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Online available since 2010/Dec/06 at www.scientific.net

© (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.174.36

a

wan@whu.edu.cn, bhxinguo919@126.com, cliuzhen0910@163.com

Abstract. Uncertainty evaluation of spectral color measurement is the best method of evaluation of

color measurement result’s quality. Firstly type A and type B uncertainty of spectral reflectance are

analyzed based on different uncertainty's sources, secondly uncertainty of chromaticity parameters

are calculated based on spectral reflectance’s uncertainty. Lastly practicability of uncertainty

evaluation of spectral color measurement is proved by experiments.

Introduction

Spectral color measurement is measuring spectral reflectance by spectrophotometer and then

calculating chromatic value, such as tristimulus values. Spectral color measurement is the most

accurate color measurement method, which is widely used in the industry with high color quality

requirements, such as printing, dyeing. Measurement accuracy is the basis of spectral color

measurement applications. Measurement error evaluation has been replaced by uncertainty

evaluation in measurement accuracy assessent[1]. However spectral color measurement uncertainty

evaluation is more difficult than other measurements, because of the subjectivity of measurement

uncertainty evaluation and the calculation complexity of chromatic values.

According to the calculation formula of tristimulus values, if the spectral reflectance is measured, the

tristimulus values can be calculated. So uncertainty of tristimulus values and chromaticity parameters are

derived from changes of parameters in the spectral reflectance measurement .The spectral reflectance is

measured by comparing the reflected light energy of specimen and the standard white board under the same

conditions [2].Similar to the standard white board. Because the reflectance of standard is known, the reflectance

of specimen is given by the following:

S (λ )

R (λ ) = i Rsd (λ ) . (1)

S sd (λ )

where S (λ ) is the photoelectric signal of specimen, S sd (λ ) is the photoelectric signal of

standard, Rsd (λ ) is the reflectance of standard, R(λ ) is the reflectance of specimen.

According to ISO A type evaluation method of uncertainty, when the number of specimen color

measurement not less than 10, standard deviation of mean is expressed as uncertainty, so the uncertainty of

spectral reflectance of specimen is given by the following:

n

∑ ( R (λ ) − R(λ ))

k

2

u ( R (λ )) = k =1 . (2)

n(n − 1)

where Rk (λ ) is the kth measurement, R (λ ) is the arithmetic mean of n measurement of R (λ ) .

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP,

www.ttp.net. (ID: 158.42.28.33, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain-25/03/15,13:40:47)

Advanced Materials Research Vol. 174 37

According to ISO B type evaluation method of uncertainty and Eq 1, the input quantities of R (λ ) are

S (λ ) , S sd (λ ) , Rsd (λ ) and λ ，so R(λ ) = f ( S (λ ), Ssd (λ ), Rsd (λ ), λ ) [2,3,4].The sensitivity coefficients of

R(λ ) with respect to S (λ ) is as follows:

∂R(λ ) Rsd (λ ) R(λ )

= = . (3)

∂S (λ ) Ssd (λ ) S (λ )

Set S (λ ) and S sd (λ ) as input quantities，applying the law of propagation of uncertainty to Eq

∂S sd ( λ ) are substituted into Eq 1,so the uncertainty due to S (λ ) and S sd ( λ ) is given by

∂R ( λ ) ∂R ( λ )

1, ∂S ( λ ) and

the following:

u 2 ( S (λ )) u 2 ( S (λ )) u ( S (λ ))u ( S sd (λ ))r ( S (λ ), S sd (λ )) .

u ( R (λ )) = R (λ ) + sd

−2 (4)

( S (λ ) ) 2

( S sd (λ ) )

2

S (λ ) S sd (λ )

Set Rsd (λ ) as input quantity，applying the law of propagation of uncertainty to Eq 1, ∂R ( λ )

∂Rsd ( λ )

is substituted into Eq 1,so the uncertainty due to Rsd (λ ) is given by the following:

R (λ )

u ( R (λ )) = u ( Rsd (λ )) . (5)

Rsd (λ )

Set λ as input quantity，applying the law of propagation of uncertainty to Eq 1 , ∂R ( λ ) ∂λ is

substituted into Eq 1 ,so the uncertainty due to λ is given by the following:

∂ ( S (λ ) S sd (λ ))

u ( R (λ )) = Rsd (λ ) u (λ ) . (6)

∂λ

Set R(λ ) as input quantity, apply the law of propagation of uncertainty to the calculation

formula of tristimulus values ,The uncertainty of X, Y, Z is given by the following:

∂V ∂V

2

∂V 2 m −1 m

u (V ) = ∑

2

u ( R ( λ )) + 2 ∑ ∑ r ( R (λi ), R (λ j ))u ( R (λi ))u ( R (λ j )) . (7)

λ ∂R (λ ) i =1 j = i +1 ∂R (λi ) ∂R (λ j )

where V represents tristimulus values X, Y and Z. R(λi ) and R (λ j ) is the spectral reflectance factors at

different wavelengths λi and λ j .the sensitivity coefficients ∂V ∂R ( λ ) are equal to color stimulus function. The

correlation coefficients r ( R (λi ), R (λ j )) depends on the sources of uncertainty of spectral reflectance.

Set R (λ ) as input quantity, apply the law of propagation of uncertainty to calculation formula

of chromaticity parameters, the uncertainty of chromaticity parameters is given by the following:

∂Γ ∂Γ

2

∂Γ 2 m −1 m

u 2 (Γ ) = ∑ u ( R(λ )) + 2∑ ∑ r ( R(λi ), R(λ j ))u ( R(λi ))u ( R(λ j )) . (8)

λ ∂R (λ )

i =1 j =i +1 ∂R (λi ) ∂R (λ j )

Chromaticity parameters are generally calculated on tristimulus values, that is as

Γ = f ( X , Y , Z ) .So the sensitivity coefficients in Eq 8 is given by the following:

∂Γ ∂Γ ∂X ∂Γ ∂Y ∂Γ ∂Z

= + + . (9)

∂R (λ ) ∂X ∂R (λ ) ∂Y ∂R (λ ) ∂Z ∂R (λ )

where ∂Γ ∂X , ∂Γ ∂Y and ∂Γ ∂Z are derived from partial derivative of calculation formula of

chromaticity parameters, ∂X ∂R ( λ ) , ∂Y ∂R ( λ ) and ∂X ∂R ( λ ) are equal to color stimulus function.

38 Printing and Packaging Study

Set tristimulus values as input quantity, apply the law of propagation of uncertainty to calculation

formula of chromaticity parameters, the uncertainty of chromaticity parameters is given by the

following:

2 2 2

∂Γ 2 ∂Γ 2 ∂Γ 2 ∂Γ ∂Γ

u 2 (Γ ) = u (X ) + u (Y ) + u (Z ) + 2 r ( X , Y )u ( X )u (Y ) .

∂X ∂Y ∂Z ∂X ∂Y (10)

∂Γ ∂Γ ∂Γ ∂Γ

+2 r ( X , Z )u ( X )u ( Z ) + 2 r (Y , Z )u (Y )u ( Z )

∂X ∂Z ∂Y ∂Z

chromaticity parameters, u ( X ) , u (Y ) and u ( Z ) is given by Eq 7.

Color-Eye 7000A spectrophotometer was used for the spectral color measurement, set

measurement parameters as SAV and SCI, calibrate spectrophotometer, and then measure

specimens 10 times. Type A evaluation of uncertainty of spectral reflectance of specimens are given

by Eq 2. Because type B evaluation of uncertainty call for insight based on experience and general

knowledge, type B evaluation of uncertainty of spectral reflectance of specimens due to signal noise,

signal offset, the change of standard and wavelength shift are derived from Color-Eye 7000A

specifications documentation and research report about standard white board from NIST[5,6], and

calculated based on Eq 4, Eq 5, Eq 6.

The uncertainties of tristimulus values are calculated using Eq 7 based on uncertainties of

spectral reflectance of different factors.The uncertainties of tristimulus values duo to specimen,

signal noise, systematic effects of standard and random effects of standard are obtained, and the

result are shown in Fig.1 (a), (b) and (c). The uncertainties of chromaticity parameters are calculated

using Eq.9 based on uncertainties of tristimulus values. This shows CIE L* as an example of evaluation of

*

uncertainty of chromaticity parameters. firstly, ∂L* , ∂L ∂Y and ∂L* is calculated, secondly, u ( L* ) is calculated

∂X ∂Z

*

by substituting ∂L*

∂X , ∂L ∂Y , ∂L ∂Z ,Y and

*

u (Y ) into Eq.10, The uncertainties of chromaticity parameters duo to

specimen, signal noise, systematic effects of standard and random effects of standard are obtained, and the

result are shown in Fig.1 (d).

As shown in Fig .1 (a)，(b) and (c), the uncertainties of specimen 1 and 3 are greater than

specimen 2 and 4,because the spectral reflectance of specimen 1 and 3 are greater than specimen 2

and 4, measurement signal strength of specimen 1 and 3 is more stronger, and more affected by

various factors; the uncertainty duo to systematic effects of standard the largest, followed by signal

noise, random effects of standard minimum, that is say the main reason affecting the measurement

results is material stability and surface cleanliness of standard, in addition, the stability of the

measurement process is also an important factor affecting the measurement results.

Advanced Materials Research Vol. 174 39

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig.1 Uncertainty component’s comparison of X, Y, Z and L*.The sources of uncertainty are signal

noise(SN) ,systematic effects of standard(SS),random effects of standard(SR), type A evaluation of

uncertainty(AU) .

Conclusions

This article analyzed the sources of the uncertainty of spectral reflectance and the evaluation

method of the uncertainty of spectral reflectance based on mathematical model of spectral color

measurement, and defined a clear mathematical relationship between the uncertainty of spectral

reflectance, tristimulus values and chromaticity parameters ,finally derived the evaluation method

of the uncertainty of tristimulus values and chromaticity parameters.

References

[1] ISO/IEC Guide 98:1995:Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement．

[2] Dai Caihong，Yu Jialin，Yu Jing，Yin Chunyong: ACTA OP TICA SINICA, Vol.25 (2005),

p.547-552.

[3] E A Early. M E Nadal: Color Research and Application Vol.29(2004), p.205-216．

[4] J L Gardner: Color Research and Application Vol.25(2000), p.349-355．

[5] GretagMacbeth Color-Eye 7000A Spectrophotometer Operation Manual.

[6] Barnes P Y, Early E A. Spectral Reflectance, NIST Special Publication (1998), p.250-48．

Printing and Packaging Study

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.174

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.174.36

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