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6.

0 RESULTS

From the experiment, the dimensions of the test samples were measured as follows:

Length, L: 60.00 mm

Width, W: 60.00 mm

a) To find AL (mm) : Dial Gauge x 0.01

b) To find load, P (kN): Dial Gauge x 0.00875

c) To find shear stress : P (kN) / Area

d) To find strain : AL (mm) / total length

Specimen No : 1 ( 125.73 g )

Loading : 1.75 kg

Displacement Proving Ring Shear Stress Strain (%)


(kN/m)
Dial Gauge AL (mm) Dial Gauge Load,P (kN)

20 0.2 11 0.022 6.111 0.003


40 0.4 22 0.045 12.5 0.007
60 0.6 30 0.061 16.944 0.01
80 0.8 40 0.082 22.778 0.013
100 1.0 48 0.098 27.222 0.017
120 1.2 55 0.112 31.111 0.02
140 1.4 61 0.124 34.444 0.023
160 1.6 65 0.133 36.944 0.027
180 1.8 69 0.141 39.167 0.03
200 2.0 70 0.143 39.722 0.03
220 2.2 71 0.145 40.728 0.037
240 2.4 72 0.147 40.833 0.04
260 2.6 75 0.153 42.5 0.043
280 2.8 77 0.157 43.611 0.047
300 3.0 78 0.159 44.167 0.05
320 3.2 76 0.155 43.056 0.053
340 3.4 76 0.155 43.056 0.057
Specimen No : 2 ( 112.48 g )

Loading : 2.5 kg

Displacement Proving Ring Shear stress Strain (%)


(kN/m)
Dial Gauge AL (mm) Dial Gauge Load, P (kN)

20 0.2 20 0.041 11.389 0.003


40 0.4 30 0.061 16.944 0.007
60 0.6 26 0.053 14.722 0.01
80 0.8 42 0.086 23.889 0.013
100 1.0 52 0.106 29.444 0.017
120 1.2 60 0.122 33.889 0.02
140 1.4 67 0.137 38.056 0.023
160 1.6 71 0.145 40.278 0.027
180 1.8 76 0.155 43.056 0.03
200 2.0 78 0.159 44.167 0.03
220 2.2 80 0.163 45.728 0.037
240 2.4 83 0.169 46.944 0.04
260 2.6 88 0.180 50 0.043
280 2.8 90 0.184 51.111 0.047
300 3.0 93 0.190 52.778 0.05
320 3.2 95 0.194 53.889 0.053
340 3.4 98 0.2 55.556 0.057
360 3.6 98 0.2 55.556 0.06
380 3.8 98 0.2 55.556 0.063
Specimen No : 3 ( 123.04 g )

Loading : 3.25 kg

Displacement Proving Ring Shear Stress Strain (%)


(kN/m)
Dial Gauge AL (mm) Dial Gauge Load, P (kN)

20 0.2 0 0 0 0.003
40 0.4 23 0.047 13.056 0.007
60 0.6 66 0.135 37.5 0.01
80 0.8 96 0.196 54.444 0.013
100 1.0 116 0.237 65.833 0.017
120 1.2 129 0.263 73.056 0.02
140 1.4 141 0.288 80 0.023
160 1.6 150 0.306 85 0.027
180 1.8 158 0.322 89.444 0.03
200 2.0 161 0.328 91.111 0.03
220 2.2 166 0.339 94.167 0.037
240 2.4 166 0.339 94.167 0.04
260 2.6 166 0.339 94.167 0.043
7.0 DATA ANALYSIS

7.1. Graph of Shear Stress( y-axis ) versus Strain( x-axis ).

Specimen 1
60
50
40
30
Specimen 1
20
10
0
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

Specimen 2
60

50

40

30
Specimen 2
20

10

0
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Specimen 3
100
90
80
70
60
50
Specimen 3
40
30
20
10
0
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

Figure 7.1 : Graph of Shear stress against Strain for all specimens

7.2 Graph of Shear Stress, versus Normal Stress.

Normal Stress is the element of pressure created when a force acts directly perpendicular to a
surface area. Therefore, its equation can be described as Force / Area , where in this experiment,
the force acting perpendicular equals to the applied loading on the hanger.

1.75𝑘𝑔 𝑥 9.81 𝑚𝑠
For Specimen 1, =
0.06 𝑚 𝑥 0.06𝑚

= 4.769 kNm

2.50 𝑘𝑔 𝑥 9.81 𝑚𝑠
For Specimen 2, =
0.06 𝑚 𝑥 0.06 𝑚

= 6.813 kNm

3.25 𝑘𝑔 𝑥 9.81 𝑚𝑠
For Specimen 3, =
0.06 𝑚 𝑥 0.06 𝑚

= 8.856 kNm
When plotting shear stress against normal stress, the result will be a straight vertical line for all
specimens since the loading does not gradually increase with the same specimen. Therefore, we
use the shear stress value achieved by each specimen when the displacement dial gauge reads
160, to be plotted with the specimens normal stress calculated with their respective weights.

Figure 7.2 : Graph of shear stress against Normal stress for all specimens

From Figure 7.2, it is found that the angel of the gradient of the graph is 36̊ whereas the gradient
line touches the y-axis at a value of 0 kN/m. Therefore experimentally, cohesion, c = 0 kN/m and
the angle of friction = 36. In theory, the cohesion value should be approximately zero because
the sample used in this test is none other than loose and coarse grains, not soil. As such, cohesion
factor rarely exist when sand particles are involved unless under special conditions. There are
random factors which will affect the results such as human limitations, not uniformly compacted
sand and nature of the sand itself and so on. Thus, the results obtained may not be as ideal as one
imagined. Nevertheless, it is still proven through this experiment that sand has little or no
cohesion at all ( c = 0kN/m ).
To calculate the shear strength of the soil/sand, use coulomb’s Law :

Specimen 1 = 0 + 4.796 tan 36̊

= 3.465 kN/m

Specimen 2 = 0 + 6.813 tan 36̊

= 4.950 kN/m

Specimen 3 = 0 + 8.856 tan 36̊

= 6.434 kN/m
8.0 DISCUSSION

8.1. In loose sand, the resisting shear stress increases with shear displacement until a failure
shear stress value is reached. After that, the shear resistance remains approximately constant with
any further increase in the shear displacement. This is clearly visible in figure 7.1.

8.2. In figure 7.2, the line of best fit in the graph intersects the y-axis at a value of 0 KN/m. The
angle of this line measured to the horizontal is 36 degree, simply by using a protractor. We may
say the cohesion property of sand is 0 KN/m in this experiment because in truth, cohesion rarely
exists in a coarse-grained soil such as sand. Hence, we can conclude that the sand has less or
none cohesion properties.

8.3. From the trends of these 3 specimens, it can be deducted that a higher applied load will
enable the sand to reach its maximum shear stress faster. Moreover, a higher load also inevitably
means a higher maximum shear stress. Thus, the larger the load applied on the sand under a
constant strain environment, the greater the maximum shear stress achieved.

8.4. Result may vary for each sample depending on the accuracy and precision of the data
observed. Since obtaining data in this experiment requires manual observation, some
inaccuracies may be contributed by human’s incapability to immediately read the gauge when
required to.

8.5. The benefit of conducting this type of test includes the ease of sample preparation and its
swift and inexpensive procedures. The shear strength parameters of both fine and coarse grained
soils can be obtained either in undisturbed or remolded state.

8.7. However, to every pro there exists con. For instance, drainage cannot be controlled and pore
water pressure cannot be measured. Moreover, the failure plane is always forced horizontally
which is not the weakest plane in the case of in situ conditions.

9.0 CONCLUSION

The aim of this direct shear test is to get the ultimate shear resistance, peak shear
resistance cohesion, angle of shearing resistance and stress-strain characteristics of the soils.
Shear parameters are used in the design of earthen dams and embankments. These are usually
used in calculating the bearing capacity of soil-foundation systems and also help in estimating
the earth pressures behind the retaining walls. The values of these parameters are used in
checking the stability to natural slopes, cuts and fills.
10.0 QUESTIONS AND ANSWER

QUESTION 1

a. Why perforated plate in this test has a tooth ?

 They are required to produce a firm gripping force between the plate and the sand sample
and they are also helpful in distributing the sear stress evenly among the surface of the
specimen.

b. What is the maximum value of displacement before stop the test ?

 When the proving ring readings become constant for three or more times. Besides that,
the maximum value can also be identified when the value suddenly drops or in other
words, the proving ring dial gauge turns the opposite way/reduces.

QUESTION 2

a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a direct shear test ?

 The advantages are it simple to carry out the test and way more inexpensive. Furthermore
the thin sample allows for rapid drainage of fine grained soils.
 The disadvantages are it only for drained conditions. Next, the failure plane forced to
occur at joint in box. Lastly, it will be non-uniform distribution of stress and strain.

b. Why do we fixing screw in this test ? what happens if you do not removed them during test ?

 Fixing screw is used so that shear does not occur before the experiment is conducted. If
there is no fixing screw to counter the applied loading, there will be a hard time
controlling the experiment and eventually, things might go wrongly.