You are on page 1of 121

Machine Tools

and
Digital Manufacturing
(For B.E. Mechanical Engineering Students)

As per New Revised Syllabus of


APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University

Dr. S. Ramachandran, M.E., Ph.D.,


Prof. YVS. Karthik

AIR WALK PUBLICATIONS


(Near All India Radio)
80, Karneeshwarar Koil Street
Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004.
Ph.: 2466 1909, 94440 81904
Email: aishram2006@gmail.com,
airwalk800@gmail.com
www.airwalkpublications.com
First Edition: 8th, July 2017

ISBN:978-93-84893-72-9
Price :

ISBN : 978-93-84893-72-9

and
Syllabus S.1

Syllabus : Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Chapter 1: Theory of Metal Cutting


Introduction to metal cutting: Tool nomenclature – Attributes of each
tool nomenclature – Attributes of feed and tool nomenclature on surface
roughness obtainable, Orthogonal and oblique cutting - Mechanism of metal
removal - Primary and secondary deformation shear zones, Mechanism of
chip formation – Types of chips, need and types of chip breakers – Merchant’s
theory, Analysis of cutting forces in orthogonal cutting – Work done, power
required (simple problems), Friction forces in metal cutting – development of
cutting tool materials, Thermal aspects of machining - Tool wear and wear
mechanisms, Factors affecting tool life - Economics of machining (simple
problems), Cutting fluids.

Chapter 2: General Purpose Machine Tools


General purpose machine tools: Principle and operation of lathe -
Types of lathes and size specification, Work holding parts of lathes and their
functions - Main operations, Taper turning and thread cutting - Attachments,
Feeding mechanisms, Apron mechanisms, Drilling Machines - Types - Work
holding devices, Tool holding devices - Drill machine operations, Drilling
machine tools - Twist drill nomenclature - cutting forces in drilling,

Chapter 3: Reciprocating Machines (or) Other Machine Tools


Reciprocating machines: Shaping machines - Types - Size - Principal
parts - Mechanism, Work holding devices - Operations performed - Tools,
Cutting speed, feed and depth of cut - Machining time. Slotting machines -
Types - Size - Principal parts - Mechanism - Work holding devices,
Operations performed - Tools - Cutting speed, feed and depth of cut, Planing
machines - Types - Size - Principal parts - Mechanism - Work holding
devices, Operations performed - Tools - Cutting speed, feed and depth of cut
- Machining time - Surface roughness obtainable.
S.2 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Chapter 4: Milling Machine


Milling machines - Types - Principal parts - Milling mechanism, Work
holding devices - Milling machine attachments, Types of miling cutters -
Elements of plan milling cutters, Nomenclature - Cutting forces in milling -
Milling cutter materials, Up milling, down milling and face milling operations,
Calculation of machining time, Indexing - Simple indexing - Differential
indexing

Chapter 5: Grinding Machines


Grinding machines - Classification - Operations - Surface, cylindrical
and centreless grinding, Grinding mechanisms - Grinding wheels: Specification
- types of abrasives, grain size, Types of bond, grade, structure - Marking
system of grinding wheels - Selection of grinding wheels, Glazing and loading
of wheels - Dressing and Truing of grinding wheels, surface roughness
obtainable, Superfinishing operations: Lapping operation - Types of hand
lapping - Lapping machines - Types of honing - Methods of honing, Types
of honing stones - Honing conditions - Cutting fluids - Types of broaches -
Force required for broaching - Surface roughness obtainable in lapping, honing
and broaching operations. Semi-automatic machine tools - Turret and capstan
lathes. Automatic machine tools - Single and multi spindle machines.

Chapter 6: Introduction to Digital Manufacturing


Introduction to Digital Manufacturing - Concepts and research and
development status of digital manufacturing. Definition of digital
manufacturing - Features and development of digital manufacturing. Theory
system of digital manufacturing science - Operation Mode and Architecture
of Digital Manufacturing System.Operation reference mode of digital
manufacturing system - Architecture of digital manufacturing system.
Modeling theory and method of digital manufacturing science. Critical
modeling theories and technologies of digital manufacturing science. Theory
system of digital manufacturing science - Basic architecture model of digital
manufacturing system.
Contents C.3

Contents
Chapter 1
Theory of Metal Cutting
1.1 Introduction to Metal Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
1.2 Cutting Tool Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3
1.3 Parts and Nomenclature of Single Point Cutting Tool . . . 1.3
1.4 Tool Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7
1.4.1 Influence of Tool angles in machining . . . . . . . . 1.8
1.5 Methods of Metal Cutting Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.10
1.5.1 Differences between orthogonal and oblique cutting. 1.11
1.6 Mechanism of Metal Removal Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.12
1.6.1 Classification of Metal Removal Processes . . . . . . 1.12
1.6.2 Chip forming Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.12
1.6.3 Turning, Boring and other Lathe Operations . . . . 1.13
1.6.3.1 Machining parameters and related terms in
turning operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.15
1.6.4 Shaping, Planing and Slotting . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.18
1.6.4.1 Machining Parameters in Shaping, Planing . . . 1.20
1.6.5 Drilling and Reaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.21
1.6.5.1 Machining Parameters for Drilling . . . . . . . . . 1.22
1.6.6 Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.22
1.6.6.1 Machining Parameters in Milling . . . . . . . . . 1.25
1.6.7 Broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.26
1.6.8 Thread Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.26
1.6.8.1 Machining Parameters in thread cutting . . . . . 1.27
1.6.9 Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.28
1.6.10 Honing and Lapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.29
1.6.11 Gear Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.29
1.7 Primary and Secondary Deformation Shear Zones . . . . . 1.30
1.8 Mechanism of Chip Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.32
1.8.1 Types of Chips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.32
1.8.1.1 Variables affecting type of chip . . . . . . . . . . 1.33
C.4 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1.8.1.2 Continuous Chips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.33


1.8.1.3 Continuous Chips with Built up Edges. . . . . . . 1.34
1.8.1.4 Discontinuous Chips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.35
1.8.1.5 Chip Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.38
1.8.2 Geometry of Chip Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.39
1.8.2.1 Velocity Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.40
1.8.2.2 Shear Plane angle  and chip Thickness ratio . 1.41
1.8.2.3 Force Analysis in Metal Cutting . . . . . . . . . 1.43
1.8.2.4 Force analysis in orthogonal cutting (Merchant
Circle diagram and Theory) . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.45
1.8.2.5 Power and workdone required in cutting process 1.50
1.8.2.6 Stress and Strain in Chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.51
1.8.2.7 Shear Strain in Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.52
1.8.2.8 Energy in cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.54
1.9 Development of Cutting Tool Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.54
1.9.1 Desirable Properties of Cutting Tools . . . . . . . . 1.55
1.9.2 Types of Cutting Tool Materials . . . . . . . . . . . 1.57
1.10 Thermal Aspects of Machining Tool Wear and Wear
Mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.63
1.10.1 Tool Wear Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.65
1.10.1.1 Shearing at High Temperature . . . . . . . . . . 1.65
1.10.1.2 Diffusion Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.66
1.10.1.3 Adhesive Wear (Attrition Wear) . . . . . . . . . 1.66
1.10.1.4 Abrasive Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.67
1.10.1.5 Fatigue Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.68
1.10.1.6 Electrochemical Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.69
1.10.1.7 Oxidation Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.69
1.10.1.8 Chemical decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.69
1.10.2 Types of Tool Damage in Cutting . . . . . . . . . . 1.69
1.10.3 Tool Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.72
1.10.4 Measurement of Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.72
1.11 Tool Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.72
1.11.1 Tool failure Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.73
Contents C.5

1.11.2 Factors affecting Tool Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.74


1.11.3 Economics of Machining - Machining Cost . . . . 1.78
1.11.4 Machinability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.79
1.11.4.1 Factors affecting machinability . . . . . . . . . . 1.79
1.11.5 Surface finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.80
1.11.5.1 Factors affecting surface finish . . . . . . . . . . 1.81
1.11.5.2 Measurement of Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.82
1.11.5.3 Specification of Surface Roughness . . . . . . . . 1.84
1.12 Cutting Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.85
1.12.1 Functions of cutting fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.85
1.12.2 Properties of Good Cutting fluid . . . . . . . . . . 1.85
1.12.3 Types of Cutting Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.86
1.12.4 Composition of Cutting Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.87
1.12.5 Method of applying cutting fluid . . . . . . . . . . 1.89
1.13 Solved Problems On Cutting Forces, Work Done and
Power Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.89
Chapter 2
General Purpose Machine Tools
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
2.1.1 Principle and operation of Lathe . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
2.2 Types of Lathes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
2.2.1 Speed lathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
2.2.2 Engine lathe or Centre lathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
2.2.3 Bench Lathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
2.2.4 Tool room lathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
2.2.5 Special purpose lathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
2.2.6 Capstan and Turret lathes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
2.2.7 Automatic lathes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
2.2.8 Numerically controlled lathes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
2.3 Size and Specification of A Centre Lathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6
2.4 Centre Lathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
2.4.1 Constructional features of centre lathe . . . . . . . . 2.7
C.6 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

2.4.1.1 Bed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7


2.4.1.2 Head stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10
2.4.1.3 Tail stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11
2.4.1.4 Carriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11
2.5 Lathe Accessories and Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.17
2.5.1 Lathe Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.17
2.6 Lathe Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.28
2.6.1 Centering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.28
2.6.2 Plain or Straight Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.29
2.6.3 Shoulder Turning (or) Step turning . . . . . . . . . 2.31
2.6.4 Taper Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.31
2.6.5 Eccentric Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.32
2.6.6 Cam Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.33
2.6.7 Chamfering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.33
2.6.8 Facing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.34
2.6.9 Knurling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.34
2.6.10 Filing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.35
2.6.11 Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.36
2.6.12 Grooving or Necking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.36
2.6.13 Parting-Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.37
2.6.14 Spinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.38
2.6.15 Spring Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.38
2.6.16 Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.38
2.6.17 Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.39
2.6.18 Reaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.39
2.6.19 Boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.40
2.6.20 Counter boring, counter sinking and spot- facing . 2.41
2.6.21 Tapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.41
2.6.22 Under cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.42
2.6.23 Taper boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.42
2.6.24 Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.42
2.6.25 Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.42
Contents C.7

2.7 Taper Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.43


2.7.1 Taper turning by using a form tool . . . . . . . . . 2.43
2.7.2 Compound rest swiveling method . . . . . . . . . . . 2.44
2.7.3 Set over or tailstock offset Method: . . . . . . . . . 2.45
2.7.4 Taper turning attachment method . . . . . . . . . . 2.46
2.7.5 Template and tracer attachment . . . . . . . . . . . 2.48
2.7.6 Combination of longitudinal and cross feed . . . . . 2.48
2.8 Thread Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.49
2.8.1 Change Gear Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.50
2.8.2 Types of Gear connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.51
2.8.3 Metric Thread on English Lead Screw . . . . . . . 2.54
2.8.4 Procedure for cutting external thread . . . . . . . . 2.56
2.8.5 Cutting Internal thread procedure . . . . . . . . . . 2.60
2.8.6 Cutting Left hand threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.61
2.8.7 Cutting Tapererd threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.61
2.8.8 Square thread cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.61
2.8.9 Cutting Multiple Start threads . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.62
2.9 Feed Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.62
2.9.1 End Gear Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.63
2.9.2 Feed gear box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.65
2.9.3 Feed rod and Lead screw Drive Mechanism . . . . 2.66
2.9.4 Apron mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.67
2.9.4.1 Half nut mechanism (Thread cutting mechanism) 2.68
2.9.5 Head stock mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.69
2.9.5.1 Belt drive - cone pulleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.69
2.9.5.2 Back gear arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.70
2.10 Drilling Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.73
2.10.1 Types - Classification of drilling machine . . . . . 2.73
2.10.2 Specification of drilling machine . . . . . . . . . . 2.81
2.10.3 Feed mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.82
2.10.4 Drill machine operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.83
2.10.5 Drilling Machine Tools - Twist drill nomenclature 2.87
C.8 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

2.10.6 Drill (Tool) holding devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.90


2.10.7 Work holding devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.92
2.10.8 Drilling machine tools - Reaming tools . . . . . . . 2.93
2.10.9 Tapping tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.95
2.10.10 Drilling parameters - Calculations . . . . . . . . . 2.98
2.10.11 Machining time and Power calculation . . . . . 2.100
2.11 Solved Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.104
Chapter - 3
Reciprocating Machines (or) Other Machine Tools
3.1 Reciprocating Machine Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
3.2 Shaping Machine (or) Shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
3.2.1 Working Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
3.2.2 Types of shapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
3.2.3 Crank shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3
3.2.4 Geared type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3
3.2.5 Hydraulic shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3
3.2.6 Horizontal shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
3.2.7 Vertical shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
3.2.8 Travelling head shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
3.2.9 Standard shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
3.2.10 Universal shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
3.2.11 Push cut type shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
3.2.12 Draw cut type shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
3.3 Principal Parts of A Shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
3.4 Shaper Drive Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
3.5 Feed Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13
3.6 Work Holding Devices in Shaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14
3.7 Shaper Operations Performed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17
3.8 Shaper Tools (Shaper Cutting Tools) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.19
3.9 Shaper Cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut . . . . . . . . 3.22
3.10 Planing Machine (or) Planer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.24
Contents C.9

3.10.1 Types of Planer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.24


3.11 Planer Size and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.28
3.12 Principal Parts of A Planer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.28
3.13 Driving Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.31
3.14 Electrical Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.33
3.14.1 Advantages of Electrical Drive . . . . . . . . . . . 3.34
3.15 Types of Planing Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.34
3.16 Planer Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.36
3.16.1 Workholding devices in planer . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.37
3.16.2 Planing - Cutting speed, Feed and Depth of cut . 3.37
3.17 Slotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.38
3.17.1 Principle parts of the slotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.38
3.17.2 Slotter operation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.39
3.18 Types of Slotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.40
3.18.1 Specification of slotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.41
3.19 Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.41
3.20 Feed Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.43
3.21 Work Holding Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.44
3.22 Slotter Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.46
3.23 Slotter Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.46
3.24 Surface Roughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.48
3.24.1 Measurement of Ra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.49
3.24.2 Factors Affecting the surface finish . . . . . . . . . 3.50

Chapter 4
Milling Machine
4.1 Milling Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
4.2 Milling Machines and Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
4.3 Principal Parts of Milling Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
4.4 Size and Specification of Milling Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
C.10 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

4.5 Work Holding Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11


4.6 Cutter Holding Device (or) Tool Holding Device . . . . . . . 4.16
4.7 Milling Machine Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.17
4.8 Milling Cutters - Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18
4.9 Nomenclature Elements of Plain Milling Cutter . . . . . . . 4.23
4.9.1 Cutter Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.25
4.9.2 Milling cutter materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.26
4.10 Fundamentals of The Milling Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.27
4.11 Milling Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.29
4.12 Milling-cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut . . . . . . . 4.33
4.13 Indexing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.34

Chapter - 5
Grinding Machines
5.1 Grinding Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
5.2 Principle Operations of Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
5.3 Classification of Grinding Machines and Processes . . . . . . 5.2
5.3.1 Rough grinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
5.3.2 Precision grinding machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7
5.3.3 Cylindrical grinding (centre type) machines . . . . . 5.7
5.3.3.1 Plain centre type grinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
5.3.3.2 Universal centre type grinder . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
5.3.3.3 Plunge-centre type grinding machine . . . . . . . 5.13
5.3.4 Centre-less type grinding machines . . . . . . . . . . 5.13
5.3.4.1 Principle of working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.14
5.3.4.2 Methods of centreless grinding . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15
5.3.4.3 Advantages of centreless grinding over
cylindrical grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.17
5.3.5 Internal Grinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.17
5.3.6 Surface grinding machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.21
5.3.7 Tool and cutter grinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.24
Contents C.11

5.3.8 Special grinding machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.27


5.4 Abrasive Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.28
5.5 Abrasives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.29
5.5.1 Natural Abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.31
5.5.2 Artificial Abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.32
5.5.3 Abrasive grain size or Grit Number and Geometry . 5.34
5.6 Grinding Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.36
5.7 Grinding Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.38
5.7.1 Characteristics of Grinding wheel . . . . . . . . . . 5.38
5.7.1.1 Type of abrasive used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.38
5.7.1.2 Grain size or Grit size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.38
5.7.1.3 Wheel Grade and Hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.38
5.7.1.4 Grain spacing or structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.39
5.7.1.5 Type of Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.40
5.8 Specification and Selection of Grinding Wheel . . . . . . . . . 5.45
5.8.1 Standard marking system of Grinding wheel . . . . 5.45
5.8.2 Selection of Grinding wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.46
5.8.2.1 Constant factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.46
5.8.2.2 Variable factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.48
5.8.2.3 Other Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.48
5.9 Glazing, Loading and Gumming of Grinding Wheels . . . 5.49
5.10 Dressing and Truing of Grinding Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.50
5.11 Microfinishing Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.53
5.11.1 Honing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.54
5.11.1.1 Honing tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.54
5.11.1.2 Honing machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.55
5.11.1.3 Advantages of Honing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.55
5.11.1.4 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.56
5.11.1.5 Methods of honing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.56
5.11.1.6 Honing conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.56
5.11.2 Lapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.57
5.11.2.1 Methods of lapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.58
5.11.2.2 Types of lapping operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.61
C.12 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

5.11.2.3 Advantages of lapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.61


5.11.2.4 Application of lapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.61
5.11.3 Super finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.61
5.11.3.1 Principle of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.62
5.11.3.2 Factors controlling surface finish . . . . . . . . . 5.62
5.11.3.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.63
5.12 Buffing and Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.63
5.12.1 Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.63
5.13 Types of Honing Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.64
5.14 Cutting Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.65
5.15 Parameters in Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.67
5.16 Broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.68
5.16.1 Types of broaching operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.68
5.16.2 Force required for broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.69
5.16.3 Calculating the cutting forces . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.70
5.16.4 Surface roughness obtainable in lapping, honing
and broaching operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.70
5.17 Capstan and Turret Lathe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.70
5.17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.70
5.17.2 Capstan and Turret lathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.71
5.17.2.1 Principle parts of Capstan and Turret lathe . . 5.72
5.17.3 Types of Turret Lathes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.76
5.17.4 Difference between Capstan - Turret lathe and
Engine Lathe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.77
5.17.5 Difference between Capstan and Turret lathe . . . 5.78
5.17.6 Size and specification of Turret Lathe . . . . . . . 5.79
5.17.7 Work holding devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.80
5.17.8 Tool holding devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.82
5.17.9 Turret Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.89
5.17.10 Tooling layout for Capstan and Turret Lathes . . 5.89
5.18 AUTOMATS Automatic Machine Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.90
5.18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.90
Contents C.13

5.18.2 Classification of Automatic lathes . . . . . . . . . . 5.91


5.18.3 Single spindle chucking automatics . . . . . . . . . 5.92
5.18.4 Cutting off Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.94
5.18.5 Swiss type Automatics or Sliding Headstock
Automatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.95
5.18.6 Automatic Screw Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.98
5.18.7 Multiple Spindle Automatics . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.100
5.18.7.1 Multi-spindle bar automatics . . . . . . . . . . . 5.101
5.18.8 Advantages of Automatic Lathes . . . . . . . . . 5.102
5.18.9 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.102
Chapter - 6
Introduction to Digital Manufacturing
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
6.2 Concepts and Research and Development Status of
Digital Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
6.2.1 Definition of Digital Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . 6.2
6.2.2 Features and Development of Digital Manufacturing 6.4
6.3 Basic Concept of Digital Manufacturing Science . . . . . . . . 6.6
6.4 Theory System of Digital Manufacturing Science . . . . . . . 6.7
6.4.1 Operation Mode and Architecture of Digital
Manufacturing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7
6.4.2 Operation reference mode of digital manufacturing
system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7
6.4.3 Architecture of Digital Manufacturing System . . . 6.10
6.5 Modeling Theory and Method of Digital Manufacturing
Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.13
6.5.1 Modeling Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.13
6.5.2 Critical modeling theories and technologies in
digital manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.15
6.5.2.1 Generalised Modeling Theory and Method . . . . 6.15
6.5.3 Modeling Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.18
6.5.3.1 IDEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.18
C.14 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

6.5.3.2 IDEF0 (Function Modeling) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.19


6.5.3.3 IDEF1X (Information Modeling) . . . . . . . . . . 6.20
6.5.3.4 GRAI Modeling Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.21
6.5.3.5 GRAI Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.22
6.5.3.6 GRAI Net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.22
6.5.3.7 Petri Net Modeling method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.24
6.5.3.8 Object-Oriented Modeling Method . . . . . . . . . 6.25
6.6 Theory System of Digital Manufacturing Science . . . . . . 6.27
6.6.1 Basic Architecture Model of Digital Manufacturing
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.27
6.6.2 Definition of Digital Manufacturing System . . . . . 6.27
6.6.3 Organization Model of DM System . . . . . . . . . . 6.32
6.6.3.1 Alternative Competence Team (ACT) . . . . . . . 6.33
6.6.3.2 Virtual Working Team (VWT) . . . . . . . . . . . 6.33
6.6.3.3 Virtual Affairs Cooperative Center (VACC) . . . . 6.33
6.6.4 Function Model of Digital Manufacturing System . 6.33
6.6.5 Information Model of Digital manufacturing system 6.35
6.6.6 Operation and Control Model of DM system . . . . 6.37
6.6.7 Theory system of Digital Manufacturing Science . . 6.38
Chapter 1
Theory of Metal Cutting

Introduction to metal cutting: Tool nomenclature – Attributes of each


tool nomenclature – Attributes of feed and tool nomenclature on surface
roughness obtainable, Orthogonal and oblique cutting - Mechanism of metal
removal - Primary and secondary deformation shear zones, Mechanism of
chip formation – Types of chips, need and types of chip breakers – Merchant’s
theory, Analysis of cutting forces in orthogonal cutting – Work done, power
required (simple problems), Friction forces in metal cutting – development of
cutting tool materials, Thermal aspects of machining - Tool wear and wear
mechanisms, Factors affecting tool life - Economics of machining (simple
problems), Cutting fluids.

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO METAL CUTTING


A metal cutting process involves workpiece, tool (including holding
devices), chips and cutting fluid. For removing the metal, a wedge shaped
tool is considered stationary and the work piece moves to the right. The area
of metal in front of tool gets compressed causing high temperature shear. The
stress in workpiece just ahead of the cutting tool reaches ultimate strength
and particles shears to form chip elements. Fig 1.1 (a) shows position of tool
in relation to work in order to cut metal. There are three basic angles of
importance-rake angle, clearance angle and setting angle.
R ake Angle( )

Se tting
C hip Too l An gle
Sh ea r Plane
II
A
I
W ork C le arance
B A ngle( )
Sh ea r
III
D epth of A ngle( )
C ut
Fig. 1.1 (a) Po sition of too l in relation to w o rk.
1.2 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

The outward or shearing movement of each successive is arrested by


work hardening and the movement is transferred to the next element. The
process is continuous and repetitive to give continuous chip which is
compressed, burnished and slightly serrated top side caused by shearing action.
The place of element shearing is called shear plane. Thus chip is
formed by plastic deformation of grain structure of metal along the shear
plane. The deformation occurs along a narrow band across the shear plane.
The structure begins elongating along AB below shear plane and
continue elongating till it completely deforms along the line CD above shear
plane as shown in Fig 1.1 (b) and chip is born.
The region between AB and CD is called shear
zone or primary deformation zone. C h ip

Actually lines AB and CD are not Too l


C
parallel and may produce wedge-shape which is D
A
thicker near the tool face at the right than at B
the left. Fig.1.1 (b) Shear zone
during metal cutting
Because of this, Curling of the chip
occurs in metal cutting. Also the non uniform
distribution of the forces at the chip-tool interface and on the shear plane,
the shear plane is curved slightly downward causing curling of the chip from
the cutting face of tool.

Observations in any cutting operation


 Metal is cut by removal of chips either continuous ribbon or
discontinuous chips. Chip is thicker than the actual depth of cut
and correspondingly shortened.
 Hardness of chip is greater than the hardness of parent material
 There is no flow of metal at right angles to direction of flow.
 Flow lines on side and back of chip indicates shearing mechanism.
Front surface is smooth due to burnishing action.
 Lot of heat is generated in the process of cutting due to friction
between the chip and tool. Friction can be reduced by using sharp
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.3

cutting edge, good tool finish, good tool geometry, using cutting
fluid etc.
 In front of cutting tool point, generally no crack is observed. Due
to strain hardening, the hardness of metal in chip, the built up
edge and near the finished surface is usually greater than that for
the metal.
 Sometimes a built up edge is formed at the tip of the tool and it
significantly alters the cutting process. It deteriorates the surface
finish and rate of tool wear is increased.

1.2 CUTTING TOOL NOMENCLATURE


 To perform cutting operations satisfactorily the tool bit or tool is
provided with various angles known as basic tool angles and
compose what is often termed as tool geometry.
 Tool signature for a single point cutting tool is a sequence of
numbers listing the various angles in degrees and the nose radius.

1.3 PARTS AND NOMENCLATURE OF SINGLE POINT


CUTTING TOOL
The various parts of a single point cutting tool are shank, neck, face,
base, heel, cutting edge or lip flank, point, height and width. A single point
tool is shown in Fig 1.2.

Attributes of Tool Nomenclature (Parts of Single Point Cutting Tool)

Shank : Shank is the main body of the tool at one end of which the
cutting portion is formed.
Neck : The portion which is reduced in section to form necessary
cutting edges and angles is called the neck.
Face : Face of the tool is the surface across which the chips travel
as they are formed and is visible to the operator when looking
down at the top from above.
Base : Base is the surface on which the tool rests.
1.4 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

E n d C uttin g E d ge A n g le

N o se A n gle

C u tting S ide cuttin g


Fa ce
E d ge E d ge A n g le

(a) N e ck S h an k

S ide
R a ke w id th
A n gle Fa ce B a ck R ake A ng le
P o in t

Flan k
H e ig ht L ip
A n gle

H e el
(b) B a se
S ide
E n d R elie f C le a ran ce
R e lie f (c)
A ng le A ng le
A ng le

Fig 1.2 Sin gle p oin t c uttin g tool

Heel : Heel also known as lower face is the horizontal surface at


the end of the base in the neck portion which do not
participate in cutting process.
Cutting : Cutting edge or lip is the portion of the face edge along which
edge the chip is separated from the workpiece.

Standard Angles of Single Point Cutting Tool


These are angles which depend upon the shape of tool. These are
described below.
(i) Side rake angle: Side rake angle is the angle by which the face of the
tool is inclined side-ways whereas the back rack angle is the angle by which
the face of the tool is inclined towards back.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.5

The side rake angle is the angle between the S ide


tool face and a line parallel to its base and R a ke w id th
A n gle
measured in a plane right angles to the base and
at right angles to the centre line of the point of
the tool (side cutting edge). It varies between 0 H e ig ht

to 22.
The side rack angle of a tool determines the
(b )
tool thickness behind the cutting edge. Fig. 1.2 S ide
R e lie f
(ii) Back rake angle: Back rake angle is the A n g le
angle between the face of the tool and a line
parallel to the base of the shank in a plane parallel to the centre line of the
point (or parallel to the side cutting edge) and at right angles to the base.
If the inclination of face
Fa ce
backwards is downwards, the back P o in t
B a ck R ake A ng le

rake angle is positive, and if the


slope is upwards, then the angle is L ip
Flan k

negative. A n gle

This angle helps in turning


H e el
B a se
the chip away from the work piece.
E n d R elie f C lea ran ce (c)
Back rake angle affects the A ng le A ng le
Fig. 1.2
direction of chip flow. Tool life
increases and cutting force is reduced by increasing back rake angle.
Increasing the rake angle facilitates easy flow of chip which increases
tool life, improves surface finish and reduces cutting force. Increasing rake
angle also minimizes size and effect of built up edges, cutting temperature,
cutting force and power consumption. As a result better surface is obtained.
Higher rake angle makes the point weak which may induce tool chatter. It
varies between 0 to 35 for various applications.
(iii) End relief angle: End relief angle is provided on tool to provide
clearance between the workpiece and the tool so as to prevent the rubbing
of workpiece with end flake of tool. It is the angle between the surface of
1.6 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

the flank immediately below the point and a line drawn from the point
perpendicular to the base.
Excessive relief angle reduces the strength of tool, therefore, it should
not be too large. Generally its value varies from 6 to 10
(iv) Side relief angle: Side relief angle is provided on the tool to provide
clearance between its flank and the workpiece surface. It is the angle between
the surface of the flank immediately below the point and a plane at right
angles to the centre line of the point of the tool. This angle must be large
enough for turning operations to allow for feed helix angle on the shoulder
of workpiece.
(v) End cutting edge angle: It
E n d C uttin g E d ge A n gle
provides clearance between the tool
cutting edge and workpiece, and the N o se A n gle
side cutting edge angle is
responsible for turning the chip S ide cuttin g
C u tting
away from the finished surface. Side E d ge Fa ce
E d ge A n gle

cutting edge angle is the angle


N e ck
between the straight cutting edge on S h an k

the side of the tool and side of the Fig. 1.2 (a)

tool shank. It provides the major


cutting action and should, therefore, be kept as sharp as possible. Too much
of this angle causes chatter. It’s value varies from 0 to 30.
(vi) Nose Angle: It is the angle between the side cutting edge and the end
cutting edge.
(vii) Nose radius: It is provided to remove the fragile corner of the tool.
It increases the tool life and improves surface finish.
(viii) Clearance angle: It is the angle between the portion of the flank
adjacent to the base and the plane perpendicular to the base. This angle
provides free-cutting action, minimises tool forces and decreases cutting
temperature. Excessive clearance angle may cause chatter and excessive tool
wear.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.7

(ix) Lip Angle: It is the angle between the tool face and the ground end
surface of flank. It is usually between 60 and 80

1.4 TOOL SIGNATURE


Tool signature is numerical method of identification of tool
standardized by American Standards Association (ASA) according to which
the seven elements comprising signature of a single point tool are always
stated in the following order:
E n d C uttin g E d ge A n gle
(i) Back rake angle
(ii) Side rake angle N o se A n gle

(iii) End relief angle S ide cuttin g


C u tting Fa ce
E d ge A n gle
(iv) Side relief angle E d ge

(v) End cutting edge angle N e ck S h an k

Fig. 1.2 (a)


(vi) Side cutting edge angle, and
(vii) Nose radius.
Symbols of degrees of angles and units for nose radius are omitted
and only numerical values of those components are indicated.
Example: A tool specified with the following as per ASA
8-16-7-7-8-16-6 has the following angles.
8 Back rake angle, 16 side rake, 7 end relief, 7 side relief, 8 end
cutting edge, 16 side cutting edge angles and 6 mm nose radius.

Tool Signature 8 16 7 7 8 16 6 mm
Back rake Angle
Side rake Angle
End relief Angle
Side relief Angle
End Cutting edge Angle
Side cutting edge Angle
Nose radius
1.8 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1.4.1 Influence of Tool angles in machining


1. Rake Angle
Rake angle has the following functions.
 Helps in flow of chip in convenient direction.
 Reduces cutting force and helps to increase tool life and reduce
power consumption.
 Improves surface finish.
Amount of Rake angle to be given depends upon the following parameters.
 Type of material being cut: Small rake angle is given for harder
material and large rake angle is given for soft material.
 Type of Tool Material used: High speed tools (eg. cemented
carbide) are given minimum or negative rake angle to increase tool
strength.
 Depth of Cut: Higher the depth of cut lower should be rake angle.
Smaller depth of cut have high rake angle tools.
 Rigidity of the tool holder and condition of machine: An
improperly supported tool and old machine should have tool with
large rake angle to reduce cutting pressure.
Rake angle may be positive, zero or negative as shown in Fig 1.3.

R
R

T T T

Fig. 1.3. P ositive, zero and negative rake


R -Rake, T -Thru st

A tool has positive rake when the face of tool slopes away from the
cutting edges and slants towards the back or side of the tool.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.9

A tool has zero rake when the face of tool has no slope and in the
same plane or parallel to upper surface of shank. Turning brass usually have
zero rake tools. Zero rake increases strength of tool and prevents cutting edge
from digging into the work.
A tool has negative rake when the face of the tool slopes away from
the cutting edge and slants upwards towards the back or side of tool. It is
used in turning metal with cemented carbide tipped tool in mass production.

Advantages of negative rake angle


 Point of application of cutting force is changed from weak to
stronger section.
 Can work at very high speed.
 Increases tool life and reduces tool wear.
 Increases lip angle and hence permits higher depth of cut.

2. Clearance angle
Clearance angle prevents the flank from rubbing against the surface of
work allowing only cutting edge to come in contact with the workpiece.
Front clearance angle prevents front flank of tool from rubbing work
piece. It is large for large work diameter.
Side clearance angle prevents the side of the tool from rubbing work
when longitudinal feed is given. Larger feed requires large side clearance
angle.

3. Nose radius
 Nose radius clears feed marks caused by previous shearing action.
 It increases strength of cutting edge and hence increase tool life.
 High heat dissipation.

4. Side cutting edge angle


 Increases tool life and force distribution on wider surface.
 Helps in greater cutting speed.
 Improves surface finish and quickly dissipates heat
 Usually its value is 15
1.10 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

5. End Cutting edge Angle


It is given to prevent the trailing front cutting edge of tool from
rubbing against work piece. Its value varies between 8 to 15. High value
of this, weakens tools.

6. Lip Angle
Lip angle influences the strength of cutting edge. Lip angle directly
depends upon rake clearance angle. Large lip angle helps in machining harder
metals, giving high depth of cut, increases tool life and improves dissipation
of heat.

1.5 METHODS OF METAL CUTTING PROCESSES


Metal Cutting processes are generally classified into two types.
(i) Orthogonal cutting process (Two dimensional)
(ii) Oblique cutting process (Three dimensional)
Orthogonal cutting
process is one in which D epth of cut
the cutting face of the
tool is 90 to the line of
action or path of the tool.
In other words, the edge
of tool is perpendicular
R ake Feed
to the cutting velocity Feed
R ake
vector as shown in Fig. 90
o
Knife edge 60
o
R oug hing
1.4 (a)
(a) O rtho gon al (b) O blique
Oblique cutting process
is one in which the Fig. 1.4. O rth ogo nal and O blique cuttin g
cutting face is inclined at
an angle less than 90 to the path of the tool, the cutting action is known
as oblique as shown in Fig 1.4 (b)
Fig 1.5 shows the chip flow in orthogonal and oblique cutting. In
orthogonal cutting the chip coils in a tight, flat spiral where as in oblique
cutting the chip flows sideways in a long curl. Angle’s i and nc are of
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.11

a
b
nc

ip
Ch
o c
o
i
c

v
rk
d

wo
v

(a) O rtho go nal (b) O blique (c) O bliqu e

Fig. 1.5. D irection o f chip flo w in orth ogo nal


and oblique cu tting.

importance in oblique cutting. In orthogonal cutting i  0 & nc  0. Orthogonal


cutting is used for knife turning, broaching and slotting where as bulk
machining is done by oblique cutting.

1.5.1 Differences between orthogonal and oblique cutting.

S.
Orthogonal Cutting Oblique Cutting
No.
1. The cutting edge of the tool The cutting edge of the tool
remains at 90 to the direction of remains inclined at an acute angle
feed (of the tool or the work) to direction of feed.
2. The chip flows in a direction The chip flow is not normal but
normal to the cutting edge of the at an angle  to the normal to
tool. the cutting edge.
3. The cutting edge clears the width The cutting edge may or may not
of the work piece on either ends. clear the width of the workpiece.
4. Only two components of cutting Three components of cutting force
force which are perpendicular to perpendicular to each other acts on
each other are acting on tool. the tool.
5. Maximum chip thickness occurs at Maximum chip thickness may not
the middle. occur at middle.,
1.12 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

S.
Orthogonal Cutting Oblique Cutting
No.
6. The shear force acts on a smaller The shear force acts on a large
area, so shear force per unit area area, hence shear force per unit
is more. area is smaller.
7. Tool life is smaller than that in Tool life is higher than orthogonal
oblique cutting. cutting.
8. The cutting edge is bigger than the The cutting edge is smaller than
width of cut. the width of cut.

1.6 MECHANISM OF METAL REMOVAL PROCESSES


Metal removal process is a manufacturing process by which a work
piece is given (i) a desired shape (ii) a desired size and (iii) a desired
surface finish.
To achieve one or all of these, the excess material from the work piece
is removed in the form of chips with the help of some properly shaped and
sized tools. The metal removal processes are chip forming processes.

1.6.1 Classification of Metal Removal Processes


Metal removal processes are broadly classified into two categories.
(i) Chip forming (Metal Cutting / Removal) Processes: Examples
are Turning, Boring, Shaping, Planing, Slotting, Drilling, Reaming,
Milling, Broaching, Thread Cutting, Grinding, Honing, Gear
cutting etc.,
(ii) Chipless Forming Processes: Examples are Rolling, Spinning,
Forging, Extrusion, Stamping etc.,

1.6.2 Chip forming Processes


Chip forming processes are manufacturing processes in which the
desired shape, size and surface finish of work piece is obtained by separating
layer from parent workpiece in the form of chips, whereas in chipless forming
processes no chips are formed.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.13

1.6.3 Turning, Boring and other Lathe Operations


Traditional machining operations like turning, boring, facing, grooving,
thread cutting, drilling, chamfering etc are carried out on a machine tool called
Lathe. Lathe is one of the most important machine in any workshop. Its
main objective is to remove material from outside by rotating the work against
a cutting tool. The various Lathe Operations are discussed as below.
Turning: Turning is a machining operation for generating external surfaces
of revolution (cone-shaped or cylindrical shaped) on the workpiece. In turning,
work is rotated where as tool has a linear motion, parallel to the axis of the
work. In this operation, the work is held either in the chuck or between
centers and the longitudinal feed is given to the tool either by hand or power.
Turning operation is shown in Fig. 1.6. The turning operation in which there
are steps on the work is called step turning as shown in Fig 1.7

C h uck C h uck
C h uck
W ork

W ork W ork

Fig 1.6 Plain turn ing Fig 1.7 Step turning Fig 1.8 Facing

Facing: When the feed motion of the tool is axial i.e parallel to the work
piece axis, a cylindrical surface is generated. If on the other hand, feed motion
is radial (normal to the axis of rotation), an end face or shoulder is produced.
This operation is called facing as shown in Fig. 1.8.
Boring: Boring is a machining operation for generating internal surface of
revolution i.e., it is an operation of enlarging of a hole already made in
workpiece with the help of a single point tool called boring tool. Boring tool
is held in the tool post and fed into the work by hand or power by movement
of carriage. Boring is shown in Fig. 1.9
1.14 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

C h uck C h uck

W ork W ork

B o rin g to ol D rill

Fig 1.9 Boring Fig 1.10 Drilling

Drilling: Drilling is an operation of making a hole in a workpiece with the


help of a drill. In this operation, the work piece is held in the chuck and
drill is held in the tail stock. The drill is fed manually into the rotating
workpiece by rotating the tailstock hand wheel. Drilling is shown in Fig.
1.10.
Reaming: Reaming is an operation of finishing the previously drilled hole.
In this operation as shown in Fig. 1.11, a reamer tool is held in tail stock
and it is fed into the hole in the similar way as for drilling.
Undercutting or Grooving: It is an operation of making a groove on the
body of work, by feeding the tool perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece.
In this operation as shown in Fig 1.12, a tool of appropriate shape is fed

C h uck
C h uck
W ork
W ork
R e am e r

Too l

Fig 1.11 R eam ing Fig 1.12 U nder cutting


Theory of Metal Cutting 1.15

into the rotating work piece upto the desired depth at right angles to the
centre line of the work piece.
Threading: It is an operation of cutting helical grooves (threads) on the
external cylindrical surface of workpiece as shown in Fig. 1.13. The work is
held in a chuck or between centers and the threading tool (V-tool) is fed
longitudinally to the rotating workpiece. The longitudinal feed is equal to the
pitch of the thread to be cut.

W ork

W ork

Th re ad in g V -To o l K n urlin gTo ol

Fig 1.13 T hread ing Fig 1.14 K nurling

Knurling: Knurling is a process of impressing diamond shaped or straight


line pattern on to the surface of a work piece. The diamond shaped pattern
or impressions are called knurls. In this operation, a knurled tool is moved
longitudinally to a rotating workpiece. The projection on the knurled tool
reproduces depressions on the work surface as shown in Fig. 1.14.

1.6.3.1 Machining parameters and related terms in turning operation


The different machining parameters or variables in turning are
discussed below (Refer Fig. 1.15)
Cutting speed (V): Cutting speed is the relative velocity between work piece
and cutting edge of tool responsible for cutting action. It is given by
relationship
1.16 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

D irection of ro tatio n

W ork pie ce

Po sition of Tool at sta rt s


Po sition of Tool after
f
one revo lu tio n Too l

Fig 1.15 G eom etry o f Cu t in Turning

 DN
V in m/min
1000

where D  Diameter of work at engagement


N  Rotational speed of work in RPM

Uncut chip thickness: It is the thickness of the layer of material being


removed by the cutting tool in the direction of the feed motion. The feed in
turning is normally expressed in mm per revolution.
Uncut chip thickness t  f  cos s

where f Feed per revolution.


s  Side cutting edge angle of turning tool.

Depth of cut: It is the normal distance between the machined and


unmachined surfaces measured along a normal to the machined surface. In
turning, it is the radial distance between machined and unmachined surface.
From the Fig. 1.15, the cutting edge engagement is ‘b’ while the depth of
cut is ‘d’, hence,
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.17

Depth of Cut d  b cos s

Area of Uncut Chip: It is the cross sectional area Ac of the layer of the
work being machined.
Area of Uncut chip Ac  f  d.

Metal removal rate (Rw: It is the volume of material being removed per
unit time from the work piece.

Rw  1000 f  d  V in mm3/min
Here, f, d are in mm, V is in m/min
Machining time: If L is the length of workpiece to be turned, then the time
of cutting Tc per pass is given by

Time Tc  L/f  N


In machining, however tool is not positioned in direct contact with the
work piece at the start of cut. It is kept at a small distance away from the
job. This is called approach allowance or approach length la. Then,

L  la
The Machining Time Tm 
f  N
Problem 1.1 Evaluate the machining time for turning of a 100 mm diameter
rod to 92 mm diameter over a length of 60 mm at a spindle speed of 500
RPM. The maximum depth of cut is limited to 3 mm and the feed f is 0.5
mm per rev. The side cutting edge angle of the tool is 30. Approach
allowance  5 mm. Also calculate cutting speed for each pass.
Given: Initial diameter Di  100 mm, Final diameter Df  92 mm, Length
L  60 mm, Speed N  500 RPM, d  3 mm,

f  0.5 mm/r ev, s  30, la  5 mm

Solution
Total diameter to be reduced  Di  Df  100  92  8 mm

Diameter reduced in one pass  d  2 3  2  6 mm


1.18 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

 No. of pass required to reduce 8 mm  2 pass.


One Rough pass of 3 mm depth of cut and one finish pass of 1 mm
depth of cut.
 3  2  1  2  8 mm
st
Cutting Speed for 1 rough pass
 DiN   100  500
V1    157.1 m/min
1000 1000
Cutting Speed for 2nd finish pass
 Di  6  N   94  500
V2    147.6 m/min
1000 1000
Since for both the passes, the spindle speed and feed are common
No. of passes  L  la
Machining time Tm 
f  N
2  60  5
Tm   2.4 mins
0.5  500

1.6.4 Shaping, Planing and Slotting


Shaping is a machining operation for generating flat surface by means
of single point cutting tool reciprocating over a stationary work piece. The
feed motion is intermittent i.e. imparted to the work piece at the end of each
stroke. The reciprocating motion of the tool is obtained either by the crank
and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism or whitworth quick return
motion mechanism. The shaping action is shown in the Fig. 1.16. The surfaces
produced in shaping may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. Shaping is
performed on the machine tool called shaper. In general, shaper can produce
any surface composed of straight line elements.
Some of examples of the parts produced by shaping operation are
shown in Fig. 1.17.
Planing is a machining operation similar to shaping operation primarily
intended to produce plane and flat surfaces by a single point cutting tool.
The fundamental difference between a shaping and planing is that in planing
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.19

Tool m otio n
Tool

W ork P ie ce

Fig 1.16 S hapin g Actio n

(b) Dovetail slide


(a) G roo ved b lock

(c) G uide grib


(d) V-b lock

Fig. 1.17 Parts p rodu ced on a shaper


1.20 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

the work which is supported on the table reciprocates past the stationary
cutting tool and the feed is supplied by the lateral movement of the tool,
whereas in shaping the tool which is mounted upon the ram reciprocates and
the feed is given by the crosswise movement of the table. Planing operations
are carried on machine tool called “planer”.
Slotting operation falls into the category of shaping and planing. The major
difference between a slotting and shaping is that in a slotting, the ram holding
the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis, whereas in shaping the ram holding
the tool reciprocates in a horizontal axis. A vertical shaper and slotter are
almost similar to each other as regards their construction, operation and use.
Slotting operation is used for cutting grooves, keyways, slots of various
shapes, for cutting internal and external gears etc.

1.6.4.1 Machining Parameters in Shaping, Planing


In shaping or planing, the cutting speed V varies even in a single
stroke. Cutting speed V is calculated as follows.

N  L  1  
Cutting Speed V  in m/min
1000

where N: No. of Complete Strokes per minute (one working stroke


 return stroke)
L: Length of stroke in mm;
: Ratio of time taken in return stroke to time taken in cutting
stroke.

Depth of Cut d: Depth of cut is equal to the normal distance between
the unmachined and machined surface measured along a normal to the
machined surface.

Nominal feed rate f is equal to the movement given to the workpiece in
a shaper (or to the tool in planer) in a direction normal to other cutting
velocity direction.

Area of uncut chip Ac  f  d

Metal removal rate Rw  f  d  Lw  N


Theory of Metal Cutting 1.21

Bw
Machining time Tm  For Shaping
fN

where Lw : Length of workpiece along stroke


Bw : Width of the workpiece

Machining Time for Planer

 Bw ls  Bw
Tm    1     t .
f Vc fs r
 s 

where ls Length of stroke


fs Feed per stroke
Vc Average cutting speed in m/min
 Average cutting speed to average return speed ratio
tr Time for reversal of work table.

1.6.5 Drilling and Reaming

D rill

W ork p ie ce

f 
t

b b

Fig 1.18 D rilling Action


1.22 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Drilling is a machining operation in which a hole is produced or


enlarged by use of a cutting tool called drill, usually having more than one
cutting edge. The primary cutting motion is a rotary motion given to either
work piece or to drill and the feed motion is a translation motion given to
drill as shown in Fig. 1.18. The cutting action is done by the cutting edges
on the end face.
Reaming is a hole finishing process. The motion of tool is similar as in
case of drilling. Cutting edges of a reamer are on its periphery. These cutting
edges are either straight or helical.

1.6.5.1 Machining Parameters for Drilling


DN
Cutting Speed V  in m/min
1000
wher e D Dr ill diameter in mm
N Speed of dr ill in RPM
d Depth of Cut d  D/2
Feed f  Feed per revolution of drill (or) movement of drill along
its axis in one revolution.
Uncut chip thickness tc  f  cos 

  90 where 2  is point angle of drill.


Area of Uncut chip Ac  f  D/n  2

where n  No. of cutting edges.

  D2  f  N
Metal removal rate Rw  in mm3/min
4
L
Machining time Tm 
fN
where L  Length of hole.

1.6.6 Milling
Milling is a machining process in which flat as well as curved surfaces
are produced by rotating multi-edges cutting tools called milling cutters and
the work is fed past it. The work piece is rigidly mounted on the machine
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.23

table and the cutter is on the spindle or arbor. The work is fed slowly past
the cutter while the cutter revolves at fairly high speed. The main milling
operations are
 Slab milling,  Form milling,
 Face milling,  Angular milling etc.
 Slot milling,
These may be classified into two types i.e peripheral milling and face
milling. The operations are shown in Fig. 1.19.

C u tte r

W ork p ie ce
(a )S la b m illin g (b )P ro file m illin g

(c) G a ng m illin g (d ) M illing w ith an gle cu tte r


Fig 1.19(a) Perip heral m illin g
O peration s o n a Ho rizontall M illing Mach in e

(a ) S lot m illin g w ith e nd m ill (b ) Fa ce m illing

Fig 1.19 (b) E nd m illin g O p eration s on


a Vertical M illing Machin e
1.24 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Following are the two methods commonly used in milling operations.


(a) Conventional or up milling: In this method, the work is fed in a
direction opposite to the rotation of the milling cutter Fig. No. 1.20 (a)

C lim b m illing
C u tte r

W ork

Table
Stop
Fig. 1.20. M illing O peration (b ) D o w n m illin g

(b) Climb or down milling: In this method, the work is fed in the
direction of rotation of cutter. Fig 1.20 (b)

C onvention al m illing

C utter

W ork

Table
Stop

Fig. 1.20. M illing O peration (a) U p m illin g

Fig 1.20 (c) shows that the chips produced are not uniform in cross
section. In up milling, each tooth starts with a minimum thickness and ends
with maximum thickness (of the chip). In down milling, the reverse happens
i.e. each tooth starts with the maximum thickness and ends up with minimum.
Total volume of the chip for a cut by a tooth is same in both the cases.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.25

t- de pth o f cu t

Fig. 1.20. M illing O peration


(c) To ta l cro ss - sectio n al are a of th e un cu t ch ip

1.6.6.1 Machining Parameters in Milling


Cutting Speed V : It is the circumferential speed of cutter.

DN
Cutting Speed V  in m/min
1000

where D  Cutter diameter in mm,

N  Speed of cutter in RPM.

In slab milling, the work piece is fixed on the machine table and feed
motion is given by table which is expressed in mm/min. If F is table feed
in mm/min and f is feed per tooth of cutter, then.
F
f mm/rev/tooth
nc  N

where nc No.of cutting edges or teeth on cutter.


w Width of work piece
d Depth of cut

Plane Area of cut Ac  w  d

Metal removal rate Rw  w  d  F in mm3/min


1.26 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

C u tte r C u tte r

W ork p ie ce

a2 a1
A

Fig 1.21 A pproach Length an d o ver Travel in slab m illin g

lw  A  a1  a2
Machining Time Tm 
F
l2, Length of workpiece in the feed direction.

a1 and a2, over travels at beginning and end of cut.


A[D  d]  d

1.6.7 Broaching
Broaching is a machining operation in which a multitooth cutter called
a broach is pushed or pulled over the surface to be machined while keeping
a desired interference between broach teeth and the surface. Generally it is a
single stroke operation. Broaching is generally limited to the removal of 6
mm of stock or less. A continuous Broaching Operation is shown in Fig.1.22.

1.6.8 Thread Cutting


Tapping and die cutting are machining operations in which internal
and external screw threads are produced by the helical (cutting) motion of
multi-point tools called taps and dies respectively. Taps and dies can be
visualized as helical broaches. Nowadays thread rolling is very popular in
manufacture of components like screw and bolts.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.27

Bro ach S u pp ort

C o m p o ne nt
U n lo ad in g
L oa ding

S u pp ort

Fixture s

Fig 1.22 A Con tinu ou s Bro aching M ach ine

A schematic of cutting threads on a Lathe Machine is shown in


Fig.1.23 by using a ‘V’ tool.
Let Nl Speed of lead screw in RPM,

Ns Speed of lathe spindle in RPM,

P, Pitch of thread to be cut and


l, Pitch of the lead screw.
Then, Ns  P  Nl  l

Ns l Pitch of lead screw


Gear ratio   
Nl P Pitch of thread to be cut

1.6.8.1 Machining Parameters in thread cutting


DN
Cutting speed V  in m/min.
1000
D : Diameter of tool (tap of die) and
N : Speed of tool in RPM.
1.28 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Feed Per min (f  P  N


lw  lt
Machining Time (Tm 
f

H ead stock C huck W ork piece


C han ge
gea rs p

Tool

Lea d screw
L C arria ge
Fig 1.23
1.18 A Schem atic View of Thread Cutting on Lathe

Where P Pitch of thread


lw Length of surface of work
lt Length of tool

1.6.9 Grinding
Grinding is a machining operation in which a multi-edged rotating
abrasive tool called grinding wheel removes excess material from the work
piece. Grinding is finishing operation removing material usually 0.25 to 0.5
mm in most operations and accuracy in dimensions is in order of 0.000025
mm. Typical grinding operations are shown in Fig. 1.24.
Grinding operations are broadly classified as rough or non precision
grinding and precision grinding.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.29

........
..................
.. ......
.................
... ..

Fig 1.24 B asic kinds of precisio n g rind ing

1.6.10 Honing and Lapping


Honing and Lapping are fine finishing operations. Very little stock is
removed during these operations. They are used to correct dimensional and
geometrical inaccuracies and to obtain high surface finish.
Honing is fine finishing operation in which abrasive sticks are used as
tool which rotate and simultaneously reciprocate on the surface of the
workpiece and slowly abrade the work piece surface to the desired finish and
accuracy. Though honing can be performed on lathes and drilling machines,
special honing machines, both horizontal and vertical are often used.
Lapping is a fine finishing operation in which a lap made of material
softer than the work piece lightly rubs abrasive particles against work piece.
Flat or curved surface can be lapped.

1.6.11 Gear Cutting


Gears are important elements in mechanical transmission of power.
Gears may be manufactured by casting, stamping, machining or by powder
metallurgical processes. The most common and accurate method of production
of gears is by machining. The various methods of machining gears are:

(a) Formed Cutter method


(i) By a formed disc cutter or formed end mill in milling machine.
(ii) By a formed single point tool in shaping or planing machine.
(iii) Formed cutter in a broaching machine.
1.30 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

(b) Generating Method


(i) By a rack tooth cutter in gear cutting machine.
(ii) By a pinion cutter in a gear cutting machine.
(iii) By a hob cutter in a gear cutting machine.
(iv) By a bevel gear generator.

1.7 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DEFORMATION SHEAR ZONES


All the mechanical work done during metal cutting is converted into
equivalent amount of heat. The heat generated has three distinct sources as
follows:
 Zone 1 - The shear zone or primary deformation zone: This is
where the primary plastic or shear deformation takes place.
 Zone 2 - The secondary deformation zone: This occurs at the chip
- tool interface. Here the secondary plastic deformation due to
friction between the heated chip and tool takes place.
 Zone 3 - This takes place at the work tool interface ie at the flanks
where frictional rubbing occurs.

Prim ary d eform ation zo ne


or shear zone
W orkToo l
in terface
C hip Vf

W ork Seconda ry
deform ation zone

VC Tool

Fig:1.25 D eform ation zones in m etal cuttin g

The heat generated at the work tool interface occurs when the cutting
tool is not sharp. Usually the heat generated at this source is small and hence
could be neglected.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.31

Therefore, equivalent rate of heat generation during machining,


Pm  Ps  Pf ...(i)
where, Ps  Rate of heat generation in the primary deformation zone
(shear-zone heat rate)

Pf  Rate of heat generation in the secondary deformation zone


(fractional heat rate)

Now; Pm  Fc  Vc  ii Pf  Fs  Vf  iii


where; where;
Fc  Cutting component of resultant Fs  Frictional force on the tool face
tool force
Vc  Cutting speed Vf  Velocity of chip flow

100
t

w
% of total hea d gene rated

75

50

C

25

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
C u tting feed m /m in

Fig: 1.26 Distribution of head du ring metal cutting


1.32 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

From, equation (i), we get the shear zone heat rate as

Ps  Pm  Pf

Heat is removed from the three zones by the workpiece, chip and the
tool. The relative amount of heat transformed to chip, workpiece and tool at
different cutting speeds is shown in Fig. 1.26. This diagram is for machining
of steel with a single point tool having cemented carbide tip. As the cutting
speed increases, more heat is carried away by the chip and less heat is
transferred to the workpiece and the tool. High speed machining is, therefore
advantageous to the tool life.
The tool rate of heat generation,
Pw  c  w  t

where, c - rate of heat transportation by the chip

w - rate of heat conduction into the workpiece

t - rate of heat conduction into the tool


t forms a very small proportion of Pw and may be neglected.

1.8 MECHANISM OF CHIP FORMATION


Chip formation has already been explained in mechanism of metal
cutting. All machining processes involve formation of chips by deforming the
work material on the surface of the job with the help of a cutting tool. The
extent of deformation that the material suffers not only determines the type
of the chip but also determines the quality of the machined surface, cutting
forces, temperature developed and dimensional accuracy of the job. Depending
upon the tool geometry, cutting conditions and work material, a large variety
of chip shapes and sizes are produced during different machining operations.

1.8.1 Types of Chips


The chips are broadly classified into three categories:
(i) Continuous Chip
(ii) Continuous chip with built up edges.
(iii) Discontinuous Chip
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.33

1.8.1.1 Variables affecting type of chip


The type of chip produced in a particular operation depends upon the
following variables.
 Properties of material being cut (i.e ductile or brittle)
 Cutting speed
 Depth of cut
 Feed rate
 Rake angle
 Type and way of application of cutting fluid
 Surface roughness of the tool face.
 Coefficient of friction between the chip and tool interface
 Temperature of the chip on the tool face.
 Nature of cutting i.e. continuous or intermittent

1.8.1.2 Continuous Chips


During the cutting of ductile materials like low carbon steel, copper,
brass, aluminium alloys etc., a continuous ribbon type chip is produced. The
pressure of tool makes the material ahead of the cutting edge deform
plastically. It undergoes compression and shear. The material then slides over
the tool rake face for some distance and then leaves the tool. Friction between
the chip and tool may produce secondary deformation on chip. The plastic
zone ahead of the tool edge is called the Primary Zone of deformation and
the deformation Zone on the rake face is usually called Secondary Zone of

C hip

Seco ndary zone of


Prim ary zone of deform ation
deform ation

Tool

W ork piece

Fig.1.27 (a) C o ntinuo us ch ip


1.34 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

deformation as shown in Fig. 1.27 (a). Both these zones and the sliding of
chip on rake face produce heat.
The extent of primary zone deformation depend upon.
(i) Cutting speed (ii) Rake angle of tool (iii) Friction on rake face
(iv) Work material characteristics.
With large rake angle tools, the chip formation is gradual and material
suffers less overall deformation. Cutting forces are also low. With small or
negative rake angle tools, the material suffers more severe deformation with
large cutting forces.
At high cutting speed, the thickness of the primary zone of deformation
shrinks i.e it becomes narrower.

Conditions favorable for continuous chip are


(i) Ductile Material
(ii) Large rake angle
(iii) High cutting speed
(iv) Small depth of cut
(v) Small feed rate
(vi) Efficient way of applying cutting fluid to prevent built up edge
(vii) Low coefficient of friction at chip tool interface
(viii) Polished face of the cutting tool
(ix) Use of material having low coefficient friction as cutting tool,
(Ex) cemented carbide.
Continuous chips pose difficulty while machining, it gets wrapped over
the machined portion of work if not quickly disposed. So during machining
a device known as “Chip Breaker” is attached over the tool post (near the
tool nose) which breaks the chip into smaller fragments.

1.8.1.3 Continuous Chips with Built up Edges.


The temperature is high at the interface between the chip and the tool
during cutting. As the chip moves over the tool face due to the high normal
load on the tool face, high temperature and high coefficient of friction between
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.35

chip and tool interface, a portion of chip gets welded on the tool face forming
the embryo of built up edge (BUE). The strain hardened chip is so hard that
now it becomes part of the cutting edge and starts cutting the material. Since
this built up edge is irregular in shape, the surface produced becomes rough.
As the machining continues, more and more chip material gets welded on
the embryo built up edge, this increases its size and ultimately, it becomes
unstable and gets sheared off. This cycle is repeated. During the unstable
stage, some fragments of the built up edge are carried along the under surface
of chip while some escape along the flank thus worsening the surface finish
of the machined surface. [Fig. 1.27(b)]

B U E = B uilt U p E dg e

B u ilt u p e d ge

Fra g em en ts o f B U E

W ork p ie ce

Fig.1.27 (b) Co ntinuous chip w ith B U E

However there is a remedy. Increasing in cutting speed, increases the


interface temperature which softens the built up edge. As a result, the critical
size of the built up edge completely disappears. Fig 1.28 shows the formative
cycle of built up edge. After the embryo of built up edge reaches the final
stage,. it is sheared off. Again the embryo is formed and the whole cycle is
repeated.

1.8.1.4 Discontinuous Chips


Discontinuous chips are produced during the cutting of brittle material
like cast iron, brasses etc containing higher % of Zinc. The chip formation
mechanism is different from that of ductile material. A slight plastic
deformation produced by a small advance of the cutting tool edge into the
job leads to a crack formation in the deformation Zone. With further advance
1.36 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Too l

C h ip

In itiation o f B U E

W ork p ie ce

(a) I n itiatio n o f B U E

Too l

C h ip
G ro w th of B U E

W ork p ie ce

(b) G row th of B U E

C h ip Too l

Fra g m e nts of
BU E

W ork p ie ce

(c) B reaking of B U E

Fig. 1.28. Fo rm atio n o f Built u p Ed ge


and Frag m entatio n
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.37

C h ip s

Too l

W ork p ie ce

Fig.1 .27 (c) D iscon tinu ous c hip

of the cutting tool, the crack travels and a small lump of material starts
moving up the rake face as shown in Fig. 1.29.

In itial C h ip
d efo rm atio n C ra ck seg m en t
Fo rm atio n

Too l Too l Too l

W ork p ie ce W ork p ie ce W ork p ie ce

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 1.2 9. Fo rm atio n o f D iscontinuo us C hip.

The force and constraints of motion acting on the lump make the crack
propagate towards the surface, and thus a small fragment of chip gets
detached. As the tool moves further, this sequence is repeated.
Following are conditions at which discontinuous chips are formed
 Use of brittle material
 Smaller negative rake angle
 Large chip thickness i.e. large depth of cut and high feed rate.
 Low cutting speeds
 Dry cutting i.e. cutting without use of cutting fluid.
1.38 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1.8.1.5 Chip Breakers


Chip breakers are important components of tool design particularly
when tool has to cut ductile materials like low carbon steels, copper,
aluminium, low zinc brasses etc. These materials produce long continuous
chips which are difficult to handle and occupy large volumes. Such chips
fouls the tool, clutter up the machine and work place and are difficult to
remove. These chips are to be broken into small pieces for ease of handling
and to prevent it from becoming hazardous. Hence chip breakers are used to
break this continuous chips into small pieces. The general types of chip
breakers are
(i) Step type
(ii) Groove type
(iii) Clamp type.
These types are shown in Fig. 1.30

Step type G roo ve type C lam p type


Fig. 1.30 C hip B reakers

In general shop practice, the chips are broken by the following


methods.
(i) By a stepped type breaker in which a step is ground on the face
of the tool along the cutting edge.
(ii) By clamping a piece of sheet metal in the path of the coil.
(iii) By a clamp type breaker in which a thin carbide plate is brazed
or screwed on the face of tool.
(iv) By a groove type breaker in which a small groove is ground
behind the cutting edge.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.39

1.8.2 Geometry of Chip Formation


When a wedge shaped tool is pressed against the workpiece, chip is
produced by deformation of material ahead of cutting edge because of
shearing action taking place in a zone known as shear plane. This shear plane
separates the deformed and undeformed material.
The Geometry of chip formation is shown in the Fig. 1.31(a)


C h ip

B tC Too l
VS Vt

E
t
VC

G -  A

Fig.1.31 (a) G eom etry o f C hip form ation

Considering the Geometry of chip formation we have the following.

Vc : Velocity of tool against workpiece (Cutting Velocity).


AB : Shear plane.
t : Depth of Cut (Feed in turning operation)
tc : Chip thickness
Vt : Velocity of chip relative to tool acting along tool face.
Vs : Velocity of chip relative to workpiece along shear plane
1.40 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Considering the principles of kinematics, the three velocity vectors


(Vt, Vc, Vs) form a closed velocity triangle ABD as shown in Fig. 1.31(b).
Also from the kinematics, the vector sum of cutting velocity Vc and chip
velocity Vt is equal to the shear velocity vector Vs

1.8.2.1 Velocity Relationships


[Fig. 1.31 (b)]
From Right Angle triangle ACD, BDC we have
DC  Vc sin  ; DC  Vt cos   
From above relation, we have
Vc sin   Vt cos   

B
Vt
C

E
VS



 
D A
VC

Fig.1.31 (b) C uttin g velocities triangle

sin 
So, Vt  Vc 
cos    ...(1.1)
Similarly, from right angle triangle AED, AEB we have
AE  Vc cos  ; AE  Vs cos   

 Vc cos   Vs cos   

cos 
So, Vs  Vc
cos    ...(1.2)
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.41

1.8.2.2 Shear Plane angle  and chip Thickness ratio


The chip thickness ratio is defined as the ratio of depth of cut t to
the chip thickness tc

t
Chip thickness ratio r 
tc

From the Geometry of Fig. 1.31(a) we see that AE perpendicular to


tool chip interface represents tc i.e. Chip Thickness.

From right angle triangles ABG & ABE we have

t tc
AB  , AB 
sin  cos   
dividing the above two equations we have

AB t/sin 

AB tc/cos   

t sin  ...r t 
i.e.  r 
tc cos    tc 
 
t sin 
r 
tc cos  cos   sin  sin 

. .
 . cos     cos  cos   sin  sin 
 r cos  cos   sin  sin   sin 
r cos  cos   sin  sin 
 1
sin 

cos 
r  r sin   1
tan 

r cos 
 1  r sin 
tan 

. . r cos 
. tan  
1  r sin 
1.42 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

 r cos  
(or) Shear Angle   tan 1  
 1  r sin   ...(1.3)
1
(Here the term is termed as chip reduction coefficient or chip
r
compression factor and is denoted by K)
The cutting ratio or chip thickness ratio is always less than unity and
can be evaluated by measuring chip thickness and depth of cut. But it is
difficult to measure chip thickness precisely due to roughness on back surface
of chip.
The chip reduction coefficient can also be estimated in a different
manner by measuring the length of the chip (lc

Volume of metal removed  Volume of Chip.


So, t b l   tc bc lc c ...(1.4)
(Here t, b, l,  being thickness or depth, width, length and density of
metal cut and ‘c’ standing suffix for chip).
If width of chip is same as workpiece i.e b  bc, and density is same
for both ie   c we have

t l  tc  lc

t lc
 
tc l

t t lc
We know  r so, r   [chip thickness ratio or cutting ratio]
tc tc l
Also density of metal can be used to find the chip reduction coefficient
tb
r
m ...(1.5)
where m is Weight per unit length of metal.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.43

1.8.2.3 Force Analysis in Metal Cutting


Fig 1.32 shows a turning operation with oblique cutting. In this the
cutting edge ab makes an angle with the direction of feed. The metal being
cut undergoes cutting forces. These forces are resolved in three mutually
perpendicular direction as shown in Fig. 1.32.

Fx
a
Fd
c
b Fy

Feed
Fr
Fz

Fc
R

Fig.1.32. Forces in o blique Tu rnin g

The three forces are

(i) Feed Force Fd: It is horizontal component of the cutting force, acting
in the direction of feed of the tool. It is acting tangent to the generated
surface.

(ii) Thrust force Fr: It is reaction force between the tool and the work
piece acting in radial direction perpendicular to feed direction.

(iii) Main cutting force Fc: It is the vertical component of the cutting
force acting in vertical direction.


The resultant force R  F2d  F2r  F2c

Analysis of cutting forces in Orthogonal Cutting


Fig 1.33 shows an orthogonal cutting process. In this process, the
cutting force has two components only, one in the feed direction Fd and
other in vertical direction - cutting force Fc
1.44 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing


C hip Tool

F
Fs N Fd
Feed Fa

Fc
W ork
Fc pie ce Feed
Fn Fd

(a)
Fig. 1.33. O rtho go nal Turn ing .

The two components of forces Fd, Fc and forces acting on chip are
shown in Fig. 1.33(a).
As the cutting tool moves along the feed direction, the metal gets
plastically deformed along the shear plane and the chip moves along the rake
surface of tool and due to roughness of chip, frictional Force F is acting
on the tool.
Following are the forces developed.

Force F : It is the Frictional resistance of chip acting on tool.


Force N : It is reaction provided by the tool.
Force Fs : It is shear force on metal.
Force Fn : It is normal to shear plane and it is backing up force
causing compressive stress on the shear plane.
Fig 1.34 shows the free body diagram of forces acting on chip.
Here the Resultant

R

F2n  F2s ; R  

F2  N2
Both R and R are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and
are collinear since chip is in equilibrium.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.45

C hip

Fs

Fn
Fig. 1.34. Free bod y
diag ram

1.8.2.4 Force analysis in orthogonal cutting (Merchant Circle diagram


and Theory)
From a fixed geometry of the cutting tool, there exists a definite
relationship among the above mentioned forces (section 1.8.2.3)
The components of forces could be measured by a dynamometer and
all the forces could be calculated.
Merchant represented these forces in a circle, known as Merchants
circle diagram shown in Fig 1.35.
Following are the assumptions made in merchants to workout force
relations.
(i) Tool is perfectly sharp and there is no contact along the clearance
face.
(ii) The shear surface is a plane extending upward from the cutting
edge.
(iii) The cutting edge is a straight line.
1.46 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Fig. 1.35 Merchant Circle


diag ram .

(iv) The chip does not flow to either side.


(v) The depth of cut is constant.
(vi) Width of the tool is greater than that of workpiece.
(vii) The work moves relative to tool with uniform velocity.
(viii) A continuous chip is produced with no built up edge.
(ix) Plain strain condition exists i.e width of chip remains equal to
width of the workpiece.
In the Fig 1.35 we have

  back rake angle

  shear angle

  angle of friction ;
Forces Fd and Fc can be measured by dynamometer

Shear angle  can be measured by photomicrograph or by measuring


thickness of chip and depth of cut. (discussed earlier).
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.47

Once the Fd, Fc,  and  are known, all the other components of forces
acting on the chip can be determined by the geometry shown in Fig 1.35.
We can draw the following figures from Fig 1.35 and find relations.
From the Fig 1.36(a) we have from the geometry

d
C
e
B
Fs 
c o
Fc  Fc
D A f
- 
Fd  R
 Fn
Fd F
R
b 

E
(a) N (b)
a
Fig. 1.36. G eom etry of Forces

Fs  AB  AC  BC ; Fc  AD ; Fn  BE

Fs  AB  Fc cos   Fd sin 

Fn  BE  Fc sin   Fd  cos  ...(1.6)


Again from Fig 1.36(a) we have
Fc  R  cos    [From le ADE]

Fs  R  cos      [From le A BE]


Fs
So R 
cos      ...(1.7)
Substituting R in Fc we get
Fs
Fc   cos   
cos      ...(1.8)
1.48 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Fc  cos     
or Fs 
cos    ...(1.9)
From Fig 1.36(b) we have.
N  ab  oe  od  de
N  Fc cos   Fd  sin 

Since F  ao  be

 ef  fb  cd  fb

F  Fc  sin   Fd  cos  ...(1.10)


Let   coefficient of friction, then we have

FN
 Coefficient of friction

F Fc sin   Fd  cos 
 
N Fc cos   Fd  sin 
...(1.11)
dividing the numerator and denominator by cos  we get

Fc  tan   Fd
Coefficient of friction  
Fc  Fd  tan  ...(1.12)

Condition For maximum cutting force


From the equation (1.8) we have
Fs
Fc  cos   
cos     
where Fs  shear force

Fs  shear stress  Area of shear plane

bt
Fs  s 
sin  ...(1.13)
Substituting 1.13 in 1.8 we get
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.49

bt cos   
Fc  s  
sin  cos      ...(1.14)
For maximum Fc, we have

d Fc
0
d

d Fc d  s  b  t cos    
   0
d d   sin  cos      
d  1 0
 s  b  t cos    
d   sin   cos      

d Fc
 s  b  t cos    
d

 cos   cos       sin   sin      


 0
  sin   cos       2 
 
 
(or)  cos   cos       sin   sin       0
 cos [      ]  0
. .
[ . cos A  B  sin A sin B  cos A cos B]

cos 2       0  cos /2 . .


[ . cos /2  0]
 2       /2

  
or Shear Angle    
4 2 2 ...(1.15)
The above relationship is based on Earnest Merchant Theory and also
called as “Modified Merchant Theory”, which makes the following
conclusions.
1. The stress is maximum at the shear plane and it remains constant.
2. The shear takes place in a direction in which the energy required
for shearing is minimum.
1.50 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Merchant modified the relationship desired by Earnest - Merchant, by


assuming that the shear stress along the shear plane varies linearly with
normal stress. It is given as

s  0  K  n
...(1.16)

Where s  Shear stress


0  Static stress
n  Normal stress
K constant

 Equation 1.14 becomes,

bt cos   
Fc  0  K n  
sin  cos     
For maximum Fc, we have

d Fc
 0, we get cos 2       K
d

or 2       cos 1 K

cos 1 K  
Shear Angle    
2 2 2 ...(1.17)

1.8.2.5 Power and workdone required in cutting process

Let Pc  Horse Power (HP) in kW required for cutting.


Pm  Gross Horse Power HP in kW of the motor.
PI  Idle Horse power ie Horse Power consumed while running idle
in kW
Vc  Cutting Velocity

Work done in cutting W  Fc  Vc in Nm/s or Watt ...(1.18)


Where Fc  Cutting Force in N
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.51

Work done in shear Ws  Fs  Vs ...(1.19)


Where Fs  Shear force and

Vs  Velocity of chip relative to work in m/s.

Work done in friction Wf  Ff  V

Ff  Frictional force,

V  Velocity of chip relative to cutting tool in m/s.

Now Total work done in cutting W  Ws  Wf

Fc  Vc  Fs  Vs  Ff  V ...(1.20)
Fc  Vc
Also cutting Power in Pc  kW
60  75  1.36 ...(1.21)
Here Fc  Vc is workdone in kgm/min.

Pc  6120
Or Force of Cutting Fc 
Vc ...(1.22)
Here Fc is in kg, Vc in m/min, Pc in kW

Also we have Pc  Pm  PI ...(1.23)


Pc
Mechanical Tool efficiency (tool 
Pm ...(1.24)

1.8.2.6 Stress and Strain in Chip

Let avg  Average Shear Stress on Shear plane


As  Area of Shear Plane
w Width of the chip
t Thickness of chip

Fs
We have Shear Stress s  where Fs  Shear force
As
1.52 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

w.t
We know that As 
sin 
Fs  sin 
 s 
wt ...(1.25)
From the equation 1.6 we have
Fs  Fc cos   Fd sin 

[Fc cos   Fd sin ]  sin 


 s 
w.t

Fc cos  sin   Fd sin2 


Shear Stress s 
w.t ...(1.26)

1.8.2.7 Shear Strain in Cutting


Let us consider the chip consists of a large number of element as
shown in Fig. 1.37

Let x  Thickness of each element


s  Displacement of each element through shear plane
e Strain

x 
s

Tool

s
 x
9 0-
x  - 

A B C D
s
Fig.1.37. Shear Strain.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.53

s AC AB  BC
We know that Strain e   
x x x
AB BC
e 
x x
x  tan 90   x  tan   
 
x x
e  tan     tan 90   ...(1.27)
e  tan     cot 
sin    cos 
 
cos    sin 
sin   sin     cos   cos   
e
sin   cos   
sin  [sin  cos   cos  sin ]  cos  [cos  cos   sin  sin ]
e
sin   cos   

. .
 . sin A  B  sin A cos B  cos A sin B 
 cos A  B  cos A cos B  sin A sin B 

sin2  cos   sin  cos  sin   cos2  cos   cos  sin  sin 
e
sin   cos   

cos  [sin2   cos2 ]


e
sin   cs   
cos 
 strain e 
sin   cos    ... (1.28)
From the equation 1.2 we have
cos 
VS  VC 
cos   
Substituting (1.2) in 1.28
Vs
Strain e 
Vc  sin 
 Vs  e  Vc  sin  ... (1.29)
1.54 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1.8.2.8 Energy in cutting


Total energy consumed per unit time in cutting

Energy E  Fc  Vc ... (1.30)


Total energy consumed per unit volume of metal removed

E Fc  Vc Fc
Em   
Vc  w  t Vc  w  t w  t
... (1.31)
The total energy required per unit volume of metal removed is

ETot  Es  Ef  Ea  Em

where Es  Shear energy per unit volume


Ef  Specific friction energy
Ea  Surface energy per unit volume (negligible)
Em  Momentum energy per unit volume (negligible)

s  Vs F
Es  and Ef 
Vc  sin  w  tc
... (1.32)
Practically all the energy required in metal cutting is consumed in the
plastic deformation on the shear plane and the friction between chip and tool.

1.9 DEVELOPMENT OF CUTTING TOOL MATERIALS


The materials having certain specific properties and characteristics are
used as tool materials. Tool material is harder than the material to be cut.
Type of cutting tool material to be used depends upon.
(i) Physical and chemical properties of metal to be cut
(ii) Type of manufacturing process ie either Turning, Milling,
Grinding etc.
(iii) Rate of production & volume of production.
(iv) Condition of the machine tool.
(v) Complexity of tool and material to be cut.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.55

1.9.1 Desirable Properties of Cutting Tools


The various and important properties of cutting tools are
(i) Hot Hardness
(ii) Wear resistance
(iii) Mechanical and Thermal shock resistance
(iv) Toughness
(v) Friction properties between tools & workpiece
(vi) Chemical reactivity between tool and workpiece
(vii) Ease of availability and manufacture
(viii) High thermal conductituty
(ix) Low coefficient of thermal expansion
(x) Cost of tool.
The most important proporties of tool material are hot hardness, wear
resistance and toughness

(i) Hot Hardness


Hot Hardness is a measure of the ability of a tool material to retain
its hardness even at elevated temperature without loosing its cutting edge. In
metal cutting, heat is generated during the process due to which the hardness
of the cutting material reduces and consequently the cutting ability of the tool
(or the cutting edge of the tool) will reduce. Therefore, it is a very important
factor for any materials to be used as a cutting material. In practice, the
harness is increased by adding element like chromium, molybdenum,
vanadium, tungsten.

(ii) Wear Resistance


Wear means loss of material. Wear of tools is caused by abrasion,
adhesion and diffusion. Abrasive action is because of flow of chip over the
rake face under high pressure and rubbing action of the machined surface
with tool flank. Adhesion is gradual loss of tool material when its particles
adhere to the chip or machined surface and get torn away. Diffusion wear is
1.56 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

due to transfer of atoms of hard alloy constituents of tool material into work
or chip materials resulting in heating of tool.
A wornout tool will have following effects
(i) Poor surface finish dimensional tolerence on work piece.
(ii) Increase in cutting force and thus increase in power consumption.
(iii) Increase in temperature and vibration.
Therefore tools must have high wear resistance.

(iii) Toughness
Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb deformation energy
before fracture. Tougher the material, higher the ability of material to absorb
impact loads and intermittent cuts. It is however observed from experience
that materials which are wear resistant and have high hot hardness are also
more brittle and therefore less tough.

(iv) Mechanical and Thermal Shock Resistance


If a material has high hardness, its resistance to wear is more. But
increase in hardness, renders it to shock, because it loses toughness and
fracture under impact load easily. There is shock load to the tool when it
just engages with the work and at regular interval if the cutting is intermittent.
Therefore, the tool material should have high mechanical and thermal shock
resistance.

(v) Friction
There should be low friction between the tool and workpiece since the
friction generates heat. The coefficient of friction between the tool and work
piece should be as low as possible.

(vi) Chemical reaction/affinity between the Tool and Workpiece


If there is a high affinity of work material with tool material, the tool
will wear out easily and hence the tool material should have less affinity or
no affinity with work material.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.57

(vii) Availability and Manufacture


A tool material with the above mentioned properties must be easily
available or can be easily manufactured. If its manufacture is very hard, it
may not be of much use to the machining.

(viii) High Thermal Conductivity


Tool material should have high thermal conductivity so that the heat
generated during cutting is easily removed from the chip-tool interface.

(ix) Coefficient of Thermal expansion


Tool material should have low coefficient of thermal expansion to
avoid distortion during heat treatment.

(x) Tool Cost


The cost of material is also an important factor for its selection as tool
material. Tool material should be of low cost.

1.9.2 Types of Cutting Tool Materials


The various types of cutting tool materials are:
(i) Carbon tool steels or carbon steels.
(ii) Medium alloy steels or Alloy tool steels
(iii) High Speed Steels (HSS)
(iv) Cast alloys (or) Stellites
(v) Cemented Carbide tool Materials
(vi) Oxide or Ceramic tool Materials
(vii) Diamond

(i) Carbon Tool Steels or Carbon Steels


The composition of general carbon steels are Carbon 0.8 to 1.3%,
Manganese - 0.1 to 0.4% and Silicon - 0.1 to 0.4%. Few alloying elements
are added to improve properties of Carbon Steels. These are Vanadium and
Chromium. The composition of Carbon-Vanadium Steels and Carbon
Chromium Steels are:
1.58 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

(i) Carbon Steels : 0.8 to 1.3% C, 0.1 to 0.4% Mn, 0.1to 0.4%
Si
(ii) Carbon-Vanadium : 0.8 to 1.3% C, 0.1 to 0.4% Mn, 0.1 to 0.4%
Steels Si, 0.15-0.25% V
(iii) Carbon-Chromium : 0.8 to 1.3% C, 0.1 to 0.4% Mn, 0.1 to 0.4%
Steels Si, 0.40-0.60% Cr

Characteristics of Carbon Steels


 Carbon Steels have low hot hardness and poor hardenability. They
can be worked upto 200 to 250C. At higher temperature, they
loose hardness rapidly.
 Carbon Steels are used for Cutting soft materials like Wood,
Plastic, Aluminium, Copper etc.,
 Carbon steels are used for making Taps and Core drills for
machining soft materials and for making wood working tools.
 Effect of alloying element:
Tungsten increases the wear resistance
Chromium and Manganese improves hardenability.
Vanadium increases toughness by giving heat treatment.

(ii) Medium Alloy Steels


In medium alloy steels, alloying elements like Tungsten, Chromium,
Molybdenum are added to improve hardenability. The carbon content in these
alloy steel is around 1.2 to 1.3%. Higher Carbon content increases hardness
and wear resistance. Tools of these material can work between 250C to
300C and speed is 20 to 40% more than carbon steels. These steels materials
are used in making drills, taps and reamers.

(iii) High Speed Steels (HSS)


The composition of High Speed Steel is 18% Tungsten, 5.5%
Chromium 0.7%, Carbon and small amount of Manganese, Vanadium and
Silicon. This HSS steel was developed by Fredenck W.Taylor and M.White.
It can work upto 600C at 40 m/min.
HSS is of three types:
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.59

(i) High Tungsten HSS


(ii) High Molybdenum HSS
(iii) Tungsten-Molybdenum HSS.
The composition of the above HSS is given below:

(i) High Tungsten HSS : 18% W, 4% Cr, 1% V, 0.6% C &


Balance Fe
(ii) High Molybdenum HSS : 1% W, 4.5% Cr, 1.5% V, 8.5% Mo,
0.8% C and Balance Fe.
(iii) Tungsten-Molybdenum : 6% W, 4% Cr, 2% V, 6% Mo and
HSS Balance Fe

Characteristics of HSS
 High Tungsten HSS is the best of the above three for all purpose
tool steels.
 Tungsten and Molybdenum increase the hot hardness.
 Vanadium iron Carbide tools are very hard constituents of HSS
and imparts high wear resistance to tool at all temperatures.
 To increase the cutting efficiency, 2 to 5% of Cobalt is added.
One of the composition 2% W, 4% Cr, 2% V, 12% Cobalt are
called Super high Speed Steels. Because of heavy cost, it is used
for heavy cut operations only.
 HSS hot hardness is quite high so it retains the cutting ability upto
600C at 40 m/min.
 HSS has high wear resistance and good hardenability.
 Uses: HSS is used in Drill, Broaches, Reamers, Milling Cutters,
Taps, Lathe Cutting Tools, Gear hobs etc.

(iv) Cast Alloys (or) Stellites


Stellites or cast alloys are non-ferrous alloy containing Tungsten,
Chromium, Cobalt and Carbon used for cutting tools. These alloys contain
no iron and hence cannot be shaped because they cannot be heat treated.
They are casted into final shape. They are casted from a temperature about
1.60 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1300C. The Chemical Composition of these cast alloys are 12 to 17% W,


30 to 35% Cr, 45 to 55% Co, 2 to 4% C.

Characteristics of Stellites
 Cast alloys are not hard at room temperature but becomes very
hard above 1000F (hardness more than HSS)
 Cast alloys are very brittle hence not widely used.
 Cast alloys have less toughness but more wear resistance than HSS
and allow cutting speed thrice than that of HSS.
 Uses: Used in manufacture of Valve seats, Push rod sheets and
Erosion shield of steam turbine etc.

(v) Cemented Carbide Tools


The main constituents of cemented carbide tools is tungsten carbide
(WC). This material was discovered by Moissan. Tungsten carbide materials
are produced by powder metallurgy by pressing and bonding. Cemented
carbide tools are of three types.
(i) Straight Cemented Carbides: Containing tungsten carbide held in
matrix of Cobalt. These are more ductile and less brittle.
(ii) Titanium-tungsten Cemented Carbides: Consisting of solid grains,
solid solution of tungsten carbide in carbide of titanium and surplus grains
of tungsten carbide all bonded by cobalt in cobalt matrix.

Symbolically given by WC  Co  WC  TiC. These are very brittle.


(iii) Titanium-Tantalum-Tungsten Cemented Carbide: Consists of grains
of solid solution of carbide of titanium, tantalum and tungsten and surplus
grains of tungsten carbide cemented together by Cobalt Symbolically:
WC  Co  WC  TiCTaC

Characteristics of Cemented Carbide Tools


These tools have / are
 High hardness, heat resistance, wear resistance, high hot hardness.
 These tools can be used upto 1000C
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.61

 High thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion compared


to steel.
 No plastic flow to stress upto 3500 N/mm2
 Low impact resistance.
 Very expensive.
 Operate at cutting speed upto 45 to 360 m/min.
 These are very brittle and hence rigidly supported and have low
shock resistance.
 Uses: Used to machine cast iron, non-ferrous and light metal and
alloys, non-metallic materials like rubber, glass, plastics, plastics
carbon electrodes, in machining unhardened carbon and alloy
steels, heat resistance steels and super alloys workpieces.
 Generally cutting tools are six inches in length and have square
cross sections, but carbide tools consists of shank made in steel
and at one end it has cemented carbide piece called bits and are
divided into 2 groups namely brazed tip carbide tools and throw
away inserts.

(vi) Ceramic Tools


Ceramic tools are also called cemented oxides. The main constituent
of ceramic tools are aluminium, tauxite (a dehydrated alumina) converted into
crystalline form called alpha aluminium. Fine grains are obtained from the
precipitation of alumina (in powder form) and tool tips are produced by hot
or cold pressing of the powder. (sintering process at 1600  1700C). Certain
amount of magnesium oxide or titanium oxide are used along with some
binder.

Characteristics of ceramic tools


 They have very high compressive strength. It is quite brittle.
 Low heat conductivity, so no coolant is required during machining.
 Have high strength and hot hardness upto 1200C.
 Have low coefficient of friction and hence low heat generated.
 Have 2 to 5 times more cutting speed than other tools.
1.62 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Advantages
 Very high cutting speed so low machining time.
 High tool life with large depth of cuts.
 Low wear rate and hence high dimensional accuracy with high
surface finish.
 Low cost of production.

Disadvantages
 High initial cost-40 to 200% more than carbide tools.
 High rigidity of machine tools is required.
 More power required since high speed and feed rate.
 Tools are brittle so proper tool geometry, holding devices are to
be used.

Application
 Turning, boring and facing at high speeds, used for finishing
operation on non-ferrous and ferrous metals, machining of casting
and hard steels.
 Cermets are ceramic metal combinations of Iron, Chromium,
Titanium and other metals, added to aluminium oxide and boron
carbide. The brittleness of the ceramic tools is considerably
reduced.

(vii) Diamond Cutting Tools


Diamond is the hardest known material today. They are used in cutting
tools. Diamond is of four classes-carbons, ballar, boarts and ornamental stones.
Cutting tools are made from boarts which are single crystal, less clear and
fault free.

Characteristics of diamond
 They are very hard, hence very brittle.
 They are abrasion resistant with low coefficient of friction and low
thermal coefficient of expansion.
 They burn to Co2 at 800C
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.63

 They cannot take shock loads.


 High heat conductivity and poor electrical conductor.

Advantages
 Very high production rate with close tolerance, high surface finish.
 Small depth of cut can be given (0.215 micron).
 Cost of grinding is reduced.
 Chances of built up edge formation is nil.

Disadvantages
 Very high cost.
 Interrupted cut machining is not possible.
 Machine tool should have high rigidity.
 Cannot be used for machining beyond 800C.
 Exclusively used for shallow cuts.

Applications
 Used for machining non metals like rubber, ceramic, graphite and
plastic.
 Used for machining precious metals like Platinum, Gold and Silver,
Soft metals like Copper, Brass, Zinc alloys.

1.10 THERMAL ASPECTS OF MACHINING TOOL WEAR


AND WEAR MECHANISM
A new or newly ground tool has sharp cutting edges and smooth flanks.
During machining operation it is subjected to cutting forces, temperatures,
sliding action, mechanical and thermal shocks. Under these severe conditions,
the tools gradually wear out and even fractures, necessitating a tool change.
This tool wear causes the following effects
 The cutting forces increases.
 The dimensional accuracy of the work decreases.
 The surface roughness of work increases.
 Increase in the temperature between tool and workpiece.
 The tool-work-machine starts vibrating.
1.64 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

 The work piece/tool may get damaged.


 Loss of production and increase in cost.
Hence the study of tool wear is very important. The tool wear occurs
at two places on a cutting tool.
(i) At the cutting edge and the principal flank of the tool.
(ii) At the rake face of the tool. Refer Fig 1.38.
The wear at the flank is called flank wear and the wear at the rake
face is called crater wear.

C ra te r w e ar C ra te r w id th

Flan k w ea r Flan k w ea r
h eigh t

(a)

C ra te r w e ar
A B C -O rig in al
B B· B ·· B ··· C cross-se ctio n

Flan k A B ·B ··B ···C -


w e ar C ro ss-section
A o f w o rn ou t too l

(b)
Fig. 1.38. Too l W ear
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.65

1.10.1 Tool Wear Mechanisms


Some of the important tool wear mechanisms of a hard tool are:
(i) Shearing at High Temperature
(ii) Diffusion Wear.
(iii) Adhesive Wear (Attrition Wear)
(iv) Abrasive Wear
(v) Fatigue Wear
(vi) Electrochemical effect
(vii) Oxidation effect
(viii) Chemical decomposition

1.10.1.1 Shearing at High Temperature


The strength of hard metal decreases at high temperatures. The shear
yield stress becomes smaller at high temperature than at room temperature.
Though the metal sliding over it has lower yield stress, nevertheless, the chip
may got so much work hardened as to be able to exert frictional stress
sufficient to cause yielding by shear of the hard tool metal. The higher the
temperature at the interface, the greater is the effect as shown in Fig. 1.39.

C h ip m otion
S h ea r stre ss d u e
to chip

C h ip

S h ea rin g of
a rid ge
M ach in ed Too l
surface

Fig. 1.39. W ear b y P lastic Yield ing and Shear.


1.66 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1.10.1.2 Diffusion Wear


When a sliding metal is in contact with another metal, the temperature
is very high and the alloying atom from harder metal starts diffusing into the
softer matrix, thereby increasing the hardness and abrasiveness of the soft
material. Also atoms from softer material diffuse into the harder medium thus
weakening the surface layer of the tool. Diffusion process is highly dependent
upon the temperature. Diffusion process doubles for an increase of temperature
of order of 20C in machining using HSS tools. Fig 1.40 shows diffusion
process.

S tee l c h ip

C
.

C h ip
HSS

H S S Too l
Too l

Fig. 1.40. D iffusion W ear Process

1.10.1.3 Adhesive Wear (Attrition Wear)


When a soft metal slide over a hard metal such that it always presents
a newly formed surface to the same portion of the hard metal. Due to friction,
high temperature and pressure, particles of soft material adhere to a few high
spots of the hard metal as shown in Fig 1.41. As a result, flow of the softer
metal over the surface of the hard metal becomes irregular or less laminar
and contact between the two becomes less continuous. More particles join up
to form “Built up edge”. These Built up edges when grow up are torn out
from the surface. This process continues and appears as if the surface of hard
metal is nibbled and looks uneven.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.67

Too l p article
C h ip w e ld ed to chip
W eld

W eld

Too l

C h ip

Too l

Fig. 1.41. A dh esive W ear Mech an ism .

1.10.1.4 Abrasive Wear

H ard particle
C hip in chip& m achined surfa ce

Tool
C hip

M achined surface

Tool

Fig. 1.42. Abrasive W ear M ech an ism .


1.68 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

The softer metal sliding over the surface of the harder metal may
contain appreciable concentrations of hard particles (Eg). Casting may have
sand particles. Under such condition, hard particles act as small cutting edges
like those of a grinding wheel on the surface of a hard metal which in due
course, is wornout through abrasion (Fig. 1.42). Also the particles of the hard
tool metal, which intermittently get torn out from its surface are dragged
along the tool surface or rolled over. These particles plough grooves into the
surface of the hard tool metal.

1.10.1.5 Fatigue Wear

Tension C h ip Flow

Fo rce by chip

Tool
C o m pre ssio n

C h ip

Tool

Fig. 1.43. Fatigue W ear M echanism .

Asperities are formed when two surface slides in contact with each
other under pressure. These asperities interlocks with each other. Due to
friction, compressive stress is developed on one side of asperity and tensile
stress on the other side (Fig 1.43). After the asperities of a given pair has
moved over or through each other, the above stresses are relieved. New pair
of asperities are soon formed and the stress cycle is repeated. Thus the
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.69

material of the hard metal near the surface undergoes cyclic stresses. This
phenomenon causes surface cracks and ultimately crumbling of hard metal.
The variable thermal stresses due to high temperature also contribute to fatigue
wear.

1.10.1.6 Electrochemical Effect


Due to the high temperatures existing on tool chip interface, a
thermoelectric EMF is set up in closed circuit due to formation of junction
at the chip tool interface assisting the tool wear.

1.10.1.7 Oxidation Effect


Grooves and notches are formed at rake face and flank due to the
reaction of sliding portion of chip and machined surface with atmospheric
oxygen to form abrasive oxides causing wear.

1.10.1.8 Chemical decomposition


Local chemical reaction may occur that weaken the tool material
through formation of weak compounds or dissolution of the bond between
the binder and the hard constituents of carbide tool. These weakened particles
are easily torn away by the aspirities of the chip or on machined surface.

1.10.2 Types of Tool Damage in Cutting


The main types of Tool Wear / Damage are
(i) Flank Wear
(ii) Crater Wear
(iii) Groove formation

Flank Wear
(Refer Fig 1.38)
The wear at the side and end of flank of tool is called Flank wear.
Flank wear is caused by the rubbing action of the machined surface. The
worn out region is called wear land. Wear land is not of uniform width. It
is widest at a point farthest from the nose. When diffusion becomes
predominant wear mode on the flank, a critical wear land is formed and
accelerating wear rate takes place and then Rapid wear. It is advisable to
1.70 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

C ra te r w e ar C ra te r w id th

Flan k w ea r Flan k w ea r
h eigh t

(a)

C ra te r w e ar
A B C -O rig in al
B B· B ·· B ··· C cross-se ctio n

Flan k A B ·B ··B ···C -


w e ar C ro ss-section
A o f w o rn ou t too l

(b)
Fig. 1.38. Too l W ear

R a pid w e ar
C
W id th of fla nk w e ar

C o nsta nt rate w e a r re gion


B
In itial ra pid w ea r

O C T
Tim e

Fig. 1.44. A Typical W ear C u rve for a C u ttin g To ol.


Theory of Metal Cutting 1.71

change the tool well before the on-set of the rapid wear in order to avoid
catastrophic tool failure. A typical wear curve for cutting is shown in Fig.1.44.

Crater Wear
Crater Wear occurs on the rake face of tool in the form of a pit called
crater. It is formed at a distance from the cutting edge. It is a temperature
dependent phenomenon caused by diffusion, adhesion etc. Fig 1.45 shows the
radius of curvature Rc, depth of crater KT, width of crater KB  KM and the
distance of the start of the crater from the tool tip KM change with time. The

KM
RC

KT
A

KB

(a)

KB

RC
Va lu e o f C ha ractristic

KT
A

Tim e

(b)

Fig.1.45. Prog ress of C rater W ear


1.72 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

crater significantly reduces the strength of the tool and may lead to total
failure.

1.10.3 Tool Failure


Tool failure is said to have occurred when a tool is unable to produce
desired shape, size and finish on the work piece. A tool failure can occur
due to any one of the following.
(i) Loss of form stability due to high temperature and stresses.
(ii) Mechanical breakage of tool.
(iii) By the process of gradual wear on flank.

1.10.4 Measurement of Wear


Tool wear can be measured by any one of the following methods with
different degree of accuracy and convenience.
(i) Measurement of height of Wear land.
(ii) Measurement of Volume (or depth).
(iii) Measurement of loss of weight of the tool.
(iv) Diamond Indentor technique.
(v) Radioactive technique.

1.11 TOOL LIFE


Tool life is defined as the time elapsed between two successive
grinding of tool (or) the time for which a cutting edge or a cutting tool can
be usefully employed without grinding (in case of HSS tools) or replacement
(in the case of throwaway carbide or oxide inserts) is called as tool life.
The other ways of expressing tool life are
(i) Machine time: Tool life is the total time of operation of this
machine tool.
(ii) Actual cutting time: The tool life is the time elapsed during
which the tool is actually cutting, between two successive
grindings.
(iii) Volume of metal: Once a certain volume of metal is removed,
the life of the tool is assumed to be over.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.73

1.11.1 Tool failure Criterion


The various criterion for judging tool failure are:

(i) Complete Failure


A tool is continued to be used until it can cut the workpiece. So when
a tool fails to cut, then the tool has to be ground.

(ii) Flank Failure


The wear on the flank causes the reduction in depth of cut. The work
piece becomes taper if the cutting is continued. Therefore, if the wear on
flank reaches certain height, the tool is removed and reground. This is most
general criterion of tool failure.
Flank wear is measured in Maker’s microscope.

(iii) Finish Failure


When the surface roughness of the workpiece reaches a certain high
value, then the cutting of the tool is discontinued and regrinding is done.
This criterion becomes specially important when close fitting is required
between the mating surfaces. Due to rough and uneven surfaces, the fitting
may not be very close.

(iv) Size Failure


A tool is said to be failed when there is a change in the dimension
of the finished work piece by a certain specified value.

(v) Cutting Force Failure


If the cutting forces are increased by certain amount, the tool is said
to be failed and regrounded.
1.74 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1.11.2 Factors affecting Tool Life


The various factors which affect the tool life are
(i) Cutting Speed
(ii) Depth of Cut
(iii) Feed rate
(iv) Tool material properties
(v) Tool geometry
(vi) Work material properties
(vii) Type of cutting fluid and method of application
(viii) Rigidity of machine-tool-workpiece system
(ix) Nature of cutting.

(i) Cutting Speed


Cutting speed is one of the important factor which affects the tool life.
The temperature increases with the increase in the cutting speed which reduces
the hardness of tool and increases the flank and crater wears thereby reducing
the tool life.
Frederick W.Taylor conducted number of experiments and derived an
empirical relationship between tool life and the cutting speed given by
VTn  C ...(1.33)

Where V Cutting speed in m/min

T Tool life in min

n Tool life index [depending upon tool and


work material and cutting environments]
C Constant

In equation if T  1 then V  C
Here the constant C can be physically interpreted as the cutting speed
for which the tool life is one minute.
In Taylor’s equation the tool life equation becomes straight line on
log-log scale as shown in Fig. 1.46 i.e log V  n log T  log C ...(1.34)
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.75

C uttin g sp ee d V (m /m in )

L og V + n L o g T
= Lo g C

Lo g V
Too l life T (m in ) L og T
Fig.1.46. Tool life V s C u ttin g speed

The values of n for different tool materials are:

n  0.2 to 0.25 for HSS


 0.25 to 0.45 for Carbide Tools
 0.4 to 0.55 for Ceramic Tools

Equation 1.33 may be generalized to include the effects of feed f and


depth of cut d.
VTn f n1 dn2  C1
Where n, n1, n2, C1 are constants depending upon tool and work material, tool
geometry and type of coolant used etc.

(ii) Effect of Feed rate and depth of cut


With the increase in the feed rate and depth of cut the tool life
decreases. The life of the cutting tool is influenced by the amount of metal
removed by the tool per minute which in turn depends upon the feed rate
and depth of cut.
The effect of feed and depth of cut on tool life for cemented carbide
tool and low carbon steel combination is given by:
260
V  T0.2  0.35 0.08
f t
1.76 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Where V Cutting Speed in m/min


T Tool life in min
f Feed in mm/min
t Depth of cut in mm

(iii) Effect of Tool Material


Fig 1.47 shows the tool
life variation against cutting 3 00 Ce
ra
mi

Id
speed for different tool ct

ea
C a rb oo

l
1 50 id e to l
materials. The tool life is ol

greatest for ceramic tools and 90


H ig h s pe
e d s te e
lowest for HSS. 60 l to ol

30
(iv) Effect of work material 1 2 3 5 10 20 30 5 0 1 00
hardness and microstructure Too l life,T, m in
A general emphirical Fig. 1.47 Effect To ol material
relationship between the Cutting Sp eed o n To ol life

hardness and cutting speed for


a given tool is given as
VH1.7   Constant
Where V Permissible cutting speed
H Brinell hardness number
 % reduction in size

If hardness is more, corresponding velocity should be less as given by


the expression.
Micro structure of work material affects the tool life. As percentage
of pearlite increase, the tool life decreases at any and every cutting speed.

(v) Effect of Cutting Fluid


As the tool cuts the work piece, a lot of heat is generated due to
friction and rubbing. Heat produced during metal cutting is carried away from
the tool and workpiece by means of cutting fluid. It also reduces the friction
between the chip tool interface and increases the tool life.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.77

An empirical relationship between tool life and temperatures of chip


tool interface has been established and is given as

T n  K

Where T Tool life in min


 Interface Temperature in C
n An exponent index
K Constant

(vi) Tool Geometry


Tool geometry having various angles influences the life of the tool.
 Back rake angle affects the shear angle, shear strain and cutting
force.
 High back rake reduces cutting force but makes the wedge thinner
and rise in temperature consequently more wear rate and lower
tool life.
 Negative back rake increases cutting force but the wedge becomes
more stronger.
 Therefore optimum back rake angle should be used and its range
is 5 to 10.
Principle cutting edge angle also affects the tool life.

 For the tool with 90 cutting edge angle (orthogonal cutting), the
cutting edge is impact loaded over a small area and hence the
cutting force is very high there by reduces the life of tool.
 For the tool with less cutting edge angle (oblique cutting) the tool
experiences cutting force gradually and over a larger area and
hence tool is safer and has more life.

(vii) Rigidity of Workpiece-Machine tool System


If the rigidity of workpiece-machine tool system is low, higher the
vibration of the system and higher the chances of tool failure. The vibration
induces chipping of tool (specifically brittle tools), because of impact loading
on the tool due to intermittent cutting. Its rigidity is very high then the
1.78 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

damping is more and vibration is less and less chatter and more life. Chatter
causes fatigue or catastrophic failure of tool.

(viii) Nature of Cutting


Sometimes the job is such that cutting edge has to frequently enter
and exit from the cut as for example in turning a work piece having
longitudinal slots (Intermittent Cutting). Each entrance and exit gives an
impact on the cutting edge that can shorten the tool life, especially if the
tool material is hard or brittle.

(ix) Effect of nose radius of tool


Nose radius of the tool improves tool life and surface finish of the
workpiece. A relationship between cutting speed, tool life and nose radius is
given below.

VT0.09  300 R0.25

Where R Nose radius in mm


T Tool life in min
V Cutting speed in m/min

Nose radius has an optimum value at which tool life is maximum


beyond which the tool life reduces. Larger nose radius means more contact
area which inturn increases friction there by reducing life of tool.

1.11.3 Economics of Machining - Machining Cost


Cost of machining involves the following cost
(i) Machining cost (cutting cost or machine/operating cost)
(ii) Tool cost (Tool cost and Grinding Cost)
(iii) Idle cost (or) non productive cost.
Total cost per piece CTot  Cm  CI  CT  CG

 DL 
Where CM  Machining cost  C1   
 1000 VS 
Where C1 Direct labor cost  Over head cost in Rs/min
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.79

D Diameter of work piece machined in mm


L Length of machining in mm
V Cutting speed in m/min
S Feed in mm/rev

CI  Idle cost  C1  Idle time per piece

CT  Tool changing cost

 C1  Tool failure per workpiece  T1.

Where T1  Tool changing time.

CG  Tool grinding cost per piece

 Tool cost per grind  No. of failures per piece.


Optimum Tool life for minimum cost is

1  C1 T1  C2 
Topt    1   
n  C1 
Wher e C2  Tool cost per grind

also VTn  Constant (Taylor equation)

1.11.4 Machinability
The term machinability is used to refer to the ease with which a given
workpiece material can be machined under a given set of cutting conditions.
It is of considerable economic importance for a production engineer to know
in advance the machinability of a work material, so that its processing can
be efficiently planned.

1.11.4.1 Factors affecting machinability


The various factors affecting machinability are
(i) Chemical and physical properties of work material.
(ii) Microstructure of work material.
(iii) Mechanical properties of work material.
(iv) Geometry of Tool (Various angles and nose radius)
1.80 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

(v) Rigidity of tool and machine.


(vi) Type of tool material.
(vii) Nature of operation and cutting condition.

1.11.5 Surface finish


A surface can be characterised by its topography and microstructure.
The topography describes its micro geometrical properties or texture in terms

L ay

In clusio n

(a )
A M a gn ified B low ho le

W a vine ss sp acin g

B W a vine ss he ig ht

(b)
B M a gn ified P e aks

R o ug hn ess spa cing

Valle ys M ea n line

C u t o ff le ng th

(c )
Fig. 1.48. Elem en ts of S urface Texture
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.81

of roughness, waviness and lay. Microstructure describes the depth and nature
of the altered material zone just below the surface.
Surface finish (or surface texture) refers to the following properties of
a machined surface as shown in Fig. 1.48.
Roughness: Roughness consists of relatively close-spaced or fine surface
irregularities, mainly in the form of feed marks left by cutting tool on the
machined surface. The mean height or depth is measured over a 1 mm cut
off length or roughness sampling length.

Waviness: It consists of all surface irregularities whose spacing is greater


than the roughness sampling length. Vibration, chatter and tool or workpiece
deflections due to cutting loads and cutting temperature may cause waviness.

Lay: Lay denotes the predominate direction of the surface irregularities. The
lay is usually specified with respect to an edge called the reference edge of
workpiece.

Surface flaws: These are random spaced irregularities i.e those which occur
at some particular location on the surface or at widely varying intervals. Flaws
could be due to inherent defects such as inclusions, cracks, blow-holes etc.

1.11.5.1 Factors affecting surface finish


The factors which affects the surface finish are:
(i) Cutting tool geometry
(ii) Workpiece geometry
(iii) Machine tool rigidity
(iv) Workpiece material
(v) Cutting condition (speed, feed and depth of cut)
(vi) Tool material.

(i) Cutting Tool Geometry


The various angles rake, relief, cutting edge and nose radius directly
affects the surface finish on the workpiece.
1.82 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

(ii) Workpiece Geometry


Long slender workpiece have low stiffness against both static and
dynamic forces. As a result waviness effects are more in long work than
small workpieces

(iii) Machine Tool Rigidity


A sufficient high rigid machine produce less vibration which inturn
reduces the waviness in workpiece and produce high surface finish.

(iv) Workpiece Material


Chemical composition, hardness, microstructure and metallurgical
properties of the workpiece material largely affects the surface finish of
workpiece. (eg) steel having 0.1% or less carbon produce build up edge and
thereby spoil surface finish.

(v) Cutting Condition


High speed cutting produces better surface finish than at low cutting
speed. Feed also affects the surface finish. A coarse feed produces rough
surface and fine feed produces good surface finish. Also depth of cut directly
affects the surface finish. Light depth of cut produces fine surface finish,
while heavy depth of a cut produces rough surface.

(vi) Tool Material


Different tool material have different hot hardness, toughness and
frictional behavior which affects the surface finish

1.11.5.2 Measurement of Roughness


Following are the parameters measured in surface roughness (Fig. 1.49)

(i) Overall height hmax


Overall height is height of separation between upper and lower surface
line occurring within sampling length (L)
hmax  Lp  Lv

(ii) Leveling depth hp


It is the mean height of profile above the mean line Lm. Mathematically
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.83

Lp

y hp

Lm h m ax

Lv

Fig. 1.49. M easures of Su rface Roughness.

L
1
 hp 
L  ydx
0

(iii) Centre Line Average hCLA


It is defined as the arithmetic average of the deviation of the profile
above and below the mean line Lm
L
1
hCLA 
L  |Y| dx
0

(iv) Root mean Square Value hRms


It is defined as geometrical average value of the deviation of the profile
above and below mean line.
1/2
 L 
1
hRms    y2 dx 
 L 
0
 
1.84 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1.11.5.3 Specification of Surface Roughness


ISO recommendation on surface roughness in machining specification
is given in the Fig 1.50

b
c

a
e d
o o
60 60

Fig. 1.50. Draw ing Symbols for Surface


Roughness in M achining

Symbols are described as below:


a  hCLA or centre line average value;

b  Production method heat treatment and continuing


C  Sampling length
d  Direction of lay
e  Machining allowance

The symbol d can take following symbols.

 – When lay is parallel to plane of view


 – The lay is perpendicular to plane of view
X – The lay is in 2 directions
M – The lay is multi-directional
C – The lay is circular
R – The lay is radial
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.85

1.12 CUTTING FLUIDS


In metal cutting process, heat is generated due to plastic deformation
of metal, friction between chip and rake face of tool and rubbing between
the flank and work. This increases the temperature of both tool and workpiece.
The temperature affects the tool life causing tool failure and surface finish
of the workpiece is deteriorated. Hence cutting fluids are used to remove the
heat produced.

1.12.1 Functions of cutting fluids


The main functions of cutting fluids are:
(i) To cool the cutting tool and increase the tool life.
(ii) To cool the workpiece and helps in lubrication of machine.
(iii) To reduce the friction between the chip and the tool.
(iv) To flush away the chip to keep the cutting region free.
(v) To produce the machined surface free from corrosion.
(vi) Reduce the cutting forces and energy consumption.

1.12.2 Properties of Good Cutting fluid


A good cutting fluid should have the following characteristic properties.

(i) Good Lubricating Qualities


A cutting fluid should have good lubricating property to remove the
chip from touching and adhering to the tool face and preventing formation
of built up edge.

(ii) High heat absorbing capacity or cooling capacity


A good cutting fluid will remove more heat and remove the heat
quickly thus reducing the temperature between tool and workpiece.

(iii) Rust resistance


Cutting fluid should prevent rusting of work, tool or machine.
1.86 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

(iv) Cutting fluid should have low viscosity so that chip and dirt easily
settles.
(v) Cutting fluid should not be toxic in nature.
(vi) Cutting fluid should have high chemical stability such that it can
be used for longer time.
(vii) Cutting fluid should have high flash point
(viii) It should not be harmful to worker or operator
(ix) It should be non flammable
(x) It should not produce smoke or foam easily
(xi) It should not produce bad smell
(xii) It should be of low cost.

1.12.3 Types of Cutting Fluids


Cutting fluids are of the following types:
(i) Solid based cutting fluids: It may be included in the work material itself
or applied on the chip tool interface with some liquid mainly to facilitate
machining by reducing friction. Ex. graphite, molybdenum disulphide etc.

(ii) Straight cutting fluid: These are of three types

(i) Mineral oils (ii) Fatty oils (iii) Combination of mineral and fatty
oils.
These oil have good lubricating properties but poor heat absorption
quality and are used for low cutting speeds.
(iii) Oil with additives: The beneficial effects of mineral oils can be
improved with the help of additives which are generally compounds of sulphur
or chlorine. Addition of sulphur compounds reduces chances of chip welding
on tool rake face.
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.87

The additives and function are given below:

Additive Function
(i) Mineral oils and other hydrocarbon Base oil
(ii) Polyglycoether (water soluble) Emulsifier
(iii) Aliphatic amines (water soluble) Neutralizing agent
(iv) Aliphatic amines in neutralized form Corrosion protection
(v) Sulfonates Corrosion protection, pressure
additive
(vi) Fatly acid amides Lubricity Improvement
(vii) Sulphur / Phosphorous additives Pressure additives
(viii) Aldehyde Derivatives Biocides
(iv) Water Soluble Cutting Fluids
These are also called water based cutting fluids. These comprise of
mineral oils, fat mixtures and emulsifiers added to water. The oil is held in
the form of microscopic droplets (colloidal) in water, which assumes a white
milky appearance. Because of water, these have very good cooling effects.
Mixture is prepared in different ratios of cutting oil and water to get the
desired heat transfer and lubricating characteristics.

1.12.4 Composition of Cutting Fluids


A cutting fluid may contain the following.
 Base oil
 Emulsifier
 Corrosion Inhibitor
 Lubricating-antiwear-extreme pressure additives
 Neutralising agents
 Biocides and Fungicides
 Foam inhibitors
 Stabilizing agent.
Table 1.1 shows the different types of coolants and lubricants used
for different type of operations.
1.88 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Table 1.1 Coolants and Lubricants for Different Operations

Coolants and lubricants


Shaping,
Turning Threading
Material Drilling Reaming Planing, Milling
& boring
Slotting
Cast iron Dry Dry Dry Dry, Dry Dry
Tallow,
Lard oil
Soft steel Cutting Cutting Any Cutting Soap-water Soluble
compound, compound, coolant compound , Soda sulphurized
Cutting Cutting water , or
oil, oil, mineral
Soap-water Soap-water oil

Hard steel Mineral Mineral Kerosene, Mineral Mineral Soluble


lard oil lard oil Strong lard oil lard oil sulphurized
soda , or
water mineral
oil,
mineral
lard oil
Brass Dry Dry, Dry Dry, Dry Dry
Kerosene, Kerosene,
Turpentine turpentine
Bronze Mineral Mineral Dry or Dry, Dry Soluble
lard oil lard oil any Mineral sulphurized
coolant lard oil , mineral
lard oil
Aluminium Kerosene Kerosene Dry, Kerosene Kerosene Soluble
Kerosene with sulphurized
25% , or
soluble mineral
cutting oil oil and
kerosene
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.89

Coolants and lubricants


Shaping,
Turning Threading
Material Drilling Reaming Planing, Milling
& boring
Slotting
Copper Mixture Dry or a Dry, Dry or a Dry Soluble
of lard mixture cooling coolant sulphurized
oil and of lard compound, or
turpentine oil and lard oil mineral
turpentine and lard oil
turpentine

1.12.5 Method of applying cutting fluid


The method of applying a cutting fluid is very important if one wants
to use full benefit and to conserve it or reduce its wastage. The various
methods are
(i) Nozzle-pump tank method: A pump is mounted on the tank containing
fluid and outlet of pump is connected to nozzle through flexible hose. The
nozzle directs the stream of fluid at desired point.
(ii) Mist application: In this method fluid is passed through a specially
designed nozzle so that it forms very fine droplets of cutting fluid or produce
a mist of size 5 to 25  m directed at cutting zone.

(iii) High jet method: A narrow jet at high velocity is directed at the flank
surface of the tool. It is the most recent method.

1.13 SOLVED PROBLEMS ON CUTTING FORCES, WORK DONE


AND POWER REQUIRED
Problem 1.2 A dynamometer measures the following feed force  100 kgs,
cutting force  375 kgs, rake angle  12, Chip thickness ratio  0.3, Find
the following (i) Shear Angle (ii) Shear force (iii) Coefficient of friction
 (iv) Compressive force at shear plane.

Given:
Feed force (Fd  100 kgs, cutting force Fc  375 kgs, rake Angle
  12 Chip thickness ratio r  0.3
1.90 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Solution:

(i) Shear Angle 


r cos 
We know that tan  
1  r sin  (from Eqn. 1.3)
 0.3  cos 12 
Shear Angle   tan 1  
 1  0.3 sin 12 
 tan 1 [0.3129]

Shear Angle   17.38

(ii) Shear force Fs


Shear force Fs  FC  cos   Fd sin 
(From Eqn. 1.6)
 375.cos 17.38  100 sin 17.38
Fs  328 kgs

(iii) Normal or Compressive force Fn


Compressive force Fn  FC  sin   Fd  cos  (From Eqn. 1.6)
 375  sin 17.38  100 cos 17.38
Fn  207.45 kgs

(iv) Coefficient of friction 


We know that coefficient of friction
FC  tan   Fd
 
FC  Fd tan  (From Eqn. 1.12)
375 tan 12  100
  0.508
375  100 tan 12
  0.508

Friction Angle   tan 1   tan 10.508  26.93


Theory of Metal Cutting 1.91

Problem 1.3 In orthogonal cutting process which has depth of cut


 0.3 mm, Chip thickness ratio  0.5, Width of cut  6 mm, Cutting Velocity
 60 m/min, cutting force parallel to cutting velocity  1200 N, Cutting force
normal to cutting velocity  160 N, Rake angle  12. Determine the shear
Angle, Resultant cutting force, Power required for cutting, coefficient of
friction, force component parallel to shear plane?

Given:
Depth of cut t1  0.3 mm, Chip thickness ratio r  0.5, Width of cut
b  6 mm, Cutting Velocity Vc  60 m/min, Cutting force Parallel to cutting
velocity Fc  1200 N, Cutting force normal to cutting Velocity
Fd  160 N, Rake angle   12

Solution

(i) Shear Angle 


r cos  0.5 cos 12
We know that tan   
1  r sin  1  0.5 sin 12
0.5 cos 12   tan 10.5458
Shear Angle   tan 1  
  0.5 sin 12
1 
  28.62

(ii) Resultant Cutting Force F

We know that F  

F2c  F2d  

12002  1602

F  1210 N

(iii) Power required for cutting P


Power P  Fc  Vc

P  1200  60  72,000 Nm/min


72000
P  1200 Nm/sec  1200 watts
60
Power P  1.2 kW
1.92 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

(iv) Coefficient of Friction 


We know that
Fc  tan   Fd 1200  tan 12  160
 
Fc  Fd tan  1200  160 tan 12

.   0.356

Friction Angle   tan 1   tan 1 0.356  19.59

(v) Force Component Parallel to shear plane Fs


We know that Fs  Fc cos   Fd sin 

 1200  cos 28.62  160 sin 28.62


Fs  976.74 N

Problem 1.4 The machining of a steel with a tool having signature


0-12-6-8-8-90-1 mm ORS shaped tool has the following observations. Feed  0.7 mm/rev,
depth of cut  3 mm, cutting speed  60 m/min, Shear Angle  15. Power
consumed while in machining  6 kW and idle power  1 kW. Calculate (i)
The cutting force, (ii) Chip thickness ratio, (iii) Normal pressure on the
chip (iv) Chip thickness.

Given:
From tool signature we have rake angle   12 Feed
f  0.7 mm/rev, depth of cut d  3 mm, cutting speed Vc  60 m/min,
Shear Angle   15.
Power for machining P  6 kW, Idle Power PI  1 kW.

Solution

(i) Cutting Force Fc


Net Cutting Power Pc  P  PI  6 kW  1 kW

Pc  5 kW

We know Power Pc  Fc  Vc


Theory of Metal Cutting 1.93

 
Fc  60   Vc  60 m/min 
3
 50  10   
60 60
  m/sec 
 60 
50  103
 Cutting force Fc   60  50 kN
60

(ii) Chip thickness ratio r


r cos 
We know tan  
1  r sin 

r  cos 12
tan 15 
1  r sin 12

r  0.978
0.268 
1  0.208 r

 0.268  r 0.978  0.208  0.268

r  0.2593

(iii) Normal Pressure on the chip


Force Fc Fc
Pressure P  
Chip Area w  t

here w  Depth of cut  3 mm

t  Feed  0.7 mm

50  103
Pressure P   23.81 kN/mm2
3  0.7

(iv) Chip Thickness tc

Feed 0.7
tc    2.7 mm
Chip thickness ratio 0.2593
1.94 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Problem 1.5 A seamless tube 40 mm outside diameter is turned


orthoganally. The following data are obtained. Rake angle  40, Cutting
Speed  25 m/min, feed  0.15 mm/rev. Length of Chip ( 1 rev)  60 mm.
Cutting force  300 kg, feed force  100 Kg. Calculate (i) Coefficient of
friction (ii) Shear Angle (iii) Velocity of Chip along tool face (iv) Chip
thickness.
Given:
Diameter of tube D  40 mm, Rake angle   40,
Feed f  0.15 mm/rev, Cutting Speed Vc  25 m/min, Length of Chip (rev)
 60 mm, Fd  100 kg, Fc  300 kg

Solution
(i) Coefficient of friction
Fc  tan   Fd 300 tan 40  100
  
Fc  Fd tan  300  100 tan 40
  1.628

(ii) Shear Angle 


r cos 
We know that tan  
1  r sin 
Chip thickness ratio
t1 l1 60 60 60
r       0.4775
t2 l2   D   D   40

0.4775  cos 40 0.3658


tan     0.5265
1  0.4775 sin 40 0.6931

Shear Angle   tan 1 0.5265  27.77

(iii) Chip Velocity Vf


Vf  Vc  r  25  0.4775  11.94 m/min

(iv) Chip Thickness t2


t1 t1 0.15
r ; t2    0.314 mm
t2 r 0.4775
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.95

Problem 1.6 In orthogonal cutting of Mild steel rod of diameter 200 mm


and depth of cut 1.5 mm with a cutting speed of 50 m/min and feed of 0.3
mm/rev, the following were obtained, cutting force  200 kg, Feed force
 50 kg, Chip thickness  0.35 mm, Contact length  1 mm, Net Power
 2.5 kW and Back rake angle   15. Calculate the shear strain and strain
energy per unit volume, normal pressure.
Given:
Diameter of rod D  200 mm; Depth of cut d  1.5 mm, Cutting
Speed Vc  50 m/min, Feed f  0.3 mm/rev, Cutting force Fc  200 kg, Feed
force Fd  50 kg, Chip thickness t2  0.35 mm, Contact length
L  1 mm, Net Power  2.5 kW, Back rake Angle    15

Solution:
(i) To Calculate Shear Angle 
r cos 
We know that tan  
1  r sin 
t1 0.3
Chip thickness ratio r    0.857
t2 0.35

 0.857 cos  15 


Shear Angle   tan 1    0.6775
 1  0.857 sin  15 
  tan 1 [0.6775]  34.12

(ii) Shear Strain e


We know that Shear Strain
cos 
e 
sin   cos    (from Eqn. 1.28)
cos  15
e 
sin 34.12  cos 34.12   15
0.966
  2.631
0.561  0.6545
Shear Strain e  2.631
1.96 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

(iii) Shear Stress s

Shear Force Fs  Fc cos   Fd sin  (Eqn.1.6)


 200 cos 34.12  50 sin 34.12
 137.53 kg

Shear Force Fs  sin 


Shear Stress s  
Shear Area w.t
(From Eqn. 1.27)

137.53  sin 34.12


  171.43 kg/mm2
1.5  0.3

s  171.43  9.81  1681.7 N/mm2

Vc cos 
Shear Velocity Vs 
cos    (From Eqn. 1.25)
50  cos  15
  73.8 m/min
cos 34.12  15

(iv) Shear Energy E s

s  Vs
Shear Energy Es 
Vc  sin  (From Eqn. 1.32)
1681.7  73.8
Shear Energy   4425 N/mm2
50  sin 34.12

(v) Normal Pressure


Fc 200
 
Area of chip Feed  Depth

200
  444.44 kg/mm2
0.3  1.5

Normal Pressure  4.44 kN/mm2


Theory of Metal Cutting 1.97

Problem 1.7 In an orthogonal cutting operation on a workpiece of width


2.5 mm, the uncut chip thickness was 0.25 mm and the tool rake angle was
zero degree. It was observed that the chip thickness was 1.25 mm. The cutting
force was measured to be 900 N and the thrust force was found to be
810 N.
(i) Find Shear Angle
(ii) If the Coefficient of friction between the chip and tool was 0.5, what is
the machining constant Cm?

Given:
Width w  2.5, Uncut chip thickness t1  0.25 mm, Rake Angle
  0, Chip thickness t2  1.25 mm, Cutting force Fc  900 N, Thrust
Force Fd  810 N, Coefficient of friction   0.5

Solution

(i) To find Shear Angle 


t1 0.25
Chip Thickness ratio r    0.2
t2 1.25

Shear Angle 


r cos 
tan  
1  r sin 

 r cos    1  0.2 cos 0 


  tan 1    tan  1  0.2 sin 0 
 1  r sin    
  tan 1 [0.2]  11.31
Shear Angle   11.31

(ii) To find Machining Constant Cm


Machining Constant Cm  2     

Shear Force Fs  Fc cos   Fd sin 

 900 cos 11.31  810 sin 11.31


Fs  723.67 N
1.98 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

Shear force Fs  sin 


Shear Stress s  
Area w.t1

723.67  sin 11.31


s   227.1 N
2.5  0.25

Coefficient of friction   tan 

   tan 1   tan 10.5  26.565

Machining Constant Cm  2     

 2  11.31  26.565  0

Cm  49.185

Problem 1.8 In an orthogonal machining with a tool rake angle of 10, the
chip thickness was found to be 3 mm when the uncut chip thickness is set
to 0.5 mm. Find the Shear Angle and friction angle [Assume Merchant
formula is holding good for the machining].

Given:
Rake Angle   10, Chip thickness t2  3 mm, Uncut chip thickness
t1  0.5 mm

(i) Shear Angle 


t1 0.5
Chip Thickness ratio r    0.167
t2 3

r cos 
Shear Angle  : tan  
1  sin 
 r cos  
  tan 1  
 1  r sin  
0.167 cos 10 
 tan 1  
  0.167 sin 10 
1
0.1645 
  tan 1    9.613
 0.971 
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.99

(ii) According to Merchant Theory [ Friction angle ]


2       /2
 2  9.613    10  90
Friction Angle   80.77
Problem 1.9 In orthogonal machining of a tube in lathe whose outer
diameter is 80 mm and wall thickness of 4 mm to reduce its length. The
speed of workpiece is 150 rpm and longitudinal feed is 0.4 mm/rev, cutting
ratio is 0.25 with tangential force of 1000 N and axial force of 500 N. Find
chip velocity and power consumed?

Given:
Outer diameter Do  80 mm,
Wall thickness tw  4 mm, N  150 r pm, f  0.4 mm/rev,
Cutting ratio  0.25, Fc  1000 N, Fd  500 N

Solution
1. Chip Velocity
Velocity of Chip
Cutting ratio 
Velocity of workpiece
Velocity of workpiece V   D  N in m/min
Where D  Mean diameter

Do  di
D
2
di  Do  2tw  80  2  4  72 mm

80  72
D  76 mm
2
Velocity of workpiece V    76  150  35814 mm/min

V  35.814 m/min
Velocity of Chip Vc  0.25  35.814  8.954 m/min

Power Consumed P  Fc  V


1.100 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

1000  35.814
P   570 watts
60
Problem 1.10 In an orthogonal cutting of a mild steel, following were
observed cutting force  1200 N, Feed force  500 N, Cutting velocity
 100 m/min Rake Angle  12 and shear plane angle is 20. Determine the
following (i) Shear velocity (ii) Chip flow Velocity (iii) Work done per
minute in shearing and against friction (iv) show that work input is sum of
work done in shearing and friction.

Given:
Cutting force Fc  1200 N, Feed for ce Fd  500 N, Cutting Velocity
Vc  100 mm/min. rake angle   12 Shear Angle   20

Solution

(i) Shear Velocity Vs


Vc  cos 
Vs 
cos    (From eqn. 1.2)
100 cos 12
Vs   98.78 m/min
cos 20  12

(ii) Chip flow velocity Vt


Vc sin 
Vt 
cos    (From Eqn. 1.1)
100 sin 20
Vt   34.54 m/min
cos 20  12

(iii) Work done in Shearing and Friction


Work done in shear Ws  Fs  Vs.

Fs  Fc cos   Fd sin   1200 cos 20  500 sin 20

 Fs  956.62 N

956.62  98.78
Ws   1575 W
60
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.101

Friction Force Ff  Fd cos   Fc sin 

 500 cos 12  1200 sin 12


Ff  738.57 N

738.57  34.54
Work done in friction WF  Ff  Vt 
60

 425.17 W

(iv) Total workdone W


Ws  WF  1575  425.17  2000 W

1200  100
Work input WI  Fc  V   2000 W
60
Hence WI  W

Problems on Economics of Machining Tool life and wear.


Problem 1.11 The Taylor tool-life equation for machining C-40 steel with
a HSS cutting tool at a feed of 0.2 mm/rev and a depth of cut of 2 mm is
given by VTn  C Where n and c are constants. The following V and T
observations have been noted.

V, m/min – 25 35
T, min – 90 20

Calculate (i) n and C (ii) Hence recommend the cutting speed for a desired
tool life of 60 min

Given:
Feed f  0.2 mm/r ev, d  2 mm ; Taylors Eqn.
n
VT  C, V1  25 m/min, V2  35 m/min, T1  90 min, T2  20 min

Solution

(i) To find n & C


According to Taylors Eqn. VTn  C
1.102 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

 V1Tn1  C  V2 Tn2

 25  90n  35  20n
n
 90   35
 20  25
 
4.5n  1.4
n log 4.5  log 1.4
log 1.4
n  0.223
log 4.5
Now
V1Tn1 C

 C  25  900.223  68.192

(ii) To find Cutting Speed at 60 min


Given: T3  60 min

Again V3 Tn3  C

68.192
V3   27.37 m/min
600.223
Cutting Speed V3  27.37 m/min

Problem 1.12 A HSS tool gave a tool life of 120 min at 15 m/min and 25
min at 70 m/mm. Calculate (i) C and n for Taylor’s equation. (ii) Cutting
Speed for minimum life say 1 min?

Given:
T1  120 min, V1  15 m/min, T2  25 min, V2  70 m/min

Solution

(i) To find C and n for Taylor’s Equation.


We know that VTn  C

V1 Tn1  V2 Tn2
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.103

15  120n  70  25n
n
 120   70
 25  15
 
n log 4.8  log 4.67
log 4.67
n  0.9825
log 4.8
Now, V1 Tn1  C

 C  15  1200.9825  1655.33
 The Taylor Equation is VT0.9825  1655.33

(ii) Cutting Speed for Minimum Tool life say 1 min


VT0.9825  1655.33 (T  1 min)
V  10.9825  1655.33
 V  1655.33 m/min
Problem 1.13 The tool life equation for HSS and carbide tool are given as
follows. Carbide: VT0.3  C1 and HSS Tool: VT0.2  C2. If the tool life is 100
min at 50 m/min, Compare the tool life of both tools at 150 m/min.

Given:
For HSS tool VT0.2  C2 and

For Carbide Tool VT0.3  C1

T  100 min at V  150 m/min

Solution:

(i) To Find C1 & C2

VT0.2  C2

50  1000.2  C2

VT0.3  C1
1.104 Machine Tools and Digital Manufacturing

50  1000.3  C1

 C2  125.6 ; C1  199.1

To Find T1 & T2 at 150 m/min

For Carbide Tool: VT0.3  C1

150  T0.3
1  199.1
1/0.3
199.1 
T1     2.57 min
 150 
HSS Tool VT0.2  C2

150  T0.2
2  125.6
1/0.2
125.6 
T2     0.412 min
 150 
T1 2.57
  6.24
T2 0.412

 Life of Carbide Tool is 6.24 Times life of HSS tool.


Problem 1.14 The modified Taylor equation for a Carbide tool is given as
VT0.3  f0.4  d0.2  C. It was obtained a tool life of 100 min under the following
condition. V  50 m/min, f  0.5 mm d  1 mm. Calculate the effect of tool of
life if feed is increased by 20%, Speed by 15% and depth of cut by 50%
together.

Given:
VT0.3  f0.4  d0.2  C, T  100 min, V  50 m/min,
f  0.5 mm, d  1 mm

Solution

(i) To Find the Constant C


C  VT0.3  f0.4  d0.2
Theory of Metal Cutting 1.105

C  50  1000.3  0.50.4  10.2  150.854

(ii) Effect on Tool life


Increase in Feed
20
 20%  f1  f   f  1.2 f  1.2  0.5
100
f1  0.6

Increase in Speed  15%  V1  1.15V  1.15  50  57.5

Increase in depth of cut  50%  d1  1.5 d  1.5  1  1.5


0.2
 V1  T0.3 0.4
1  f1  d1  C
0.3
57.5   T1   0.60.4  1.50.2  150.854.
 
1/0.3
 life T1  
150.854 
0.4 0.2 
 57.5  0.6  1.5 
1/0.3
150.854 
    2.9671/0.3
 50.833 
life T1  37.56 mins

 The effect on tool life is


 T  T1  100  37.56  62.44 min
Tool life is reduced by 62.44 mins.