Main features of Tourism Development Planning: Various Approaches of Tourism Planning: When we are thinking about planning we have to think about future generation. Without thinking future generation planning will be a poor planning. There are two types of approaches of Tourism planning and development. Those are as follows: (1) Proactive Planning: This is a develop strategies to secure desired development path. Generally this approaches of planning used in primary period of planning. For the better implementation of this approach persons need a profound knowledge of local economy, SWOT Analysis etc. (2) Chaos Theory: This is a reactive scheme to any unexpected events. Generally this approaches used in the later part of planning. For our Tourism Planning and development we need to adopt or implement both approaches. (3) Sustainable Development Planning: This is such kinds of planning which looks for future generations as well as the present development. Basically this is a very new idea in tourism development planning. It becomes very popular day by day. Compare and contrast between various approaches: (1) Proactive Planning: • • This is the primary planning approach. Needs a vast quantity of knowledge like; local economy, structure, SWOT Analysis etc.

(2) Chaos theory: • • This is not the primary planning approach, it uses in later on. If any unexpected situation will arise then we will use it. For applying this approaches vast knowledge is not essential.

(3) Sustainable development planning: • This is such kind of planning where main consideration is future generation. Its main view to keep the rights of future generations.


Like – British National Museums are free from 2001. cashiers. o Similar facilities – we have to arrange similar facility that will not affect the environment. we have to ensure money comes from tourism will invest in the local community projects. Social Planning: o In our planning. receptionist. UK. coach parking – some specific coach service are needs to be allowed. o Provide education for tourist. In that concern local government are responsible for that. As a result tourist will be very much conscious about their habit and activities. o To employ the local peoples as many as possible because that’s the only way money goes to local peoples. on the other hand they will buy some product elsewhere and it helps to collect more revenues. Economical Planning: o Our aim is to maximise the positive effects of tourism. o Provide Tourism education for the local community.Profound knowledge in sustainable tourism development is essential. o Making product more affordable – this is a one way to attract the customer. Like training for guides. Consideration during Planning: Environmental Planning: o Our aim is to minimise the negative effects of tourism by controlling the development. o Provide stuff training for the improvements of local peoples. o Pedestrian zones – Don’t allow car in some specific area. Tourist will come to the destination and might not disturb the local peoples but improve the local peoples. catering etc. o Park and ride services – To avoid the traffic public can park their car outside of the town and they can take shuttle train or bus to come into the city. This practice is very popular in London. o Increase the standard of living of local community. • 2 . o Drop-off points.

can take it or may be ignore it. local government is the ultimate responsible for tourism development. They work in harmony with the national objectives. This can be done by following ways: o Provide Brochures. Art Exhibitions etc. o Sometimes certain types of tourism in different specific region. National Tourism Planning: For tourism development. They can’t impose rules but only guideline for the local govt. o Like Kent Tourism policy: countryside rural tourism. o Posters and Displays. o Planning is in only national level but not global scale. o Provide official guides to the tourist.Different Development Planning Layers: Tourism development planning can take place at international. o They can only provide the guideline or how to develop. Magazine etc. Regional Tourism Planning: o This is more detailed and specific planning than the National level. national and sub national levels. festival. Local Tourism Planning: Local peoples have to provide the local all information to the tourist. For tourism development they have to the following things: o o o o o o o o Tourism Policy Marketing Strategies Taxation structure Incentives/Grants Legislation Infrastructure development Transport system Educational/Training programmes etc. 3 . International Tourism Planning: o This level of planning is very weak in structure. lacks enforcement. but the local Govt. Map. to the tourist.

⇒ We have to follow up the guidelines provided by international organizations. The induced effects arise in each stage where some tourism expenditure is lost because it is used to purchase imported goods and services. Those are as follows: ♦ ♦ ♦ Direct Effects Indirect Effects Induced Effects The direct effects of tourism arise from expenditure by tourists. ⇒ In our planning we have to coordinate all the different layers of tourism development. employment and revenue from taxation. which immediately generate income for businesses and households. ⇒ In our planning we have to ensure the communication between up to bottom and bottom to up. Different methods of tourist impact measurement: The impacts of tourism expenditure are generally consider under three headings. These losses from the system are generally referred to as leakages. it is very important to bring all the stakeholder altogether otherwise our planning will not be successful. Before planning we have to listen and respects the views from all the stakeholder. The indirect effects arise as initial income received by households. We our planning participation of all peoples is very important. government and local businesses is re-spent on activities necessary to provide the products and services purchased by tourists.Significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism development: ⇒ In Tourism development planning. ⇒ We have to provides/suggests guidelines for the local level tourism planning. 4 .

In this methods there is some indicators to measure the tourism impacts. Cambridge Economic Impact Model. Environmental impact studies.pdf] There are some methods available to measure tourists impact.uk/ttri/pdf/2003_5. 5 . Som Nath Chib Memorial Lecture. (1) Traditional indicators (international arrivals spend figure). Those are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) Traditional indicators (international arrivals spend figure).ac. New approach to measure change over time. This is a traditional indicators method. This is a very old methods to measure the impact of tourism. Feb 14th 2003 and Websites: http://www. These are the total number of international tourists arrival and how much is their spending figure.nottingham.[Source: Professor Christine Ennew .

Generally benefits are greater than cost. Its main aims is to poor people will be benefited from whatever we decided for tourism development. It generates data on total amount spent by visitors. employment.local occupancy rates. ♦ All possible benefits and who will be benefited. This is one kind of tourism that results in increased net benefits for poor people. 6 . number of jobs supported by visitor spending. (4) New approach to measure changes over time: Pro Poor Tourism: This is a specific approach of tourism development. Those are as follows: ♦ Development costs. ♦ It helps to define feasible remedial actions and minimizing measures. population. This is computer based spreadsheet model. ♦ It helps to find how much cost and how much benefits we are getting from the cost. income for local residents created by spending.(2) Cambridge Economic Impact Model: This is a model which is used to calculate how tourism affects in community. ♦ Who might be adversely affected by development. Uses: It helps to provide data on accommodation stock ( how many hotels/beds are in this area). local wage rates and visit to attractions. ♦ How to minimise negative impacts of tourism. It produces estimates from existing national and local information of tourism activities. (3) Environmental Impact Studies: It helps the developer to evaluates overall effect of development considering. Objectives: Value of tourism spending and impact of this spending on different sectors of the local economy in terms of jobs supported. ♦ Prediction of the environmental impacts. ♦ Is there any different way of developing. ♦ Analysis of possible alternatives. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): This is a multidisciplinary approach which combining evaluation of economic aspects of a project (based on cost-benefit ratio) with environmental consequences.

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ It enhances the linkages between tourism businesses and poor people. Basically it’s about moral ethical tourism. Compare and contrast between different methods of tourism impact measurement: (1) Traditional indicators (international arrivals spend figure). report backs. Any kind of development can be involved in pro-poor tourism – a small lodge. It helps to expansion of business opportunity for local peoples. o This is not a popular method. ♦ Education for tourists. It’s a more supportive policy and planning framework for locals. 7 . Those indicators are the total number of international tourists arrival and how much is their spending figure. Its helps the tourist to know how to behave at tourism destination. sharing news and plans etc. income for local residents created by spending. number of jobs supported by visitor spending etc. ♦ Providing opportunities for local people. Those are as follows: ♦ Ensuring Tourism cares for the environment. Training up the local peoples. o This is computer based spreadsheet model. o In this there is some indicators that reflects the tourism impacts. It increased flow of information and communication among local peoples by meetings. (2) Cambridge Economic Impact Model. Responsible Tourism: This is a one kind of tourism that making sure tourism organisations look after the destinations and keep the resources and attractions for local peoples or for future visitors. an urban hotel etc. o This is much more better than previous model. It has some certain criteria. It helps to expansion of employment and local wages. how to take care of environment etc. o It produces data on total amount spent by visitors. It increased participation of poor local peoples in decision making stage. o This is a very old methods to measure the impact of tourism.

(3) Environmental impact studies. (4) New approach to measure change over time. o Its main emphasis is the poor peoples of the society. 8 . o This is one kind of tourism that results in increased net benefits for poor people. o This is a multidisciplinary approach which combining evaluation of economic aspects of tourism (based on costbenefit ratio) with environmental consequences.o This is the most popular model to measure the tourism impacts. o Day by day it becomes very popular. o It does not cover the environmental impact of tourism. o This evaluates overall effects of development considering. o It enhances the linkages between tourism business and poor peoples.

If the planners are not well experienced then sometimes they fails to co-ordinate all the things altogether. “Sustainable tourism development is a development which meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Planners experience is very important in planning. 9 . ⇒ Environment is constantly changing (out of control). According to World Tourism Organization (WTO).TASK 02 Sustainable Tourism: According to Bruntland Report (1987). It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic. Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. The concept of TBL demands responsibily to stakeholders rather than shareholders. and life support systems. But it was popularised after 7 years in1987. When we are making our plan we have to consider these three things. In the development planning of Suvalatu Island we have to consider or following these principles. The Triple Bottom Line or 3BL is People. Planet and Profit. and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity. Planning for Sustainable Tourism: In our planning the Triple Bottom Line concept is very important. and biological diversity. essential ecological processes. When we are going to think any sort of tourism development we have to follows these guidelines. WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council) provides 10 principles as a guidelines for the Sustainable tourism development planning. social. Factors that could be prevent the sustainable tourism development: ⇒ Planner fails to co-ordinate or get altogether. We cant make any development without these three things. The concept of sustainable development originated in the World Conservation Strategy published by World Conservation Unit (IUCN) in 1980.

Sometimes due to lack of experiences we could not take a proper decision for a sustainable tourism development. Every thing has a certain caring capacity. Sometimes our destination crossed it limits. ⇒ Fails to implement the plans. As a result it prevents the sustainable tourism development. market assessment carries a very important role. Experience is very important for sustainable tourism development. In planning. Integrated planning and development is a form of comprehensive planning: comprehensive because it integrates all forms of planningeconomic. Generally without market assessment planning will never get a success. In implementation stage if the responsible authority fails to implement the plan. In that case planners need some expertise in market analysis. In that case experiences is very important. physical. If the planner fails to assess the market then the planning will never be good. 10 . Main stages in planning for sustainable tourism development and apply in the case study (Suvalatu Island): The concept of planning is concern with organising some future events in order to achieve pre-specified objectives. ⇒ Failure as a result of lack of experience. The main stages in sustainable tourism development planning are as follows: 1) Analysis – where are we now? Firstly we have to analyse our current situation of Suvalatu Island that will help us to find out where are we now. ⇒ Caring capacity exceeded. That’s why sometimes our planning becomes failed. ⇒ Failed to market assessment. sometimes it beyond our limits. In that case SWOT analysis of Suvalatu Island can help us to find out the present situation of this island. social and cultural.Environment is changing constantly.

we will find out the following things: STRENGTHS • Natural and mixed forests which are contain rich biodiversity which are virtually untouched.If we go through the SWOT analysis of Suvalatu Island. Swimming. Snorkelling etc. “Suvalatu” can attract niche markets. Influx of tourism can lead to demonstration effect on small islands. That will help us to get a knowledge about the present resources and existing facilities of Suvalatu island. Adventure Tourism. Health Tourism. Well-known for hospitality. My findings for Suvalatu island are as follows:  Suvalatu is a remote island. Fishing. 2) Survey of resources and existing facilities Before setting objectives it is vital to do a survey about what resources do we have in our island. Diving. Diverse heritage and culture. 11 . In that case SWOT analysis will help to this information.  They have few tourist facility. THREATS • • • Natural disasters/weather/typhoons Climate change rising sea levels.  Insufficient communication vehicle. Naturally resourceful. WEAKNESSES • • • • • Infrastructural and superstructure deficiencies. White sand beaches. Sailing. My findings for Suvalatu island are as follows:  Natural and mixed forests. Only entrance from “Tahiti” by boat Few tourist facilities Low standards communication vehicles Accommodation facility is not good enough • • • • • OPPORTUNITIES • • • • Beach tourism.  Only entrance is from Tahiti by boat.  Accomodation standard is very low.

our objectives are as follows:  Increase employment Opportunity: We have to create job 12 . And it is very important to make an alternative plan in terms of our plan failure. Good hospitality of local peoples. Now we find out what is the market for suvalatu island. For Suvalatu Island.  Development will not allow any sort of damage in any natural resources.  They have white sand beaches that is another attraction for tourist.  Development should be sustainable. From that point of view we have select which sector needs to be develop and which way. 4) Planning – where do we want to be? The results from the analysis and survey data will help us to find out a number of possibilities of development strategies. White and sand beaches.  Living standard of local people should be increase. For Suvalatu Island. In that case my findings for Suvalatu island are as follows:  They have a good market for tourism especially the beaches that can attract the tourist.  They have natural forests and mountains that can be attract the adventure lovers tourist.  Quality with tourism not quantity. Then we have to choose our planning according to where do we want to be. where we want to be:  Development of infrastructure and superstructure of Suvalatu island but in a certain level. 5) Setting of Objectives In order to design a development plan successfully it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the objectives that are to be achieved by the development of this island. Then we have to evaluate them in terms of their potential economic.    Diverse heritage and culture. physical and socio-cultural coasts and benefits. Overall naturally resourceful 3) Market evaluation Before setting an objective it is very important to do a market evaluation of Suvalatu island.

As a result. we have to impose some law for the protection of natural resources. they will be able to do something for the welfare of themselves. In our planning we have to concentrates in minimising the negative impacts and maximise the positive for the all stakeholders of Suvalatu Island. Increase the life style: We have to concentrate ourselves in our planning to increase the standard of Suvalatu Island people’s life style. culture. Infrastructure Development: Finally. It will help them to improve themselves and a better living standards. Minimise negative impacts and maximise positive impact: Tourism has some negative and positive impacts on the society. There is no 13 . Up-market tourist: In our planning we have to attract the high spending up-market tourist. If needed. We have to ensure easy accessibility of local peoples in job sector. If we will be able to do that then peoples will feel more attraction on tourism. We have to increase a awareness among the local peoples and tourists about natural resources conservation. Infrastructure development is the fundamental part of a society development. costume and hospitality they have. training institute and hospital for the benefits of local peoples of Suvalatu Island. we have to concentrate ourselves in the infrastructural development of Suvalatu Island.  Protection of Natural Resources: We have to concentrates in our planning on the preservation and conservation of the natural resources. Social and Cultural Development: We have to focus on their cultural and social development through proper planning. Cultural and economical exchange: In our planning we have to encourage the local peoples to use of tourism for both cultural and ecomical exchange.opportunity for the local peoples of Suvalatu island. Plan for issues relating to environmental and social impacts as well as financial returns        6) In our planning we have to be very sincere about those issues which are relating with the environment and social. Build up Educational institute and Hospital: We have to build up school.

Then we have to analyse in order to assess how it will affect the development plan and its objectives. We have to be very careful about the financial return from the tourism sector because if the financial return is not good enough compare to invest In tourism sector then it will not bring a good sign for tourism sector. 7) Implementation – How can we get there? Or what we will do? In planning this is most important and critical part. Once the development plan has been implemented it must be closely monitored in order to detect any deviations that may occur from the projected path of development. Then we have to modify our planning in order to stay on target. So we have to be very careful about that in our planning process of Suvalatu Island development. For the implementation of planning of Suvalatu Island.  We have to coordinate among the private sector development and public sector development.  Control and regulations over the use of land. 14 . my consideration are as follows:  Action plan for quality tourism facility.  All legislation needs to be implement in time. 8) Monitoring and plan reformulation. Moreover.compromise with those issues which are creating damage to the environment and social life of Suvalatu Island. So in implementing stage we have to very careful for using our planning method.

2007] Tourist/Hotel Relationship: The relationship between tourist and hotel is superficial. Solution:  Tourism Council introduce Green Globe award for meeting the environmental standards. Examples:  Cox and Kings British Tour Operator.  Sometimes enforced to close of bad standard activities. Here is some appropriate methods of resolving the conflict of interests: The Tourism Industry: The target of sustainable development is to gain the satisfaction of guests and tour operators.  Green flag initiative. [Sources: Class note.  Some hotels in Hawaii installed flow regulators on showers to control water wastage. this is a responsible approach to marketing and operation. Sometimes locals may be debarred from natural facilities and local culture can be exploited. Date 27. Sustainability means cooperation between carriers and operators to ensure development brings long terms for the local peoples of Suvalatu Island. this is not a natural relationship.  AITO initiatives for sustainable development.11. In this case planning controls are essential to avoid the conflicts between public and private sector.TASK 03 Methods of resolving the conflict of interests: In Tourism development planning there are some conflicts raise between the public and private sector. So we have to take some initiatives to minimise the rising conflict between these two sectors to ensure the future well-being of a developing tourism destination. 15 . Relations are unequal due to differences in wealth and status. There will be some indicator to maintenance of quality tourism and monitor the ecology. The hotel representatives wants money from tourists that involves financial transactions from tourist to hotel owner. their customer buying “environmental journey holidays” and they bought one acre of rainforest in Belize to kept in natural state.

voluntary service overseas and tourism concern. Thailand. In the Caribbean shop attendants serve tourists first and local later on.2007] Implication of balancing supply and demand: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ We have to manage the over flow of visitor by imposing some tactics. [Sources: Class note.2007] Host community: We need a develop forms of tourism which will be sympathetic to the environment as well as it brings the economic benefits for the local community. Examples: In Tongo tourists from cruise ships produced crowded conditions. Like Tax impose.11. If possible dispersing the tourists to different areas. children beg from visitors. We have encourage the local peoples for more positive activities. Provide education to the tourist and host community. Examples: ♦ Partnership of ABTA. porters obliged to carry loads of up to 60 kg dressed in inadequate clothing. Kenya. input some law etc. Some area which is over using need to be fencing with a view to reduce the overuse. produced in flight video highlighting social and cultural concerns of Mass tourism in Gambia. Zoning tourism will be very suitable in some cases. Government can control the entry of tourists.Solution: Impose some law is the solution of this conflict. Date 27. Date 27.11. [Sources: Class note. Mt Kilimanjaro(Tanzania). ♦ Put some law. Solution: ♦ Community participation in planning is very essential to minimize the conflicts. Examples: 16 . In some cases provide alternative routes or facilities.

In a word it can be say that separates tourists from community residents.000 tourists per year allowed. Now 1. Now I am going to discuss some points on favour and disfavour of Enclave tourism. ♦ Some tourist who wants to mix up with the local peoples.In Butan. We have to design some new facilities that conserves energy. limited number of foreign visitors to 15. Ensure the multiple use of land.2007] For our future generation we have to adopt some new ideas especially for developing country for balancing supply and demand are as follows: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Emphasise the importance of natural environment. It will be long debate that it is a good idea or bad idea. in that case this is not a good idea. We have to use indigenous materials and labour. Enclave Tourism: Enclave tourism means an area of a country. ♦ Some tourist especially who wants some silence place in his holiday is very for them. Date 27. part of Nepal from 1951) was closed to tourists till 1992.000 per year. Mustang (on the border with china. Recycling practice increase. charges $ 200 per day (with reductions off-season) to reduce demand. region or city that is occupied by people ethnically or culturally distinct from their neighbours. Disfavour of Enclave Tourism: ♦ Local peoples are not treated equally. Development planning need to be compatible with surroundings. 17 .money goes back to its origin. charges are $ 700 for 10 day visit.11. ♦ Make economical leakage. [Sources: Class note. Favour of Enclave Tourism: ♦ It reduces the chances of environmental damage occur. ♦ No benefits for the local peoples because tourist are not buying anything from them. We have to use sustainable new/alternative technologies. ♦ In some cases this idea is very successful like Dubai.

⇒ Good Tourism policy for Suvalatu island will help to minimise the conflict between different stakeholders. so we have to keep them by making some natural resources protecting law.♦ ♦ ♦ Local peoples might not be happy on this kind of segregation. Here is some way to resolving the conflict of interests among the stakeholders of Suvalatu Island: ⇒ All community participation in planning process is the best way to resolving the conflicts. ⇒ Suvalatu Island has a vast natural resources. This is not a very good idea for overall. Flow of money in between social peoples reduces. presentation of their tradition and culture in front of tourists etc. ⇒ We have to make some law that will preserve the rights of local community. like. Methods of resolving a conflict of interests of Suvalatu Island (Current case study): For Suvalatu island. Private sectors wants money. but it is very much effective in some specific places who have at least a certain level of economic standard. ⇒ We want a such kind of development which will be sympathetic to the nature as well as bring the economical benefit for the local peoples. In my concern. 18 . we have to give more concentration on to minimise the growing conflicts between the private and public sector. Revenue earning reduces. ⇒ We have to make fence in some over uses area to keep those area which will be overuse in Suvalatu island. Controlling is the another important thing to minimise the conflict. when we are going to planning. on the other hands we have to keep more concentration on to keep rights of local peoples with a sustainable tourism development. To do this we have to make some law to preserve the all stakeholders right. ⇒ Community participation and economical flow in between the local community is very important to minimise the conflict. In our planning we have to avoid the conflict among the public and private sector.

Holloway et al.sustainableliving.nottingham. 1987. 2005. BTEC Higher National in Travel and Tourism. First edition.11. Prepared by Class teacher Lila Moshtael Others Professor Christine Ennew .uk/ttri/pdf/2003_5. Pearson Publishing Limited. Pearson Publishing Limited.pdf http://www.References Books Bruntland Report. Som Nath Chib Memorial Lecture. Cooper et al.ac.org http://www.oceansatlas.2007. World Commission on Environment and Development. 27. Feb 14th 2003 19 .com/servlet/CDSServlet Class Notes Class note. Third edition. 2005. Websites http://www. Tourism Principles and Practice.

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