You are on page 1of 5

3/8/2018

Key Terms
 Atomic Number
Mass Number
Semiconductors 

 Nucleon Number
 Isotopes
 Bohr Model
 Shells
 Energy Levels
 Subshells
1 4

Atomic Models

electronics defined…

2 5

atomic structure... energy band diagram...


Energy
(electron volt)
Conduction Band

 Electrons
 Protons
 Neutrons

Valence Band

3 6

1
3/8/2018

materials...

Conduction Band
insulators
conductors semiconductors...
semiconductors
(big band gap)

Valence Band

7 10

materials... semiconductors...

insulators
conductors (overlapping bands)
semiconductors

Conduction Band

Valence Band

8 11

materials... semiconductors...

insulators
 elemental
conductors  compound
semiconductors Conduction Band
 alloy
(small band gap)

Valence Band

9 12

2
3/8/2018

elemental semicon... crystals...

 silicon
 germanium

13 16

compound semicon... crystals...


(III-V Compounds)
 GaAs  ZnO
 AlP  ZnS
 GaN  ZnSe
 InP  CdS
 InAs  CdSe
 InSb  CdTe
 AlSb  HgS
(II-VI Compounds)
14 17

alloy semicon... crystals...

 AlXGa1-XAs
 GaAs1-XPX
 Hg1-XCdXTe
The X in the alloy
formulas is a fraction
lying between 0 and 1. Ex.
Al0.3Ga0.7As

15 18

3
3/8/2018

flow of charges... doping process...

p-type n-type

Diffusion Current
Drift Current
19 22

semicon... p - type...

Classification of Semiconductors:
 Intrinsic Semiconductors
 Extrinsic Semiconductors

20 23

extrinsic semicon... n - type...

Objectives:
 increase the number of holes
 increase the number of free
electrons
Process Involved:
 doping

21 24

4
3/8/2018

p - type & n - type... properties...


Si Electrical Properties:
 Relative Permittivity 11.7
 Intrinsic carrier concentration (rt)
1.45e10 carriers/cm3
 Permittivity 1.04e-10 F/m  Atomic density 4.995e22 atoms/cm3
 Index of refraction 3.42
 density of surface atoms
• (100) 6.78e14/cm2
 Band Gap 1.124 eV (1.170 at 0k) • (110) 9.59e14/cm2
 Temperature dependence of band • (111) 7.83e14/cm2
 Atoms per unit cell 8
gap -2.3e-4 eV/K
 crystal structure: diamond
 n mobility 1350 (cm/s)/(V/cm)  Intrinsic Resistivity 2.3e5 ohm-cm
 p mobility 480 (cm/s)/(V/cm)
p - type n - type
 Work function (intrinsic) 4.15 eV
25 28

Miller indices... properties...


 Crystallographic Notation Si Chemical Properties
 Atomic Weight 28.0855
(abc) crystal plane  Isotopes

{abc} equivalent planes • 28 (92.23%)


• 29 ( 4.67%)
[abc] crystal direction • 30 ( 3.10%)
<abc> equivalent directions  Atomic Number 14
 Atoms per unit cell 8
 crystal structure: diamond
 Lattice Constant 5.431 angstrom
 Bond Length 2.36 angstrom
26 29

Mass Action Law

n x p = ni2
 n – free electron concentration
 p – hole concentration
 ni – intrinsic carrier concentration
(1.45 x 1010 cm-3 at 300 K)

27