Psychology Lecture Notes – April 24, 2007 Application Assignment due Friday, April 27th For 5 of the 8 major psychological

disorders discussed in Module 49, create a character with a disorder from that category (e.g., one character with one of the mood disorders, one character with one of the anxiety disorders) o Name the disorder (.25 pts) and its major category (.25 pts) o Describe each character in terms of their specific disorder and related experiences (1pt) o Suggest a possible cause of each person’s disorder (.5 pts)

Anxiety Disorders - Phobic disorder o Intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations - Generalized anxiety disorder o Experience long term persistent anxiety - Panic Disorder o Anxiety that is not triggered by any identifiable stimulus and last from a few seconds to several hours - Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder o Obsession  A persistent, unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring o Compulsion  Urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable, even to the individual who experiences them Somatoform Disorders – What does soma mean? Body - Psychological difficulties that take a physical (somatic) form, but for which there is no medical cause - Hypochondriasis o Constant fear of illness and a preoccupation with their health - Conversion disorder o Involves an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to see or hear, or to move an arm or leg whose cause is purely psychological Dissociative Disorders - break ties between sever association with; separate” - Parts of personality that are normally integrated and work together separate or dissociate o To reduce anxiety o Keep disturbing memories or perceptions from reaching conscious awareness o Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality): individual displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities. o Amnesia: a disorder in which a significant selective memory loss occurs o Fugue: an amnesiac condition where people take sudden, impulsive trips,

sometimes assuming a new identity Mood Disorders - Disturbances in emotional feelings strong enough to intrude on everyday life Mood Disorders: Depression - A mood disorder involving disturbances in: o Emotion (excessive sadness) o Behavior (loss of interest in one’s usual activities) o Cognition (thoughts of hopelessness) o Body Function (fatigue and loss of appetite) Symptoms of Depression (DSM IV requires 5 of those within the past 2 weeks) - Depressed Mood - Reduced interest in almost all activities - Significant weight gain or loss, without dieting - Sleep disturbance (insomnia or too much sleep) - Change in motor activity (too much or too little) - Fatigue or loss of energy - Feelings of worthlessness or guilt - Reduced ability to think or concentrate - Recurrent thoughts of death Mood Disorders: Bipolar Disorder - Condition in which a person sequentially experiences periods of mania and depression - Mania o Extended state of intense, wild elation The Bipolar Brain - Bipolar disorder can have rapid mood swings - PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional swings Cause of Mood Disorders: you tell me… - Biological -> genetics/heredity and brain chemistry - Social -> stressful circumstances of people’s lives - Attachment -> problems with close relationships - Cognitive -> particular habits of thinking and ways of interpreting events o Depressogenic attribution style o