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OBJECTIVE :

To observe the characteristics of the flow of a fluid in a pipe, this may be laminar,

transitional or turbulent flow by measuring the Reynolds Number and the behavior

of the flow.

To calculate and identify Reynolds Number (RE) for the laminar, transitional and

turbulent flow.

APPARATUS

Hydraulic bench

Osborne Reynolds Demonstration Apparatus

Stop watch

Dye

Thermometer

Measuring cylinder

THEORY

Osborne Reynolds in 1883 conducted a number of experiments to determine the laws of

resistance in pipe to classify types of flow. Reynolds Number RE is the ratio of inertia force to

the viscous force where viscous force is shear stress multiplied area and inertia force is mass

multiplied acceleration. Reynolds determined that the transition from laminar to turbulent

flow occurs at a definite value of the dimensionally property , called Reynolds Number.

u

¿ vd

pvd or ℜ=

ℜ= v

¿

Where =

P= density (kg/m³)

quantitatively decide whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. The limits are given below :

Transition when 2300 < RE < 4000

Turbulent when RE > 4000

The motion is laminar or turbulent according to the value of RE is less than or greater

than certain value. If experiment are made with decreasing rate of flow, the value of RE

depends on degree of care which is taken to eliminate the disturbance in the supply or

along the pipe. On the other hand, if experiments are made with decreasing flow,

transition from turbulent to laminar flow takes place at a value of RE which is very much

depends on initial disturbances. The valve of Re is about 2000 for flow through circular

pipe and below this the flow is laminar in nature. The velocity at which at which the flow

in the pipe change from one type of motion to the other is known as critical velocity.

NO EXPERIMENT : 5

TOPIC EXPERIMENT : HM160.33 – SPECIFIC ENERGY AND ALTERNATE DEPTHS FLOW – WIDE

RECTANGULAR CHANNELS.

2. Subcritical and supercritical flow

3. Energy level of flows in open clumes

APPARATUS :

2. Crump weir accessory unit

Crump weir accessory unit

THEORY

Specific Energy and Alternate Depths Of Flow

The specific energy, E at a particular section is defined as the energy head referred to the

channel bed as datum Thus :

v²

E=y+ ……………………….. (1.1)

2g

If the channel is uniform depth and relatively wide, the flow near the center of the channel

will ne unaffected by the side boundaries of the channel and the flow q per unit width b can

expressed as q=Q/b The average velocity V = Q/A = qb/qy and equation 1.1 can be

expressed as :

2

q

2

E=y+ y ]…………………(1.2)

1

¿

2g

WHERE

q= discharge per flume width

Q= dischange over flume

b= flume width

E= specific energy

y= water depth

A relation for critical depth in a wide rectangular channel can be found differentiating E og

eq.(1.2) with respect to y to find the value of y for which E is a minimum. Thus

dE q²

=1- =0

dy gy ³

From which q² = gy³

Substituting q = V y gives

Vc² = gyc and Vc = √ gyc ……………………….. (1.3)

Where the subscript c indicates critical flow conditions ( minimum specific energy for a given

q ). Equation (1.3) applicable to wide open channels may also be expressed

Vc ² q²

Yc = =( ) ……………… (1.4)

g y²

From eq. (1.4)

Vc ² 1

= yc

2g 2

Vc ² 3

Ec = Emin = yc + = yc ………. (1.5)

2g 2

2 2

And yc = Ec = Emin ………… (1.6)

3 3

If the base of channel is horizontal and assume as datum, total of specific energy. Thus

H=E+S

q²

H=y+ + S …. (1.7)

2 gy ²

WHERE

S : height of crump weir

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