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(16ME6DCCOE)

Unit – 1

Mathematical Modeling

Laplace Transform - Recap

Laplace Transform - Recap

• Inverse Laplace transform: used to find f(t) given,

F(s)

• Where,

– u(t) = 1 for t > 0

– u(t) = 0 for t < 0

Laplace Transform - Recap

Laplace Transform - Recap

Laplace Transform - Practice

Laplace Transform - Practice

Laplace Transform - Pairs

Laplace Transform – Pairs (Cont’d)

Rotational Mechanical Systems

• System with Gears

Rotational Mechanical Systems

• System with Gears

Conversion from T.F to State Space

• Q) Find the state-space representation of the

transfer function:

Conversion from T.F to State Space

(Cont'd)

• Solution)

• The given transfer function can be converted as:

X1 (s) 1

3

R( s ) s 9 s 2 26 s 24

• By doing I.L.T, we get:

x1 9 x1 26 x1 24 x1 r

Conversion from T.F to State Space

(Cont'd)

• Solution)

• The state equation would be:

v1 0 1 0 v1 0

v 0 0 1 v 0 r

2 2

v3 24 26 9 v3 1

• Similarly, the output equation would be:

v1

y 2 7 1v2

v3

Conversion from T.F to State Space

(Cont'd)

• The above obtained representation could be

shown in a block diagram as shown below:

Conversion from State Space to T.F

• Q) Given a system in the State Space

representation as shown below, obtain the

transfer function: T(s) = Y(s) / U(s)

Conversion from State Space to T.F

(Cont'd)

• Solution)

• To apply:

• Therefore:

Conversion from State Space to T.F

(Cont'd)

• Solution)

Block Diagrams

• Complicated systems can be represented as

interconnection of several simple sub-systems.

• Such a representation is termed as a block

diagram.

• A block diagram consists of following elements:

– A block : represents a transfer function

– Input / Output: signals going into and coming out of a

block.

– Summing Junction: where, several signals come and

join together.

– Pickoff Point: where, a signal branches of to a

different route

Block Diagrams (Cont'd)

Block Diagrams (Cont'd)

• To obtain one transfer function for a block

diagram, block diagram reduction method has to

be followed.

• In order to reduce a block diagram to a single

transfer function, the following forms have to be

recognized:

– Cascade form,

– Parallel form, and

– Feedback form

Block Diagrams (Cont'd)

• Cascade Form:

– When several blocks are in series:

Block Diagrams (Cont'd)

• Parallel Form:

– When several blocks are in parallel:

Block Diagrams (Cont'd)

• Feedback Form:

– When a signal is fedback from a block to a summing

junction:

Electro Mechanical Systems

• Motors

• Converts electrical energy (power) to mechanical

energy (power)

• Governed by: Faraday’s Law & Lenz’s law.

• Types

– DC Motors

– AC Motors

– Servo Motors

DC Motors

DC Motors (Cont’d)

• DC Motors

– Converts DC Electrical power to mechanical power.

– Brushed, brushless, commutated, un-commutated,

wound stators etc.

– A major portion of torque generated in the rotor

(armature) is available to drive an external load.

– Used in various control applications like: robotic

manipulators, disk drives, machine tools, servo-valve

actuators etc.

DC Motors (Cont’d)

• DC Motors

– Salient features:

• high torque,

• speed controllability over a wide range,

• portability,

• well-behaved speed-torque characteristics,

• adaptability to various types of speed control methods.

DC Motors (Cont’d)

DC Motors (Cont’d)

• The voltages applied to the field

and armature sides of the

motor are represented by Vf and

Va.

• The resistances and

inductances of the field and

armature sides of the motor are

represented by Rf, Lf, Ra, and La.

DC Motors (Cont’d)

Armature Controlled DC Motors

(permanent / electro).

• Armature: Rotating circuit (nothing but wound electrical coils)

through which current ia(t) flows.

• This rotating circuit feels a force F = Blia(t), where,

– B = magnetic field strength,

– l = length of conductor

DC Motors (Cont’d)

DC Motors (Cont’d)

DC Motors (Cont’d)

• Substituting this in the previous

equation

inductance La, is small compared

to the armature resistance, Ra.

Thus, the above on simplification

becomes:

transfer function can be written

as:

Field Controlled DC Motors

Field Controlled DC Motors (cont’d)

Field Controlled DC Motors (cont’d)

• The transfer function from the input voltage to

the resulting motor torque is obtained as:

Field Controlled DC Motors (cont’d)

Field Controlled DC Motors (cont’d)

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