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Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

for the Symmetric Group

Eric Malm

Thesis Advisor: Michael Orrison

Harvey Mudd College

02 May 2005

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

Overview

1 The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Example

Significance of DFT

2 Group-Theoretic DFTs

Symmetries and Groups

Wedderburn’s Theorem

Generalized DFTs

3 Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Construction of Factorization

4 Computational Results a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

Signal Analysis

The Setup

Suppose we want to analyze some periodic signal f

f HtL

t

1 2

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

Signal Analysis

The Setup

Suppose we want to analyze some periodic signal f

• Pick some full time period of f

f HtL

t

1 2

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

Signal Analysis

The Setup

Suppose we want to analyze some periodic signal f

• Pick some full time period of f

• Take N samples f0 , f1 , . . . , fN-1 of f in this time period

f HtL

t

1

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

æç f0 ö÷

çç ÷

çç f1 ÷÷÷

çç ÷

çç ¶ ÷÷÷

çç ÷÷

èfN-1 ø

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

æç f0 ö÷

çç ÷ N-1

çç f1 ÷÷÷ input 1

çç

çç ¶ ÷÷÷

÷ ----® f̂k = â fj e-2Πijk / N

çç ÷÷ N

j= 0

èfN-1 ø

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

æç f0 ö÷ æç f̂0 ö÷

çç ÷ N-1 çç ÷

çç f1 ÷÷÷ input 1 output çç f̂1 ÷÷÷

çç

çç ¶ ÷÷÷

÷ ----® f̂k = â fj e-2Πijk / N -----® çç

çç ¶ ÷÷÷

÷

çç ÷÷ N çç ÷÷

j= 0 ç ÷

èfN-1 ø f̂

è N-1 ø

• Process f0 , . . . , fN-1 with the Discrete Fourier Transform

• Get N complex numbers f̂0 , . . . f̂N-1 such that

N-1

2Πk 2Πk

f (t ) » â f̂k Kcos t + i sin tO

N N

k =0

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

æç f0 ö÷ æç f̂0 ö÷

çç ÷ N-1 çç ÷

çç f1 ÷÷÷ input 1 output çç f̂1 ÷÷÷

çç

çç ¶ ÷÷÷

÷ ----® f̂k = â fj e-2Πijk / N -----® çç

çç ¶ ÷÷÷

÷

çç ÷÷ N çç ÷÷

j= 0 ç ÷

èfN-1 ø f̂

è N-1 ø

• Process f0 , . . . , fN-1 with the Discrete Fourier Transform

• Get N complex numbers f̂0 , . . . f̂N-1 such that

N-1

2Πk 2Πk

f (t ) » â f̂k Kcos t + i sin tO

N N

k =0

“pure” frequency

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

æç f0 ö÷ æç f̂0 ö÷

çç ÷ N-1 çç ÷

çç f1 ÷÷÷ input 1 output çç f̂1 ÷÷÷

çç

çç ¶ ÷÷÷

÷ ----® f̂k = â fj e-2Πijk / N -----® çç

çç ¶ ÷÷÷

÷

çç ÷÷ N çç ÷÷

j= 0 ç ÷

èfN-1 ø f̂

è N-1 ø

• Process f0 , . . . , fN-1 with the Discrete Fourier Transform

• Get N complex numbers f̂0 , . . . f̂N-1 such that

N-1

2Πk 2Πk

f (t ) » â f̂k Kcos t + i sin tO

N N

k =0

amplitude

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

Example

Example

Our original signal is secretly the sum of three “pure” frequencies:

1

t

1 2

f HtL

2 1

= + t

1

1 2

t

1 2

1

+ t

1 2

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Signal Analysis

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Example

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Significance of DFT

Computational Results

Time-Shift Invariance

Suppose we sampled our signal f over a different time period

• The samples f0 , . . . , fN-1 could be much different

• But the Fourier coefficients f̂0 , . . . , f̂N-1 will not be

The DFT is therefore invariant under translational symmetry

f HtL

t

12 32 a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Symmetries and Groups

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Wedderburn’s Theorem

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Generalized DFTs

Computational Results

Symmetries and Groups

• Different spaces have different symmetries

Space Symmetry

time domain time translations

sphere rotations

lists permutations

A (1 3) C (1 3 2) B (2 3) B

B ---® B ----® A ---® C

C A C A a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Symmetries and Groups

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Wedderburn’s Theorem

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Generalized DFTs

Computational Results

Symmetries and Groups

• Different spaces have different symmetries

• Write symmetries abstractly as groups

time domain time translations Z / NZ

sphere rotations SO(3)

lists permutations Sn

A (1 3) C (1 3 2) B (2 3) B

B ---® B ----® A ---® C

C A C A a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Symmetries and Groups

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Wedderburn’s Theorem

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Generalized DFTs

Computational Results

Group Algebras

Reformulation as Group Algebra

• Treat functions on spaces as functions on groups

• Rewrite functions on group as group algebra elements:

g ÎG

f HtL

t

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Symmetries and Groups

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Wedderburn’s Theorem

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Generalized DFTs

Computational Results

Wedderburn’s Theorem

Theorem (Wedderburn)

The group algebra CG of a finite group G is isomorphic to an algebra

of block diagonal matrices:

h

CG @ Å Cdj ´dj

j= 1

Example (CS3 )

æçê ö÷

çç ÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

CS3 @ C1´1 Å C2´2 Å C1´1 = ççç ÷÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

ç ÷

è êø

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Symmetries and Groups

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Wedderburn’s Theorem

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Generalized DFTs

Computational Results

Any such isomorphism D on CG is a generalized DFT for G

• Coefficients in matrix D(f ): generalized Fourier coefficients

• Blocks along diagonal: smallest CG-invariant spaces in CG

Change of Basis

DFT a change of basis into a symmetry-invariant basis

• Picking standard bases on CG, matrix algebra gives DFT matrix

• Naïve bound of O(|G|2 ) on complexity of DFT evaluation

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Construction of Factorization

Computational Results

Decimation-In-Frequency FFT

• Fix chain of subgroups of G:

corresponding to subgroups

• Goal: Obtain sparse factorization of change-of-basis matrix D

Sn an Ideal Proof-of-Concept Group

Nonabelian, representation theory well understood, natural chain of

subgroups

1 < S2 < S3 < × × × < Sn a·r·t har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Construction of Factorization

Computational Results

Representation Theory of Sn

non-increasing (proper) partition of n

Example (CS3 )

ê ê

CS3 @ IêM Å Kê êO Å IêM

3#

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Construction of Factorization

Computational Results

æçê ö÷

çç ÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

çç ÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

çç ÷÷

è êø

CS3

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Construction of Factorization

Computational Results

and a row/column in matrix

1 2 3

æçê ö÷

çç ÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

çç ÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

çç ÷÷

è êø

1 2

CS3

1

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Construction of Factorization

Computational Results

and a row/column in matrix

1 3

æçê ö÷ 2

çç ÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

çç ÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

çç ÷÷

è êø 1

2

CS3

1

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Construction of Factorization

Computational Results

¯

æçê ö÷

ç ÷

® ççç ê ê ÷÷÷

çç ÷

çç ê ê ÷÷÷

çç ÷÷

è êø

CS3

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Construction of Factorization

Computational Results

Construction of Factorization

• Partial paths give CSn subspaces

• At stage for Sk , project onto

these subspaces

• Build sparse factor from

projections

• Full paths by stage for Sn

ê ê

CS3 @ I ê M Å K O Å IêM

ê ê

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Decimation-In-Frequency FFTs

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Representation Theory of Sn

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Construction of Factorization

Computational Results

Construction of Factorization

• Partial paths give CSn subspaces

• At stage for Sk , project onto

these subspaces

• Build sparse factor from

projections

• Full paths by stage for Sn

ê ê

CS3 @ I ê M Å K O Å IêM

ê ê

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

æç1 1 1 1 1 1 ö÷

çç ÷÷

1 1 1

çç1 -1

çç 2

-2 2

- 12 ÷÷÷÷

çç ÷÷

çç0 0 - 3 3 3

- 32 ÷÷÷÷

çç 2 2 2

çç 1÷

÷

çç0 0 - 1 - 1 1 ÷

çç 2 2 2 2÷ ÷÷

çç 1 1 1 1 ÷÷

çç1 1 - 2

- 2

- 2

- 2÷

÷

çç ÷÷

ç ÷

è1 -1 -1 1 -1 1ø

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

æç11 1

- 21

ö÷ æç1 1 1

ö÷ æç1 1

1 1

ö÷

çç ÷÷ çç ÷÷ çç ÷÷

çç 1 ÷÷ çç 1 -1 ÷÷ çç 1 1÷ ÷÷

çç ÷÷÷ ççç ÷ çç

çç 1 ÷ çç 1 -1÷ ÷÷ çç1 -1 ÷÷

÷÷

çç 1 1÷ ÷ç 1

÷÷ çç 1 -1 ÷÷

ç 2÷ ç ÷ç

è 1 -1 ø è 1 1ø è 1 -1ø

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

Prototype þÿ Implementation

Can compute exact FFT up to n = 6

1

n tnfull tnDIF tnMaslen [1] 2

n(n - 1)

3 4.7 2.7 2.7 3

4 18.8 5.3 5.4 6

5 87.9 8.8 9.1 10

6 486.4 13.8 13.6 15

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

Future Directions

Theory

• Prove O(n2 |Sn |) bounds on operation counts

• Deduce better bases for blocks in factors

• Relate FFT on Sn to FFTs on Sn-1

Implementation

• Improve efficiency of þÿ implementation

• Port to MATLAB or GAP

• Parallelize decimation-in-frequency FFT algorithm

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Group-Theoretic DFTs

Fast Fourier Transforms for Sn

Computational Results

References

[1] David K. Maslen.

The efficient computation of fourier transforms on the symmetric group.

Mathematics of Computation, 67(223):1121–1147, July 1998.

Generalized FFTs - a survey of some recent results.

DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Computer Science, 28:183–237,

1997.

[3] Bruce E. Sagan.

The Symmetric Group: Representations, Combinatorial Algorithms, and

Symmetric Functions.

Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA, 1991.

On The Web

Senior thesis website: Xhttp://www.math.hmc.edu/~emalm/thesis/\

a·r·t

har vey·mudd·college

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