You are on page 1of 7

Soc)stv of Petrolewn Endneers

SPE 39536

Internal Corrosion Failure Model of Compressed Natural Gas


Transmission Lines and Efficient Mitigation Programme
A.K. Saxena, V.K. Sharma, S.K. Chugh, S. Velchamy, Ramesh Kumar,
Ram Prakash, B.K. Sharma and R.S. Dinesh, ONGC Ltd.

CCWT9ti 188S, SW&Y d Peb@eum Engineers, k


Introduction
This paper was ~ FIX pw6enkNicn at ihe 199S SPE India Oil and Gas Conference and Internal corrosion in a cmnpessed natural gas carrying
Exhibition held in New OeIhL Ind=, 17-19 Febmary 1998.
pipeline between Sanand and Jhalora oil fields in North
-rhiipafm rw?sselecbdfu pmwmMkmbyan XPqram COmmitlwfOlkwing -Of
information mnfxined in 80 ●lxfract wbmiftod by the wlhor(s). COrdwds of the pnfmr, as Gujarat has caused frequent line Mums resulting in regular
_,*~*~bYti
cOrwtmn bytfm8@h0@). -rfmrnatMal,
qd_um
.pmwlted, *net
Ewiwmandamwb@ti
—rily refkct any
disruption of production operation and loss of economy. The
pcMtkxIoTUm
qofi%SmhwmEr@we mm. its C4riirs, or members P+w$ pmcwlted pipeline is abut nine kilometers long and carries compressed
at SPEnlO#ngs 8ms@ectt0publiati0n r0viw by Edtil Committees of the %eii of
PObubum Engi-, Elecbwii mpruiuction, dtilxdion, or 8tomw ti ●ny @ or this paper natural gas for 70 wells situated around the area that am on
for cum-l pqxxt%wHfwttfm wf&nczmsemt ofttm Swietyc4Petmkum Engirmwsis
pdibikd P0.ti&refxgdug8 i=wb%t4d=an abdractct nc4m0rethan3CO gas lift. In 19%, about 2 kilometers section of the 9 year old
WllI& inusbaths
~c?whemmdby%om
% ~
thapapwwaspresentd
mitsi WnWn cunspTcuous
Wtite Libratin, SPE,
6-inch line had to be co!&letely replaeed because of severe
PO. M S33S3tl, REhudwn, Tx 73CKMw5, Lf.S.A., fax 01-972-9S29435 internal corrosion An internal inspection of the pxqered
portion revealed &were acid pitting of the pi& “and excessive
Abstract thinning of walls that probably led to line leakages and
Corrosion aspects of oil field production facility continues to bursting of the line. A systematic study was planned to carry
rweive eveqycnving attention bexxtuse of increasing eat of out detailed analysis to know character of the problem and
enerpy and need for safk and reliable operations so critical for also to chalk out an efficient mitigation programrne. The
overall prothbility, Failure of compressed natural gas findings are incorporated in the present cmrummication.
transmission line, between Sanand and Mom oilfiekls is
wide spread dire to mspmted internal corrosion and often Background
required replacement. Intensive eilorts have been made to Internal corrosion of pipeline involved in lift gas transmission
study character of the problem. The investigations include an and gas lift wells is a wide spread phenomenon and can, at
analysis of the internal environment of the pipeline and times, be quite severe. The prcxluction of water alongwith the
ftilure analysis of a ftiled pipeline sample including visual gas and gas having high moisture cxmtent, particularly from
inspection, Ukrasonic measurements, metallographic the predominantly water drive reservoirs, tiuplkd with the
investigation, material property testing like hardness and presenee of carbondioxide in the produced gas is often “the
tensile strength and gravimetric corrosion rate studies under major cause of corrosion attack Grbondioxide dissolved in
simulated line conditions. salt water forms an acidic brine solution that causes a general
Significant high partial pressure of C@ and presence of attack on steel pipes’ . This corrosive degradation of the
water inchvx internal corrosion which is accelerated due to pipdine material can take many forms - weight loss corrosion
erosional affect of angular mist flow inside the line. The (pitting crevice and general corrosion) and enviromnentaIIy
synergistic &f&t of erosion-emrosion leads to excessive indueid embrittlement (sulfide stress cracking hydrogen
localized pitting and thinning of wall of transmission line induced cracking hydrogen embrittlement and stress
leading to ruptures. currosion crack). The first type of corrosion takes place in a
Continuous Iow dose addtlon of an oil soluble water system where C@ is the main corrodant while presenm’ of
dispsiiIe amine inhiihor is found to be technically most HJ3 alongwith CQ can lead to other forms of corrosion.
feasiie aspect to avoid system Mum in fidure. The inlul$tor Heavy localised pitting is the distinguished feature in a
had good film forming and @ti maintenance properties. The systmn attacked by C02 induced corrosion’. During the past
need to atomise the inhiiltor to obtain suitable transport several years, corrosion has become an increasing proliiem as
characteristics is emphasized. a resolt of the need for capacity production. Corrosive high
water cut wells are being produced and additional turbulence

293
2 MC SAXENA, V.K. SHARMA, S.K. CHUGH, S. VELCHAMY, RAMESH KUMAR, SPE 33536
RAM PRAKASH, B.K. SHARMA, and R.S. DINESH
.—

in systems from high production rates accelerates corrosiotd C@+ H20 - HzCQ ..............................(A-l)
erosion attack,
Fe+ HzC!@ ~ FdQ + J32 .........................(2)2)
Partial Pressure of Carbondioxidc Carbondioxide is found
in different quantities in any natural gas. Being dissolved in It has been recognised that carbcmic acid can be more
water extracted together with gas out of the formation or corrosive than a completely dissociated acid at the same pH.
-ti from gas due to changes of thermodynamieal A mechanism for the cathodic reaction which is based on the
conditions, C02 is known to form slightly dissociable above fact is
carbonic acid which on interaction with iron forms two kinds
of corrosion products - bicartxmate {in water solution) and H2CCh + e- ~ ~ + HCCh- ........................(A-3)
carbonate (poorly soluble in water). HCOi + ~ ~ H2CQ ................................(A-4)
As partial pressure of *ndioxide rises in a gas flow the
rate of corrosion increases. This happens due to the decrease Corrosion resulting in hydrogen gas evolution may occur at
of medium pH, to the facilitation of cathode process of pH 6.0 with carbondioxide, whereas with highly ionised
d ~cal earbQnic acid corrosion proceeding with hydrochloric aei~ pH 4 is required for hydrogen _Wolution.
hydrogen depolarization; to the increase of volubility of This can be explained by the fact that carbonic acid is a
protective films of camsion products as well as due to slightly ionised acid and therefore would require a greater
eti~~nate film Precipitation from water becoming amount of carbonic aei~ or more total acidity to obtain pH 6
Chant Duncan showed that corrosion thari the amount of hydrochloric acid necessary to obtain pH
environment severity is i@en&nt on gas phase carbon 4.
dioxide partial presaure3. With the usual formulation of the cathodic reaetion
occuring at steel corm&ng in acid (RII = Ratg deteqining
CQ piutial pressure corrosion severity step)
Less than 7psi (0.5 atm) mild to non corrosive
Greater than 7 psi (0.5 atm) moderate m+e- D
——————F
H ......................................(A-5a)
Greater than 30 psi (2 atm) high
2H ~ H20rw +l-I+e- ~ Ha., .......{A-5b)
Another survey by John L. Tishuk and David S. Huber4
divided sweet gas fields into three groups The relation betwex?nthe corrosion current (i) and pH can
aIways be shown to be of the form’.
C@ partial pressure under 2 psi - No corrosion protection is
log~ = -ApH+B .................................................(A4)

Cm partial pressuxe 5 to 20 psi - Inhibitor batch treatment When it is assumed that anodic dissolution reaction *S
not depend qon pH, A=l. However, Boclais et al.s obtain~
evidenee of a pH dependent mechanism.
Corrosion f@lwes occured in unprotected wells and some
evidences of corrosion observed despite regular inhibitor Fe+ OH- ~ FeOH + e- ..........................{A-7)
treatment.
CG partial pre5sure over 20 psi - Many instances of FeOH ~ FeO~ + e- .......................(A-8a)
corrosion pitting rates greater than 10 millimeter per year and
cases of corrosion fkilures with inhibitor batch treatment, FeO~ ~ FeH + OK ........................(8b)b)
Stahdess steel production tubing is used to avoid corrosion.
John W. Grcaves and E,H. Sullivans concluded that severe With this meehanism, the dissolution rate at any constant
corrosion due to carixmic acid ocmrred in lines with potential is invemely proportional to the ~ c6n~tratio~
carlmndioxide exerting partial pressure in 6-7 psi range in which leads to a less marked dependence of corrosion rate on
contact with water. Corrosion attack occurred in lines even pm A being about 0.5. Another mechanism proposed by
when partial pressure of carbondioxide were as low as 4 to 5 Heusler leads to A=og. C. Deeward and D.E. Williti’”
psi. concluded that corrosion rate of steel in carlmnic acid obeys
the relation
Carbonic acid corrosion of steeL Carbonic aci~ formed due
to disdution of C02 in water, decreases the pH of the system log i = -1.3 pH+B ...........................................(A-9)
and increases its corrosivity.

294
SPE = INTERNAL CORROSION FAILURE MODEL OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS 3
TRANSMISSION LINES AND EFFICIENT MITIGATION PROGRAMME

They explained their results quantitatively with Bockris’ At still higher gas flow rates with low liquid flow rates mist
pH dependent mechanism for the anodic dissolution and the or dispersed flow pattern exists.
following mechanism for the cathodic reaction.
Test Results
HZCQ + e- ~ ~ + HCQ- ......................(A-1O) Operating Conditions of pipeline. The gas sample analysis
(Table 1) shows that the fd gas to the compression plant
HCQ- + ~ _ H2C03, 2~ + 2e- ~ Hz.....(A-11) contains upto 2°Acarbondioxide. The cartwn dioxide content
of the outccnning compressed gas is reduced to about O.S”/O
instead of a reduction of protons at the metal surface. They level. The line pressure of the input gas is 4 KSC which
further concluded that at the corrosion potential, the increases 10 folds to 40 KSC after two stages of compression.
corrosion rate is not limited ~ diffusion of W. The gas is moisture saturated as no attempts are made to
Factors Influencing Carbondioside induced corrosion. dehydrate the gas. The partial pressure of 2% carbon dioxide
Many fiictors are likely to influence the rate of attack by wet in a line at 40 KSC (568.8 psi) shall be 11.3 psi. Further, due
sweet gas - partial pressure of carbon dioxide, temperature, to high flow rate of the gas after compression only fraction of
flow condition, metallurgical and surface condition of metal, the water can be drained out while the rest is likely to travel
presence of methanol or glyeol, presence of inhibitor, ahead into the line alongwith the gas.
presence of solid particles in the gas stream or on the bottom The composition of the drained out water (Table 2) shows
of the pipe and partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide. The that water is mild to high acidic having low hardness, low
effect of partiaI pressure of earbondioxide is already salinity and low dissolved solids. Such a water can h very
&cussed Partial pressure of carbondioxide has generally corrosive to the pipeline material with water having no self
ken used as a yardstick to predict corrosion. Volubility of protecting film formation capacity. The corrosion rates of
carbondioxide decreases as the temperature increases and vice original water samples on pipeline material (API 5LX ste@)
-versa. As the fluid moves upward fkom the well bore to the at 50”C were 7-8 mpy and 45-50 mpy under static and
well he@ both temperature and pressure decrease. dynamic conditions respectively indicating substantial
Mxeased temperature increases the volubility whereas corrosion under pipeline flow conditions.
da-ease pressure decreases the volubility. The corrosion rislq The microbiological examination of the separated water
therefore, depends upon the effkct of both temperature and (Table 3) shows that although GeneraI Aerobic Ek-wterial
pressure. Deeward and W-l 1 developed an equation (GAB) counts are on lower side, signitkant anerobic Sulphate
showing relationship of corrosion rate temperature and partial Reducing Bacterial (SRB) population is present in line water.
~ of Carbondiotide. The nomograph prduced from The gas flowing at a high rate does not form a m“iibIe
this equation provides a means to approximate the severity of enviromnent for growth of any bacterial population. It seems
carhmdioxide currosion and allow a quick analysis of the probable that bacteria can grow in the water layer that m-bves
Wtential corrosive Muwiour of a cartmndioxide containing at a comparatively slow rate at the bottom section of the
system. pipeline. The water can also remain stagnated at certain
Once ini- corrosion rates accelerate at a much faster sections at the pipeline due to its geometry and the scale and
rate under flowing conditions. Further, the presence of fine other deposits provide an ideal place for the SRB po@ation
sediments in the gas stream leads to rupture of any protective to grow. Further, as SRB is a sessile bacterkq the number of
film formed due to corrosion process and thus enhances bacteria floating in a water sample is ordy a rough indication
attack on metal surfaces. LOW velocity induces general of bacteriological condition existing inside the line. A
corrosion attaclq but pitting is more likely. High velocity significant SRB activity is therefore, suspected inside the
zudor the presence of suspended solids or gas bubbles can compressed gas line that can take plaw. beneath the
lead to exosion-corrosion. High-1ow velocity area arise in any eondenaed water layer and line deposits. The condensed
system in which adjacent areas are exposed to different water water also contains signitkant amount of sulphate .Wd anoxic
velocities. If no oxygen is present, the high velo@y area is condition inside the line can promote SRB activities.
antic to the low velixity area and corrodes. If oxygen is The analysis of the corrosion products deposited inside the
present the low velocity area receives less oxygenj acts as line confirmed presence of iron carbonate, the presenee of
anode, and corrodes. aulphide deposits could not be confirmed. Since pigging in
In case of a two phase (gas and liquid) flow in an the concerned pipeline is not carried out, it was not possible
horizontal pipe, various flow patterns can result, At low gas to collect fresh samples of deposits for analysis. The de@its
and liquid flOW rate, stmdfid flOW is observed in which were scrapped from an old used pipeline sample which was
liquid flows at the pipe bottom and gas along the top. At lying in open for quite some time. The analysis of the fr@dy
high gas flow rate, slug flow in which frothy slugs of liquid collected &posit samples could give a more clear idea about
move across the up@r pxtion of the pipe while a wavy layer the microbial induced corrosion inside the line. However, the
of liquid between the slugs at the bottom of the pip. can exist. presence of SRB in the separated water from the line itself

295
4 A.K. SAXENA, V.K. SHARMA, S.K. CHUGH, S. VELCHAMY, RAMESH KUMAR, SPE 3S636
RAM PRAKASH, B.K SHARMA, and R.S. DINESH

should be a cause of concern. studies indicated that the pipe material had acceptable
normalised ferritic and pearlitic microstructure which is
Failure Analysis of Failed Pipeline Sample. The following typical of a rolled carbon steel.
lalmatory studies on a bursted portion of the pipeline were The hardness and tensile strength testing of pipe material
carried out to ascertain aetmd reason of failure : 1) Visual showed that the strength of the material is within the
inspection, 2) Non-destructive tests such as magnetic particle specified limits of API-5LX-46 carbon steel.
inspxtio~ ultrasonic thickness measurement, 3) Compo- The results obtained by above studies clearly indicated that
sitional analysis of the ‘-pi~iine material by AAS, 4) the pipeline material was conforming to the accepted
MicroStructural analysis by optical microscope, 5) Fractro- stan&rds in all respects and the major cause of failure was
graphic studies by scanning Electron Microscxqx, 6) severe internal corrosion of the pipeline that led to thinning
Hardness and Tensile strength test, of the pipe wall, The minimum safe wall thiclmess under the
Visual inspection of the bursted sample revealed that the operating condition of the pipeline was calculated to be 2.34
externaI coating of the pipe was ruptured at many places but mm. However, the minimum wall thickness recorded at the
the external tiaEe was unaftkted by corrosion. Howewer, pIace of rupture was 2.1 mm indicating an obvious cause for
the internal surface of the pipe was heavily corroded. There failure of pipeline.
were a large number of pits, ranging from deep to very deep
in depth, scattered on the internal surface of the pipe. There Corrosion Control. Signitkant high partial “pressure of
was a general thiekm%s redktion of the pipewall and carbondioxide and presence of water in the compressed gas
excessive thining of the piW wall along the site of structure. line induced the internal corrosion in the pipeline.
Thus, visual inspction showed that the pipeline had Subsequently corrosion attack accelerated due to erosional
undergone heavy internal corrosion asswiated with deep pits effeet of annular mist flow inside the pipeline... ---=The .
and channels and the rupture has occured along the sites of syner~stic i2ffect of erosion-corrosion Ca= execess3ve
maximuni metal loss. Iodised pitting and thinning of the pipeline walls.
The uhrasonic thickness measurements of the burst sample The best option to control” corroiion in the ‘cxixemed
at different locations were carried out and results are given pipeline would be to &hydrate the gas before its compression.
below : This, however, requires installation of costly dehydrating
columns which may involve an exercise to j- its
Thickness at 6’0 clock position -It varies fmm 2.1-3.0 mm. installation by properly analysing the economic benetls
Thickness at 9’0 clock position -It varies from 3.7-5.5 mm. achieved by it. The application of corrosion inhibitor as an
Thickness at 3’0 clock position -It varies from 3.8-6.0 mm. alternative to drying has been used for wet gas transmission
Thickness at 12’0clock position -It varies from 4.8-6.1 mm. lines. The success of inhibitor application depends upon the
choice of proper inhiiitor for the concerned system, We
The designed wall thickness of the pipe is 6.5 mm. During injection of the inhibitor into high pressure gas pipelines and
uhrasonic thickness measurement, the thickness of the pipe proper corrosion monitoring during inhibitor application to
WCUat non rmmided ‘locations was observed to vary from 6.0 evaluate its performance.
mm to 7.0 nim. The U.T. &asurement dso suggests that the
pipeline has undergone heavy internal corrosion and fracture Inhibition of acid corrosion by amines. The use of oil
Wgated through the areas where thickness reduction was soluble water dispersible amines have been found to_be gwxl
rnwmum. corrosion inhibitor for wet gas corrosion. It is generally
Compositional analysis of the pipe material was carried out recognised that organic amines are adsorption type inhibitors
by spark spedmscopy and also by atomic absorption spectro- of acid corrosion 12“3. The inhibition efficiency seems to be
photometry. The results are given in Table 4. The results reIated not only to the ekxlron density of nitrogen atom but
show that the composition of the pipe material is cotiorming also to the n-electron &nsity of phenyl group] 4. According to
to the specification of API-5LX-46. the concept of general adsorption amine inhibitom are
Small sections of the pipe from places of maximum adsorbed on anodic and cathodic metal surfaces by formation
corrosion and least corrosion were cut, polished and observed of metal nitrogen coordinate bond and by ecxdombic
over metallurgical microscope for any inclusions, stringers attraction between metal and ammonium Cations’s.
etc. Significant inclusions and stringers were not observed. Chemisorption of unprotonated amine through the coordinate
The samples were then etched and observed under inverted Ixmd seems to play an important role in the inhibition of
metallurgical microscope at Werent magnifkations to reveal anodic process]G. The inhibition effkct of amine on the
the microstructure. These were found to have normalised anodic partial reaction is thus closely related to the ability of
ferritic and pearlitic microstructure with ASTM grain size of electron density at nitrogen atom together with moleeular
7. Further, no change in microstructure was detected at coverage area and steric requirements for the adsorption of
corroded and non corroded areas. Thus, metaUographic amine molecules on the metal surf’] 7. To confirm this

296
SPE - INTERNAL
CORROSION FAtLURE MODEL OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS 5
TRANSMISSION LINES AND EFFICIENT MITIGATION PROGRAMME

relatiom many kinds of parameters such as the basicity value, into the top of the chemical feed tank. The chemical is fd to
the substituent constant and the ionization ptential have the atomizer horn the ftzd tank.
been adopted as measures of the electron donation ability or
the electron density at nitrogen atom. The formation of Conclusions
electrostatic txmd seems to favour the adsorption of amine The natural gas used at Gas Compressor Plant, Sanand for
moIecuIFF6KiihFeathodic *S 18. gas lift wells is essentially a wet gas and contains
The amines adsorb on the metal surfaces initially as a film earbondioxide upto 20/0 mole fraction. The formation of
that is one molecule thick (-I x 10-7 mm). However, the carbonic acid within the compressed gas line under
films with occluded oil build to such thickness that they considerable carbondioxide partial pressure (11-12 psi) leads
become visible and easily detected. In addition to monomole- to severe internal corrosion of pipeline. The high flow rate of
cular films, it is also likely that molecules aggregates or the fluids inside the pipeline further enhanees attack on the
mieelles are deposited. Loss or dissipation of the adsorbed pipeline material due to erosion<orrosion. A considerable
film is primarily a fimetion of time, temperature and activity of sulphate reducing bacteria inside the line is present
concentration of inhibitor in fluids contacting the metal that can lead to microbial induced corrosion at certain
surface. In flowing gas stream with entrained water, inhibitor portions of pipeline. The periodic use of a suitable
films are not disrupted at mass velocities upto 30 meters per bactericide may be required Treatment of compressed gas
second However, abrasion by high velocity solid particles transmission line by a film forming amine inhibitor is an
em tear away the films, This is often evidenced by corrosion- effective method of corrosion control. The inhibitor solution
erosion at tube turns and elbows where solid particles should be fogged into the line for best results. The laboratory
impinge. evaluation of commercially available inhibitors can be carried
out to select best products.
Inhibitor Evaluation. A kdmratory method is developed to
evaluate the performance of eomrnercially available products. Acknowledgements
This will help in screening out the best inhibitors and ensure The authors thank the Director (Exploration), ONGC, for
their suitability and efficiency in the concerned environment. granting permission to publish this paper. The authors also
It was observed that the cmrosion rates of 1°ANaC1 solution, thank Mr. Daljit Singh, Group General Manager
deox~genated and saturated with earbondioxide (COZ (Exploration), ONGC, WlU3Cj for providing ftilifj’arid
concentration -1250 t 50 ppm) resemble those of condensed guidance and Mr. S.K. Singh, Group General Manager
water inside the compressed gas lines. Hence, 1°/0 NaCl (IEOT) and Mr. P.F. Anto, Dy.GeneraI Manager, IKYT,
solution, &oxygenated and CG. saturatal was taken as ONGC, for providing analytical support in failure analysis.
corroding media for Iabm’story evaluation of emnmercially
available amine corrosion inhibitors for selecting the best for References
operational use. The results are shown in Table 5. The tests 1. TownshenL P.E., Colegate, G.T., and Van Waart, T.L. :
were carried out in static ~nditions in an oven and in “Carbon dioxide Corrosion at Low Partial Pressures in Major
dynaniic “conditions by wheil test method Some of the Submarine Gas Pipeline,” - SPE 3741 presented at the
1972 SPE, AIME, European Spring Meeting, Amsterdam,May
inhiitors have &en found to give corrosion protection of
16-18.
80’?40and more. The physical properties of neat inhibitor 2. Multi, D.H., et.al. : “Corrosion Control of Gas-Lift Wells
fornndatio% miscibilitykiispersl%ility in the system, fbam Tubulars by Continuous Inhibitor Injection into the Gas-Lift
forming tenden~ and thermal stability of the temperature Stream,”JPT (June 1976)624.
were also checked to fbrther ensure their suitability. 3. Duncan, Grant. : “ EnhancedRecoveryEngineering,” World Oil
@OV. 1994)63.
Inhibitor Application into a High Pressure Gas Line. The 4. Jis Chuk, J.L., and Huber, D.S. : “Selecting the Best Way to
inhibitor shoutd pref-ly be mkxed with a suitable solvent Control Downhole CorrosiiW” World Oil (Sept.
1985) 61.

such as Kerosene or Diesel in the ratio 1:3 or 1:4. This 5. Greaves,J.W., and SuJlivan,E.H. : “Internal Corrosion in Gas
would help in quicker mixing with line fluids, faster Gathering systems and Transmission Lines,” A4atm”a[
Protection (1966) 5, No. 6,493.
distribution over the surface and assist in lateral flow of
6. Tod& F., Korrosion and Korrosion Schuti, 2nd Ed. Walter de
inhibitor within the line. For injection of the inhibitor into Gryter&co., Berlin (l%l)861.
the tine as a fine misL an atomizing nozzle is positioned in 7. Kaesehe, H., Die Corrosion der Metalle, Springer Verslag,
the centre ofgas line so that the nozzle will spray in the same (1966) 135.
direction as the @ flow. h orifice plate is placed in the 8. Bockris, J.O.M., Drasic, D., and Despic, A.R. Electmchem.
line immediately upstream of noale. The arrangement Ack?, (1961)4, 325 and (1962)5, 293.
requires a minimum of 10 and maximum of 20 psi drop 9. Heusler, K.E., Z. Electrochem., ( 1958) 62, 582.
across the orifice. The gas is tapped on the high pressure side 10 Deewwd, G., and Williams, D.E. : “Carbonic Acid Corrosion of
of the orifice and passed through a filter to the atomizer and Steel,” Corrosion, (1975) 31, No. 5.

297
6 A.K. SAXENA, V.K. SHARMA, SK. CHUGH, S. VELCHAMY, RAMESH KUMAR, SPE =
RAM PRAKASH, B.lC SHARMA, and R..% DINESH
— ~=..._. _<.

11. Deeward, G,, and Williams, D.E. : “Prediction of Crubnic acid TABLE 2
Corrosion in Natural Gas Pipelines, First Int. Conf. on Internal CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATE WATER FROM
and External Protection of pipelines, ( 1975).
GCP LINES
12. Haekerman, N., Hnrd R.M., and Anand, RR., ~O?7WSiO?l,
(1962] 18, 37t.
13. Hackernuq N., and McCaffi, E., Proc. of Fifth Int. C@. on SL. PARA- sAM- sAM- sAM- sAM-
MetaRic Corrosi~ .W2. NO. METER PLE 1 PLE 2 PLE 3 PLE 4
14. Altsyh A.I., et. al., Proc. of Third European Symp. on 1. pH 4.7 5.1 5.2 4.4
Coxrosion Inhibitors,(1971 ) 501. 2. Carlxmate Nil Nil Nil Nil
15. Hackermaq N., Corrosion, ( 1%2) 18, 322t. 3. Bicarbonate 132 66 143 77
16. Aramaki, K., Denki Kagaku, (1972) 40,566, 4. chloride 69 104 208 139
17. Aramaki, K., Denki.Kagaku, (1 973) 41,550.
5. Sulphate 25 23 92 202
18. Aramaki, K., Denki Kagaku, (1974) .$2, 566,
6. calcium 11 04 I 11 _08
7. Magnesium 04 07 10 ._19
TABLE 1 8. Total Iron 80 02 03 67
COMPOSITION OF NATURAL GAS AT GCP, 9. Total Hardness 30 40 72 100
SANAND 10. I Salinity I 114 I 172 ] 344 I 229-
] (or NaCl I I I I
ccwPoNENT s,wl%&4’- 1 11. I sodium 97 94
ISAM%EI* ISAMPLE2” ISMWLE3” 1 200 170
(%) (%) (%) (%) (calculated)
c, 97.43 - - 12. T.D.S. 338 298 665 615
C2 1.04 - 13. D.O. Nil 0.2 Nil Nil
C3-C6 Tr 14. Corrosion Rate 7.8 7.6 7.6 8.2
C@ 0.76 1.46 1.74 2.05 ] API-5LX Steel I I I I
N2 0.77 - (Static) in mpy
Cal. Value 0.8931 - 15. Corrosion Rate 42.6 42.0 42.8 46.2
(,k.cal/m3) of API-5LX
Density 0.66 - steel (dynamic)
HJS Nil Nil Nil Nil in mpy
* after compression
** before impression

TABLE 3
MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SEPARATED
WATER

SL. SAMPLE BACTE~ COUNTS per ml.


NO. SOURCE SRB - -.
1. Before I
Compression (1-10)103 -Q@!Q!_
2. After Ist
Stage Com- (1-10)103 (1-10)10’
pression
3 After 2nd
stage com- (1-10)103 (1-10)102
pression
4. Composite
Drain Tank (1-10)104 (1-10)102

298
SPE 39536 INTERNAL CORROSION FAILURE MODEL OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS 7
TRANSMISSION LINES AND EFFICIENT MITIGATION PROGRAMME

TADLE 4 TABLE 5
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL EVALUATION OF CORROSION INHIBITORS IN 1°%
NaCi SOLUTION (DEOXYGENATED) 50 ~ 2“C,
I SL I ELEm ] CONCENTRATION ] AS PER API-5LX-46 I COZ CONCENTRATION -1230 ppm
NO. (%) 9/0
1. Carbon 0.140 0.30 Max Inhibitor Ccmcn.G1-msion Inhibition
2.
3.
Sulphur 0.020
0.028
0.05 Max
0.04 Max
P@) w Efficienc %
Phosphorus Dynamic static “c
4. Mangnese 0.77 1.35 Max Blank 7.2 48.6
5. Silicon 0.030 A 15 2.5 18.5 65.2 61.9
6. chromium 0.015 -do- 25 1.2 8.7 83.3 82.0
7. Nickel 0.010 -do- 50 1.0 7.8 86.1 83.9
8. Cbpp2r 0.024 -do- 100 0.9 7.4 87.5 84.7
9. Molybdenum 0.022 B 15 2.8 19.0 61.1 60.9
10. Ahnninium 0.038 -do- 25 1.3 9.7 82.0 80.0
I 11. I Iron Bal. -do- 50 1.1 8.7 T81.9 83.7
1 —1!, I 1.
-do-
C
-do-
100
15
25
1.0
2.1
1.4
7.9
14.6
9.2
%--l-%-
80.5 81.0
-dO- 50 1.3 7.8 81.9 83.9
-do-
D
-do-
100
15
25
1.0
4.3
1.3
7.2
22.2
6.8
%--R-
-do-
-do-
50
100
0.8
0.8
5.9
5.3 2-E-
Rernarks: Static tests were carried out for 168 hours in an oven
Dynamic testswere carried out for 24 hours in wheel test
_tus. T=ts were carried out in 160 ml glass bottles.

299