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# CONTROL ENGINEERING

(16ME6DCCOE)
Unit – 1
Mathematical Modeling
Laplace Transform - Recap
Laplace Transform - Recap
• Inverse Laplace transform: used to find f(t) given,
F(s)

• Where,
– u(t) = 1 for t > 0
– u(t) = 0 for t < 0
Laplace Transform - Recap
Laplace Transform - Recap
Laplace Transform - Practice
Laplace Transform - Practice
Laplace Transform - Pairs
Laplace Transform – Pairs (Cont’d)
Rotational Mechanical Systems
• System with Gears
Rotational Mechanical Systems
• System with Gears
Conversion from T.F to State Space
• Q) Find the state-space representation of the
transfer function:
Conversion from T.F to State Space
(Cont'd)
• Solution)
• The given transfer function can be converted as:

## • Consider the 1st part of the converted T.F:

X1 (s) 1
 3
R( s ) s  9 s 2  26 s  24
• By doing I.L.T, we get:
x1  9 x1  26 x1  24 x1  r

## • Let, x1  v1 , x1  v2 , x1  v3

Conversion from T.F to State Space
(Cont'd)
• Solution)
• The state equation would be:
 v1   0 1 0   v1  0
v    0 0 1  v   0  r
 2   2   
v3   24  26  9 v3  1
• Similarly, the output equation would be:
 v1 
y  2 7 1v2 
v3 
Conversion from T.F to State Space
(Cont'd)
• The above obtained representation could be
shown in a block diagram as shown below:
Conversion from State Space to T.F
• Q) Given a system in the State Space
representation as shown below, obtain the
transfer function: T(s) = Y(s) / U(s)
Conversion from State Space to T.F
(Cont'd)
• Solution)
• To apply:

• Therefore:
Conversion from State Space to T.F
(Cont'd)
• Solution)
Block Diagrams
• Complicated systems can be represented as
interconnection of several simple sub-systems.
• Such a representation is termed as a block
diagram.
• A block diagram consists of following elements:
– A block : represents a transfer function
– Input / Output: signals going into and coming out of a
block.
– Summing Junction: where, several signals come and
join together.
– Pickoff Point: where, a signal branches of to a
different route
Block Diagrams (Cont'd)
Block Diagrams (Cont'd)
• To obtain one transfer function for a block
diagram, block diagram reduction method has to
be followed.
• In order to reduce a block diagram to a single
transfer function, the following forms have to be
recognized:
– Parallel form, and
– Feedback form
Block Diagrams (Cont'd)
– When several blocks are in series:
Block Diagrams (Cont'd)
• Parallel Form:
– When several blocks are in parallel:
Block Diagrams (Cont'd)
• Feedback Form:
– When a signal is fedback from a block to a summing
junction:
Electro Mechanical Systems
• Motors
• Converts electrical energy (power) to mechanical
energy (power)
• Governed by: Faraday’s Law & Lenz’s law.
• Types
– DC Motors
– AC Motors
– Servo Motors
DC Motors
DC Motors (Cont’d)
• DC Motors
– Converts DC Electrical power to mechanical power.
– Brushed, brushless, commutated, un-commutated,
wound stators etc.
– A major portion of torque generated in the rotor
(armature) is available to drive an external load.
– Used in various control applications like: robotic
manipulators, disk drives, machine tools, servo-valve
actuators etc.
DC Motors (Cont’d)
• DC Motors
– Salient features:
• high torque,
• speed controllability over a wide range,
• portability,
• well-behaved speed-torque characteristics,
• adaptability to various types of speed control methods.
DC Motors (Cont’d)
DC Motors (Cont’d)
• The voltages applied to the field
and armature sides of the
motor are represented by Vf and
Va.
• The resistances and
inductances of the field and
armature sides of the motor are
represented by Rf, Lf, Ra, and La.
DC Motors (Cont’d)
Armature Controlled DC Motors

## • Fixed field: Magnetic field developed by stationary magnet

(permanent / electro).
• Armature: Rotating circuit (nothing but wound electrical coils)
through which current ia(t) flows.
• This rotating circuit feels a force F = Blia(t), where,
– B = magnetic field strength,
– l = length of conductor
DC Motors (Cont’d)
DC Motors (Cont’d)
DC Motors (Cont’d)
• Substituting this in the previous
equation

## • Usually for a DC motor, armature

inductance La, is small compared
to the armature resistance, Ra.
Thus, the above on simplification
becomes:

## • After simplification, the desired

transfer function can be written
as:
Field Controlled DC Motors
Field Controlled DC Motors (cont’d)
Field Controlled DC Motors (cont’d)
• The transfer function from the input voltage to
the resulting motor torque is obtained as:
Field Controlled DC Motors (cont’d)
Field Controlled DC Motors (cont’d)