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Microwave cladding: A new approach in surface engineering

Article in Journal of Manufacturing Processes 16(2) · April 2014 with 340 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmapro.2014.01.001
Cite this publication

Dheeraj Gupta A. K. Sharma

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee


Abstract
Cladding is generally characterized by partial dilution of the substrate and hence formation of metallurgical
bonding between the substrate and the deposits. Laser cladding is one of the most widely practiced surface
engineering techniques. The present work mainly focuses on a novel development in surface engineering
techniques in the form of microwave cladding. Clads of tungsten carbide (WC) based WC10Co2Ni powder on
austenitic stainless steel were produced using microwave hybrid heating. Microwave clads were developed by
exposing the preplaced, preheated powder for a duration of 120 s to microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz
frequency and 900 W power in a home microwave system. Characterization of the clads was carried out in the
form of microstructural and elemental composition studies. Investigations show crack-free interface revealing
good metallurgical bond associated with partial dilution of the stainless steel substrate and full melting of WC
particles. Typical X-ray diffraction results confirm presence of metallic carbides in the clad which is primarily
responsible for significantly higher microhardness of the clad. Process mechanism has been discussed.
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Research and development status of laser cladding on magnesium


alloys: A review

Article (PDF Available) in Optics and Lasers in Engineering 93:195-210 · June 2017 with 376 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.optlaseng.2017.02.007
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Jianli Liu , Huijun Yu , Chuanzhong Chen ,Jingjie Dai

Qingdao Binhai University


Abstract
Magnesium alloys are one of the most promising lightweight structural materials. However, the poor corrosion
and wear resistance restrain their further application. As a kind of surface modification technique, laser
cladding treatment is superior to others owing to its unique characteristics such as high efficiency and the
metallurgical bonding between the coatings and substrates. In this paper, the laser cladding process and the
effects of processing parameters, including laser power, scanning velocity, beam focal position, feeding ways of
the material etc., are discussed in detail. The material systems preplaced on magnesium alloys are summarized.
Except for the traditional metallic materials, novel ternary alloys, amorphous alloys and high entropy alloys
(HEAs) are widely used and apparent advantages are exhibited. In terms of the problems existing in the laser
cladding process of magnesium alloys, some potential solutions and the development tendency are reviewed.
Ad
Abrasive and erosive wear behaviour of nanometric WC-12Co
microwave clads
Article in Wear 346-347:29-45 · January 2016 with 477 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2015.11.003

Sunny Zafar .A. K. Sharma

Indian Institute of Technology Mandi and Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee


Abstract
The present work examines the abrasive and the erosive wear performance of WC-12Co microwave clads.
Cladding of micrometric and nanometric WC-12Co powders was carried out on austenitic stainless steel
substrate using microwave hybrid heating technique. The micrometric clads exhibited the presence of skeleton
structured carbides uniformly distributed in the metallic matrix. On the other hand, presence of clusters of
nanocarbides was observed in the nanometric WC-12Co clads. The average microhardness of the nanometric
(1564±53 HV) was approximately 1.37 times higher than the micrometric clad (1138±90 HV). A dry sand
rubber wheel apparatus using silica sand as the abradant was used to evaluate the three body abrasive wear
performance of the clads at various loads (30, 60 and 90 N). The erosive wear performance of the clads was
evaluated at various impact angles (30°, 60° and 90°) using solid particle erosion using alumina as the erodent.
Lower binder mean free path, higher microhardness and enhanced carbide volume fraction lead to the higher
abrasive and erosive wear resistance of the nanometric WC-12 Co clads.

 ... The erodant particles may slide or experience a combined sliding-rotating motion[19]. On the other hand,
in erosive wear, the progressive loss of material occurs by the impact of hard particles that are moving in a
gas or a liquid stream[13,19]. The wear mechanisms of abrasive and erosive wear are discussed in the
following. ...

Structure-property correlations in nanostructured WC-12Co


microwave clad
February 2016 · Applied Surface Science · Impact Factor: 2.71
Nanostructured materials are known for enhanced properties as compared to their conventional counterparts. In
the present work, microwave cladding technique was explored for depositing nanostructured WC-12Co clads
on stainless steel substrates. Phase analysis of the WC-12Co microwave clads revealed the presence of
Co6W6C, Co7W6, Co3W9C4, W2C and WC phases. The microstructure of the WC-12Co.
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Dry sliding wear performance of nanostructured WC-12Co deposited


through microwave cladding
November 2015 · Tribology International · Impact Factor: 1.94
In the present work, two WC-12Co powders with particle size in the micrometric and nanometric range were
used to develop clads on austenitic stainless steel using microwave hybrid heating technique. The
microstructure of the micrometric clads exhibited skeleton structured carbides distributed in the metallic matrix,
while uniformly distributed clusters of nanocarbides were observed in the... [Show full abstract]
Prediction of Tribological Behaviour of WC-12Co Nanostructured
Microwave Clad through ANN
February 2016 · Tribology Online
In the present work an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the wear rate and
coefficient of friction of WC-12Co nanocomposite microwave clads. Various combinations of the transfer
function and number of neurons in the hidden layer was used to optimise the neural network. The influence of
nature of reinforcement, normal load and sliding distance on the wear rate of...
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Investigations on flexural performance and residual stresses in


nanometric WC-12Co microwave clads
April 2016 · Surface and Coatings Technology · Impact Factor: 2.00
The flexural strength and residual stresses significantly influence the mechanical, structural and tribological
performance of the coatings/claddings on metallic substrates. In this study, micrometric and nanometric WC-
12Co clad were developed on stainless steel substrates using microwave hybrid heating technique. The flexural
strength of the WC-12Co clads was evaluated using a three-point

Microstructural Studies of Cobalt Based Microwave Clad Developed


on Martensitic Stainless Steel (AISI-420)

Ajit M. HebbaleEmail author


M. S. Srinath
Technical Paper
First Online: 04 October 2017

Abstract

AISI-420 stainless steel is widely used to manufacture hydraulic and gas turbine components. The present work
is concerned with microstructural studies of cobalt based clad developed through microwave energy in a
microwave applicator. A domestic microwave oven was successfully used to develop clads at 2.45 GHz
frequency. The developed clads were evaluated using optical metallography, scanning electron microscope,
energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the microstructure, phases and
elemental composition of developed surface. The microstructure study reveals that the developed clad shows
good metallurgical bond between substrate without any interfacial cracks. XRD study confirms the presence of
various complex metal carbides and intermetallics like Cr7C3, Cr3C2, M23C6, Cr2Ni3 which are formed during
microwave heating. The average microhardness of the developed clad surface is 807 ± 96 HV, which is 132%
higher than that of unclad surface (348 ± 7 HV).

Keywords; Microwave AISI-420 Cobalt Scanning electron microscope (SEM) Energy dispersive X-ray
spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray diffraction
Abrasive and erosive wear behaviour of nanometric WC–12Co
microwave clads
Authors: Sunny Zafar, Apurbba Kumar Sharma ; Publication date : 2016/1/15 ; Journal : Wear
Volume : 346 Pages : 29-45 Publisher :Elsevier

Abstract: The present work examines the abrasive and the erosive wear performance of WC–
12Co microwave clads. Cladding of micrometric and nanometric WC–12Co powders was
carried out on austenitic stainless steel substrate using microwave hybrid heating technique.
The micrometric clads exhibited the presence of skeleton structured carbides uniformly
distributed in the metallic matrix. On the other hand, presence of clusters of nanocarbides
was observed in the nanometric WC–12Co clads. The average microhardness of the
nanometric (1564±53 HV) was approximately 1.37 times higher than the micrometric clad
(1138±90 HV). A dry sand rubber wheel apparatus using silica sand as the abradant was
used to evaluate the three body abrasive wear performance of the clads at various loads
(30, 60 and 90 N). The erosive wear performance of the clads was evaluated at various …
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Processing and characterization of composite cladding through


microwave heating on martensitic steel
Sarbjeet Kaushal, Vinay Sirohi, Dheeraj Gupta, ...
First Published November 8, 2015 Research Article

Abstract

The composite wear resistant cladding of nickel-based powder matrix and 10% SiC powder as reinforced
was developed through microwave hybrid heating on martenisitic stainless steel (SS-420) substrate. The
development of the clad has been carried out by using a domestic microwave applicator of frequency 2.45
GHz and 900 W power level. The microstructural and mechanical characterizations of the developed clad
were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction,
and Vicker’s microhardness analysis. Results revealed that clads of approximately 1.25 mm thickness were
developed with significantly low porosity (∼1.10%). The scanning electron microscopic results show that
the microstructure of clad exhibits typical cellular-like structure. The metallurgical bonding between clad
and substrate surface was obtained with partial dilution. The complex carbides of chromium and silicides of
chromium, iron, and nickel phases were identified in the clad region by XRD study, which may enhance the
Vicker’s microhardness of the clads significantly. The average Vicker’s microhardness of the developed
clad was in the range of 652 ± 90 HV.

Keywords; Microwave cladding, Ni-based + SiC composite, martensitic stainless steel


(SS420), microstructure
Investigation of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Ni–SiC Microwave
Cladding
Sarbjeet Kaushal, Dheeraj Gupta and Hiralal Bhowmick
J. Tribol 139(4), 041603 (Apr 04, 2017) (9 pages)Paper No: TRIB-16-1192; doi: 10.1115/1.4035147History:
Received June 14, 2016; Revised September 29, 2016
Abstract
In the present work, a wear-resistant composite cladding of Ni-based+10% SiC was developed on martensitic
stainless steel (SS-420) through a recently developed process microwave hybrid heating (MHH) technique. In
the current investigation, domestic microwave oven of frequency 2.45 GHz and 900 W power was used for the
development of clads. The metallurgical and mechanical characterizations of developed clads were carried
through scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Vicker's micro hardness. The
developed clad is uniformly developed and it is metallurgically bonded with the substrate. The average Vicker's
micro hardness of the clad was 652 ± 90 HV. The tribological behavior of cladding has been investigated
through pin-on-disk sliding method against an EN-31 (HRC-62). The clad surface showed good resistance to
the sliding wear. It is observed that in case of the clad samples, wear occurs due to dislocation of particles,
smearing off of tribofilm, and craters due to pull out of carbides from the matrix.
FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE








Introduction
Martensitic stainless steels are extensively used in hydropower and gas power plant due to their excellent
corrosion resistance [1–3]. However, their applications under severe wear conditions have been restricted by
their low wear resistance. Wear resistance is primarily a surface-related property. Consequently, surface
modification must be considered as a potential solution for the mentioned problem. Surface modification of
stainless steel material is done through various methods like chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor
deposition, plasma spraying, and thermal spraying [4–6]. But in terms of academic and industrial researches,
these techniques have been matured enough. Laser surface technology due to its versatility, as well as high
heating and cooling rates, allows precise modification in surface properties to service requirements without
altering the material's bulk mechanical properties [7,8]. However, laser cladding does involve some limitations
like differential heating, development of porosity along with higher installation, and running costs [9–11]. One
of the recently developed method of cladding known as microwave cladding is a noble method to overcome the
problem associated with laser cladding. Due to volumetric heating associated with microwave cladding process,
the developed clad exhibits significant low thermal distortions. Due to its unique characteristics like lower
processing time, lower energy consumption and mitigation of various effects rises during processing; it is
attracting many researchers in the field of microwave cladding of bulk materials [12–16].
Kaushal et al. [17] successfully developed the composite cladding of Ni + 10% SiC powders on martensitic
stainless steel (SS-420) substrate using microwave energy. In the present work, the tribological behavior of the
Ni + 10% SiC clad developed through microwave energy has been carried out using pin-on-disk type tribometer
under different set of parameters. At last, conclusions have been drawn from the different experiments
performed.

Experimentation
Materials
Substrate Material.
Martensitic stainless steel is widely used in engineering industries for making various components of high
hardness and good wear and corrosion resistance as compared to other grades of stainless steel. In the present
work, SS-420 steel has been selected as a substrate material for tailoring their properties. The chemical
composition of substrate SS-420 steel is given in Table 1. The specimen of size 30 × 10 × 4 mm3was machined
for developing the clads.
Hardfacing Powder.
In the present work, Ni-based + 10% SiC powder has been selected as clad material. The average particle size
of the selected powder is 40 μm as shown in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b) for Ni-based and SiC powder, respectively. The
circular morphology of the Ni-based particle and irregular approximately triangular morphology of the silicon
carbide particles have been confirmed by Figs. 1(a) and 1(b), respectively. The presence of silicon carbide and
predominant nickel phase has been confirmed in typical XRD spectrum of the selected powder as shown in
Figs. 2(a) and 2(b).
Experimental Setup.
In the current study, Ni-based + 10% SiC wear-resistant composite clads were developed on SS-420 substrate
by using multimode domestic microwave applicator. The domestic microwave oven has been operated at fixed
source frequency of 2.45 GHz and variable maximum power of 900 W. The absorption of microwaves and their
conversion into heat depends upon the skin depth of the raw powder. The microwave heating of low skin depth
materials, for example, metals, is very difficult at room temperature [18]. The detailed procedure for the
development of cladding of such materials has been discussed elsewhere [19]. The schematic principle of
microwave hybrid heating illustrated in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) shows the actual process of clad formation inside the
microwave applicator.
Development of Cladding.
Prior to deposition process, the SS-420 specimen was thoroughly cleaned with acetone in an ultrasonic bath and
dried using hot air. The preheating of the clad powder was done at 100 °C in the conventional muffle furnace
for moisture removal. The clad powder was mechanically mixed at required proportions (Ni-based + 10% SiC
by weight). The mixed clad powder was placed manually on the substrate and uniformly spread over the entire
required area. The thin separator sheet (graphite) was placed on the top powder layer, which was further
covered with charcoal powder which acts as a susceptor. The process parameters used for development of
microwave composite cladding are summarized in Table 2.
Characterization of Clads.
The characterization of Ni-based + 10% SiC clad was done through various techniques to evaluate the
microstructural characteristics, microhardness distribution, and dry sliding wear behavior. Composite clad was
cleaned with acetone in an ultrasonic bath and dried using hot air. After this, composite clad was sectioned
across the thickness using low speed diamond cutter (Maker: Chennai Metco, Chennai, India, Model:
BAINCUT LSS). The sectioned samples were polished using emery papers of different grit sizes 800×, 1000×,
1200×, 1500×, 2000×, 3000× and followed by 5 μm diamond paste to achieve the mirror polishing. Prior to
characterization, etching of the developed clad was done using etchant solution. Bruker AXS diffractometer
with Cu Kα X-ray was used to obtain XRD patterns at room temperature. The scan range was from 20° to 100°
and scan rate was 1° min−1. Analysis of microstructures was carried out with the help of SEM at an acceleration
voltage of 20 kV equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray detector while chemical composition was analyzed
using elemental distribution analysis (EDS). The microhardness of the composite clad was evaluated using
Vicker's microhardness tester at a load of 300 g applied for duration of 20 s. The indentations were taken at an
interval of 125 μm starting from top of the clad toward the substrate. Three indentations were taken laterally at
each cladding level and average was considered. The tribological performance of the developed clad was
evaluated using dry sliding wear test, details of which are provided in the section of “Dry sliding wear testing.”
Dry Sliding Wear Testing.
Wear resistance of the developed cladding was evaluated using a pin-on-disk type tribometer (Maker: Ducom
India, Bengaluru, India; Model: TR20LE). Clad face was used as the wear pin having dimensions (8
mm × 8 mm × 6 mm), held against rotating counter disk made of EN31 steel. The pins were held inside the pin
holder of V groove, with zero relative velocity between them. EN31 steel hardness was maintained about 62
HRC. To maintain the initial surface roughness of Ra = 0.2 μm, the surface of the counter disk was made to
polish under silicon carbide (SiC) abrasive papers of 1000 grits. Before subjecting to the test conditions, pins
and disk were cleaned properly to remove the burrs. Table 3 represents the sets of trials which were carried out
at three different velocities and sliding distances under dry sliding conditions.
Before measuring the weight loss, the worn samples were cleaned by acetone and dry air. An electronic
weighing balance with 0.01 mg resolution was used to measure the weight loss after every 400 m of sliding
distance. Worn samples were analyzed fractographically using SEM.

Results and Discussion


Composite cladding of Ni-based + 10% SiC was successfully developed on martensitic stainless steel by using
microwave hybrid heating. Visual inspection revealed crack and porosity free clad of thickness ∼1.25 mm.
Thickness of developed clad was uniform throughout the surface of the substrate. The uniform thickness of the
clad was ensured by preplacing the powder on the substrate and it firmly holds the top powder layer with the
thin uniform ceramic sheet. The detailed results of the characterizations are provided in Secs. 3.1 to 3.5.
X-Ray Diffraction Studies.
The typical XRD pattern of the microwave developed composite clad is shown in Fig. 4, which reveals the
formation of various hard and complex carbide phases in the clad during microwave hybrid heating. At higher
temperature, some of the silicon carbide dissociates into free silicon and carbon. This carbon reacts with the
chromium present in the Nickel-based powder and results in the formation of various carbides of chromium like
Cr23C6 and C3Cr7. Further, free silicon contributes to the formation of silicides (NiSi, Fe2Si). The partial mutual
diffusion of Fe and Cr might have taken place during microwave hybrid heating lead to partial melting of
substrate and metallurgical bonding was achieved. Similar types of intermetallic formations were earlier
reported by Pathania et al [20]. Formation of carbon monoxide (CO) takes place when some of the free carbon
reacts with atmospheric oxygen. This CO during solidification (slow cooling rate) escapes out subsequently
leading to the crack-free cladding and low porosity.
Study of Microstructure of Developed Clad.
The microstructure of the transverse section of microwave developed composite clad is as shown in Fig. 5(a),
which clearly shows the wavy interface layer between clad and substrate. The typical microstructure of the
processed clad is shown in Fig. 5(b), which reveals the uniform dispersion of hard carbide phases in form of
skeletonlike structure inside the nickel matrix. The presence of hard carbides was confirmed by EDS analysis of
microstructure at points 1 and 2 (see Fig. 5(b)) and is illustrated in Figs. 5(c) and 5(d), which shows the
presence of silicon, carbon, and nickel in the skeleton-like structure. On the other hand, the matrix phase was
composed of nickel, iron, and chromium. No cracking was observed in the microstructure.

Microhardness Study.
The hardness of materials plays a vital role between the mechanical and tribological properties of the material.
Wear resistance of a material depends primarily on the hardness of that material. Vicker's micro hardness test
was carried on the developed clad before analysing the dry sliding wear test. Results of the micro hardness test
were plotted in Fig. 6. The results revealed that the average micro hardness of the clad section was found to be
652 ± 90 HV, which is almost three times higher as compared to SS-420 substrate (220 ± 20 HV). The variation
in the value of micro hardness is due to the presence of hard carbide phases in the matrix phase.
Wear Behaviour of the Developed Clad.
The tribological behaviour of microwave processed clads and SS-420 substrates was analysed under different
parameters by using dry sliding wear test. The variations in the cumulative weight loss (mg) during testing
under different parameters for the developed Ni-based + 10% SiC cladding and SS-420 substrate are shown in
Figs. 7(a)–7(f). The various parameters used in pin-on-disk wear tests are presented in Table 3. It is observed
from the cumulative weight loss graphs (Figs. 7(a), 7(c), and 7(e)); clad samples show significantly lower
weight loss, whereas trend of weight loss for SS-420 substrate (Figs. 7(b), 7(d), and 7(f)) is significantly higher
as compared to clad samples. Wear rate characteristics are presented in Figs. 8(a)and 8(b) corresponding to
1.5 kg normal load. A summary of wear data corresponding to 1200 m, 1600 m, and 2000 m of sliding distances
at 1.5 kg normal load is presented in Table 4. It was observed in Fig. 8(b)that wear rate in the clads get steady
phase following the run in wear phase up to 1600 m of sliding. Tribological study of both clad samples and
substrate has been carried out systematically and influence of sliding velocity, normal load, and sliding distance
on weight loss has also been analyzed at room temperature and dry conditions.
Effect of Sliding Velocity on Weight Loss.
During tribological testing, it was found that in the case of clad samples, weight loss was significantly less than
SS-420 substrate at the end of 1400 m of sliding distance. The cumulative weight loss was 0.87 mg under 0.5 kg
normal load, 0.42 mg under 1 kg load, and 0.65 mg under 1.5 kg load for same sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s at the
end of 1400 m. The weight loss profile in clad surface at 1.5 m/s sliding velocity shows less wear initially
(Fig. 7(a)) and after sliding distance of 800 m, there was sharp increase in weight loss. But in the case of
0.5 m/s and 1 m/s sliding velocities, weight loss profiles show almost linear trend and higher than that in case of
1.5 m/s sliding velocity. This may be accounted due to more contact time between rubbing surface at lower
sliding velocities, which further causes higher heat generation at rubbing surfaces. This higher heat generation
at the rubbing surfaces causes loss in binding strength of hard carbides in nickel matrix and higher weight loss
was observed. It was also observed that at higher sliding velocity, a uniform protective tribo-oxide layer,
primarily consisting of iron oxide, was formed (Fig. 9(b)) which resulted in less weight loss. The formation of
tribofilm was confirmed and analysed by EDS analysis as shown in Fig. 9(d). The oxides of metals like Fe, Cr,
Si, and Ni, which are present in the matrix, contributed to the formation of tribolayer in the presence of heat and
atmospheric oxygen. On the other hand, at lower sliding velocities, breaking of surfacial contacts and localized
welding due to the presence of higher heat did not allow the formation of uniform tribofilm.
Weight loss of SS-420 substrate with respect to sliding distance as the function of sliding velocity is as shown
in Figs. 7(b), 7(d), and 7(e). The main purpose for studying the weight loss of substrate material was to
compare the results with those obtained by microwave cladding and hence find the usefulness of microwave
developed clads. As the micro hardness of SS-420 substrate was three times lower than the microwave
developed clads, which directly influences the wear resistance. This lower micro hardness causes lower thermal
stability and higher plastic deformations result in micro weldments and partial melting of surfacial contacts.
These surfacial contacts get sheared off during slidings and cause more weight loss. Weight loss found at
0.5 m/s of sliding velocity, under 0.5 kg of normal load and after 800 m sliding distances was 38 mg, was ∼57
times higher than corresponding weight loss in clad (0.52 mg). Further with increase in sliding velocity from
0.5 m/s to 1.5 m/s results in the decrease in weight loss from 38 mg to 29 mg. However, at moderate velocity
(1 m/s) and higher load conditions, intermix phenomenon of formation and smearing of tribofilm results in the
reduction in weight loss in comparison to higher velocity (1.5 m/s), Fig. 7(d).
Effect of Normal Load on Weight Loss.
The weight loss graphs clearly indicate that on increasing the normal load, the weight loss of both substrate and
clad materials increases. The weight loss increases from 0.12 mg (0.5 kg) to 0.15 mg (1 kg) and further
increased to 0.23 mg (1.5 kg), Figs. 9(a), 9(c), and 9(e), corresponding to 800 m of sliding distance at constant
sliding speed of 1.5 m/s. The weight losses of clad samples were increased by 191% when load increased from
0.5 kg to 1.5 kg. At 1.5 kg of normal load and 0.5 m/s of sliding velocity, the weight loss of clad sample was
0.39 mg whereas for 1.5 m/s of sliding velocity at the same normal load, weight loss observed was 0.30 mg,
which was 130% lower. This may be accounted due to the formation of tribofilm at increased load and
increased velocity resulted in the decrease in weight loss. On the other hand, at lower sliding velocity, higher
load ruptures the tribofilm.
In the case of SS-420 substrate at 0.5 kg load and at varying sliding velocities (Fig. 7(b)), graph shows linear
increase in weight loss which is again due to lower micro hardness of the SS-420 substrate. At 1.5 kg normal
load and 0.5 m/s sliding velocity, maximum weight loss was observed which may be again accounted due to
rupturing of tribofilm at lower velocity and higher load. At constant 0.5 m/s sliding velocity and normal load of
1.5 kg, the weight loss recorded was 103 mg while 92 mg and 64 mg were recorded at normal load of 1 kg and
0.5 kg, respectively, at the end of 2000 m of sliding distance. Weight loss was 111.95% higher at 1.5 kg in
comparison to 0.5 kg normal load at constant sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s at the end of 2000 m of sliding
distance.
Effect of Sliding Distance.
It was observed that for sliding distance up to 800 m, the weight loss slopes were steep due to initial run in wear
conditions as a result of presence of uneven ridges on the surface. However, due to attainment of semi steady
state wear conditions in clads after 800 m of sliding distance, the weight loss slopes started flattening up. It was
noticed that for initial 400 m of sliding distance, weight loss for lower sliding speed was higher, which is due to
the high heat generation and high friction between the rubbing surfaces which resulted in the micro welding of
the surfaces. In the case of SS-420 substrate, the weight loss curves are rising for all samples except the
samples that slide at 1 m/s of sliding speed, which may be accounted due to the formation of tribolayer at this
speed. This tribolayer gets smeared off at high sliding speed. Overall results show that in the case of microwave
clad, weight loss was significantly less as compared to SS-420 substrate. Highest weight loss for SS-420
substrate was 105 mg (at 0.5 m/s and 1.5 kg) whereas in the case of the clad, the weight loss recorded was
0.98 mg, which shows that wear resistance of clads has increased by ∼107 times as shown in Fig. 10.
Fractographic Analysis.
Surface topography was done to analyse the worn out surfaces. It has been noticed that with increase in load
and decrease in sliding speed, weight loss of clad pins was increased. This may be accounted due to the fact that
at lower sliding speed, time taken to cover the same distance is more, which means the contact time of
considered surfaces will be more. Hence, higher initial frictional forces occur, which resulted in higher heat
generation. This heat generated at the contacting surfaces softens the nickel matrix, and the lower thermal
conductivity of carbides favoured the sticking of matrix with counter disk. This phenomenon results in higher
weight loss due to pulling out of carbides from the clad matrix surface and shearing off the stick contact at
increased load and decreased sliding speed as shown in Fig. 11(a). However, SS-420 substrate deforms at
higher temperature and at higher loads as represented in Fig. 11(b), which is due to pull out of micro weld
regions and ploughing out of SS-420 substrate by the hard particles. At higher sliding velocity and low load, the
formation of tribofilm takes place which protects the clad surface against the counter disk. During run-in period
due to the presence of hard rough asperity contacts, wearing out of the pins is higher. However, once the
tribofilm formation takes place, the wear rate decreases and subsequently a stable wearing out phase is attained.
In addition, the presence of hard carbides, which is responsible for reduction of abrasive wear against the hard
counter surface, the oxides of Fe and Cr acts as a barrier layer preventing contact between Ni matrix of clad and
steel counter surface, suppressing adhesive transfer, if any, by presenting an incompatible surface to counter
surface. However, with further increase in load, degradation of tribofilm may take place due to plastic
deformation of tribofilm as shown in Fig. 9(a). On the other hand, at high load and speed when the breakdown
of the said tribolayer happens, there is distinct shift in the wear regimes may be from the mild wear to rapid
wear regime, as evident from the Fig. 9(c). Thus, the beneficial effect of tribolayer formed between the clad and
the counter surface on the tribological characteristics of the developed clad can be effectively realized by
selecting suitable application and process parameters. In the case of clad samples, wear occurs due to
dislocation of particles, smearing off of tribofilm and craters due to pull out of carbides from the matrix
Fig. 11(a), whereas in the case of SS-420 surface ploughing by hard asperities and possible third body abrasion
by the hard carbides and oxides of iron, deep craters, and shearing of contact surfaces were main phenomenon
observed (Fig. 11(b)). The formation of loose particles occurs on worn surface. It can be seen from
Fig. 12(a) that wear debris of microwave clad are small, irregular, and blocky shaped. Elemental distribution
analysis Fig. 12(b) shows that the wear debris has high mass concentration of Ni elements.

Conclusions
The microwave cladding process has been used for the development of Ni-based + 10% SiC composite
cladding. The clads of thickness ∼1.25 mm were successfully developed on martensitic stainless steel (SS-420)
substrate by exposure of 900 W microwave radiations for the duration of 300 s. The broad characteristics of the
developed clads are as follows:
(1)
1. The developed microwave clads show good metallurgical bonding with the substrate by partial mutual
diffusion of elements.
2. (2)The developed clads exhibit significantly higher microhardness (three times) than that of SS-420
substrate.
3. (3)The wear resistance of the clad has been improved by a factor of 107 in comparison to SS-420 substrate at
sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s and at load of 1.5 kg.
4. (4)The fractographic discussions along with the SEM micrographs suggest that the fatigue induced
debonding and corresponding growth of microcracks, microcutting are the primary phenomenon
responsible for wear in microwave clads.
References
Morales-Hernandez, J. , Mandujano-Ruiz, A. , Castaneda-Zaldivar, F. , Lopez, R. , and Gonzalez, J. , 2014, “
High Temperature Corrosion Resistance of Coatings Deposited by Hvof for Application in Steam Turbines,”
Proc. Chem., 12, pp. 80–91. [CrossRef]
2
Khurana, S. , Varun , and Kumar, A. , 2013, “ Effect of Silt Particles on Erosion of Turgo Impulse Turbine
Blades,” Int. J. Ambient Energy, 35(3), pp. 155–162. [CrossRef]
3
Khurana, S. , Varun , and Kumar, A. , 2015, “ Silt Erosion Study on the Performance of an Impulse Turbine in
Small Hydropower,” Int. J. Ambient Energy, 37(5), pp. 520–527. [CrossRef]
4
Lai, F. D. , Wu, T. , and Wu, J. K. , 1993, “ Surface Modification of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Salt Cyaniding and
Nitriding,” Surf Coat. Technol., 58(1), pp. 79–81. [CrossRef]
5
Sakasegawa, H. , Tanigawa, H. , and Ando, M. , 2014, “ Corrosion-Resistant Coating Technique for Oxide-
Dispersion-Strengthened Ferritic/Martensitic Steel,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 51(6), pp. 737–743.[CrossRef]
6
Adachi, S. , and Ueda, N. , 2013, “ Surface Hardness Improvement of Plasma-Sprayed AISI 316L Stainless
Steel Coating by Low-Temperature Plasma Carburizing,” Adv. Powder Technol., 24(5), pp. 818–
823. [CrossRef]
7
Pant, B. K. , Sundar, R. , Kumar, H. , Kaul, R. , Pavan, A. H. V. , Ranganathan, K. , Bindra, K. S. , Oak, S. M. ,
Kukreja, L. M. , Prakash, R. , and Kamaraj, M. , 2013, “ Studies Towards Development of Laser Peening
Technology for Martensitic Stainless Steel and Titanium Alloys for Steam Turbine Applications,” Mater. Sci.
Eng. A, 587, pp. 352–358. [CrossRef]
8
St-Georges, L. , 2007, “ Development and Characterization of Composite Ni–Cr+WC Laser Cladding,” Wear,
263(1–6), pp. 562–566. [CrossRef]
9
Leyens, C. , and Beyer, E. , 2015, “ Innovations in Laser Cladding and Direct Laser Metal Deposition,” Laser
Surface Engineering, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, pp. 181–192.
10
Weng, F. , Chen, C. , and Yu, H. , 2014, “ Research Status of Laser Cladding on Titanium and Its Alloys: A
Review,” Mater. Des., 58, pp. 412–425. [CrossRef]
11
Birger, E. M. , Moskvitin, G. V. , Polyakov, A. N. , and Arkhipov, V. E. , 2011, “ Industrial Laser Cladding:
Current State and Future,” Weld Int., 25(3), pp. 234–243. [CrossRef]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
On Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Microwave Processed Composite
Clad
Sarbjeet Kaushal, Dheeraj Gupta and Hiralal Bhowmick
[+] Author and Article Information
J. Tribol 139(6), 061602 (May 26, 2017) (8 pages)Paper No: TRIB-16-1379; doi: 10.1115/1.4035844History:
Received December 09, 2016; Revised January 15, 2017
Abstract
In the present study, wear resistance composite cladding of Ni-based + 20% WC8Co (wt. %) was developed on
SS-304 substrate using domestic microwave oven at 2.45 GHz and 900 W. The clad was developed within 300 s
of microwave exposure using microwave hybrid heating (MHH) technique. The clad was characterized through
scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD),
Vicker’s micro hardness, and dry sliding wear test. Microstructure study revealed that the clad of approximately
1.25 mm thickness was developed by partial mutual diffusion with substrate. It was observed that the developed
clad was free from visible interfacial cracks with significantly less porosity (∼1.2%). XRD patterns of the clad
confirmed the presence of Cr23C6, NiSi, and NiCr phases that eventually contributed to the enhancement in clad
micro hardness. Vicker’s micro hardness of the processed clad surface was found to be 840 ±± 20 HV, which
was four times that of SS-304 substrate. In case of clad surface, wear mainly occurs due to debonding of
carbide particles from the matrix, while plastic deformation and strong abrasion are responsible for the removal
of material from SS-304 substrate.










Introduction
Engineering components used in industrial applications deteriorate by the effect of chemical and mechanical
phenomena taking place during their operating conditions [1]. The life time of tribological components used in
gas power and hydropower plants is considerably influenced by wear and corrosion. Sudden failure of these
components causes shutdown of entire plant and hence results in huge economical loss. The solution to the
above problem includes two approaches: first, modifications of the functional surfaces subjected to aggressive
environment, and second, design of the bulk material with high corrosion and wear resistance. Primarily, wear
is a phenomenon related to the surface, therefore, the replacement of the failure part by newly designed
materials is not an economical approach. SS-304 steels (austenitic stainless steels) are widely used in rotating
parts and blades of engine like aircraft engines, turbines, and industrial blowers due to their better corrosion and
shock resistance. However, due to their low value of hardness and poor wear resistance, SS-304 blades are
subjected to wear problems [2–5]. Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel is an excellent solution to
the aforementioned problem [6,7]. The wear resistance of the functional surfaces through cladding/coating with
suitable overlaying material would be one of the most economical and straightforward solutions [8,9]. Most of
the cladding/coating techniques like plasma spraying, physical vapor deposition, thermal spraying, and
chemical vapor deposition are matured enough in terms of technological developments and academic research.
Laser cladding process is attractive in industrial applications for their wear resistant applications. Laser
cladding offers many advantages like low heat input, high power density, and form excellent metallurgical
bonding with substrate. But limitations like the presence of porosity, residual stresses, development of high
thermal stresses due to high thermal gradient and high installation cost make its use limited [9,10]. In the recent
time, microwave processed cladding has emerged an advanced surface modification process to resolve the
problem associated with laser cladding. This process uses the microwave energy to melt the powder material
placed on the surface to be modified and hence form cladding on the surface. Microwave processing is
characterized by volumetric heating, which results into uniform microstructure, less thermal distortions, and
good bonding strength [11,12].
The first report on microwave sintering of metallic material was introduced in the early 2000 [13]. Thereafter
sintering of metallic materials through microwave heating has been reported by many authors [14–18].
Recently, microwave applications in the area of cladding have been explored by many researches [19–26].
Cladding produced through microwave heating has less porosity, small interfacial cracks, shorter processing
time and energy consumption [25].
Compared to other carbides such as SiC, TiC, Mo2Si, and TiB2 with high wear and high temperature oxidation
resistance, WC combines many favorable characteristics like high value of hardness, good wet-ability with the
bonding material and certain plasticity [27–29]. Thus, WC is widely used for developing metal ceramic
composite claddings on the substrate. On the other hand Ni-based powder is characterized by good corrosion
resistance and toughness. In the current investigation, composite cladding of Ni-based + 20% WC8Co powder
has been carried out successfully on SS-304 substrate through microwave hybrid heating (MHH) route, using a
domestic microwave applicator at 2.45 GHz frequency and varying power level up to 900 W. The developed
clads were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy
dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and measurement of Vicker’s microhardness. Further, tribological
behavior of the so-developed clad was investigated using pin-on-disk type dry sliding wear test.
Materials and Methods
In the present work, microwave energy has been used to develop the wear resistant composite cladding on
metallic substrate. The development and characterization of cladding have been described briefly in
Secs. 2.2 and 2.3.
Materials Details.
The composite powder of Ni-based + 20% WC8Co has been selected as a cladding material for the present
work. Ni-based powder (EWAC-1004 EN; Make: L&T, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) of average grain size of
40 μm is mixed manually with 20% of WC8Co having approximately same grain size. The morphology of Ni-
based powder and WC8Co powder is illustrated in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b). XRD spectrum of Ni-based and WC8Co
powder is shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). SS-304 plates machined to
dimensions 10 mm×10 mm×6 mm10 mm×10 mm×6 mm have been used as substrate materials. Table 1 shows
the chemical composition of WC8Co, Ni-based powder, and SS-304.
Development of Cladding.
Prior to deposition of cladding, the SS-304 substrates were thoroughly cleaned in alcoholic bath. The composite
Ni-based + 20% WC8Co powder was preheated in conventional muffle furnace at 180 °C to eliminate the
possible moisture contents. The preheated composite powder was preplaced manually on SS-304 substrate. The
experiments trials for current investigations were performed inside a domestic microwave applicator at
2.45 GHz and varying power level up to 900 W. Further, the skin depths of Ni and WC particles at 2.45 GHz
are very less, so at room temperature they do not directly interact with microwave radiations, instead will start
to reflect the microwaves. To eradicate this problem of reflection of microwave by Ni-based + 20% WC8Co,
the MHH technique with suitable susceptor was used to develop the cladding. A 99% pure alumina sheet was
used as a separator in order to avoid the contamination of composite powder particles with susceptor particles.
A complete schematic view of MHH technique is shown in Fig. 3. In length detail of MHH technique has been
discussed by the authors [19] with suitable examples. Various process parameters involved in MHH are
summarized in Table 2.
Characterizations of the Clad.
In order to assess the functional characteristics of the microwave processed clads, various characterization
techniques were used. Before proceeding for characterization, the microwave clads were cleaned meticulously
with acetone and sectioned along the thickness at the center using a low velocity diamond cutter (model
Baincut-LSS; Chennai Metco, Chennai, India). The sectioned specimens were cold mounted for polishing. The
cold-mounted specimens were polished first by an emery paper of 180 grit, followed by further polishing using
emery papers of 320, 600, 800, 1000, 2000, 3000, and finally by a 3 μm diamond slurry in a cloth wheel
machine. Polished samples were washed under a jet of water and dried using hot air drier. Before
characterization, etching of polished samples was done using suitable chemical etchant solution
(CH3COOH + HCl + HNO3).
The microstructure analysis was carried out through SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector at an
acceleration voltage of 20 kV. The XRD patterns were obtained in a Bruker AXS diffractometer with Cu Kα X-
ray at room temperature. The scan range and scan rate used as 20–90 deg and 1 deg min−1, respectively.
Microhardness of the transverse section of the cladding and substrate was evaluated using a Vicker’s
microhardness tester at the load of 300 g applied for 20 s. The indentations were made at the interval of 150 μm
starting from the top of the clad surface to the substrate material.
Results and Discussion
X-Ray Diffraction Studies.
A typical XRD spectrum of Ni-based + 20% WC8Co cladding developed through MHH is presented in Fig. 4.
The presence of tungsten carbide (W2C) is clearly identified in the XRD pattern, which could be attributed to
possible decomposition of WC at high temperature from the parent powder into W2C during MHH as
(1)2WC↔W2C+C2WC↔W2C+C
Further, WC decomposes into W and C during high heating temperature which is represented as
(2)WC→W+CWC→W+C
This highly reactive free carbon might also react with atmospheric oxygen to form CO which during
solidification escapes out resulting into crack free cladding and significantly less porosity.
This free form of carbon further reacts with both substrate and powder materials and form carbide which is
presented as
(3)3W+3Co+C→Co3W3C3W+3Co+C→Co3W3C
(4)6W+6 Fe(substrate)+C→Fe6W6C6W+6 Fe(substrate)+C→Fe6W6C
The XRD peak (Fig. 4) corresponding to 2ϴ of 42.53 deg shows the presence of complex carbide Fe6W6C and
few relatively stable types of carbides like Cr23C6 and WC at different XRD peaks. At high temperature during
MHH due to strong affinity of Ni to react with Si, the possible formation of NiSi occurred. The presence of
intermetallics like FeNi3 and NiCr could be attributed to the partial diffusion of Fe and Cr from substrate to clad
layer during MHH. The possible formation of various intermetallics and carbides boosts the coupling of
composite clad powder with microwaves by directly influencing the clad layer’s dielectric properties. This
further results into rise in temperature of powder particles leading to melting and solidifying of substrate.
Microstructure Investigation.
A good clad comprises of two important characteristics: (i) good metallurgical bonding of clad material with
substrate and (ii) absence of defects like porosity and cracks. Backscattered electron (BSE) micrograph of the
transverse cross section of Ni-based + 20% WC8Co clad is shown in Fig. 5. It was observed that a clad of
approximately 1.2 mm thickness shows good metallurgical bonding with substrate material by partial diffusion
of elements. A wavy interface between the clad and substrate can be clearly seen without any visible
discontinuities (Fig. 5(a)). It was also observed that clad is free from any interfacial cracks and visible pores.
The transition from substrate region to clad region appears defect free. Enlarged view of clad section is
illustrated in Fig. 5(b), which shows that hard carbide particles remain uniformly dispersed inside soft Ni
matrix. As the microwaves start interacting with composite powder material, the low melting point Ni-based
powder particles (melting point of Ni is 1454 °C) start melting first. Further, there is a difference in thermal and
other properties of parent powder materials as shown in Table 3. So there is an uneven rise in temperature in the
powder substrate system. Due to this thermal imbalance, the formation of a localized melt pool current occurs.
This localized melt pool current is sufficient to make the particles agglomerated (Fig. 5(b)). The tungsten
carbide and observed metallic carbide get partially agglomerated and remain uniformly distributed due to the
melt pool current. These uniformly distributed carbide particles could provide strength and would act as
reinforcement in the developed composite. As the microwave hybrid heating is associated with volumetric
heating property, it resulted into low thermal gradient in the surface exposed to microwave. Homogeneous
microstructure of clad is also evident to volumetric heating. The typical slow solidification rate of melt pool
resulted into skeleton structure of carbides (Fig. 5(b)).
Elemental Analysis.
EDS was used to analyze the variations of elements distribution in the clad substrate. It was observed in
Fig. 6 that the Cr content in the clad surface was increased, while the iron (Fe) content was decreased from the
interface zone to the clad zone. It should be noted that the preplaced raw composite clad powder does not
contain iron, and there is a small amount of chromium content (0.15–0.17%) available inside the Ni-based
powder (Table 1). Thus, the increase in the percentage of these elements inside the clad region is the clear
evidence of substrate dilution. Chromium particles inside the clad region could be attributed to the formation of
chromium carbide (Cr23C6) and NiCr as evidenced in XRD spectrum (Fig. 4).
Porosity Measurement.
The porosity assessment is very essential in the clad region, as the wear performance is directly influenced by
the presence of porosity. An image analysis software tool was used to carry out the porosity analysis in
different regions of developed clad and average porosity was considered. Average value of porosity was found
as 1.2%, which was observed to be significantly less as compared to the laser cladding process [28].
Microhardness Study.
The tendency for frequent failure of the material can be rendered by enhancing wear resistance of the material,
which can be possible with the improvement in hardness. The micro hardness of microwave-developed
composite clad cross section and substrate was evaluated through Vicker’s micro hardness tester. The micro
hardness results (Fig. 7) revealed that the average Vicker’s micro hardness of the clad section was 840±±20
HV, which was four times higher than that of SS-304 substrate (220 HV). The micro hardness was not found to
be constant throughout the clad section due to the presence of hard carbide phases and soft nickel matrix. The
increase in micro hardness value was observed (Fig. 7) from interface region to clad surface which might be
due to the formation of uniform crystal structure and fine grain size. The presence of hard chromium carbide
particles (as discussed in XRD analysis) in the clad region lead to increase in hardness value of the developed
surface than the substrate. However, there is a drop in hardness at the clad–substrate interface due to increase in
metallic dissolution at the interface.
Wear Behaviour of Developed Clad.
The wear behaviour of microwave developed clads and SS-304 substrate was analyzed using pin-on-disk type
tribometer under different parameters. The variations in cumulative weight loss (mg) during dry sliding wear
tests for the microwave developed Ni + 20% WC8Co clads and SS-304 substrates are shown in
Figs. 8(a) and 8(b). The different parameters used in pin-on-disk wear tests are presented in Table 4. It was
observed in Figs. 8(a) and 8(b), that the cumulative weight loss of clad samples was significantly lower than the
SS-304 samples. Dry sliding wear study of both clad samples and substrate has been carried out in an organized
way, and the influence of sliding distance and sliding velocity has been analyzed under dry conditions and at
room temperature. Wear rate characteristics are shown in Figs. 9(a) and 9(b). It was observed from
Fig. 9(b) that the wear rate in the microwave clads get steady phase following run in wear phase up to 1500 m
of sliding.
Effect of Sliding Velocity on Weight Loss.
During sliding type of tribological contact, the relative velocity between the rubbing surfaces plays a huge role
in the wear process. It was observed in Figs. 8(a) and 8(b) that in case of microwave-processed clad samples
cumulative weight loss was significantly less as compared to SS-304 substrates for all sliding velocities. Higher
weight loss was recorded at 1.5 m/s sliding velocity for both clad and SS-304 samples. At moderate sliding
velocity of 1 m/s, the weight loss was lower as compared to 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s sliding velocities. This may be
attributed to the formation of an unstable oxide layer (tribofilm) during rubbing of mating surfaces at moderate
velocity which resist the wear. However, the film cannot be prolonged for a longer sliding duration and gets
smeared during sliding. In case of lower sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s, due to lower temperature at lower velocity
the possible formation of oxide layer is delayed. Hence, more weight loss occurred. Similarly, at higher sliding
velocity of 1.5 m/s, the temperature rises up to the extent that tribofilm gets ruptured.
Effect of Sliding Distance on Weight Loss.
The steep weight loss slopes were observed (Figs. 8(a) and 8(b)) up to 1000 m of sliding distances due to initial
run in wear conditions due to the existence of uneven ridges on the surface. However, after 1000 m of sliding
distance the weight loss slopes started flattening up due to attainment of semi-steady-state conditions of wear. It
was observed that for initial 500 m of sliding distance weight loss for higher sliding velocity was more for both
substrate and clad samples, which is due to the high friction and high heat generation between the rubbing
surfaces resulted into surface microweldment. Overall results show that the weight loss of microwave-
processed clad was significantly less as compared to SS-304 substrate. Highest weight loss for SS-304 was
observed to be 40 mg (at 1.5 m/s, 0–500 m), whereas in case of microwave clad the highest weight loss
recorded was 6.3 mg, which shows that the wear resistance of clads has increased by ∼seven times.
Fractographic Analysis.
Fractographic analysis was done in order to understand the wear behavior of the interacting surfaces. The SEM
images of worn out surfaces of microwave clad samples and SS-304 samples were illustrated in
Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. Craters and grooves can be clearly seen on the sliding surfaces. At lower and
moderate velocity the wear is mainly due to crater formation that resulted from the fatigue-induced material
debonding/pull out. In case of higher sliding velocity (1.5 m/s), interaction between mating surfaces took place
for a shorter period of time, but due to higher velocity more heat is generated, and therefore, loss of material is
mainly due to plastic deformation resulted into shearing of the displaced material (Fig. 10(c)). At moderate
sliding velocity (1 m/s), the sliding surface achieves better sliding conformity. The smeared oxide layer can be
clearly seen in Figs. 10(a) and 10(b). The attrition is mainly responsible for wear. However, during severe
sliding environment, growth of microcracks occurs in the clad surface which also contributes to the loss of
materials from the mating surfaces. On the other hand, the SS-304 surfaces during sliding against the hard
alumina counter disk surface undergo severe plowing. It has been observed that the material loss is mainly due
to plastic deformation followed by dislodgement of material and crater formation (Figs. 11(a) and 11(b)) at
lower and medium sliding velocity. At higher sliding velocity, heavy plastic flow followed by shearing of
material surface as shown in Fig. 11(c).
Scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis of wear debris (generated at 15 N after sliding for 2000 m at
1.5 m/s) collected from pin-on-disk sliding wear tests is illustrated in Figs. 12(a) and 12(b), respectively. The
wear debris was diverse in morphology size, and shape. The EDS spectrum of the debris Fig. 12(b)indicates
that the debris was enriched with W, C, and O with only small traces of Co and Ni particles.
Conclusions
The composite clad of Ni-based + 20% WC8Co was successfully developed on austenitic stainless steel (SS-
304) substrate using MHH. Major conclusions drawn from the above study are:
(1)
1. The developed composite clad is metallurgically bonded with the SS-304 substrate by partial mutual
diffusion of elements.
(2)
2. Microwave heating induces material phase transformation in the powder layer, carbide like W2C, and
chromium carbides are formed.
(3)
3. The reinforced carbide particles are uniformly distributed inside Ni soft matrix and developed clad
surface is free from any types of microcracks and pores.
(4)
4. The average microhardness of the developed clad surface (840 ±± 20 HV) is four times the substrate
surface (220 HV), which is due to the formation of carbides as observed in XRD.
(5)
5. The developed microwave clads exhibit an approximately seven times more wear resistance than the SS-
304 substrate under load of 15 N.
(6)
6. In case of clad surface, wear mainly occurs due to debonding of carbide particles from the matrix and
strong abrasion and plastic deformation are the main causes of material loss in case of SS-304 substrate.
References
1
Krishna, N. G. , Thinaharan, C. , George, R. P. , and Mudali, K. , 2015, “ Surface Modification of Type 304
Stainless Steel With Duplex Coatings for Corrosion Resistance in Sea Water Environments,” Surf. Eng., 31(1),
pp. 39–47. [CrossRef]
2
Alphonsa, I. , Chainani, A. , Raole, P. M. , Ganguli, B. , and John, P. I. , 2002, “ A Study of Martensitic
Stainless Steel AISI 420 Modified Using Plasma Nitriding,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 150(2–3), pp. 263–
268. [CrossRef]
3
Lai, F. D. , Wu, T. , and Wu, J. K. , 1993, “ Surface Modification of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Salt Cyaniding and
Nitriding,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 58(1), pp. 79–81. [CrossRef]
4
Fu, P. , Jiang, C. , Wu, X. , and Zhang, Z. , 2015, “ Surface Modification of 304 Steel Using Triple-Step Short
Peening,” Mater. Manuf. Processes, 30(6), pp. 693–698. [CrossRef]
5
Amini, S. , and Kazemiyounm, M. , 2014, “ Effect of Ultrasonic Vibrations on Chip-Tool Contact Zone in
Turning of AISI304,” Mater. Manuf. Process., 29(5), pp. 627–633. [CrossRef]
6
Sakasegawa, H. , Tanigawa, H. , and Ando, M. , 2014, “ Corrosion-Resistant Coating Technique for Oxide-
Dispersion-Strengthened Ferritic/Martensitic Steel,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 51(6), pp. 737–743.[CrossRef]
7
Adachi, S. , and Ueda, N. , 2013, “ Surface Hardness Improvement of Plasma-Sprayed AISI 316L Stainless
Steel Coating by Low-Temperature Plasma Carburizing,” Adv. Powder Technol., 24(5), pp. 818–
823. [CrossRef]
8
Sharma, A. K. , Aravindhan, S. , and Krishnamurthy, R. , 2001, “ Microwave Glazing of Alumina–Titania
Ceramic Composite Coatings,” Mater. Lett., 50(5–6), pp. 295–301. [CrossRef]
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On surface modification of austenitic stainless steel using microwave


processed Ni/Cr3C2composite cladding
Sarbjeet Kaushal,Dheeraj Gupta &Hiralal Bhowmick
Pages 1-9 | Received 05 Apr 2017, Accepted 29 Jul 2017, Published online: 10 Aug 2017
https://doi.org/10.1080/02670844.2017.1362808

Abstract

In the present work Ni-based + 20% Cr3C2 composite clads were developed on SS-304 austenitic stainless steel
through microwave hybrid heating technique. Experimental trials were conducted inside a domestic microwave
applicator at 2.45 GHz and 900 W. The developed microwave composite clads were characterised through
SEM/EDS, XRD and Vicker’s micro-hardness tests. Further tribological wear behaviour of the so developed
clad was investigated using pin-on-disc type tribometer under dry sliding wear conditions. Microstructural
analysis revealed the uniform dispersion of Cr3C2particles inside the Ni matrix in the form of cellular-like
structure. The presence of FeNi3, NiSi, Cr3Ni2 and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) was confirmed from the XRD
analysis, which contributes to the increase in micro-hardness of the composite clad. The average value of
micro-hardness of the developed clads was found to be 450 ± 55 HV. The microwave-processed clad exhibits
three times more wear resistance than SS-304 substrate.

KEYWORDS: Microwave cladding, composite material, characterisation, tribology

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Volume 99, March 2017, Pages 98-107


Taguchi analysis on erosive wear behavior of cobalt based microwave
cladding on stainless steel AISI-420
Ajit M.Hebbalea ,M.S.Srinathb
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2016.12.024Get rights and content

The cobalt based microwave clads are developed on stainless steel (AISI-420).The clad shows well
metallurgical bond with the substrate without any interfacial cracks.The Taguchi technique cleared that slurry
erosive wear rate was completely dependent on the control factors. The developed clads are much better slurry
erosive resistance than the unclad substrate.

Abstract
The strength, hardness, wear and corrosion resistance are the most important mechanical properties of the
tribological components. Martensitic stainless steel plays very important role to represent these characteristics.
The AISI-420 stainless steel widely used to manufacture the hydraulic and gas turbine components. The present
work deals with microstructure and slurry erosive wear studies of cobalt based clad developed through
microwave energy at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive
X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis result reveals the presence of cobalt and chromium rich solid solution in the
intercellular substances. The Taguchi orthogonal array was used to gauge the factors affecting the wear
significantly. The influence of various factors such as speed, particle size and impingement angle on wear
behavior was evaluated by Means and ANOVA (analysis of variance). It was observed that the slurry speed
significantly influenced the more mass loss on unclad substrate. The wear mechanism of the worn surface was
studied through a scanning electronic microscope. It shows the mixed mode of erosion in the form of
microcutting, ploughing, and fractures appeared are major wear mechanisms.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Microwave, Cobalt, AISI-420, ANOVA, Fracture

Microstructural Studies of Cobalt Based Microwave Clad Developed


on Martensitic Stainless Steel (AISI-420)

Article in Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals · October 2017 with 32 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s12666-017-1206-7
Ajit M Hebbale (NMAM Institute of Technology)

Srinath M S (Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan)


Abstract
AISI-420 stainless steel is widely used to manufacture hydraulic and gas turbine components. The present work
is concerned with microstructural studies of cobalt based clad developed through microwave energy in a
microwave applicator. A domestic microwave oven was successfully used to develop clads at 2.45 GHz
frequency. The developed clads were evaluated using optical metallography, scanning electron microscope,
energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the microstructure, phases and
elemental composition of developed surface. The microstructure study reveals that the developed clad shows
good metallurgical bond between substrate without any interfacial cracks. XRD study confirms the presence of
various complex metal carbides and intermetallics like Cr7C3, Cr3C2, M23C6, Cr2Ni3 which are formed
during microwave heating. The average microhardness of the developed clad surface is 807 ± 96 HV, which is
132% higher than that of unclad surface (348 ± 7 HV).

Development of Ni-based and CeO2-modified coatings by microwave


heating
Kanwarjeet Singh & Satpal Sharma
Pages 50-57 | Received 20 Aug 2016, Accepted 14 Oct 2016, Accepted author version posted online: 23 Nov
2016, Published online: 04 Jan 2017
https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2016.1257860

ABSTRACT

In the present investigation the microwave hybrid heating process was used to develop coatings on P20 tool
steel substrates. The experiments were carried out in a domestic microwave oven of 900 W and 2.45 GHz
frequency for a duration of 360 s. Ni-based clads/coatings without cerium oxide (CeO2;unmodified coating) and
with the addition of CeO2 (modified coating) with varying wt.% of 1–3 were developed by the microwave
hybrid heating process. The effect of CeO2 addition on the microstructure, X-ray diffraction, and Vickers
hardness, and the abrasive wear behaviour of the developed clads was studied under varying sliding speeds and
grit sizes. Investigation showed that the optimal addition of CeO2 (1 wt.%) can effectively improve the
microstructure, hardness, and abrasive wear behaviour of the coatings. The Vicker’s micro hardness of the
modified coating with 1 wt.% of CeO2 was 30% higher than the unmodified coating. Abrasive wear resistance
of the modified coatings was found higher with an optimal addition of 1 wt.% CeO 2 at varying sliding speeds
and grit sizes.

KEYWORDS: Cerium oxide, cladding, coating, micro-hardness, microstructure, microwave, Ni alloy, tool steel