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The 1806 Great Coastal hurricane was a severe and damaging storm along the East

Coast of the United States which produced upwards of 36 in (91 cm) of rainfall in
parts of Massachusetts. First observed east of the Lesser Antilles on 17 August,
the hurricane arrived at the Bahamas by 19 August. The disturbance continued to
drift northward and made landfall at the mouth of the Cape Fear River in North
Carolina on 22 August. The storm soon moved out to sea as a Category 2-equivalent
hurricane on the Saffir�Simpson hurricane wind scale, persisting off of New England
before dissipating south of Nova Scotia on 25 August as a markedly weaker storm.
Several French and British military ships were damaged out at sea. In the
Carolinas, salt, sugar, rice, and lumber industries suffered considerably, and
several individuals were killed. Wharves and vessels endured moderate damage, with
many ships wrecked on North Carolinan barrier islands. A majority of the deaths
caused by the hurricane occurred aboard the Rose-in-Bloom offshore of Barnegat
Inlet, New Jersey, with 21 of the ship's 48 passengers killed and $171,000 (1806
USD) in damage to its cargo.[nb 1] Upon arriving in New England, reports indicated
extreme rainfall, though no deaths were reported; in all, the hurricane killed more
than 24 individuals along the entirety of its track.[nb 2]

Contents
1 Meteorological history
2 Impact
3 See also
4 Notes
4.1 Footnotes
4.2 Citations
4.3 References
Meteorological history
The Great Coastal hurricane of 1806 was first noted far east of the Lesser Antilles
on 17 August.[1] Weather historian David M. Ludlum followed the disturbance's track
to the Bahamas by 19 August; intense winds persisted until 21 August, however,
approximately 150 mi (240 km) east of the Bahamian island of Eleuthera. Steering
currents brought the storm northward, and it approached Charleston, South Carolina
on 22 August, where a generally easterly flow preceded the storm indicated its
passage far east of the city.[2] The hurricane made landfall at the mouth of the
Cape Fear River in North Carolina later that day,[3] though the earliest impacts
from the storm started several days earlier, with gusts initially toward the
northeast but later curving southwestward. Reports of similar wind shifts
throughout the region suggested that the gale persisted, stationary, for several
hours. It eventually moved back out to sea while south of Norfolk, Virginia,[4]
departing the region on 24 August.[2] The hurricane maintained 1-minute maximum
sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) while offshore,[5] equivalent to a Category 2
system on the Saffir�Simpson hurricane wind scale. While offshore New England, the
gale featured a swath of winds 90 mi (150 km) wide,[6] and was last observed just
south of Nova Scotia on 25 August slightly weaker, with sustained winds of 75 mph
(120 km/h).[5]

Impact
The hurricane damaged several vessels while still drifting at sea, dispersing and
damaging J�r�me Bonaparte's fleet and dismasting the 74-gun French ship of the line
Imp�tueux, which later landed near Cape Henry.[4]

In Charleston, South Carolina, the hurricane washed aground several ships and
uprooted numerous trees, though damage to the city harbor was minimal. The
lighthouse on North Island flanking Winyah Bay collapsed under high winds, and in
Georgetown proper, the hurricane was considered to be the worst since the 1804
Antigua�Charleston hurricane, despite its storm surge being of a lesser size. A
cotton field covering 94 acres was ruined nearby.[4] At Smithville, North Carolina,
numerous ships experienced damage, while considerable destruction to structures was
observed, with many wharves wrecked. Meanwhile, at Wilmington, the hurricane
inflicted widespread damage, with many wharves severely damaged, and significant
losses sustained by salt, sugar, rice, and lumber industries. The gable sections of
three masonry houses were destroyed by wind or water, and wooden houses suffered
especially badly, with many obliterated and those under construction flattened. One
individual died after a wall collapsed and several slaves were killed, one by
drowning, at local plantations.[7] At Bald Head Island, the United States Revenue
Cutter Service vessel Governor Williams was stripped of its foremast and
subsequently ran ashore before being repaired and continuing on its journey. A
second boat owned by the agency, the Diligence, was tethered at port in Wilmington
and endured no damage; similarly, little impact occurred at New Bern.[8] Throughout
the storm, several vessels and supplies of stranded sailors were driven aground
along the North Carolinan coast. On the Bogue Banks, the remains of the Adolphus
and Atlantic were discovered, and at the Core Banks, a dead body was washed ashore,
partially eaten by fish.[9]

Moderate damage occurred upon the hurricane's arrival in Norfolk, Virginia. Winds
toppled a number of newly built structures and chimneys, uprooted trees and fences,
and washed two watercraft aground.[10] After the storm, alterations to the
shoreline around the Chesapeake Bay permitted the full establishment of a town at
Willoughby Spit.[11] The Rose-in-Bloom was caught in the hurricane while offshore
of Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey,[12] en route to New York City from Charleston,[11]
but was struck by a large wave which overturned the ship, resulting in the deaths
of 21 of its 48 passengers and the loss of $171,000 of its $180,000 (1806 USD)
cargo. The vessel only barely stayed afloat, with 30 bales of cotton preventing it
from sinking entirely;[12] survivors were ferried to New York by the British brig
Swift, which had then been traveling toward St. John's, Newfoundland.[11] The
hurricane produced strong gusts within the vicinity of New York City, and at
Belleville, New Jersey, several peach trees were defoliated and uprooted. Cape Cod,
Massachusetts was struck by heavy rain and observed minor damage to its port. At
Edgartown, meanwhile, an individual witnessed torrential rainfall, recording that a
barrel was filled with 30 in (76 cm) of water, and estimating total rainfall
reached 36 in (91 cm) there, where the storm devastated local crops and beached
five cargo ships. At Brewster, meanwhile, severe damage to crops and salterns was
noted, and 18 in (46 cm) of rainfall was recorded.[10] Reports in Boston, however,
indicate more modest rainfall amounts, with a precipitation rate of 0.40 in (1.0
cm) per hour noted.[13]

See also
Tropical cyclones portal
1804 Antigua�Charleston hurricane
1806 Atlantic hurricane season
List of New England hurricanes
List of North Carolina hurricanes (pre-1900)
Notes
Footnotes
All damage figures in the article are in 1806 United States dollars (USD) unless
otherwise stated.
Deaths are totaled as follows: 21 were killed aboard the Rose-in-Bloom, one died
in a wall collapse at Wilmington, North Carolina, one drowned at a nearby
plantation, and one died out at sea, off of the Core Banks. Although several slaves
were killed, no exact number is known or has been estimated.
Citations
Chenoweth 2006, p. 222
Ludlum 1963, p. 57
Hairr 2008, p. 32
Ludlum 1963, p. 56
Boose; et al. "Hurricane Track Data". Harvard University. Harvard Forest.
Retrieved 4 March 2014.
Boose 2001, p. 40
Hairr 2008, p. 33
Hairr 2008, p. 34
Hairr 2008, p. 36
Ludlum 1963, p. 39
Schwartz 2007, p. 54
Hairr 2008, p. 35
Ludlum 1963, p. 40
References
Boose, Emery R.; Chamberlin, Kristen E.; Foster, David R. (2001). "Landscape and
Regional Impacts of Hurricanes in New England" (PDF). Ecological Monographs.
Petersham, Massachusetts. 71 (1): 27�48. doi:10.1890/0012-
9615(2001)071[0027:LARIOH]2.0.CO;2.
Chenoweth, Michael (2006). "A Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical
Cyclone Activity, 1700�1855" (PDF). Climatic Change. Elkridge, Maryland. 76 (1�2):
169�240. doi:10.1007/s10584-005-9005-2.
Hairr, John (2008). The Great Hurricanes of North Carolina. Charleston, South
Carolina: The History Press. ISBN 1-59629-391-8.
Ludlum, David McWilliams (1963). Early American hurricanes, 1492�1870. Boston,
Massachusetts: American Meteorological Society. ISBN 0-933876-16-5.
Schwartz, Rick (2007). Hurricanes and the Middle Atlantic States. Alexandria,
Virginia: Blue Diamond Books. ISBN 0-9786280-0-4.

The 1806 Great Coastal hurricane was a severe and damaging storm along the East
Coast of the United States which produced upwards of 36 in (91 cm) of rainfall in
parts of Massachusetts. First observed east of the Lesser Antilles on 17 August,
the hurricane arrived at the Bahamas by 19 August. The disturbance continued to
drift northward and made landfall at the mouth of the Cape Fear River in North
Carolina on 22 August. The storm soon moved out to sea as a Category 2-equivalent
hurricane on the Saffir�Simpson hurricane wind scale, persisting off of New England
before dissipating south of Nova Scotia on 25 August as a markedly weaker storm.
Several French and British military ships were damaged out at sea. In the
Carolinas, salt, sugar, rice, and lumber industries suffered considerably, and
several individuals were killed. Wharves and vessels endured moderate damage, with
many ships wrecked on North Carolinan barrier islands. A majority of the deaths
caused by the hurricane occurred aboard the Rose-in-Bloom offshore of Barnegat
Inlet, New Jersey, with 21 of the ship's 48 passengers killed and $171,000 (1806
USD) in damage to its cargo.[nb 1] Upon arriving in New England, reports indicated
extreme rainfall, though no deaths were reported; in all, the hurricane killed more
than 24 individuals along the entirety of its track.[nb 2]

Contents
1 Meteorological history
2 Impact
3 See also
4 Notes
4.1 Footnotes
4.2 Citations
4.3 References
Meteorological history
The Great Coastal hurricane of 1806 was first noted far east of the Lesser Antilles
on 17 August.[1] Weather historian David M. Ludlum followed the disturbance's track
to the Bahamas by 19 August; intense winds persisted until 21 August, however,
approximately 150 mi (240 km) east of the Bahamian island of Eleuthera. Steering
currents brought the storm northward, and it approached Charleston, South Carolina
on 22 August, where a generally easterly flow preceded the storm indicated its
passage far east of the city.[2] The hurricane made landfall at the mouth of the
Cape Fear River in North Carolina later that day,[3] though the earliest impacts
from the storm started several days earlier, with gusts initially toward the
northeast but later curving southwestward. Reports of similar wind shifts
throughout the region suggested that the gale persisted, stationary, for several
hours. It eventually moved back out to sea while south of Norfolk, Virginia,[4]
departing the region on 24 August.[2] The hurricane maintained 1-minute maximum
sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) while offshore,[5] equivalent to a Category 2
system on the Saffir�Simpson hurricane wind scale. While offshore New England, the
gale featured a swath of winds 90 mi (150 km) wide,[6] and was last observed just
south of Nova Scotia on 25 August slightly weaker, with sustained winds of 75 mph
(120 km/h).[5]

Impact
The hurricane damaged several vessels while still drifting at sea, dispersing and
damaging J�r�me Bonaparte's fleet and dismasting the 74-gun French ship of the line
Imp�tueux, which later landed near Cape Henry.[4]

In Charleston, South Carolina, the hurricane washed aground several ships and
uprooted numerous trees, though damage to the city harbor was minimal. The
lighthouse on North Island flanking Winyah Bay collapsed under high winds, and in
Georgetown proper, the hurricane was considered to be the worst since the 1804
Antigua�Charleston hurricane, despite its storm surge being of a lesser size. A
cotton field covering 94 acres was ruined nearby.[4] At Smithville, North Carolina,
numerous ships experienced damage, while considerable destruction to structures was
observed, with many wharves wrecked. Meanwhile, at Wilmington, the hurricane
inflicted widespread damage, with many wharves severely damaged, and significant
losses sustained by salt, sugar, rice, and lumber industries. The gable sections of
three masonry houses were destroyed by wind or water, and wooden houses suffered
especially badly, with many obliterated and those under construction flattened. One
individual died after a wall collapsed and several slaves were killed, one by
drowning, at local plantations.[7] At Bald Head Island, the United States Revenue
Cutter Service vessel Governor Williams was stripped of its foremast and
subsequently ran ashore before being repaired and continuing on its journey. A
second boat owned by the agency, the Diligence, was tethered at port in Wilmington
and endured no damage; similarly, little impact occurred at New Bern.[8] Throughout
the storm, several vessels and supplies of stranded sailors were driven aground
along the North Carolinan coast. On the Bogue Banks, the remains of the Adolphus
and Atlantic were discovered, and at the Core Banks, a dead body was washed ashore,
partially eaten by fish.[9]

Moderate damage occurred upon the hurricane's arrival in Norfolk, Virginia. Winds
toppled a number of newly built structures and chimneys, uprooted trees and fences,
and washed two watercraft aground.[10] After the storm, alterations to the
shoreline around the Chesapeake Bay permitted the full establishment of a town at
Willoughby Spit.[11] The Rose-in-Bloom was caught in the hurricane while offshore
of Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey,[12] en route to New York City from Charleston,[11]
but was struck by a large wave which overturned the ship, resulting in the deaths
of 21 of its 48 passengers and the loss of $171,000 of its $180,000 (1806 USD)
cargo. The vessel only barely stayed afloat, with 30 bales of cotton preventing it
from sinking entirely;[12] survivors were ferried to New York by the British brig
Swift, which had then been traveling toward St. John's, Newfoundland.[11] The
hurricane produced strong gusts within the vicinity of New York City, and at
Belleville, New Jersey, several peach trees were defoliated and uprooted. Cape Cod,
Massachusetts was struck by heavy rain and observed minor damage to its port. At
Edgartown, meanwhile, an individual witnessed torrential rainfall, recording that a
barrel was filled with 30 in (76 cm) of water, and estimating total rainfall
reached 36 in (91 cm) there, where the storm devastated local crops and beached
five cargo ships. At Brewster, meanwhile, severe damage to crops and salterns was
noted, and 18 in (46 cm) of rainfall was recorded.[10] Reports in Boston, however,
indicate more modest rainfall amounts, with a precipitation rate of 0.40 in (1.0
cm) per hour noted.[13]
See also
Tropical cyclones portal
1804 Antigua�Charleston hurricane
1806 Atlantic hurricane season
List of New England hurricanes
List of North Carolina hurricanes (pre-1900)
Notes
Footnotes
All damage figures in the article are in 1806 United States dollars (USD) unless
otherwise stated.
Deaths are totaled as follows: 21 were killed aboard the Rose-in-Bloom, one died
in a wall collapse at Wilmington, North Carolina, one drowned at a nearby
plantation, and one died out at sea, off of the Core Banks. Although several slaves
were killed, no exact number is known or has been estimated.
Citations
Chenoweth 2006, p. 222
Ludlum 1963, p. 57
Hairr 2008, p. 32
Ludlum 1963, p. 56
Boose; et al. "Hurricane Track Data". Harvard University. Harvard Forest.
Retrieved 4 March 2014.
Boose 2001, p. 40
Hairr 2008, p. 33
Hairr 2008, p. 34
Hairr 2008, p. 36
Ludlum 1963, p. 39
Schwartz 2007, p. 54
Hairr 2008, p. 35
Ludlum 1963, p. 40
References
Boose, Emery R.; Chamberlin, Kristen E.; Foster, David R. (2001). "Landscape and
Regional Impacts of Hurricanes in New England" (PDF). Ecological Monographs.
Petersham, Massachusetts. 71 (1): 27�48. doi:10.1890/0012-
9615(2001)071[0027:LARIOH]2.0.CO;2.
Chenoweth, Michael (2006). "A Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical
Cyclone Activity, 1700�1855" (PDF). Climatic Change. Elkridge, Maryland. 76 (1�2):
169�240. doi:10.1007/s10584-005-9005-2.
Hairr, John (2008). The Great Hurricanes of North Carolina. Charleston, South
Carolina: The History Press. ISBN 1-59629-391-8.
Ludlum, David McWilliams (1963). Early American hurricanes, 1492�1870. Boston,
Massachusetts: American Meteorological Society. ISBN 0-933876-16-5.
Schwartz, Rick (2007). Hurricanes and the Middle Atlantic States. Alexandria,
Virginia: Blue Diamond Books. ISBN 0-9786280-0-4.

The 1806 Great Coastal hurricane was a severe and damaging storm along the East
Coast of the United States which produced upwards of 36 in (91 cm) of rainfall in
parts of Massachusetts. First observed east of the Lesser Antilles on 17 August,
the hurricane arrived at the Bahamas by 19 August. The disturbance continued to
drift northward and made landfall at the mouth of the Cape Fear River in North
Carolina on 22 August. The storm soon moved out to sea as a Category 2-equivalent
hurricane on the Saffir�Simpson hurricane wind scale, persisting off of New England
before dissipating south of Nova Scotia on 25 August as a markedly weaker storm.
Several French and British military ships were damaged out at sea. In the
Carolinas, salt, sugar, rice, and lumber industries suffered considerably, and
several individuals were killed. Wharves and vessels endured moderate damage, with
many ships wrecked on North Carolinan barrier islands. A majority of the deaths
caused by the hurricane occurred aboard the Rose-in-Bloom offshore of Barnegat
Inlet, New Jersey, with 21 of the ship's 48 passengers killed and $171,000 (1806
USD) in damage to its cargo.[nb 1] Upon arriving in New England, reports indicated
extreme rainfall, though no deaths were reported; in all, the hurricane killed more
than 24 individuals along the entirety of its track.[nb 2]

Contents
1 Meteorological history
2 Impact
3 See also
4 Notes
4.1 Footnotes
4.2 Citations
4.3 References
Meteorological history
The Great Coastal hurricane of 1806 was first noted far east of the Lesser Antilles
on 17 August.[1] Weather historian David M. Ludlum followed the disturbance's track
to the Bahamas by 19 August; intense winds persisted until 21 August, however,
approximately 150 mi (240 km) east of the Bahamian island of Eleuthera. Steering
currents brought the storm northward, and it approached Charleston, South Carolina
on 22 August, where a generally easterly flow preceded the storm indicated its
passage far east of the city.[2] The hurricane made landfall at the mouth of the
Cape Fear River in North Carolina later that day,[3] though the earliest impacts
from the storm started several days earlier, with gusts initially toward the
northeast but later curving southwestward. Reports of similar wind shifts
throughout the region suggested that the gale persisted, stationary, for several
hours. It eventually moved back out to sea while south of Norfolk, Virginia,[4]
departing the region on 24 August.[2] The hurricane maintained 1-minute maximum
sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) while offshore,[5] equivalent to a Category 2
system on the Saffir�Simpson hurricane wind scale. While offshore New England, the
gale featured a swath of winds 90 mi (150 km) wide,[6] and was last observed just
south of Nova Scotia on 25 August slightly weaker, with sustained winds of 75 mph
(120 km/h).[5]

Impact
The hurricane damaged several vessels while still drifting at sea, dispersing and
damaging J�r�me Bonaparte's fleet and dismasting the 74-gun French ship of the line
Imp�tueux, which later landed near Cape Henry.[4]

In Charleston, South Carolina, the hurricane washed aground several ships and
uprooted numerous trees, though damage to the city harbor was minimal. The
lighthouse on North Island flanking Winyah Bay collapsed under high winds, and in
Georgetown proper, the hurricane was considered to be the worst since the 1804
Antigua�Charleston hurricane, despite its storm surge being of a lesser size. A
cotton field covering 94 acres was ruined nearby.[4] At Smithville, North Carolina,
numerous ships experienced damage, while considerable destruction to structures was
observed, with many wharves wrecked. Meanwhile, at Wilmington, the hurricane
inflicted widespread damage, with many wharves severely damaged, and significant
losses sustained by salt, sugar, rice, and lumber industries. The gable sections of
three masonry houses were destroyed by wind or water, and wooden houses suffered
especially badly, with many obliterated and those under construction flattened. One
individual died after a wall collapsed and several slaves were killed, one by
drowning, at local plantations.[7] At Bald Head Island, the United States Revenue
Cutter Service vessel Governor Williams was stripped of its foremast and
subsequently ran ashore before being repaired and continuing on its journey. A
second boat owned by the agency, the Diligence, was tethered at port in Wilmington
and endured no damage; similarly, little impact occurred at New Bern.[8] Throughout
the storm, several vessels and supplies of stranded sailors were driven aground
along the North Carolinan coast. On the Bogue Banks, the remains of the Adolphus
and Atlantic were discovered, and at the Core Banks, a dead body was washed ashore,
partially eaten by fish.[9]
Moderate damage occurred upon the hurricane's arrival in Norfolk, Virginia. Winds
toppled a number of newly built structures and chimneys, uprooted trees and fences,
and washed two watercraft aground.[10] After the storm, alterations to the
shoreline around the Chesapeake Bay permitted the full establishment of a town at
Willoughby Spit.[11] The Rose-in-Bloom was caught in the hurricane while offshore
of Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey,[12] en route to New York City from Charleston,[11]
but was struck by a large wave which overturned the ship, resulting in the deaths
of 21 of its 48 passengers and the loss of $171,000 of its $180,000 (1806 USD)
cargo. The vessel only barely stayed afloat, with 30 bales of cotton preventing it
from sinking entirely;[12] survivors were ferried to New York by the British brig
Swift, which had then been traveling toward St. John's, Newfoundland.[11] The
hurricane produced strong gusts within the vicinity of New York City, and at
Belleville, New Jersey, several peach trees were defoliated and uprooted. Cape Cod,
Massachusetts was struck by heavy rain and observed minor damage to its port. At
Edgartown, meanwhile, an individual witnessed torrential rainfall, recording that a
barrel was filled with 30 in (76 cm) of water, and estimating total rainfall
reached 36 in (91 cm) there, where the storm devastated local crops and beached
five cargo ships. At Brewster, meanwhile, severe damage to crops and salterns was
noted, and 18 in (46 cm) of rainfall was recorded.[10] Reports in Boston, however,
indicate more modest rainfall amounts, with a precipitation rate of 0.40 in (1.0
cm) per hour noted.[13]

See also
Tropical cyclones portal
1804 Antigua�Charleston hurricane
1806 Atlantic hurricane season
List of New England hurricanes
List of North Carolina hurricanes (pre-1900)
Notes
Footnotes
All damage figures in the article are in 1806 United States dollars (USD) unless
otherwise stated.
Deaths are totaled as follows: 21 were killed aboard the Rose-in-Bloom, one died
in a wall collapse at Wilmington, North Carolina, one drowned at a nearby
plantation, and one died out at sea, off of the Core Banks. Although several slaves
were killed, no exact number is known or has been estimated.
Citations
Chenoweth 2006, p. 222
Ludlum 1963, p. 57
Hairr 2008, p. 32
Ludlum 1963, p. 56
Boose; et al. "Hurricane Track Data". Harvard University. Harvard Forest.
Retrieved 4 March 2014.
Boose 2001, p. 40
Hairr 2008, p. 33
Hairr 2008, p. 34
Hairr 2008, p. 36
Ludlum 1963, p. 39
Schwartz 2007, p. 54
Hairr 2008, p. 35
Ludlum 1963, p. 40
References
Boose, Emery R.; Chamberlin, Kristen E.; Foster, David R. (2001). "Landscape and
Regional Impacts of Hurricanes in New England" (PDF). Ecological Monographs.
Petersham, Massachusetts. 71 (1): 27�48. doi:10.1890/0012-
9615(2001)071[0027:LARIOH]2.0.CO;2.
Chenoweth, Michael (2006). "A Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical
Cyclone Activity, 1700�1855" (PDF). Climatic Change. Elkridge, Maryland. 76 (1�2):
169�240. doi:10.1007/s10584-005-9005-2.
Hairr, John (2008). The Great Hurricanes of North Carolina. Charleston, South
Carolina: The History Press. ISBN 1-59629-391-8.
Ludlum, David McWilliams (1963). Early American hurricanes, 1492�1870. Boston,
Massachusetts: American Meteorological Society. ISBN 0-933876-16-5.
Schwartz, Rick (2007). Hurricanes and the Middle Atlantic States. Alexandria,
Virginia: Blue Diamond Books. ISBN 0-9786280-0-4.