Electrical seasoning involves running an electrical current
through the timber causing heat to build up drying the wood.
This method is expensive but is fast and uniform quality.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec l d b l i

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec

l

d

b

l

i

attens, am n

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec l d b l i attens,

WOOD BASED PRODUCTS

1.

Veneers Veneering is the primary process of manufacturing woods.

Prepared by slicing and sawing of wood in thin sheets of

0.4mm to 6mm. Are of superior Quality. n manu actur ng p y woo s, boards.

U

d i

f

i

se

sawing of wood in thin sheets of 0.4mm to 6mm. Are of superior Quality. n manu

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil

Engineering D epartment,nec

H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec W OOD BASED PRODUCTS 2. Plywood Is manufactured
H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec W OOD BASED PRODUCTS 2. Plywood Is manufactured

WOOD BASED PRODUCTS 2. Plywood

Is

manufactured

wood

panel

from

as

the

family

of

a

manufactured

boards

(such

medium-density

fibreboard (MDF), particle board (chipboard), etc.) made from thin sheets of wood veneer.

Prepared by gluing together odd number of veneers with

grain direction of core block at right angle to adjacent

l

veneer or p y.

Are used in making partition, furniture, ceiling, doors, paneling wall, Formworks for concrete.

adjacent l veneer or p y. Are used in making partition, furniture, ceiling, doors, paneling wall,
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec PLYWOOD
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
PLYWOOD
3. BATTEN BOARD Is a solid block with core of sawn thin wood The Thickness

3. BATTEN BOARD

Is a solid block with core of sawn thin wood The Thickness of core is about 20mm to 25mm Total thickness of board is about 50mm Is Light and strong Do not crack or split easily Uses: partition wall furniture shutters packing case

,

,

,

Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec 4. LAMIN BOARD Consist of
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec 4. LAMIN BOARD Consist of
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
4. LAMIN BOARD
Consist of core of strips each not exceeding 7 mm in
thickness.
These strips are joined together with two face veneers.
Lamin board are used for furniture, partition, doors,
windows, ceilings,etc.
I MPREG T IMBER / IMPREGNATED TIMBER Timber which has been made flame-resistant, fungi- resistant,

IMPREG TIMBER /IMPREGNATED TIMBER

Timber which has been made flame-resistant, fungi- resistant, or insect-proof by forcing into it under vacuum or pressure a flame retardant or a fungal or insect poison.

or pressure a flame retardant or a fungal or insect poison. Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst.
or pressure a flame retardant or a fungal or insect poison. Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst.
or pressure a flame retardant or a fungal or insect poison. Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec COMPREG TIMBER Processed wood whose
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec COMPREG TIMBER Processed wood whose
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec
COMPREG TIMBER
Processed wood whose cells are impregnated with a resin and
compressed, to reduce shrinking and swelling and to
increase density and strength.
Compreg is a very special wood composite material with
exquisite mechanical properties.
Compreg indicates that it is both impregnated and
compressed.
Used in applications where long durability, hardness, and
dimensional stability is required e.g. gears, rolls and wear
strips of industrial conveyors, woodworking machine tables.
Regardless of its hardness, it is comparatively easy to
machine, which makes it an excellent choice for
manufacturers of exclusive woodworking products.
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil Engineering D epartment,nec
Er. Pramesh H ada, Asst. Professor, civil
Engineering D epartment,nec