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PART 1

A. INTRODUCTION

This is a report to validate the 2-phase line sizing spreadsheet used on the MPNU Slot

Addition Project. It explains the steps, criteria and standards applied in sizing the 2-phase

line.

• The 2-phase fluid velocity should not exceed the erosional velocity

• The minimum velocity should not be less than 10 ft/s to minimize slugging of

separation equipment.

C. PROCESS DATA

Operating conditions of the 2-phase line will be derived from the Heat and Material Balance

prepared from HYSYS simulation. This will also be used for the purpose of validating the

calculation procedure described in this report.

1. Erosional velocity

The erosional velocity is determined using equation 2.14 (API RP 14E, Page 23)

C

Ve = ...............................D.1

ρm

C = Empirical constant

ρ m = Gas / liquid mixture density at flowing pressure and

temperature, Ib/ft3

2. Mean Density

The density of the gas / liquid mixture is calculated using equation 2.15 (API RP 14E

Page 23).

12409 S l P + 2.7 S g P

ρm = ..........................D.2

198.7 P + RTZ

P = Operating pressure, psia

Sl = Liquid specific gravity (water = 1; use average gravity for

Hydrocarbon-water mixtures) at standard conditions.

R = Gas / liquid ratio, ft3/bbl

T = Operating temperature, °R

S g = Gas specific gravity at standard conditions

Z = Gas compressibility factor, dimensionless

This is the area required to avoid fluid erosion. It is determined from equation 2.16 (API

RP 14E, Page 23.)

ZRT

9.35 +

A= 21.25 P ...........................................D.3

Ve

liquid per day.

4. Pressure Drop

Using equation 2.17 (API RP 14E, Page 24), the pressure drop is determined thus;

0.000336 fW 2

∆P = ............................................D.4

di ρm

5

d i = Pipe inside diameter, in

f = Moody friction factor, dimensionless

ρ m = Mean density, Ib/ft3

W = Total liquid plus vapor rate, Ibs/hr

NOTE: The use of this equation D.4 should be limited to 10% pressure drop due to

inaccuracies associated with changes in density.

Per API RP 14E, Page 47,

Ql S l 1 + QW S l 2

Slm = ........................................D.5

Ql + QW

Ql = Oil flow rate, bbl/day

S l1 = Specific gravity of oil

QW = Produced water flow rate, bbl / day

S l 2 = Specific gravity of water / oil mixture

6. GOR

The GOR is the ratio of gas flow rate to the oil flow rate (API RP 14E, Page 47)

Qg

GOR = .............................................D.6

Ql

Ql = Liquid flow rate, bbl/day

7. Fluid Velocity

Per API RP 14E, Page 48, fluid velocity is determined using the formula:

Vt

V= .............................................D.7

Π × (d i

4 12) 2

Vt = Total volume flow, ft3/sec.

di = Inside diameter, in.

8. ρV 2 Calculation

V is the fluid velocity,ft/s.

9. Minimum Required Line Size

4A

d= .....................................D.9

Π

PART 2

This manual calculation is performed to validate the 2-phase line sizing excel spreadsheet

shown in attachment 1. The calculation is based on the solved example in API RP 14E

(example A1), in which a gas condensate flow line was sized (see attachment 2). This

calculation is to validate the selection of a 3’’ line for the final flow conditions.

.

B. GENERAL DATA

Line pressure, P 1500 psig (1514.7 psia)

Temperature, T 120°F (580 R)

Gas flow rate, Qg 10mmscfd

Specific gravity 0.65

Dynamic viscosity 0.81

Oil flow rate, Ql 200 bbl/day

Specific gravity 0.80

Dynamic viscosity 1.28 cP

Water flow rate 1500 bbl/day

Water specific gravity 1.08

E. PIPE DATA

Nominal diameter 3 in

Piping class D

Size / Schedule 3-XXS

Roughness 0.0019

Empirical constant, C 100

Internal diameter 2.3 in

F. CALCULATION

From equation D.5,

S L ( mean ) = Q L S L1 + QW S L 2

Q L + QW

S L ( mean ) =

200 + 1500

160 + 1620

S L ( mean ) =

1700

1780

=

1700

S L (mean ) = 1.0471

2. GOR

From equation D.6,

GOR = 10mmscfd

200bbl / d + 1500bbl / d

3. Mean Density

From equation D.4,

12409 S l P + 2.7 S g P

ρm =

198.7 P + RTZ

(12409)(1.0407)(1514.7) + (2.7)(5882.3529)(0.65)(1514.7)

ρ m=

(198.7)(1514.7) + (5882.3529)(580)(0.81)

19679320.18 + 15637049.89

ρm =

300970.89 + 2763529.392

ρ m = 11.5243 Ib/ft3

W = 3180Q g S g + 14.6QL S L

W = (3180)(10)(0.65)+14.6(1500+200)(1.0471)

20670+25986.54

W = 46,659.022 Ib/hr

5. Pressure Drop

From equation D.4,

∆P = 0.000336 fW 2

di 5 ρ m

(2.3)5 × (11.5243)

∆P = 14628.31591

741.743

∆P = 19.7 psi/100ft

6. Erosional Velocity

From equation D.1,

C

Ve =

ρm

Ve = 100

11.5243

= 29.4573 ft/s

7. Fluid Velocity

From equation D.7,

V= Vt

Π / 4 × (d i / 12) 2

= 1.12

(3.142 / 4) × (2.3 / 12) 2

V = 38.813 ft/s

8. ρV 2

ρV 2 = 11.5243 × (38.813) 2

ρV 2 = 17,360.77 Ib/ft/s2

9. Minimum Pipe Cross-sectional Area

Ve

A = 9.35+ (0.81)(5882.3529)(580)/(21.25)(1514.7)

29.4573

= 5.494 in.

From equation D.9,

d= 4A / Π

d = 4 × 5.49 / 3.142

d = 2.64 in

Friction factor

The friction factor used for the purpose of this validation report was taken from API RP 14E

sample calculation.

There is no basis for establishing the friction factor used in the sample calculation since the

viscosity of the fluid is not stated in the example thus making it impossible to establish the

Reynolds number to be used on Moody friction factor graph.

For all other cases, the Moody friction factor shall be determined from the iterative solution

developed by Colebrook or Olga friction factor correlation which also gives the same answer

as Colebrook. (See GPSA-chapter 17 page 4.)

ε

= (− )2 log10 (

1 2.51

Colebrook: + )

fm 3 .7 D Re fm

20000ε 1000000 1 / 3

Olga: f = 0.0055[ 1 + (( )+ ) ]

d Re

CONCLUSION

The 2-phase line sizing excel spreadsheet and the manual calculation gave the same results as

shown in API RP 14E Appendix A sample calculation.

REFERENCES

• API Recommended practice 14E – Offshore Production Platform Piping

System

• GPSA Engineering Data Book.

ATTACHMENTS

Attachment 1: Excel spreadsheet for 2-phase line sizing

Attachment 2: API RP 14E, Appendix A.

Attachment 3: GPSA Section 17.

Revision: 0

CAKASA

Date: 18-Sep-08

Cakasa Nig. Company Ltd. Issued By: O.I

Client: Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited Checked By: O.O

Project: Ubit GA & GC Slot Addition Project Approved By: O.O

2-PHASE LINE SIZING - API 14E

Input

Description Unit

General Data

Line Number -

Hysys Stream Number - API 14E Initial API 14E Final API 14E Final

Line pressure psig 4500 1500 4500

o

Temp F 120 120 120

Gas Process Data

Specific Gravity - 0.65 0.65 0.65

Compressibility - 0.91 0.81 0.81

Liquid Process Data

Oil Flowrate bbl/day 750 200 200

Specific Gravity - 0.80 0.80 0.80

Water Flowrate bbl/day 0 1500 1500

Water Specific Gravity - 1 1.08 1.08

Pipe Data

Nominal Diameter inch 4 3 4

Piping class. - D D D

Size / Schedule - 4- XXS 3- XXS 4- XXS

Roughness inch 0.0019 0.0019 0.0019

Empirical Constant; C - 100 100 100

Intermediate

Absolute Pressure psia 4514.70 1514.70 1514.70

o

Absolute Temperature R 580 580 580

Total Stream Mass Flow Lb/hr 39,765 46,658.00 46,658.00

Total Stream Volume Flow ft3/s 0.62 1.125 1.127

Friction factor - 0.0196 0.02 0.0196

Internal Diameter (ID) inch 3.152 2.3 3.152

Results

Mean Liquid SG - 0.80 1.0471 1.0471

GOR ft3/bbl 20,000 5,882.35 5,882.35

Mean density lb/ft3 17.75 11.5 11.5

Pressure drop psi/100ft 1.9 19.7 4.0

Erosional Velocity ft/s 23.7 29.5 29.5

Fluid Velocity ft/s 11.48 38.97 20.796

ρv2 Lb/ft/s² 2,340.47 17,504 4,973.2

Minimum Pipe Cross Sectional Area in2 3.77 5.49 5.49

Minimum Required Line Size in 2.19 2.64 2.64

Selected Line Size in 4.00 3.00 4.00

Comments :

Pressure Loss Due to Friction is the sum of the ∆ Pf values calculated for the individual seg-

ments. For gas applications the segmental length may be rela-

Flow is always accompanied by friction. This friction results tively short, as compared to liquid applications, since many gas

in a loss of energy available for work. A general equation for applications involve compressible gases where gas densities vary

pressure drop due to friction is the Darcy-Weisbach2 (often re- with pressure.

ferred to as simply the Darcy) equation. This equation can be

rationally derived by dimensional analysis, with the excep- Friction Factor and Effect of Pipe Roughness

tion of the friction factor, f m, which must be determined ex-

perimentally. Expressed in feet of fluid this equation is: When the fluid flow is laminar (Re<2000), the friction factor

has a direct relationship to the Reynolds number, such that:

2

fm L V

hL = Eq 17-6 fm = 64 /Re or ff = 16 /Re Eq 17-8

2gD

Pipe roughness has no effect on the friction factor in laminar

Converting to pounds per square inch, the equation be- flow.

comes:

Substitution of the formula for Reynolds number, Eq 17-4,

ρ fm L V2

∆Pf = Eq 17-7 into Eq 17-8, yields the following:

(144 ) D (2gc)

64 µe ⎛ 64 ⎞ ⎛ µ ⎞ ⎛ 12 ⎞

It should be noted that the Moody friction factor3, fm, is used in fm = = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ Eq 17-9

the equations above. Some equations are shown in terms of the

DVρ ⎝ Vρ ⎠ ⎝ 1488 ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠

Fanning friction factor, ff, which is one fourth of fm (fm = 4.0 ff). A This expression can then be substituted for the friction fac-

graph of both Fanning and Moody friction factors as a function tor in Eq 17-7, resulting in the following formula for pressure

of Reynolds number appears in Fig. 17-2. loss in pounds per square inch:

The Darcy-Weisbach equation is valid for both laminar and µLV

∆Pf = 0.000668 Eq 17-10

turbulent flow of any liquid, and may also be used for gases with d2

certain restrictions. When using this equation, changes in eleva- Eq 17-10 is commonly known as Poiseuille’s law for laminar

tion, velocity, or density must be accounted for by applying Ber- flow.

noulli’s theorem. The Darcy-Weisbach equation must be applied

to line segments sufficiently short such that fluid density is es- When the flow is turbulent, the friction factor depends on

sentially constant over that segment. The overall pressure drop the Reynolds number and the relative roughness of the pipe,

FIG. 17-2

Friction Factors5

17-3

ε/D, which is the roughness of the pipe, ε, over the pipe diame- Examination of the relationships presented by various

ter, D. Fig. 17-2 incorporates the relative roughness of the pipe authors shows that their forms differ primarily in the inherent

into the determination of the friction factor. Fig. 17-3 indicates or specified representation of the transmission factor which

relative roughness and friction factors for various piping ma- defines the energy lost in resistance to flow for various pipe

terials. These figures are based on the iterative solution of the sizes, roughnesses, flow conditions, and gases.

following equation developed by Colebrook.4

To obtain Eq 17-15, which is convenient for general calcula-

1 ⎛ ε 2.51 ⎞ tions, a number of simplifying assumptions have been made.

= −2 log10 ⎜ + ⎟ Eq 17-11

⎯⎯fm

√ ⎝ 3.7 D Re √

⎯⎯fm ⎠ For other than pipeline sections with a very high pressure

gradient, the change in the kinetic energy of the gas is not

Equivalent Length of Valves and Fittings significant, and is assumed equal to zero. It is also assumed

that the gas temperature is constant at an average value for

The pressure drop effects of valves and fittings can be ac-

the section considered; the compressibility factor is constant

counted for by addition of the "equivalent lengths" of the fit-

at the value characterized by the average gas temperature and

tings to the actual piping lengths. This augmented pipe length

pressure; and in the term giving the effect of elevation change,

is then used in any of the following pressure drop calculation

the pressure is constant at the average value. In the range of

techniques. A table of equivalent lengths for a number of rep-

conditions to which pipeline flow equations are ordinarily ap-

resentative valves and fittings appears in Fig. 17-4.

plied, averages are usually sufficiently accurate. Average tem-

Compressibility of Gases peratures are calculated as indicated in Fig. 17-1.

For more accurate values of Z, refer to Section 23. For more The average pressure in the line can be computed by:

approximate calculations, the value of the average compressi- 2⎛ P1 P2 ⎞

Pavg = P + P2 −

3 ⎜⎝ 1 P1 + P2 ⎟⎠

bility factor, Zavg, may be calculated from the following equa- Eq 17-16

tions:

In the absence of field data indicating otherwise, an effi-

1

Zavg = Eq 17-12 ciency factor, E, of 1.0 is usually assumed.

(Fpv)2

The AGA Equations — The AGA Equations were devel-

and oped to approximate partially and fully turbulent flow using

⎡ (Pavg ) (3.444 ) (105) (10(1.785) (S)) ⎤ two different transmission factors. The fully turbulent flow

Fpv = 1 + ⎢ ⎥ Eq 17-13 equation accounts for the relative pipe roughness, ε/D, based

⎣ T3.825

avg ⎦ on the rough-pipe law.4 This equation uses the following trans-

Fig. 17-5 contains a plot of the deviation factor, Fpv, virtually mission factor:

identical to those calculated by this equation. ⎛ 3.7 D ⎞

√1/ff = 4 log10 ⎜

⎯⎯⎯ ⎟ Eq 17-17

An estimate for Zavg at pressures below 100 psi is: ⎝ ε ⎠

1 When the transmission factor for fully turbulent flow is sub-

Zavg = Eq 17-14

1 + 0.0002 Pavg stituted in the general energy equation (Eq 17-15), the AGA

Equation for fully turbulent flow becomes:

0.5

Q = 38.77 ⎜ ⎟ E ⎢ 4 log10 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ d

⎝ Pb ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ε ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ S Lm Tavg Zavg⎦

Transmission Line Gas Flow Eq 17-18

Isothermal Flow — The steady-state, isothermal flow be- The partially turbulent flow equation is based on the

havior of gas in pipelines is defined by a general energy equa- smooth-pipe law4 and is modified to account for drag-inducing

tion of the form: elements. The transmission factor for this equation is:

0.5

⎛ Tb ⎞ 1 ⎡ P21 − P22 ⎤ 2.5 Re

Q = 38.77 ⎜ ⎟ E √⎯ ⎢ ⎥ d Eq 17-15 ⎯⎯⎯

√1/ff = 4 log10

1/ff

⎯⎯⎯

√

− 0.6 Eq 17-19

P

⎝ ⎠b f f ⎣ S Lm T avg Z avg ⎦

This equation is completely general for steady-state flow, Substituting √

⎯⎯⎯

1/ff from Eq 17-19 into Eq 17-15 does not pro-

and adequately accounts for variations in compressibility fac- vide an equation which can be solved directly. For partially

tor, kinetic energy, pressure, and temperature for any typical turbulent flow a frictional drag factor must also be applied to

line section. However, the equation as derived involves an un- account for the effects of pipe bends and irregularities. These

specified value of the transmission factor, √ ⎯⎯⎯

1/ff . The correct calculations are beyond the scope of this book and the AGA

representation of this friction factor is necessary to the valid- "Steady Flow in Gas Pipelines"6 should be consulted for a de-

ity of the equation. tailed treatment of partially turbulent flow.

The friction factor is fundamentally related to the energy The Weymouth Equation — The Weymouth Equation,

lost due to friction. In the derivation of the general energy published in 19127, evaluated the coefficient of friction as a

equation, all irreversibilities and non-idealities, except for function of the diameter.

those covered by the real gas law, have been collected into the 0.008

ff = Eq 17-20

friction loss term. d1/3

Empirical methods historically and currently used to calcu-

late or predict the flow of gas in a pipeline are the result of √1/ff = 11.18 d1/6

⎯⎯⎯ Eq 17-21

various correlations of the transmission factor substituted When the friction factor, ff, is substituted in the general en-

into the general energy equation. ergy equation, Weymouth’s Equation becomes:

17-4

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