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Childhood/Early Childhood Department Lesson Plan # ___1___

Date of Lesson _____10/3/2017__ Time of day AM PM Length of lesson_45 minutes_ (DAY


1) engage, instruction and exploration of lesson. 35 minutes for extension: write, rehearse, present
(DAY 2)

Curriculum Area _Science_ Content Area: Physical Science

Title of Lesson : Drop those objects!

Age/Grade level: 5 Teacher’s Name Michelle Karwowski

This is a Guided lesson

1. Learning Objectives (What the student must do or demonstrate [action verbs])


5-PS2-1. Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed
down.
A) Through investigation of dropping objects and video supplementation the students will be
able to explain through an informal assessment (exit ticket), how air resistance effects objects
from landing on the ground at the same time and how gravitational force pulls objects down
toward the Earth.

B) At the end of the lesson the students will be able to explain that when you drop two objects
with no air resistance at the same height that the objects will land on the ground at the same time
and will be able to identify the historical figures who helped investigate this idea through written
assessment.

2. New York State Learning Standards


Standard 4 - Science (The Physical Setting or the Living Environment)
Social Studies:
A. Gathering, Interpreting and Using Evidence
4.Identify arguments of others.
5.Identify implicit ideas to draw inference, with support.
6.Recognize arguments on specific social studies topics and identify evidence supporting the
argument.
Students will be able to identify the argument between Galileo and Aristotle and how through
experimentation Galileo was able to show that his argument was correct. Therefore, students will be
able to draw the inference that experimentation is essential to test a hypothesis and see if it was
correct. Students will be able to specify their arguments and identify from the videos who the main
figures in science history are and how they are involved with helping the discovery of the in-class
investigations of dropping objects.
B. Chronological Reasoning
1. Explain how events are related chronologically to one another in time.
Students will be able to understand the time periods of each historical figure and be able to make the
connection that the process of discovery and investigation takes time and stems of other people’s
discoveries, through analyzing the videos and their notes as well as the written assessment at the end.
Literacy Writing standards:
5W1-Write an argument to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence
5W1a-introduce a precise claim and organize the reasons and evidence logically
5w3-Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective
techniques, descriptive details, and clear event sequences

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Childhood/Early Childhood Department Lesson Plan # ___1___

5W3a- establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters


5W3b-use narrative techniques, such as dialogue and description, to develop experiences
and events or show the responses of characters to situations
5w4-create a poem, story, play, artwork, or other response to a text, author, theme or personal
experience
Students will write a script or story in the perspective of Galileo, “If Galileo had our knowledge of what
we know about “falling” objects and gravity today” to be able to explain why objects drop and hit the
ground at the same time with no air resistance. They will be able to use their creative process to relay
information and use different narrative techniques to explain a scientific discovery.

2. Materials
 Whiffle ball
 Tennis ball
 Ping pong ball
 Golf ball
 Basket ball
 Paper ball
 Aluminum ball
 Beach ball
 Soccer ball
 Meter sticks
 Smart board or something to play videos on
 Tape
 Feathers
 Piece of paper

4. Lesson Process

Engage / Introduction (Teacher does this) (Approximate time: 7 min.)


I (Teacher) show the students that I am holding a whiffle ball and a tennis ball.
Then I ask, “ If I drop these objects at the same time, which object do you think will land first?”
I then ask the students for some of their predictions; the common misconception being that they will
think the heavier object will fall faster.
Then I will drop the two balls on the ground, they will land at the same time. Then I will ask:
“What if I drop these balls from a higher point?” Then I will drop them from above my head. They will
land at the same time. Then I will put those objects down and show the students a feather and a tennis
ball. Then I will ask again:
“If I drop these at the same time, which will land on the ground first?”
Then I drop them from two heights, the tennis ball landing first every time.
Then I ask the students to think-pair-share “Why do you think the tennis ball and whiffle ball landed at
the ground at the same time, but the feather and the tennis ball didn’t?”
I will then lead into the activity by prompting “I wonder what will that happen if we dropped these other
objects?” Show student a bin full of materials. The objects include a whiffle ball, a soccer ball, a
basketball, a beach ball, ping pong ball, golf ball, aluminum foil (crumpled into a ball), and a piece of

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Childhood/Early Childhood Department Lesson Plan # ___1___

paper and a piece of paper crumpled into a ball and a feather. These objects are similar in size but have
different masses and weights.
(A) Explore / Learning procedures relating to objectives (Approximate time: 15)
I (teacher) explain to all of the students before we start that the objects used to drop are not for kicking
around the room and playing with and that they are tools for our experiment. Then I proceed to put the
students in groups of 4 and I hand out an organizer and checklist for them to do 10 different
combinations and I ask them to observe what is happening with the objects and write their observations
in their notebooks.
SEE WORKSHEET: Object Trials (see page 9)
The students proceed to drop the objects. After a few minutes of dropping several items that are
similar, they realize that the objects that are similar all land at the same time. And the feather and the
paper seem to always take a long time to get on the ground, some students may come to the conclusion
that the air (air resistance) is making these objects seem to fall slower.
I will walk around and guide each student by asking questions and see what the groups are thinking.
Questions should promote understanding and further their thinking as to why the objects hit the ground
at the same time/ or not.
Some questions could be- Even though those objects are the same size/weight/height they hit the ground
at the same time? Did you try the___ and the ____ object? Why does the feather always take so long to
reach the ground? Does that tell you anything as to why they might hit the ground at the same time/ not
the same time?

(C) Explain / Conclusion Checking for understanding (Approximate time: 30 min)


o Student to student: Teacher rotates the groups so that there is one member from each
group in a new group. The students are then asked to share their findings and create a one
sentence general conclusion of their findings. Then they write that conclusion on the
board for the teacher to evaluate and for the students to see.
o Student to Teacher: I (teacher) then have the children explain their conclusion and
why/how they came up with their conclusion based on their findings. Some prompting
questions could be: how did you discover that? Which object trial really stood out to
you? Did the feather always hit the ground slower Etc.
o Teacher to student-
I explain to the students that they just did a scientific experiment to figure out the
question of why these objects hit the floor at the same time and why objects like the
feather and paper don’t, or alter our experiment. I then play the video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aRhkQTQxm4w and start at 2 min ad play until 3
min (1 min). This video gives a short explanation to how all objects accelerate at the
same rate and land at the same time due to inertia.
I then put up a slide (power point presentation) on Inertia and Acceleration (Shown
Below)

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

After I teach the information shown on the


slides above, I will play another video of
how Aristotle thought about “falling”
objects and how Galileo thought differently.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HR5U
mG0q0s (3 mins) I will hand out an
organizer with a few questions for the
students to organize their thoughts.(SEE
PAGE 11) Go over the work sheet, use
Pick-A-Stick strategy, write answers on the
board in the power point. Continue with
the power point.

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Next play the video showing a bowling ball and a feather landing at the same time in NASA’s biggest
vacuum. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QyeF-_QPSbk (3min)
Then lead the students into thinking about gravity by asking : “Why do all objects, no matter if at the
same time land on the ground?” At the end of the video the man said that it seems like the objects are
falling but they are really not, it is gravity that makes the two objects attract towards each other.
Show the slides on gravity

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Watch this video to explain/sum up gravity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ljRlB6TuMOU (3 min)

End the Teacher to Student segment with an exit ticket (page 7)

(D) Extend, Expand, or Elaborate (Approximate time 35 mins; 20 mins of planning, 15 min of
presenting (next day)
WRITE AND REHEARSE
Students will write a script or a story to show Galileo’s argument of dropping objects. Working in
groups of four, Students will pretend that they are Galileo presenting his idea, creating his experiment,
and proving his experiment to a crowd of people who don’t believe him during his time period, WITH
the knowledge that we now know today.
A hand out (see page 12) will be given to the students that instruct them as well as a grading rubric(See
pg 8) to assess them: all students should have a part in the story/script and should be handing in a written
or media assignment.

I will give them 20 minuets to plan/write a script or story and then 15 minuets for all groups to present
to the class. The students will present their creations.

(E) Evaluation / Assessment

(a) Learning outcomes of previous lessons related to this topic:


-3-5 grade; Make observations/predictions
-3rd grade: (3-ps2-1) plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effect of
balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object
(b) Focus of assessment in this lesson is on the students’ to demonstrate the ability to:
Through informal assessment and use of an exit ticket, the teacher will be able to asses objective A
“Through investigation of dropping objects and video supplementation the students will be able to
explain how air resistance effects objects from landing on the ground at the same time and how
gravitational force pulls objects down toward the Earth”.
-Through a Non-standard formative assessment the teacher can use a rubric to assess the students for a
script or story in which they have to retell the information they discovered and learned, this will be done
for an extension project. The teacher will then be able to assess objective b:
“ At the end of the lesson the students will be able to explain that when you drop two objects with no air
resistance at the same height that the objects will land on the ground at the same time and will be able to
identify the historical figures who helped investigate this idea through written assessment.”

(c) Method of assessments: The Formal / Informal assessments used in this lesson are

Informal: Exit Ticket


Non-standard Formative Assessment: Rubric

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(d) Differentiation of expected outcomes for this lesson

Lesson modification/Differentiation outcome chart

Size Time Level of Support


Low level- lower the amount of Low level- have more planning Low level
combinations for the dropping time for extension activity
object trials 6/10
High level- High level- High level
Input Difficulty Output
Low level Low level Low level
High level High level- have students find High level
other objects to drop that don’t
drop at the same time
Participation Alternate Goals Substitute Curriculum
Low level Low level Low level
High level High level High level
5. Assessments of lesson: (Attach examples of assessments and grading rubrics, for the informal
describe what you will do and give examples)
INFORMAL
Name__________

Exit Ticket :
a) Which scientific figure explained his idea of “the heavier the object, the faster it will fall to
Earth and therefore land on the ground before a lighter object”? Was he correct?

b) Why does the feather and paper (not crumpled) land after all the other objects?

c) What is gravity and what does it mean for all objects?

d) State any questions you still have.

Name__ Teacher Key

Exit Ticket :
a) Which scientific figure explained his idea of “the heavier the object, the faster it will fall
to Earth and therefore land on the ground before a lighter object”? Was he correct?
Aristotle, no
b) Why does the feather and paper (not crumpled) land after all the other objects?
Air resistance
c) What is gravity and what does it mean for all objects?
Gravity pulls objects toward each other; Earth’s surface pulls/ attracts objects to make
them come down toward Earth’s surface; all objects come down, gravitational pull
makes objects come down towards Earth’s surface

d) State any questions you still have.


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FORMAL
Rubric for extension
10 8 4 2-0 points
Contains entire Explains his Explains argument Doesn’t explain or
Aristotle’s argument but but lacking explanation lacks
argument missing key idea connection understanding or
connecting to connection to
Galileo Galileo
States Galileo’s States most of his States little of his Doesn’t state
full argument argument with argument with argument or
details lack of details misunderstands
argument
Explains how air Explains air Explains air Does not include
resistance effects resistance and the resistance briefly air resistance
the objects in the effects on objects
experiment and
gives example
Uses vocabulary Uses 3 terms Uses 2 terms Uses 1 or not
terms such as terms
mass, inertia,
weight,
acceleration,
gravity, force, air
resistance
Explains how Doesn’t include
objects are pulled the force by which
toward the Earth objects fall to the
ground
Explains what Explains the Explains the Doesn’t explain
experiment is experiments but experiment with the experiment and
going to be done with missing missing concept, what is will show
and what it should materials or materials and what
show concept or what it it should show
should show
No grammar 1-2 spelling or 3-4 grammar or 5 or more spelling
mistakes grammar errors spelling errors errors

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6. Student work:
Chart for students to record their object combinations and notes:
Name_______________ Object Trials Date__________
Directions: Write each object you pair together in the chart and record your results. Choose 10
combinations and drop them from the same height at the same time. During your investigation write
down some notes about what you notice; such as patterns, observations, and predictions you have.
Object one Object two Which landed first? Observations

Student response
Q. What do you notice about your observations? Was there a difference between the weights of the
objects?

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Teacher Key
Name_______________ Date__________
Object Trials
Directions: Write each object you pair together in the chart and record your results. Choose 10
combinations and drop them from the same height at the same time. During your investigation write
down some notes about what you notice; such as patterns, observations, and predictions you have.
Object one Object two Which landed first? Observations
Basketball Tennis ball Same Basket ball was heavier,
yet landed the same
Golf ball Tennis ball Same Thought the gold ball was
heavier even if it was
smaller, yet landed the
same
Aluminum foil ball Paper Aluminum Foil ball Thought they would land
at the same time because
of the previous
observations, yet
aluminum fell first
Paper ball Basketball Same

Whiffle ball Paper ball Same Tried two light objects


Feather Ping pong ball Ping pong ball Since the paper fin
previous drop fell last, I
thought the feather would
also fall last, but not sure
why?
Beach ball Paper ball Same

Golf ball Ping pong ball Same

Tennis ball Aluminum foil ball Same

Basketball Paper Basket ball Paper fell slowly and not


in a straight line
Student response
Q. What do you notice about your observations? Was there a difference between the weights of the
objects?
I noticed that all objects except the feather and the piece of paper, when dropped landed at the same
time. The weights of those objects were different and they landed the same. However, when the paper
and feather were dropped with the objects, they took a longer amount of time to get to the ground.

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Name:______________________ Date:____________
Aristotle vs. Galileo
Directions: Please read the questions on the sheet before the video plays. Record your answers below.

Aristotle(384-382 B.C.) Galileo(1564-1642)


What was Aristotle’s prediction Why did Galileo think Aristotle
about objects “falling” to Earth? was wrong?

What did Galileo need to do to


test his idea?

What were the results from his


experiment?

Teacher key
Aristotle(384-382 B.C.) Galileo(1564-1642)
What was Aristotle’s prediction Why did Galileo think Aristotle
about objects “falling” to Earth? was wrong?
He thought that objects of the
He thought that the heavier same shape and size but different
object would fall faster to Earth weights would fall to the ground
than the lighter objects, people at the same time, with NO AIR
believed him because it was what RESISTANCE.
they were used to seeing What did Galileo need to do to
test his idea?
He needed to test his idea, with
an experiment; he needed to
show people his idea to prove his
idea
What were the results from his
experiment?
He concluded that objects would
fall toward the Earth and land at
the SAME time with No Air
Resistance

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Name____________________
Galileo’s story
Directions:
You are Galileo in the 17th century and believe you discovered a new idea about dropping objects and
want to present this idea to a crowd of people in your town who don’t believe you. You have an
experiment and need to get you ideas across. If Galileo had our knowledge of what we know about
“falling” objects and gravity today, create a script using any media, technology or creative process you
would like to explain your ideas to your town. Using the knowledge of Galileo vs. Aristotle, and any
videos/information we discussed in class.

In the assignment you should include:


-Aristotle’s counter argument
-Galileo’s argument
-How Galileo intends to prove this argument
-The materials used in his experiment, why this is important
-Using scientific and academic terms explain exactly the results of his experiments
-Use the rubric to help plan your script and complete efficiently

_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
8. Linked lessons
The two linked lessons following this one will be:
1. Topic: Newton’s laws of motion Title: Factors of motion
2. Topic: Mass, weight and gravity Title: How much do you weigh on the Moon?

9. References: (Resources / sources used in creating lesson plan)


Videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HR5UmG0q0s SS content Aristotle vs Galileo and their ideas
of falling objects
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aRhkQTQxm4w start at 1.45 min the concept of why the
objects fall at the same time/inertia
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ljRlB6TuMOU gravity
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QyeF-_QPSbk NASA and the falling objects experiment inside of a vacuum

Material:
https://betterlesson.com/lesson/636697/how-do-we-stay-on-the-earth (idea for this lesson includes
material list and general structure for the basis of this lesson)
https://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Snewton.htm (NSTA) newton’s laws of motion and the
explanation of what inertia is and the concept of force on objects, (gravity on the objects)
http://static.nsta.org/files/sc0409_22.pdf what is gravity? Gravity definitions and concept
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/bring-science-home-free-fall/ history of
Aristotle
http://static.nsta.org/files/sc0803_68.pdf The difference between inertia, mass and weight and
how to measure them for next lesson

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Childhood/Early Childhood Department Lesson Plan


Date of Lesson __Oct 31 2017_ Time __12:00-12:45____ Length of center __45 mins____
Curriculum Area _Science_ Content Area: Life science, Earth science, or Physical science
Title of Learning Center (identify concepts taught/explored) __Parachute races____

7. Learning center: Provide the directions and a list of all materials (NOT a part of the lesson), see the
format and rubric provided

Age/Grade level_____5th____ Teacher’s Name _Michelle Karwowski_______

Objectives:
A: Student will explain how different materials affect the velocity of parachutes as they gravitate
towards the ground and determine which material will make the parachute fall the slowest through
documentation of experiments.

B: Student will be able to summarize data, make conclusions and predictions as well as formulate
further experimental questions through analyzing their own graphs and experimentation results.

Science Standard: 5-PS2-1. Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on
objects is directed down.

Math standard: Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement
system when the conversion factor is given. Use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world
problems.

Objective for math: Students will use meter sticks to keep height consistent and convert to feet.

Materials:
Rulers
Pencils
Plastic bags
Felt
Tape
String
Newspaper
Construction paper
Little army man
Scissors
Stopwatch
Meter stick

Explore/Learning procedures:
The students will be given the materials and directions to perform an experiment to determine which
material will make the parachute fall the slowest.
On the table in the classroom for individual students, there will be all the materials and direction for
them to read and complete the task on their own.

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The students will use the directions to make parachutes out of different material, drop them from a
consistent height and record their results. They will create their own graphs and write a conclusion
using the rubric as a guideline.

Assessment: A rubric will be used as a formal assessment to show the child’s ability to use data to
summarize, make conclusions and predictions as well as formulate further experimental questions.

Assessments of center:
RUBRIC (30 points)
Chart (10 points) Needs to be completely filled out ……8pts
Total___________ Has to have meaningful observations…2pts
Graph (10 points) Labeled all units………………………1pt
Labeled/ gave title to independent and
dependent variables…………………...2pts
Appropriate title ………………………1pt
Included a KEY………………………..2pt
Used appropriate numbering on y-
Total__________ axis…………………………………….2pts
Line graph completed neatly.…………2pts
Conclusion 10 points Included a conclusion of results/ summary
of results
…………………………………………2pts
Included why you think results happened/
explained results and thoughts on the
outcome………………………………..2pts
Included another question for further
experimentation……………………......2pts
Noted what kind of errors could have
Total______________ affected your experiment………….......2pts
Explained observations…………..……2pts

Student work:
Directions that will be given to the students below:

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NAME: ____________________
PARACHUTE RACES!!!
Now that we know that gravity is the reason for objects being pulled toward our Earth, lets see how
different variables affect the speed, or velocity, in which objects fall to the ground!

The goal is to find which material in the parachute makes the parachute fall the slowest toward the
ground. Read and Follow all directions of the experiment BEFORE YOU START and good luck!

Here are your materials for your parachutes THAT YOU WILL CHANGE (independent variable:
Plastic bag
Felt
Construction paper
Newspaper
Bubble wrap

Here are the materials you will KEEP THE SAME (controlled variables):
Length of string
Height you drop the parachute from

Here is how you will build your parachute (you will tie your parachute onto a little army man):

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Childhood/Early Childhood Department Lesson Plan # ___1___

Materials:
Bubble wrap
Newspaper
Construction paper
Felt
Plastic bag
Scissors
Tape
String
ruler
Procedure:
1. Draw a hexagon on a piece of paper with the
dimensions shown in the figure above. Start with a
30x16 cm rectangle and add the remaining points
onto it. This will be the stencil or pattern for the
parachutes.
2. Next cut out the hexagon and tape it loosely on to
each material you use to test your parachute, then
trace it and cut it out for each material removing
the stencil each time.

3. Cut three 29 cm lengths of thread.


4. Attach it with tape to each angle forming a
small loop on the hexagon as shown above

Here is how you will do your experiment (you will need a stopwatch to record your times).
1. Drop your parachutes at the same height every time, TWICE. You can choose the height; I
suggest standing on a chair. Please take caution if you are going to stand on a chair, make

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sure it is level and that you are in a safe place, if you have a partner have them hold the base
of the chair for stability.
2. Record your information on the chart below, and note any observations you have about your
experiment
3. Make a line graph to present your results.
4. Write a conclusion based on your findings. Also include ANOTHER QUESTION YOU
HAVE that you can experiment further. Hint: change the army man to something else, etc.
5. Follow the rubric

Material Height* m Time: run 1, Time: run 2 Observations

*(should be the same)

Mock student sample below:

Material Height* Time: run 1, Time: run 2 Observations


Bubble wrap 2 meters 13 sec 16 sec
First time threw
the parachute
down with hand
a little bit,

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Childhood/Early Childhood Department Lesson Plan # ___1___

skewed results

Plastic bag 2 meters 20 sec 20 sec


consistent

newspaper 2 meters 17 sec 16 sec


Similar to
bubble wrap

Construction 2 meters 30 sec 30 sec Light but a lot


paper of resistance

felt 2 meters 34 sec 33 sec


A lot of
resistance

*(should be the same) (include units sec, ft, in, cm etc.)

Parachute times v. materials

T 40
i
35
m
e 30

i 25
n
20 run 1
s run 2
e 15
c
o 10
n
5
d
s 0
bubble wrap plastic bag newspaper construciton felt
paper

Materials
Mock conclusion: Has to be based
on findings and graph therefore a student who got this as their data would say: Felt and construction
paper had the slowest times. I think it was because they were heavier and had less air resistance. The
newspaper and bubble wrap seems to have similar findings. I predict that if I use a heavier material like
canvas, it would be even slower of a run. Another question I have is, if I do the experiment outside with
some wind how will it effect this experiment? I predict that the lighter materials will have slower times
just because the wind will lift them higher instead of in our classroom.

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References
http://static.nsta.org/files/ss9910_24.pdf This article explains the parachute experiment and how to
build one

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