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Chu Xuan Dung, Nguyen Minh Tuan

Nguyen Van Mau (editor-in-chief)

PROCEEDINGS OF THE HOMC’S

(FROM 2015 TO 2017)

Ha Noi - 2018
2
Contents

1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 7


1.1 Junior section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.1.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015 7
1.1.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016 9
1.1.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017 12
1.2 Senior section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015 14
1.2.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016 16
1.2.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017 19

2 Answers and Solutions 23


2.1 Junior section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.1.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015 23
2.1.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016 32
2.1.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017 42
2.2 Senior section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.2.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015 50
2.2.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016 59
2.2.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017 72
Preface

Founded in 2004 by the Hanoi Society of Mathematics, Hanoi


Open Mathematics Competition (HOMC) is a mathematics com-
petition held every year for school students, and it has two sections:
contestants with 14 and 16 of age (equivalently, those in 8 and 10
grade by the education classification in Viet Nam). As the original
regular of HOMC, all questions, problems, and contestants pre-
sentation should be presented in English. Through those fourteen
events, HOMC were attracted participation of thousands of school
students as well as attention of a great number of high and sec-
ondary schools in Viet Nam. From 2013 to 2016, hosting by the
Department of Education and Training of Ha Noi City, the HOMCs
were posited in three cities: Ha Noi, Dac Lac, and Cao Lanh with
the participation of thousands of students coming from 50 high and
secondary schools in Viet Nam. Taking some interaction between
students as a part of competition, the 2017-HOMC took place of
Hanoi city and time of two days with 900 contestants. Supporting
by the administrative Committee of Hanoi city, 2018-HOMC will be
organized with two groups: Group A is the international HOMC,
and Group B is the home HOMC.
On the occasion of the 2018-HOMC, we are very pleased to in-
troduce the proceedings of the three last events. In particular, this
material includes the problems and questions of junior and senior
Sections for each one of the HOMC’s’ from 2015 to 2017. We would
like to announce that the publication and releasing the proceedings
are hosted by the Department of Education and Training of Ha
Noi City, and the book is considered as a registered part among
the activities of the 2018-HOMC, by opening and sharing with the
purposes of HOMC. Moreover, we think that old participants of the
CONTENTS 5

HOMC’s will find their contribitions, and hope that new comers in
2018-HOMC will be pleased for new cooperation. The proofreading
of this book is completed by the suggestions and comments from
Prof. Do Ngoc Diep, Prof. Nguyen Viet Hai, Dr. Dinh Sy Dai,
Mr. Do Minh Khoa, and Mr. Pham Dang Long. On this occa-
sion, we would like to express our special thanks for their fruitful
contributions.

The authors
Chapter 1

Hanoi Open Mathematics


Competition

1.1 Junior section


1.1.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015

Important:
Answer to all 15 questions.
Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.
For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D
or E) of your choice.
No calculator is allowed.

Question 1. What is the 7th term of the sequence {−1, 4, −2, 3, −3, 2, . . .}?

(A): -1; (B): -2; (C): -3; (D): -4; (E): None of the above.

Question 2. The last digit of number 20172017 − 20132015 is

(A): 2; (B): 4; (C): 6; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.

Question 3. The sum of all even positive intergers less than 100
those are not divisible by 3 is
8 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

(A): 938; (B): 940; (C): 1634; (D): 1638; (E): None of the
above.
Question 4. A regular hexagon and an equilateral √ triangle have
equal perimeter. If the area of the triangle is 4 3 square units, the
area of the hexagon is
√ √ √ √
(A): 5 3; (B): 6 3; (C): 7 3; (D): 8 3; (E): None of the
above.
Question 5. Let a, b, c and m (0 ≤ m ≤ 26) be integers such that

a + b + c = (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = m (mod 27)

then m is
(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 25; (D): 26; (E): None of the above.
Question 6. Let a, b, c ∈ [−1, 1] such that 1 + 2abc ≥ a2 + b2 + c2 .
Prove that
1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .
Question 7. Solve equation

x4 = 2x2 + [x],

where [x] is an integral part of x.


Question 8. Solve the equation

(2015x − 2014)3 = 8(x − 1)3 + (2013x − 2012)3 .

Question 9. Let a, b, c be positive numbers with abc = 1. Prove


that
h i
a3 + b3 + c2 + 2 (ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ≥ 3(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a).

Question 10. A right-angled triangle has property that, when


a square is drawn externally on each side of the triangle, the six
vertices of the squares that are not vertices of the triangle are con-
cyclic. Assume that the area of the triangle is 9 cm2 . Determine
the length of sides of the triangle.
1.1 Junior section 9

Question 11. Give a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Let O be the


intersection point of diagonals AC and BD, and let I, K, H be feet
of perpendiculars from B, O, C to AD, respectively. Prove that

AD × BI × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

Question 12. Give a triangle ABC with heights ha = 3 cm, hb = 7


cm and hc = d cm, where d is an integer. Determine d.
Question 13. Give rational numbers x, y such that

x2 + y 2 − 2 (x + y)2 + (xy + 1)2 = 0.





Prove that 1 + xy is a rational number.
Question 14. Determine all pairs of integers (x; y) such that

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy.

Question 15. Let the numbers a, b, c satisfy the relation a2 + b2 +


c2 ≤ 8. Determine the maximum value of

M = 4(a3 + b3 + c3 ) − (a4 + b4 + c4 ).

1.1.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016

Important:
Answer to all 15 questions.
Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.
For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D
or E) of your choice.
No calculator is allowed.

Question 1. If

2016 = 25 + 26 + · · · + 2m ,
10 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

then m is equal to

(A): 8 (B): 9 (C): 10 (D): 11 (E): None of the above.

Question 2. The number of all positive integers n such that

n + s(n) = 2016,

where s(n) is the sum of all digits of n, is

(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 3 (D): 4 (E): None of the above.

Question 3. Given two positive numbers a, b such that a3 + b3 =


a5 + b5 , then the greatest value of M = a2 + b2 − ab is

1 1
(A): (B): (C): 2 (D): 1 (E): None of the above.
4 2

Question 4. A monkey in Zoo becomes lucky if he eats three


different fruits. What is the largest number of monkeys one can
make lucky, by having 20 oranges, 30 bananas, 40 peaches and 50
tangerines? Justify your answer.

(A): 30 (B): 35 (C): 40 (D): 45 (E): None of the above.

Question 5. There are positive integers x, y such that 3x2 + x =


4y 2 + y, and (x − y) is equal to

(A): 2013 (B): 2014 (C): 2015 (D): 2016


(E): None of the above.

Question 6. Determine the smallest positive number a such that


the number of all integers belonging to (a, 2016a] is 2016.

Question 7. Nine points form a grid of size 3 × 3. How many


triangles are there with 3 vetices at these points?
1.1 Junior section 11

Question 8. Find all positive integers x, y, z such that


x3 − (x + y + z)2 = (y + z)3 + 34.

Question 9. Let x, y, z satisfy the following inequalities




 |x + 2y − 3z| ≤ 6

|x − 2y + 3z| ≤ 6


 |x − 2y − 3z| ≤ 6
|x + 2y + 3z| ≤ 6

Determine the greatest value of M = |x| + |y| + |z|.

Question 10. Let ha , hb , hc and r be the lengths of altitudes and


radius of the inscribed circle of ∆ABC, respectively. Prove that
ha + 4hb + 9hc > 36r.
Question 11. Let be given a triangle ABC, and let I be the middle
point of BC. The straight line d passing I intersects AB, AC at M,
N , respectively. The straight line d0 (6≡ d) passing I intersects
AB, AC at Q, P , respectively. Suppose M, P are on the same side
of BC and M P, N Q intersect BC at E and F, respectively. Prove
that IE = IF.

Question 12. In the trapezoid ABCD, AB k CD and the diag-


onals intersect at O. The points P, Q are on AD, BC respectively
such that ∠AP B = ∠CP D and ∠AQB = ∠CQD. Show that
OP = OQ.

Question 13. Let H be orthocenter of the triangle ABC. Let


d1 , d2 be lines perpendicular to each-another at H. The line d1 in-
tersects AB, AC at D, E and the line d2 intersects BC at F. Prove
that H is the midpoint of segment DE if and only if F is the mid-
point of segment BC.

Question 14. Given natural


√ numbers a, b such that 2015a2 + a =
2
2016b + b. Prove that a − b is a natural number.

Question 15. Find all polynomials of degree 3 with integer coef-


ficients such that f (2014) = 2015, f (2015) = 2016, and f (2013) −
f (2016) is a prime number.
12 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

1.1.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017

Important:
Answer to all 15 questions.
Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.
For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D
or E) of your choice.
No calculator is allowed.

Question 1. Suppose x1 , x2 , x3 are the roots of polynomial

P (x) = x3 − 6x2 + 5x + 12.

The sum |x1 | + |x2 | + |x3 | is


(A): 4 (B): 6 (C): 8 (D): 14 (E): None of the above.
Question 2. How many pairs of positive integers (x, y) are there,
those satisfy the identity

2x − y 2 = 1?

(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 3 (D): 4 (E): None of the above.


Question 3. Suppose n2 + 4n + 25 is a perfect square. How many
such non-negative integers n’s are there?
(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 4 (D): 6 (E): None of the above.
Question 4. Put

S = 21 + 35 + 49 + 513 + · · · + 5052013 + 5062017 .

The last digit of S is


(A): 1 (B): 3 (C): 5 (D): 7 (E): None of the above.
Question 5. Let a, b, c be two-digit, three-digit, and four-digit
numbers, respectively. Assume that the sum of all digits of number
a+b, and the sum of all digits of b+c are all equal to 2. The largest
value of a + b + c is
1.1 Junior section 13

(A): 1099 (B): 2099 (C): 1199 (D): 2199 (E): None of the above.

Question 6. Find all triples of positive integers (m, p, q) such


that
2m p2 + 27 = q 3 , and p is a prime.

Question 7. Determine two last digits of number

Q = 22017 + 20172 .

Question 8. Determine all real solutions x, y, z of the following


system of equations

3
x − 3x
 =4−y
2y 3 − 6y =6−z

 3
3z − 9z = 8 − x.

Question 9. Prove that the equilateral triangle of area 1 can be


covered by five arbitrary equilateral triangles having the total area
2.
Question 10. Find all non-negative integers a, b, c such that the
roots of equations:

x2 − 2ax + b = 0;
x2 − 2bx + c = 0;
x2 − 2cx + a = 0

are non-negative integers.


Question 11. Let S denote a square of the side-length 7, and
let eight squares of the side-length 3 be given. Show that S can be
covered by those eight small squares.
Question 12. Does there exist a sequence of 2017 consecutive
integers which contains exactly 17 primes?
14 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

Question 13. Let a, b, c be the side-lengths of triangle ABC with


a + b + c = 12. Determine the smallest value of
a 4b 9c
M= + + .
b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c

Question 14. Given trapezoid ABCD with bases AB k CD


(AB < CD). Let O be the intersection of AC and BD. Two
straight lines from D and C are perpendicular to AC and BD
intersect at E, i.e. CE ⊥ BD and DE ⊥ AC. By analogy, AF ⊥
BD and BF ⊥ AC. Are three points E, O, F located on the same
line?
Question 15. Show that an arbitrary quadrilateral can be divided
into nine isosceles triangles.

1.2 Senior section


1.2.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015

Important:
Answer to all 15 questions.
Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.
For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D
or E) of your choice.
No calculator is allowed.

Question 1. The sum of all even positive intergers less than 100
those are not divisible by 3 is
(A): 938; (B): 940; (C): 1634; (D): 1638; (E): None of the
above.

Question 2. A regular hexagon and an equilateral √ triangle have


equal perimeter. If the area of the triangle is 4 3 square units, the
area of the hexagon is
1.2 Senior section 15
√ √ √ √
(A): 5 3; (B): 6 3; (C): 7 3; (D): 8 3; (E): None of the
above.

Question 3. Suppose that a > b > c > 1. One of solutions of the


equation
(x − a)(x − b) (x − b)(x − c) (x − c)(x − a)
+ + =x
(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)
is
(A): -1; (B): -2; (C): 0; (D): 1; (E): None of the above.

Question 4. Let a, b, c and m (0 ≤ m ≤ 26) be integers such that


a + b + c = (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = m (mod 27)
then m is
(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 25; (D): 26; (E): None of the above.

Question 5. The last digit of number 20172017 − 20132015 is


(A): 2; (B): 4; (C): 6; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.

Question 6. Let a, b, c ∈ [−1, 1] such that 1 + 2abc ≥ a2 + b2 + c2 .


Prove that
1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .
Question 7. Solve equation
x4 = 2x2 + [x],
where [x] is an integral part of x.
Question 8. Solve the equation
(x + 1)3 (x − 2)3 + (x − 1)3 (x + 2)3 = 8(x2 − 2)3 .

Question 9. Let a, b, c be positive numbers with abc = 1. Prove


that
a3 + b3 + c3 + 2[(ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ] ≥ 3(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a).
16 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

Question 10. A right-angled triangle has property that, when


a square is drawn externally on each side of the triangle, the six
vertices of the squares that are not vertices of the triangle are con-
cyclic. Assume that the area of the triangle is 9 cm2 . Determine
the length of sides of the triangle.
Question 11. Give a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Let O be the
intersection point of diagonals AC and BD and let I, K, H be feet
of perpendiculars from B, O, C to AD, respectively. Prove that

AD × BI × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

Question 12. Give an isosceles triangle ABC at A. Draw ray Cx


being perpendicular to CA, BE perpendicular to Cx (E ∈ Cx).
Let M be the midpoint of BE, and D be the intersection point of
AM and Cx. Prove that BD ⊥ BC.
Question 13. Let m be given odd number, and let a, b denote
the roots of equation x2 + mx − 1 = 0 and c = a2014 + b2014 , d =
a2015 + b2015 . Prove that c and d are relatively prime numbers.
Question 14. Determine all pairs of integers (x; y) such that

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy.

Question 15. Let the numbers a, b, c, d satisfy the relation a2 +


b2 + c2 + d2 ≤ 12. Determine the maximum value of

M = 4(a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 ) − (a4 + b4 + c4 + d4 ).

1.2.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016

Important:
Answer to all 15 questions.
Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.
For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D
or E) of your choice.
No calculator is allowed.
1.2 Senior section 17

Question 1. How many are there 10-digit numbers composed


from the digits 1, 2, 3 only and in which, two neighbouring digits
differ by 1.

(A): 48 (B): 64 (C): 72 (D): 128 (E): None of the above.

Question 2. Given an array of numbers

A = (672, 673, 674, . . . , 2016)

on table. Three arbitrary numbers a, b, c ∈ A are step by step re-


1
placed by number min(a, b, c). After 672 times, on the table there
3
is only one number m, such that

(A): 0 < m < 1 (B): m = 1 (C): 1 < m < 2 (D): m = 2


(E): None of the above.

Question 3. Given two positive numbers a, b such that the con-


dition a3 +b3 = a5 +b5 , then the greatest value of M = a2 +b2 −ab is

1 1
(A): (B): (C): 2 (D): 1 (E): None of the above.
4 2
Question 4. In Zoo, a monkey becomes lucky if he eats three
different fruits. What is the largest number of monkeys one can
make lucky having 20 oranges, 30 bananas, 40 peaches and 50 tan-
gerines? Justify your answer.

(A): 30 (B): 35 (C): 40 (D): 45 (E): None of the above.

Question 5. There are positive integers x, y such that 3x2 + x =


4y 2 + y and (x − y) is equal to

(A): 2013 (B): 2014 (C): 2015 (D): 2016


(E): None of the above.

Question 6. Let A consist of 16 elements of the set {1, 2, 3, . . . , 106},


so that the difference of two arbitrary elements in A are different
18 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

from 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21. Prove that there are two elements of A for
which their difference equals to 3.

Question 7. Nine points form a grid of size 3 × 3. How many


triangles are there with 3 vertices at these points?

Question 8. Determine all 3-digit numbers which are equal to


cube of the sum of all its digits.

Question 9. Let rational numbers a, b, c satisfy the conditions


a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 ∈ Z.
Prove that there exist two relative prime numbers m, n such that
m2
abc = 3 .
n

Question 10. Given natural


√ numbers a, b such that 2015a2 + a =
2016b2 + b. Prove that a − b is a natural number.

Question 11. Let I be the incenter of triangle ABC and ω be


its circumcircle. Let the line AI intersect ω at point D 6= A. Let
F and E be points on side BC and arc BDC respectively such
1
that ∠BAF = ∠CAE < ∠BAC. Let X be the second point of
2
intersection of line EI with ω and T be the point of intersection of
segment DX with line AF . Prove that T F.AD = ID.AT .

Question 12. Let A be point inside the acute angle xOy. An


arbitrary circle ω passes through O, A; intersecting Ox and Oy
at the second intersection B and C, respectively. Let M be the
midpoint of BC. Prove that M is always on a fixed line (when ω
changes, but always goes through O and A).

Question 13. Find all triples (a, b, c) of real numbers such that
|2a + b| ≥ 4 and
|ax2 + bx + c| ≤ 1 ∀x ∈ [−1, 1].
1.2 Senior section 19

Question 14. Let f (x) = x2 + px + q, where p, q are integers.


Prove that there is an integer m such that

f (m) = f (2015).f (2016).

Question 15. Let a, b, c be real numbers satisfying the condition

18ab + 9ca + 29bc = 1.

Find the minimum value of the expression

T = 42a2 + 34b2 + 43c2 .

1.2.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017

Important:
Answer to all 15 questions.
Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.
For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D
or E) of your choice.
No calculator is allowed.

Question 1. Suppose x1 , x2 , x3 are the roots of polynomial


3 2
P (x) = x − 4x − 3x + 2. The sum |x1 | + |x2 | + |x3 | is
(A): 4 (B): 6 (C): 8 (D): 10 (E): None of the above.
Question 2. How many pairs of positive integers (x, y) are there,
those satisfy the identity

2x − y 2 = 4?

(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 3 (D): 4 (E): None of the above.


Question 3. The number of real triples (x, y, z) that satisfy the
equation
x4 + 4y 4 + z 4 + 4 = 8xyz
20 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

is
(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 2; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.
Question 4. Let a, b, c be three distinct positive numbers. Con-
sider the quadratic polynomial
c(x − a)(x − b) a(x − b)(x − c) b(x − c)(x − a)
P (x) = + + + 1.
(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

The value of P (2017) is


(A): 2015 (B): 2016 (C): 2017 (D): 2018
(E): None of the above.
Question 5. Write 2017 following numbers on the blackboard:
1008 1007 1 1 2 1007 1008
− ,− ,...,− , 0, , ,..., , .
1008 1008 1008 1008 1008 1008 1008
One processes some steps as: erase two arbitrary numbers x, y on
the blackboard and then write on it the number x + 7xy + y. After
2016 steps, there is only one number. The last one on the black-
board is
1 1 144
(A): − (B): 0 (C): (D): − (E): None of the
1008 1008 1008
above.
Question 6. Find all pairs of integers a, b such that the following
system of equations has a unique integral solution (x, y, z)
(
x+y =a−1
x(y + 1) − z 2 = b.

Question 7. Let two positive integers x, y satisfy the condition


.
x2 + y 2 .. 44. Determine the smallest value of T = x3 + y 3 .

Question 8. Let a, b, c be the side-lengths of triangle ABC with


a + b + c = 12. Determine the smallest value of
a 4b 9c
M= + + .
b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c
1.2 Senior section 21

Question 9. Cut off a square carton by a straight line into two


pieces, then cut one of two pieces into two small pieces by a straight
line, ect. By cutting 2017 times we obtain 2018 pieces. We write
number 2 in every triangle, number 1 in every quadrilateral, and 0
in the polygons. Is the sum of all inserted numbers always greater
than 2017?

Question 10. Consider all words constituted by eight letters


from {C, H, M, O}. We arrange the words in an alphabet sequence.
Precisely, the first word is CCCCCCCC, the second one is CCCCC-
CCH, the third is CCCCCCCM, the fourth one is CCCCCCCO,. . . ,
and the last word is OOOOOOOO.
a) Determine the 2017th word of the sequence?
b) What is the position of the word HOMCHOMC in the se-
quence?

Question 11. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle, and let P stand


for an arbitrary point inside the triangle. Is it true that

P AB − P AC ≥ P BC − P CB ?
[ [ \ \

Question 12. Let (O) denote a circle with a chord AB, and let W
be the midpoint of the minor arc AB. Let C stand for an arbitrary
point on the major arc AB. The tangent to the circle (O) at C
meets the tangents at A and B at points X and Y, respectively.
The lines W X and W Y meet AB at points N and M , respectively.
Does the length of segment N M depend on position of C?

Question 13. Let ABC be a triangle. For some d > 0 let P stand
for a point inside the triangle such that
|AB| − |P B| ≥ d, and |AC| − |P C| ≥ d.
Is the following inequality true
|AM | − |P M | ≥ d,
22 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

for any position of M ∈ BC?

Question 14. Put

P = m2003 n2017 − m2017 n2003 , where m, n ∈ N.

a) Is P divisible by 24?
b) Do there exist m, n ∈ N such that P is not divisible by 7?

Question 15. Let S denote a square of side-length 7, and let eight


squares with side-length 3 be given. Show that it is impossible
to cover S by those eight small squares with the condition: an
arbitrary side of those (eight) squares is either coincided, parallel,
or perpendicular to others of S.
Chapter 2

Answers and Solutions

2.1 Junior section


2.1.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015
Question 1. What is the 7th term of the sequence
{−1, 4, −2, 3, −3, 2, ...}?

(A): -1; (B): -2; (C): -3; (D): -4; (E) None of the above.
Solution. Let a1 = −1, a2 = 4, a3 = −2, a4 = 3, a5 = −3, a6 = 2
... Then
a2 − a1 = a4 − a3 = a6 − a5 = 5,..
a3 − a2 = a5 − a4 = −6.
Hence, a7 − a6 = −6 and a7 = −4.
Answer: D.

Question 2. The last digit of number 20172017 − 20132015 is


(A): 2; (B): 4; (C): 6; (D): 8; (E) None of the above.

Solution. We have 2017 = 7 (mod 10) and 20172017 = 74×504+1


(mod 10) = 7 (mod 10). On the other hand, 2015 = 4×503+3 = 3
(mod 4) and 2013 = 3 (mod 10) and then
20132015 = 34×503+3 = 7 (mod 10).
24 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Hence, the last digit of number 20172017 − 20132015 is 0.


Answer: E.

Question 3. The sum of all even positive intergers less than 100
those are not divisible by 3 is
(A): 938; (B): 940; (C): 1634; (D): 1638; (E) None of the
above.
Solution. We find the sum of all positive intergers less than 50
and subtract the sum of multiples of 3 between 0 and 50:
50 × 49 16 × 17
−3 = 1225 − 408 = 817.
2 2
Hence the sum of all even positive intergers less than 100 those are
not divisible by 3 is
2 × 817 = 1634.

Answer: C.

Question 4. A regular hexagon and an equilateral √ triangle have


equal perimeter. If the area of the triangle is 4 3 square units, the
area of the hexagon is
√ √ √ √
(A): 5 3; (B): 6 3; (C): 7 3; (D): 8 3; (E) None of the
above.
Solution. Let a, S be the length and area of the hexagon. Then
the equilateral triangle has side-length 2a. We subdivide the hexagon
into 6 small equilateral of side-length a then each of them must have
S
area . Since the equilateral triangle of side-length 2a has twice
6
the base and twice the altitude of the smaller triangle, it must have
S √ √
4 times the area. Hence 4 = 4 3, it follows S = 6 3.
6
Answer: B.

Question 5. Let a, b, c and m (0 ≤ m ≤ 26) be integers such that


a + b + c = (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = m (mod 27)
2.1 Junior section 25

then m is

(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 25; (D): 26; (E) None of the above.

Solution. - If a, b, c have three different remainder terms modulo


3 then a+b+c is divisible by 3 but a−b, b−c, c−a are not divisible
by 3.
- If a, b, c have two different remainder terms modulo 3 then a +
b+c is not divisible by 3 but one of three differences a−b, b−c, c−a
are divisible by 3. It follows the product (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) is
divisble by 3.
- Hence, three numbers a, b, c have the same remainder terms,
i.e. a = 3p + s, b = 3q + s, c = 3r + s with s ∈ {0, 1, 2}, p, q, r are
natural numbers.
Hence, a − b = 3(p − q), b − c = 3(q − r), c − a = 3(r − p) and
then (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = 0 (mod 27).

Answer: A.

Question 6. Let a, b, c ∈ [−1, 1] such that 1 + 2abc ≥ a2 + b2 + c2 .


Prove that
1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .

Solution. The constraint can be written as

(a − bc)2 ≤ (1 − b2 )(1 − c2 ). (2.1)

Using the Cauchy inequality, we have

(a + bc)2 ≤ (|a| + |bc|)2 ≤ (1 + |b||c|)2 ≤ (1 + b2 )(1 + c2 ).

Multiplying by (2.1), we get

(a − bc)2 (a + bc)2 ≤ (1 − b2 )(1 + b2 )(1 − c2 )(1 + c2 )

⇔ (a2 − b2 c2 )2 ≤ (1 − b2 )(1 + b2 )(1 − c2 )(1 + c2 )


⇔ (a2 − b2 c2 )2 ≤ (1 − b4 )((1 − c4 )
⇔ 1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .
26 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Question 7. Solve equation


x4 = 2x2 + [x], (2.2)
where [x] is an integral part of x.
Solution. We have
(2.2) ⇔ [x] = x2 x2 − 2


√ √
Consider the case x2 ≤ 2, then − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 and [x] ≤ 0. It
follows [x] ∈ {−1; 0} .
If [x] = 0, then from (2.2) we find x = 0 as a solution.
If [x] = −1, then from (2.2) we find x = −1 as a solution.
Now we suppose that x2 > 2. It follows from (2.2), [x] > 0 and
√ [x] 1
then x > 2. Hence x2 (x2 − 2) = ≤ 1 and x2 − 2 ≤ < 1,
√ √ √ x x
then x < 3 and 2 < x < 3. p √
It means that [x] = 1 and then x = 1 + 2 is a solution of
the equation.
Question 8. Solve the equation
(2015x − 2014)3 = 8(x − 1)3 + (2013x − 2012)3 . (2.3)

Solution. Rewrite equation (2.3) in the form


(2015x − 2014)3 = (2x − 2)3 + (2013x − 2012)3 . (2.4)
Factoring the sum of cubes on the right side of the equation (2.4),
we find that one factor is 2015x − 2014, thus, one solution of the
2014
equation is x = .
2015
Now we rewrite the equation (2.4) as
(2015x − 2014)3 − (2x − 2)3 = (2013x − 2012)3 . (2.5)
Factoring the difference of cubes on the left side of the equation
(2.5), we find that one factor is 2013x − 2012, thus, one solution of
2012
the equation is x = .
2013
2.1 Junior section 27

Finally, we rewrite (2.4) as

(2015x − 2014)3 − (2013x − 2012)3 = (2x − 2)3 .

Factoring again, we see that x = 1 is a solution.


Since (2.3) is cubic in x, it has at most 3 roots, and we have
them.
Question 9. Let a, b, c be positive numbers with abc = 1. Prove
that
h i
a3 + b3 + c3 + 2 (ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ≥ 3(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a).

Solution. Assume that a = max{a, b, c}. We then have

a ≥ b ≥ c > 0,

or
a ≥ c ≥ b > 0.
Hence,

a3 +b3 +c3 −(a2 b+b2 c+c2 a) = (a−b)(a2 −c2 )+(b−c)(b2 −c2 ) ≥ 0.

This implies
a3 + b3 + c3 ≥ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a. (2.6)
Due to the facts that
1 n1 1 1o
= max , , ,
c a b c
and
1 n1 1 1o
= max , , ,
b a b c
we deduce
1 1 1 1 1 1
3
+ 3+ 3 ≥ 2 + 2 + 2 .
c b a cb ba ac
By abc = 1, this can be written as

(ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ≥ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a. (2.7)

Inequalities (2.6) and (2.7) together imply the proposed inequality.


28 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Question 10. A right-angled triangle has property that, when


a square is drawn externally on each side of the triangle, the six
vertices of the squares that are not vertices of the triangle are con-
cyclic. Assume that the area of the triangle is 9 cm2 . Determine
the length of sides of the triangle.
Solution. We have OJ = OD = OG = radius of the circle. Let
a, b, c denote the sides of ∆ABC. We have
 a 2  b 2 1
OJ 2 = OM 2 + M J 2 = b + + = b2 + ab + (a2 + b2 );
2 2 4
 b 2  a 2 1
OD2 = ON 2 + N D2 = a + + = a2 + ab + (a2 + b2 );
2 2 4
 c 2 5 5
OG2 = OL2 + LG2 = c2 + = c2 = (a2 + b2 )
2 4 4
1
= a2 + b2 + (a2 + b2 ).
4
Comparing these right-hand sides, we get

b2 + ab = a2 + ab = a2 + b2 ⇔ a = b.

It means that the given triangle with the desired property is the
isosceles right triangle. Therefore,
1
ab = 9,
2
and √
a = b = 3 2, c = 6.

Question 11. Given a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Let O be the


intersection point of diagonals AC and BD, and let I, K, H be feet
of perpendiculars from B, O, C to AD, respectively. Prove that

AD × BI × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

Solution. Draw AE⊥BD (E ∈ BD). We have


BI × AD AE × BD
SABD = = .
2 2
2.1 Junior section 29

Then BI × AD = AE × BD. It follows


BI × AD ≤ AO × BD (AE ≤ AO),
and
AO
BI.AD ≤ AC × BD × .
AC
AO OK
Moreover, by OK k CH it follows = , and
AC CH
OK
BI × AD ≤ AC × BD × .
CH
Hence, BI × AD × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.
The equality occurs if quadrilateral ABCD has two perpendic-
ular diagonals.

Figure 2.1: Figure of Question 11

Question 12. Give a triangle ABC with heights ha = 3 cm, hb = 7


cm and hc = d cm, where d is an integer. Determine d.
Solution. Since 2SABC = a.ha = b.hb = c.hc it follows
a b c
= = .
1 1 1
ha hb hc
On the other hand,

1 1 1 1 1
|a − b| < c < a + b ⇔ − < < + .
ha hb hc ha hb
30 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Hence
1 1 1 1 1
− < < +
3 7 hc 3 7
4 1 10
⇔ < <
21 hc 21
20 20 20
⇔ < <
105 20hc 42
⇔ 105 > 20hc > 42
Since hc ∈ N∗ , we direive hc ∈ {3, 4, 5}.

Question 13. Give rational numbers x, y such that

x2 + y 2 − 2 (x + y)2 + (xy + 1)2 = 0.



(2.8)

Prove that 1 + xy is a rational number.
Solution. Let x = −y = t. The equality (2.8) is of the form

(t2 − 1)2 = 0 ⇔ t = ±1.



It follows 1 + xy = 0, and 1 + xy is a rational number.
Consider the case x 6= y. We have

x2 + y 2 − 2 (x + y)2 + (xy + 1)2 = 0



 2
2 2 xy + 1
⇔x +y + =2
x+y
 2
2 xy + 1
⇔ (x + y) − 2.(xy + 1) + =0
x+y
 2
xy + 1
⇔ x+y− =0
x+y
It follows
xy + 1 = (x + y)2 ,
and p
xy + 1 = |x + y| .
The proof is completed.
2.1 Junior section 31

Question 14. Determine all pairs of integers (x; y) such that

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy.

Solution. We have

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy;
2y 2 (x − 1) − y(x − 1) − x(x − 1) = −1;
(x − 1)(2y 2 − y − x) = −1.

Since x; y are integers, we deduce that x − 1 and 2y 2 − y − x are


divisors of -1.
Case 1. We have
(
x−1=1
2y 2 − y − x = −1.

Then, either (
x=2
y = 1,
or 
x = 2
1
y = − (absurd).
2
Case 2. We have
(
x − 1 = −1
2y 2 − y − x = 1.

Equivalently, either (
x=0
y = 1,
or 
x = 0
1
y = − (absurd).
2
32 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

We deduce that all integer pairs (x; y) are (2; 1); (0 ; 1).

Question 15. Let the numbers a, b, c satisfy the relation a2 + b2 +


c2 ≤ 8. Determine the maximum value of

M = 4(a3 + b3 + c3 ) − (a4 + b4 + c4 ).

Solution. Note that x2 (x−2)2 ≥ 0 for each real x. This inequality


can be rewritten as 4x3 − x4 ≤ 4x2 . It follows that

(4a3 − a4 ) + (4b3 − b4 ) + (4c3 − c4 ) ≤ 4(a2 + b2 + c2 ) = 32,

The equality holds for (a, b, c) = (2, 2, 0), (2, 0, 2), (0, 2, 2). Hence,
max M = 32.

2.1.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016

Question 1. If

2016 = 25 + 26 + · · · + 2m ,

then m is equal to

(A): 8 (B): 9 (C): 10 (D): 11 (E): None of the above.

Anwser. (C).

Question 2. The number of all positive integers n such that

n + s(n) = 2016,

where s(n) is the sum of all digits of n, is

(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 3 (D): 4 (E): None of the above.

Anwser. (B): n = 1989, 2007.

Question 3. Given two positive numbers a, b such that a3 + b3 =


a5 + b5 , then the greatest value of M = a2 + b2 − ab is
2.1 Junior section 33

1 1
(A): (B): (C): 2 (D): 1 (E): None of the above.
4 2

Anwser. (D).

Solution. We have

ab(a2 − b2 )2 ≥ 0 ⇔ 2a3 b3 ≤ ab5 + a5 b ⇔ (a3 + b3 )2 ≤ (a + b)(a5 + b5 ).

Combining this and a3 + b3 = a5 + b5 , we find

a3 + b3 ≤ a + b ⇔ a2 + b2 − ab ≤ 1.

The equality holds if a = 1, b = 1.

Question 4. A monkey in Zoo becomes lucky if he eats three


different fruits. What is the largest number of monkeys one can
make lucky, by having 20 oranges, 30 bananas, 40 peaches and 50
tangerines? Justify your answer.

(A): 30 (B): 35 (C): 40 (D): 45 (E): None of the above.

Anwser. (D).

Solution. First we leave tangerines on the side. We have 20 +


30 + 40 = 90 fruites. As we feed the happy monkey is not more
than one tangerine, each monkey eats fruits of these 90 at least 2.
Hence, the monkeys are not more than 90/2 = 45. We will show
how you can bring happiness to 45 monkeys:
5 monkeys eat: orange, banana, tangerine;
15 monkeys eat: orange, peach, tangerine;
25 Monkeys eat peach, banana, tangerine.
At all 45 lucky monkeys - and left five unused tangerines!

Question 5. There are positive integers x, y such that 3x2 + x =


4y 2 + y, and (x − y) is equal to

(A): 2013 (B): 2014 (C): 2015 (D): 2016


34 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

(E): None of the above.

Anwser. (E). Since x − y is a square.

Solution. We have 3x2 +x = 4y 2 +y ⇔ (x−y)(3x+3y +1) = y 2 .


We prove that (x − y; 3x + 3y + 1) = 1.
Indeed, if d = (x − y; 3x + 3y + 1) then y 2 is divisible by d2 and
y is divisible by d; x is divisible by d, i.e. 1 is divisible by d, i.e.
d = 1.
Since x − y and 3x + 3y + 1 are prime relative then x − y is a
perfect square.

Question 6. Determine the smallest positive number a such that


the number of all integers belonging to (a, 2016a] is 2016.

Solution. The smallest integer greater than a is [a] + 1 and the


largest integer less than or is equal to 2016a is [2016a]. Hence, the
number of all integers belonging to (a, 2016a] is [2016a] − [a].
Now we difine the smallest positive number a such that
[2016a] − [a] = 2016.

If 0 < a ≤ 1 then [2016a] − [a] < 2016.


If a ≥ 2 then [2016a] − [a] > 2016.
Let a = 1 + b, where 0 < b < 1. We have [a] = 1, and [2016a] =
2016 + [2016b]. This follows
[2016a] − [a] = 2015 + [2016b] = 2016,
which gives [2016b] = 1. Hence, the smallest positive number b
1 1
such that [2016b] = 1 is b = Thus, a = 1 + is a smallest
2016. 2016
positive number such that the number of all integers belonging to
(a, 2016a] is 2016.

Question 7. Nine points form a grid of size 3 × 3. How many


triangles are there with 3 vetices at these points?
2.1 Junior section 35

Solution. We divide the triangles into two types:


Type 1: Two vertices lie in one horizontal line, the third vertice
lies in another horizontal lines. For this type we have 3 possibilities
to choose the first line, 2 posibilities to choose 2nd line. In first line
we have 3 possibilities to choose 2 vertices, in the second line we
have 3 possibilities to choose 1 vertex. In total we have 3×2×3×3 =
54 triangles of first type.
Type 2: Three vertices lie in distinct horizontal lines. We have
3 × 3 × 3 triangles of these type. But we should remove degenerated
triangles from them. There are 5 of those (3 vertical lines and two
diagonals). So, we have 27 - 5 = 22 triangles of this type.
Total we have 54 + 22 = 76 triangles.
For those students who know about Cnk this problem can be also
solved as C93 − 8 where 8 is the number of degenerated triangles.

Question 8. Find all positive integers x, y, z such that

x3 − (x + y + z)2 = (y + z)3 + 34.

Solution. Putting y + z = a, a ∈ Z, a ≥ 2, we have

x3 − a3 = (x + a)2 + 34. (2.9)

Equivalently,

(x − a) x2 + xa + a2 = x2 + 2ax + a2 + 34;

(2.10)

(x − a − 1) x2 + xa + a2 = xa + 34.


Since x, a are integers, we have x2 + xa + a2 ≥ 0 and xa + 34 > 0.


That follow x − a − 1 > 0, i.e. x − a ≥ 2.
This and (2.10) together imply

x2 + 2ax + a2 + 34 ≥ 2 x2 + xa + a2 ⇔ x2 + a2 ≤ 34.


Hence x2 < 34 and x < 6.


On the other hand, x ≥ a + 2 ≥ 4 then x ∈ {4, 5} .
If x = 5, then from x2 + a2 ≤ 34 it follows 2 ≤ a ≤ 3. Thus
a ∈ {2, 3} .
36 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

The case of x = 5, a = 2 does not satisfy (2.9) for x = 5, a = 3,


from (1) we find y = 1, z = 2 or y = 2, z = 1,
If x = 4, then from the inequality x − a ≥ 2 we find a ≤ 2,
which contradicts to (2.9).

Conclusion: (x, y, z) = (5, 1, 2) and (x, y, z) = (5, 2, 1).

Question 9. Let x, y, z satisfy the following inequalities




 |x + 2y − 3z| ≤ 6

|x − 2y + 3z| ≤ 6


 |x − 2y − 3z| ≤ 6
|x + 2y + 3z| ≤ 6

Determine the greatest value of M = |x| + |y| + |z|.

Solution. Note that for all real numbers a, b, c, we have

|a| + |b| = max{|a + b|, |a − b|}

and

|a| + |b| + |c| = max{|a + b + c|, |a + b − c|, |a − b − c|, |a − b + c|}.

Hence

M = |x| + |y| + |z| ≤ |x| + 2|y| + 3|z| = |x| + |2y| + |3z|

= max{|x + y + z|, |x + y − z|, |x − y − z|, |x − y + z|} ≤ 6.


Thus max M = 6 when x = ±6, y = z = 0.

Question 10. Let ha , hb , hc and r be the lengths of altitudes and


radius of the inscribed circle of ∆ABC, respectively. Prove that

ha + 4hb + 9hc > 36r.


2.1 Junior section 37

Solution. Let a, b, c be the side-lengths of ∆ABC corresponding


to ha , hb , hc and S be the area of ∆ABC. Then
aha = bhb = chc = (a + b + c) × r = 2S.
Hence
2S 8S 18S
ha + 4hb + 9hc = = =
a b c
(1 + 2 + 3)2
 2 2 2

1 2 3
= 2S + + ≥ 2S
a b c a+b+c
(1 + 2 + 3)2
= (a + b + c) r = 36r.
a+b+c
The equality holds iff a : b : c = 1 : 2 : 3 (it is not posible for
a + b > c).

Question 11. Let be given a triangle ABC and let I be the middle
point of BC. The straight line d passing I intersects AB, AC at M,
N , respectively. The straight line d0 (6≡ d) passing I intersects
AB, AC at Q and P , respectively. Suppose M, P are on the same
side of BC and M P, N Q intersect BC at E and F, respectively.
Prove that IE = IF.
EB FC
Solution. Since IB = IC then it is enough to show = .
EC FB
By Menelaus theorem:
- For ∆ABC and three points E, M, P, we have
EB P C MA
× × = 1.
EC P A MB
It follws
EB P A MB
= × . (2.11)
EC PC MA
- For ∆ABC and three points F, N, Q, we have
FC QB N A
× × = 1.
FB QA N C
This implies
FC NC QA
= × . (2.12)
FB N A QB
38 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Figure 2.2: Figure of Question 11

- For ∆ABC and three points M, I, N, we have

M B N A IC
× × = 1.
M A N C IB
Compare with IB = IC we find

MB NC
= . (2.13)
MA NA

- For ∆ABC and three points Q, I, P, we have

P A IC QB
× × = 1.
P C IB QA

Hence,
PA QA
= . (2.14)
PC QB
Equalities (2.11), (2.12), (2.13), and (2.14), toghether imply IE =
IF.

Question 12. In the trapezoid ABCD, AB k CD and the diag-


onals intersect at O. The points P, Q are on AD, BC respectively
such that ∠AP B = ∠CP D and ∠AQB = ∠CQD. Show that
OP = OQ.
2.1 Junior section 39

Figure 2.3: Fugure of Question 12

Solution. Extending DA to B 0 such that BB 0 = BA, we find


∠P B 0 B = ∠B 0 AB = ∠P DC and then triangles DP C and B 0 P B
are similar.
DP CD CD DO
It follows that 0
= 0
= = and so P O k BB 0 .
PB BB BA BO
Since triangles DP O and DB 0 B are similar, we have
DO DO
OP = BB 0 × = AB × .
DB DB
CO
Similarly, we have OQ = AB × and it follows OP = OQ.
CA

Question 13. Let H be orthocenter of the triangle ABC. Let


d1 , d2 be lines perpendicular to each-another at H. The line d1 in-
tersects AB, AC at D, E and the line d2 intersects BC at F. Prove
that H is the midpoint of segment DE if and only if F is the mid-
point of segment BC.

Solution. Since HD ⊥ HF, HA ⊥ F C and HC ⊥ DA, ∠DAH =


∠HCF and ∠DHA = ∠HF C, therefore the triangles DHA, HF C
are similar.
So
HA FC
= . (2.15)
HD F H
40 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Similarly,
HE F H
4EHA v 4HF B, or = . (2.16)
HA F B

Figure 2.4: Fugure of Question 13

HE FC
Thanks to (2.15) and (2.16) we obtain = . Therefore,
HD FB
H is midpoint of the segment DE iff F is midpoint of the segment
BC.

Question 14. Given natural


√ numbers a, b such that 2015a2 + a =
2016b2 + b. Prove that a − b is a natural number.

Solution. From equality

2015a2 + a = 2016b2 + b,

we find a ≥ b.

If a = b, then a = b = 0 and a − b = 0.
If a > b, we have

b2 = 2015(a2 − b2 ) + (a − b);

b2 = (a − b)(2015a + 2015b + 1).


Let (a, b) = d then a = md, b = nd, where (m, n) = 1. Since a > b
then m > n, and put m − n = t > 0. Let (t, n) = u then n is
2.1 Junior section 41

divisible by u, t is divisible by u and m is divisible by u. That


follows u = 1 and then (t, n) = 1. Putting b = nd, a − b = td in the
above identity, we find

n2 d = t(2015dt + 4030dn + 1).

Hence, n2 d is divisible by t and compaire with (t, n) = 1, it follows


d is divisible by t. Moreover, we have n2 d = 2015dt2 + 4030dnt + t
and then t = n2 d − 2015dt2 − 4030dnt.
Hence t = d(n2 − 2015t2 − 4030nt),
√ i.e. t is divisible by d, i.e.
t = d and then a−b = td = d2 and a − b = d is a natural number.

Question 15. Find all polynomials of degree 3 with integer coef-


ficients such that f (2014) = 2015, f (2015) = 2016, and f (2013) −
f (2016) is a prime number.

Solution. Let g(x) = f (x) − x − 1. We have

g(2014) = f (2014) − 2014 − 1 = 0,

g(2015) = 2016 − 2015 − 1 = 0.


Hence,
g(x) = (ax + b)(x − 2014)(x − 2015),
and

f (x) = (ax + b)(x − 2014)(x − 2015) + x + 1, a, b ∈ Z, a 6= 0.

We derive
f (2013) = 2(2013a + b) + 2014,
and
f (2016) = 2(2016a + b) + 2017.
Therefore,

f (2013) − f (2016) = 2(2013a + b) + 2014 − [2(2016a + b) + 2017]


= −6a − 3 = 3(−2a − 1).

Thus, f (2013) − f (2016) is prime if and only if −2a − 1 = 1, i.e.


a = −1.
42 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Conlusion: All polynomials of degree 3 with integer coefficients


such that f (2014) = 2015, f (2015) = 2016 and f (2013) − f (2016)
is a prime number are of the form

f (x) = (b − x)(x − 2014)(x − 2015) + x + 1, b ∈ Z.

2.1.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017

Question 1. Suppose x1 , x2 , x3 are the roots of polynomial

P (x) = x3 − 6x2 + 5x + 12.

The sum |x1 | + |x2 | + |x3 | is


(A): 4 (B): 6 (C): 8 (D): 14 (E): None of the above.
Solution. The choice is (C).

Question 2. How many pairs of positive integers (x, y) are there,


those satisfy the identity

2x − y 2 = 1?

(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 3 (D): 4 (E): None of the above.


Solution. The choice is (A).

Question 3. Suppose n2 + 4n + 25 is a perfect square. How many


such non-negative integers n’s are there?
(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 4 (D): 6 (E): None of the above.
Solution. The choice is (B).

Question 4. Put

S = 21 + 35 + 49 + 513 + · · · + 5052013 + 5062017 .

The last digit of S is


2.1 Junior section 43

(A): 1 (B): 3 (C): 5 (D): 7 (E): None of the above.


Solution. The choice is (E).

Question 5. Let a, b, c be two-digit, three-digit, and four-digit


numbers, respectively. Assume that the sum of all digits of number
a+b, and the sum of all digits of b+c are all equal to 2. The largest
value of a + b + c is
(A): 1099 (B): 2099 (C): 1199 (D): 2199 (E): None of the above.

Solution. The choice is (E).

Question 6. Find all triples of positive integers (m, p, q) such


that
2m p2 + 27 = q 3 , and p is a prime.

Solution. By the assumption it follows that q is odd. We have


2m p2 = (q − 3)(q 2 + 3q + 9).
Remark that q 2 + 3q + 9 is always odd. There are two cases:
Case 1. q = 2m p + 3. We have
q 3 = (2m p + 3)3 > 2m p2 + 27,
which is impossible.
Case 2. q = 2m + 3. We have
q 3 = 23m + 9 × 22m + 27 × 2m + 27 = 2m p2 + 27,
which implies
p2 = 22m + 9 × 2m + 27.
If m ≥ 3, then 22m + 9 × 2m + 27 ≡ 3 (mod 8), but p2 ≡ 1 (mod 8).
We deduce m ≤ 3. By simple computation we find m = 1, p =
7, q = 5.

Question 7. Determine two last digits of number


Q = 22017 + 20172 .
44 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Solution. We have
201
22017 = 27 × 210 = 128 × 1024201
≡ 128 × (−1)201 = −128 ≡ 22 (mod 25);
20172 ≡ 14 (mod 25).

 P ≡ 11 (mod
It follows 25), by which two last digits of P are in
the set 11, 36, 61, 86 . In other side, P ≡ 1 (mod 4). This implies
P ≡ 61 (mod 100). Thus, the number 61 subjects to the question.

Question 8. Determine all real solutions x, y, z of the following


system of equations

3
x − 3x
 =4−y
2y 3 − 6y =6−z

 3
3z − 9z = 8 − x.

Solution. From x3 + y = 3x + 4 it follows x3 − 2 − 3x = 2 − y.


Then
(x − 2)(x + 1)2 = 2 − y (1)
By 2y 3 − 4 − 6y = 2 − z, we have
2(y − 2)(y + 1)2 = 2 − z. (2)
Similarly, by 3z 3 − 3 − 3 − 9z = 2 − x we have
3(z − 2)(z + 1)2 = (2 − x). (3)
Combining (1)-(2)-(3) we obtain
 1
(x − 2)(y − 2)(z − 2) (x + 1)2 (y + 1)2 (z + 1)2 + = 0.
6
Hence, (x − 2)(y − 2)(z − 2) = 0. Comparing this with (1), (2) and
(3), we find the unique solution x = y = z = 2.

Question 9. Prove that the equilateral triangle of area 1 can be


covered by five arbitrary equilateral triangles having the total area
2.
2.1 Junior section 45

Solution. Let S denote the triangle of area 1. It is clearly that


if a ≥ b then triangle of area a can cover triangle of area b. It
suffices to consider the case when the areas of five small triangles
are all smaller than 1. Let 1 ≥ A ≥ B ≥ C ≥ D ≥ E stand for the
areas. We will prove that the sum of side-lengths of B and C is not
smaller
√ √than the
√ side-length of triangle of area 1. Indeed, suppose
B + C < 1 = 1. It follows
√ √ √
2 = A+B +C +D +E < 1+B +C +2 BC = 1+( B + C)2 < 2,

which is impossible.

Figure 2.5: For Question 9

We cover S by A, B, C as Figure 2.5. We see that A, B, C will


have common parts, mutually. Suppose

X = B ∩ C; Y = A ∩ C; Z = A ∩ B.

It follows

X + Y ≤ C; Y + Z ≤ A; Z + X ≤ B.
46 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

We deduce A, B, C cover a part of area:

1 
A+B+C−X −Y −Z ≥ A+B+C− (X +Y )+(Y +Z)+(Z+X)
2
1 D+E
≥ (A + B + C) = 1 − ≥ 1 − D.
2 2
Thus, D can cover the remained part of S.

Question 10. Find all non-negative integers a, b, c such that the


roots of equations:

x2 − 2ax + b = 0; (2.17)
x2 − 2bx + c = 0; (2.18)
x2 − 2cx + a = 0 (2.19)

are non-negative integers.

Solution. We see that a2 − b, b2 − c, c2 − a are perfect squares.


Namely,
a2 − b = p2 ; b2 − c = q 2 ; c2 − a = r 2 .
There are two cases:
Case 1. b = 0. We derive that b = c = 0. Thus (a, b, c) = (0, 0, 0) is
unique solution.
Case 2. a, b, c 6= 0. We have a2 − b ≤ (a − 1)2 = a2 − 2a + 1.
This implies b ≥ 2a − 1. Similarly, we can prove that c ≥ 2b − 1,
and a ≥ 2c − 1. Combining three above inequalities we deduce
a + b + c ≤ 3. By simple computation we obtain (a, b, c) = (1, 1, 1).

Question 11. Let S denote a square of the side-length 7, and


let eight squares of the side-length 3 be given. Show that S can be
covered by those eight small squares.

Solution. Figure 2.6 is a solution.

Question 12. Does there exist a sequence of 2017 consecutive


integers which contains exactly 17 primes?
2.1 Junior section 47

Figure 2.6: For Question 11

Solution. It is easy to see that there are more than 17 primes in


the sequence of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 2017. Precisely, there are 306
primes in that sequence. Remark that if the sequence

k + 1, k + 2, . . . , k + 2017

was changed by the sequence

k, k + 1, . . . , k + 2016,

then the numbers of primes in the latter and former sequences are
either equal, more or less by 1. In what follows, we say such change
a back-shift with 1-step. First moment, we consider the sequence of
2017 consecutive integers:

2018! + 2, 2018! + 3, . . . 2018! + 2018

which contain no prime. After 2018!+1 times back-shifts with 1-


step, we obtain the sequence

1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 2017.
48 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

The last sequence has 306 primes, while the first sequence has no
prime. Reminding the above remark we conclude that there is a
moment in which the sequence contains exactly 17 primes.

Question 13. Let a, b, c be the side-lengths of triangle ABC with


a + b + c = 12. Determine the smallest value of
a 4b 9c
M= + + .
b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c

Solution. Put
b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c
x := , y := , z := .
2 2 2
Then x, y, z > 0, and
a+b+c
x+y+z = = 6, a = y + z, b = z + x, c = x + y.
2
We have
y + z 4(z + x) 9(x + y)
M= + +
2x 2y 2z
     
1 y 4x z 9x 4z 9y
= + + + + +
2 x y x z y z
r r r !
1 y 4x z 9x 4z 9y
≥ 2 . +2 . +2 . = 11.
2 x y x z x z

The equality occurs in the above if and only if


 y 4x
 =
 x y



z 9x
=
 x z
 4z = 9y ,



y z
or 
 y = 2x

z = 3x

2z = 3y.

2.1 Junior section 49

Since x+y+z = 6 we receive x = 1, y = 2, z = 3. Thus min S = 11


if and only if (a, b, c) = 5, 4, 3 .

Question 14. Given trapezoid ABCD with bases AB k CD


(AB < CD). Let O be the intersection of AC and BD. Two
straight lines from D and C are perpendicular to AC and BD
intersect at E, i.e. CE ⊥ BD and DE ⊥ AC. By analogy, AF ⊥
BD and BF ⊥ AC. Are three points E, O, F located on the same
line?

Solution. Since E is the orthocenter of triangle ODC, and F is


the orthocenter of triangle OAB we see that OE is perpendicular
to CD, and OF is perpendicular to AB. As AB is parallel to CD,
we conclude that E, O, F are straightly lined.

Question 15. Show that an arbitrary quadrilateral can be divided


into nine isosceles triangles.

Solution. Remark that a quadrilateral can be divided into two


triangles. Therefore, it suffices to cut an arbitrary triangle into for
and five isosceles triangles. Figures 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 shows some
solution.

Figure 2.7: For Question 15


50 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Figure 2.8: For Question 15

Figure 2.9: For Question 15

2.2 Senior section


2.2.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015

Question 1. The sum of all even positive intergers less than 100
those are not divisible by 3 is
(A): 938; (B): 940; (C): 1634; (D): 1638; (E): None of the
above.
Solution. We find the sum of all positive intergers less than 50
and subtract the sum of multiples of 3 between 0 and 50:
50 × 49 16 × 17
−3 = 1225 − 408 = 817.
2 2
Hence the sum of all even positive intergers less than 100 those are
2.2 Senior section 51

not divisible by 3 is
2 × 817 = 1634.

Answer: C.

Question 2. A regular hexagon and an equilateral √ triangle have


equal perimeter. If the area of the triangle is 4 3 square units, the
area of the hexagon is
√ √ √ √
(A): 5 3; (B): 6 3; (C): 7 3; (D): 8 3; (E): None of the
above.
Solution. Let a, S be the length and area of the hexagon. Then
the equilateral triangle has side-length 2a. We subdivide the hexagon
into 6 small equilateral of side-length a then each of them must have
S
area . Since the equilateral triangle of side-length 2a has twice
6
the base and twice the altitude of the smaller triangle, it must have
S √ √
4 times the area. Hence 4 = 4 3, it follows S = 6 3.
6
Answer: B.

Question 3. Suppose that a > b > c > 1. One of solutions of the


equation

(x − a)(x − b) (x − b)(x − c) (x − c)(x − a)


+ + =x
(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

is
(A): -1; (B): -2; (C): 0; (D): 1; (E): None of the above.
Solution. From the identity

(x − a)(x − b) (x − b)(x − c) (x − c)(x − a)


+ + ≡ 1,
(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

it follows x = 1 is a solution of the equation.


Answer: D.
52 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Question 4. Let a, b, c and m (0 ≤ m ≤ 26) be integers such that

a + b + c = (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = m (mod 27)

then m is
(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 25; (D): 26; (E): None of the above.
Solution. - If a, b, c have three different remainder terms modulo
3 then a+b+c is divisible by 3 but a−b, b−c, c−a are not divisible
by 3.
- If a, b, c have two different remainder terms modulo 3 then a +
b+c is not divisible by 3 but one of three differences a−b, b−c, c−a
are divisible by 3. It follows the product (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) is
divisble by 3.
- Hence, three numbers a, b, c have the same remainder terms,
i.e. a = 3p + s, b = 3q + s, c = 3r + s with s ∈ {0, 1, 2}, p, q, r are
natural numbers.
Hence, a − b = 3(p − q), b − c = 3(q − r), c − a = 3(r − p) and
then (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = 0 (mod 27).
Answer: A.

Question 5. The last digit of number 20172017 − 20132015 is


(A): 2; (B): 4; (C): 6; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.

Solution. We have 2017 = 7 (mod 10) and 20172017 = 74×504+1


(mod 10) = 7 (mod 10). On the other hand, 2015 = 4×503+3 = 3
(mod 4) and 2013 = 3 (mod 10) and then 20132015 = 34×503+3 = 7
(mod 10).
Hence, the last digit of number 20172017 − 20132015 is 0.
Answer: E.

Question 6. Let a, b, c ∈ [−1, 1] such that 1 + 2abc ≥ a2 + b2 + c2 .


Prove that
1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .
2.2 Senior section 53

Solution. The constraint can be written as

(a − bc)2 ≤ (1 − b2 )(1 − c2 ). (2.20)

Using the Cauchy inequality, we have

(a + bc)2 ≤ (|a| + |bc|)2 ≤ (1 + |b||c|)2 ≤ (1 + b2 )(1 + c2 ).

Multiplying by (2.20), we get

(a − bc)2 (a + bc)2 ≤ (1 − b2 )(1 + b2 )(1 − c2 )(1 + c2 )

⇔ (a2 − b2 c2 )2 ≤ (1 − b2 )(1 + b2 )(1 − c2 )(1 + c2 )


⇔ (a2 − b2 c2 )2 ≤ (1 − b4 )((1 − c4 )
⇔ 1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .

Question 7. Solve equation

x4 = 2x2 + [x], (2.21)

where [x] is an integral part of x.


Solution. We have

(2.21) ⇔ [x] = x2 x2 − 2


√ √
Consider the case x2 ≤ 2, then − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 and [x] ≤ 0. It
follows [x] ∈ {−1; 0} .
If [x] = 0, then from (2.21) we find x = 0 as a solution.
If [x] = −1, then from (2.21) we find x = −1 as a solution.
Now we suppose that x2 > 2. It follows from (2.21), [x] > 0 and
√ [x] 1
then x > 2. Hence x2 (x2 − 2) = ≤ 1 and x2 − 2 ≤ < 1. It
√ √ √ x x
follows x < 3, i.e. 2 < x < 3.
p √
It means that [x] = 1 and then x = 1 + 2 is a solution of
the equation.
Question 8. Solve the equation

(x + 1)3 (x − 2)3 + (x − 1)3 (x + 2)3 = 8(x2 − 2)3 . (2.22)


54 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Solution. Rewrite equation (2.22) in the form


(x2 − x − 2)3 + (x2 + x − 2)3 = (2x2 − 4)3 . (2.23)
Factoring the sum of cubes on the right side of the equation (2.20),
we find that one √factor is (2x2 − 4), thus, two solutions of the
equation is x = ± 2.
Now we rewrite the equation (2.23) as
(x2 − x − 2)3 = (2x2 − 4)3 − (x2 + x − 2)3 . (2.24)
Factoring the difference of cubes on the left side of the equation
(2.2.1), we find that one factor is (x2 − x − 2), thus, two solution
of the equation is x = −1, x = 2.
Finally, we rewrite (2.23) as
(x2 + x − 2)3 = (2x2 − 4)3 − (x2 − x − 2)3 .
Factoring again, we see that one factor is (x2 + x − 2). Thus, two
solutions of the equation are x = 1, x = −2..
Since the left hand side of the equation
8(x2 − 2)3 − (x + 1)3 (x − 2)3 − (x − 1)3 (x + 2)3 = 0
is a polynomial of degree 6, then it has at most 6 roots, and we
have them. Hence,
8(x2 −2)3 −(x+1)3 (x−2)3 −(x−1)3 (x+2)3 = 6(x2 −2)(x2 −1)(x2 −4).

Question 9. Let a, b, c be positive numbers with abc = 1. Prove


that
a3 + b3 + c3 + 2[(ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ] ≥ 3(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a).

Solution. Asume that a = max{a, b, c} then a ≥ b ≥ c > 0 or


a ≥ c ≥ b > 0 and
a3 +b3 +c3 −(a2 b+b2 c+c2 a) = (a−b)(a2 −c2 )+(b−c)(b2 −c2 ) ≥ 0.
2.2 Senior section 55

Hence
a3 + b3 + c3 ≥ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a. (2.25)
Since
1 n1 1 1o
= max , , ,
c a b c
and
1 n1 1 1o
= max , , ,
b a b c
we have
1 1 1 1 1 1
3
+ 3+ 3 ≥ 2 + 2 + 2 .
c b a cb ba ac
By abc = 1, this can be written as
(ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ≥ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a. (2.26)
(2.25) and (2.26) together imply the proposed inequality.

Question 10. A right-angled triangle has property that, when


a square is drawn externally on each side of the triangle, the six
vertices of the squares that are not vertices of the triangle are con-
cyclic. Assume that the area of the triangle is 9 cm2 . Determine
the length of sides of the triangle.
Solution. We have OJ = OD = OG = radius of the circle. Let
the sides of ∆ABC be a, b, c. We have
 a 2  b 2 1
OJ 2 = OM 2 + M J 2 = b + + = b2 + ab + (a2 + b2 );
2 2 4
 b 2  a 2 1
OD2 = ON 2 + N D2 = a + + = a2 + ab + (a2 + b2 );
2 2 4
 c 2 5
OG2 = OL2 + LG2 = c2 + = c2
2 4
5 2 1
= (a + b2 ) = a2 + b2 + (a2 + b2 ).
4 4
Comparing these right-hand sides, we get
b2 + ab = a2 + ab = a2 + b2 ⇔ a = b.
It means that the given triangle with the desired property is the
1 √
isosceles right triangle and then ab = 9 ⇔ a = b = 3 2, c = 6
2
units.
56 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Question 11. Given a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Let O be the


intersection point of diagonals AC and BD and let I, K, H be feet
of perpendiculars from B, O, C to AD, respectively. Prove that

AD × BI × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

Solution. Draw AE⊥BD (E ∈ BD). We have

BI × AD AE × BD
SABD = = .
2 2
Then BI × AD = AE × BD. It follows

BI × AD ≤ AO × BD (AE ≤ AO),

and
AO
BI.AD ≤ AC × BD × .
AC
Moreover, we have OK k CH, then

AO OK
= ,
AC CH
and
OK
BI × AD ≤ AC × BD × .
CH
Therefore,

BI × AD × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

The equality holds if quadrilateral ABCD has two perpendicu-


lar diagonals.

Question 12. Give an isosceles triangle ABC at A. Draw ray Cx


being perpendicular to CA, BE perpendicular to Cx (E ∈ Cx).
Let M be the midpoint of BE, and D be the intersection point of
AM and Cx. Prove that BD ⊥ BC
Solution. Let K be intersection point of DB and AC.
Since BE⊥CD; CK⊥CD then BE k CK.
2.2 Senior section 57

In ∆DAC we see M E k AC so
ME DM
= (2.27)
AC AD

In ∆DAK we see M B k AK so
MB DM
= . (2.28)
AK AD
ME MB
From (2.27) and (2.28), we get = . This and equality
AC AK
M B = M E together imply
CK
AK = AC = AB and then BA = .
2
CK
Note that BA is a median line ∆BKC and BA = then
2
∆BKC is a right triangle at B. Hence BD⊥BC.

Question 13. Let m be given odd number, and let a, b denote


the roots of equation x2 + mx − 1 = 0 and c = a2014 + b2014 , d =
a2015 + b2015 . Prove that c and d are relatively prime numbers.
Solution. Since a2 + ma − 1 = 0 then a 6= 0 and

an+2 = −man+1 + an ∀n ∈ N.

Similarly, bn+2 = −mbn+1 + bn ; ∀n ∈ N.


Hence, the sequence xn , n ∈ N are defined as
(
x0 = 2, x1 = −m
xn+2 = −mxn+1 + xn ∀n ∈ N.

It is easy to see all xn are integers. Hence, c, d are integers.


Now we prove (xn ; xn+1 ) = 1 for every n ∈ N.
For n = 0, x0 = 2 and m is odd then (x0 ; x1 ) = (2; −m) = 1.
Suppose that (xk ; xk+1 ) = 1 for k ≥ 0 and (xk+1 ; xk+2 ) > 1. Let
p be a prime factor of xk+1 and xk+2 , then from xk = xk+2 + mxk+1 ,
it follows p is a prime factor of xk . It means that p | (xk ; xk+1 ) = 1,
absurd. Hence (xk+1 ; xk+2 ) = 1 and (c, d) = 1.
58 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Question 14. Determine all pairs of integers (x; y) such that

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy.

Solution. We have

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy

⇔ 2y 2 (x − 1) − y(x − 1) − x(x − 1) = −1
⇔ (x − 1)(2y 2 − y − x) = −1

Since x; y are integers then x − 1 and 2y 2 − y − x are divisors of -1.


Case 1. We have
(
x−1=1
2y 2 − y − x = −1.

Equivalently, either (
x=2
y = 1,
or 
x = 2
1
y = − (absurd)
2
- Case 2. We have
(
x − 1 = −1
2y 2 − y − x = 1.

This implies that (


x=0
y = 1,
or 
x = 0
1
y = − (absurd).
2
2.2 Senior section 59

Hence, all integral pairs (x; y) are (2; 1); (0 ; 1).

Question 15. Let the numbers a, b, c, d satisfy the relation

a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ≤ 12.

Determine the maximum value of

M = 4(a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 ) − (a4 + b4 + c4 + d4 ).

Solution. Note that x2 (x−2)2 ≥ 0 for each real x. This inequality


can be rewritten as 4x3 − x4 ≤ 4x2 . It follows that

(4a3 −a4 )+(4b3 −b4 )+(4c3 −c4 )+(4d3 −d4 ) ≤ 4(a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 ) = 48,

The equality holds for

(a, b, c, d) = (2, 2, 2, 0).(2, 2, 0, 2), (2, 0, 2, 2), (0, 2, 2, 2).

Hence, max M = 48.

2.2.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016

Question 1. How many are there 10-digit numbers composed


from the digits 1, 2, 3 only and in which, two neighbouring digits
differ by 1.

(A): 48 (B): 64 (C): 72 (D): 128 (E): None of the above.

Anwser. (B).

Solution. We solve the problem by counting the numbers satis-


fying the condition, starting from 1-digit, 2-digit, 3-digit numbers
60 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Digit 1 2 3 4
1 12 121 1212
2 21 123 1232
3 23 212 2121
32 232 2123
.
321 2321
323 2323
3212
P 3232
3 4 6 8

We can see that a number ending by 2 in previous column gen-


erates 2 numbers for next column (we can add 1 or 3 at the end),
but a number ending by 1 or 3 generate 1 number for next column
(we can add only 2 at the end). From this, we can make a table.
The first row is number of digits, the second row is the number
of k-digit numbers satisfying the condition and ending with 1, 3, the
third row is the number of k-digit numbers satisfying the condition
and ending with 2.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2 4 4 8 8 16 16 32 32 .
1 2 2 4 4 8 8 16 16 32

Answer: 64.

Question 2. Given an array of numbers

A = (672, 673, 674, . . . , 2016)

on table. Three arbitrary numbers a, b, c ∈ A are step by step re-


1
placed by number min(a, b, c). After 672 times, on the table there
3
is only one number m, such that

(A): 0 < m < 1 (B): m = 1 (C): 1 < m < 2 (D): m = 2


(E): None of the above.
2.2 Senior section 61

Anwser. (A).

Solution. Note that


1 1 1 3 1
+ + ≤ = .
a b c min{a, b, c} 1
min{a, b, c}
3
So after each operation, the sum of all inverse elements of A is non
decreasing. On the other hand, for every positive integer n, we have
1 1 1
S := + + ··· + > 1.
n n+1 3n
Indeed,
n n
1 X 1 1  1 X  4n 
S= + + = +
2n k=1 2n − k 2n + k 2n k=1 4n2 − k 2
n
1 X1 1 n
> + > + > 1.
2n k=1 n 2n n
1
Hence, if on the table there is one number m then > 1, i.e.
m
0 < m < 1.

Question 3. Given two positive numbers a, b such that the con-


dition a3 +b3 = a5 +b5 , then the greatest value of M = a2 +b2 −ab is

1 1
(A): (B): (C): 2 (D): 1 (E): None of the above.
4 2
Anwser. (D).

Solution. We have
ab(a2 − b2 )2 ≥ 0
⇔ 2a3 b3 ≤ ab5 + a5 b
⇔ (a3 + b3 )2 ≤ (a + b)(a5 + b5 ).
Combining this and the fact that a3 + b3 = a5 + b5 , we find
a3 + b3 ≤ a + b ⇔ a2 + b2 − ab ≤ 1.
62 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

The equality holds if a = 1, b = 1.

Question 4. In Zoo, a monkey becomes lucky if he eats three


different fruits. What is the largest number of monkeys one can
make lucky having 20 oranges, 30 bananas, 40 peaches and 50 tan-
gerines? Justify your answer.

(A): 30 (B): 35 (C): 40 (D): 45 (E): None of the above.

Anwser. (D).

Solution. First we leave tangerines on a side. We have 20 + 30


+ 40 = 90 fruites. As we feed the happy monkey is not more than
one tangerine, each monkey eats fruits of these 90 at least 2.
Hence, the monkeys are not more than 90/2 = 45. We will show
how you can bring happiness to 45 monkeys:
5 monkeys eat: orange, banana, tangerine;
15 monkeys eat: orange, peach, tangerine;
25 monkeys eat peach, banana, tangerine.
At all 45 lucky monkeys - and left five unused tangerines!

Question 5. There are positive integers x, y such that 3x2 + x =


4y 2 + y and (x − y) is equal to

(A): 2013 (B): 2014 (C): 2015 (D): 2016


(E): None of the above.

Anwser. (E). Since x − y is a square.

Solution. We have 3x2 +x = 4y 2 +y ⇔ (x−y)(3x+3y +1) = y 2 .


We prove that (x − y; 3x + 3y + 1) = 1.
Indeed, if d = (x − y; 3x + 3y + 1) then y 2 is divisible by d2 and
y is divisible by d; x is divisible by d, i.e. 1 is divisible by d, i.e.
d = 1.
Since x − y and 3x + 3y + 1 are prime relative then x − y is a
perfect square.
2.2 Senior section 63

Question 6. Let A consist of 16 elements of the set

{1, 2, 3, . . . , 106},

so that the difference of two arbitrary elements in A are different


from 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21. Prove that there are two elements of A for
which their difference equals to 3.

Solution. Divide numbers 1, 2, . . . , 106 into three groups X =


{1, 4, 7, . . . , 106}, Y = {2, 5, 8, . . . , 104} and Z = {3, 6, 9, . . . , 105}.
A has 16 elements, so one of the sets X, Y, Z contains at least
6 numbers from A. Without loss of generality, let X contains 6
numbers from A. Let they be 1 ≤ a1 < a2 < · · · < a6 ≤ 106. Since

105 ≥ a6 −a1 = (a6 −a5 )+(a5 −a4 )+(a4 −a3 )+(a3 −a2 )+(a2 −a1 ),

there is an index i for which 0 < ai+1 − ai ≤ 21.


By the choice of X, ai+1 − ai is multiple of 3, so ai+1 − ai ∈
{3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21}.
Finally, apply the given condition, it follows that ai+1 − ai = 3,
which was to be proved.

Question 7. Nine points form a grid of size 3 × 3. How many


triangles are there with 3 vertices at these points?

Solution. We divide the triangles into two types:


Type 1: Two vertices lie in one horizontal line, the third vertex
lies in another horizontal lines.
For this type we have 3 possibilities of choosing the first line, 2
possibilities of choosing the 2-nd line. In total we have 3×2×3×3 =
54 triangles of first type.
Type 2: Three vertices lie in distinct horizontal lines.
We have 3 × 3 × 3 triangles of these type. But we should remove
degenerated triangles from them. There are 5 of those (3 vertical
lines and two diagonals). So, we have 27 - 5 = 22 triangles of this
type.
64 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Total, we have 54 + 22 = 76 triangles.


For those students who know about Cnk this problem can be also
solved as C93 − 8 where 8 is the number of degenerated triangles.

Question 8. Determine all 3-digit numbers which are equal to


cube of the sum of all its digits.

Solution. Let abc, where a, b, c ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, a 6= 0


and abc = (a + b + c)3 .
3

3
√ Note that 100 ≤ (a + b + c) ≤ 999 and 100 ≤ a + b + c ≤
3
999. Hence 5 ≤ a + b + c ≤ 9.
If a+b+c = 5 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =53 = 125 and a+b+c = 8
(not suitable).
If a+b+c = 6 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =63 = 216 and a+b+c = 9
(not suitable).
If a + b + c = 7 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =73 = 343 and a + b + c =
10 (not suitable).
If a+b+c = 8 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =83 = 512 and a+b+c = 8
(suitable).
If a + b + c = 9 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =93 = 729 and a + b + c =
18 (not suitable).
Conclusion: abc = 512.

Question 9. Let rational numbers a, b, c satisfy the conditions


a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 ∈ Z.
Prove that there exist two relative prime numbers m, n such that
m2
abc = 3 .
n
Solution. Put a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 = t.
We have 3 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) ≥ (a + b + c)2 , then t ∈ [0; 3] .
Since t ∈ Z then t ∈ {0; 1; 2; 3} .
0
If t = 0 then a = b = c = 0 and abc = 0 = .
1
If t = 3 then
(a − 1) + (b − 1) + (c − 1) = (a − 1)2 + (b − 1)2 + (c − 1)2 = 0.
2.2 Senior section 65

12
That follows a = b = c = 1 and abc = 1 = .
13
If t = 1. Without loss of generality, assume that c > 0;
m1 m2 m3
a= ;b = ;c = ; d = |n1 n2 n3 | .
n1 n2 n3
Put 
 x = ad
y = bd
z = cd.

We have x; y; z ∈ Z and z > 0. Moreover,


(
x + y + z = d (a + b + c) = d
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = d2 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) = d2

It follows

xy + yz + zx = 0 ⇔ (z + x) (z + y) = z 2 = c2 d2 .

Hence, there exist r; p; q ∈ Z∗ such that

x + z = rp2 ; y + z = rq 2 ; z = |r| qp; (p; q) = 1; p; q ∈ Z∗ .

On the other hand d = x + y + z = r (p2 + q 2 ) − |r| pq > 0 then


r > 0.
Hence, 
y = rq (q − p)

x = rp (p − q)

z = rpq.

Equivalently,
[pq(p − q)]2
abc = − .
(p2 + q 2 − pq)3
We shall prove that (pq(p − q); p2 + q 2 − pq) = 1.
Suppose s = (pq (p − q) ; p2 + q 2 − pq) ; s > 1 then s|pq (p − q) .
Case 1. Let s|p. Since s| (p2 + q 2 − pq) then s|q and s = 1 (not
suitable).
Case 2. Let s|q. Similarly, we find s = 1 (not suitable).
66 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

2 2 2
Case 3. If s| (p − q) then s|(p − q) − (p + q − pq) ⇒ s|pq
s|p
⇒ (not suitable).
s|q
If t = 2 then a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 = 2.
We reduce it to the case where t = 1, which was to be proved.

Question 10. Given natural


√ numbers a, b such that 2015a2 + a =
2016b2 + b. Prove that a − b is a natural number.

Solution. From equality

2015a2 + a = 2016b2 + b.

we find a ≥ b.

If a = b, then a = b = 0 and a − b = 0.
If a > b, we have

b2 = 2015(a2 − b2 ) + (a − b) ⇔ b2 = (a − b)(2015a + 2015b + 1).

Let (a, b) = d then a = md; b = nd, where (m, n) = 1. Since a > b


then m > n; and put m − n = t > 0.
Let (t, n) = u then n is divisible by u; t is divisible by u and m
is divisible by u. That follows u = 1 and then (t, n) = 1.
By b = nd; a − b = td, we find

n2 d = t(2015dt + 4030dn + 1).

Hence, n2 d is divisible by t and compaire with (t, n) = 1, it follows d


is divisible by t. Moreover, we have n2 d = 2015dt2 +4030dnt+t and
then t = n2 d−2015dt2 −4030dnt. Hence t = d(n2 −2015t2 −4030nt),
i.e. t is divisible by d, i.e. t = d and then a − b = td = d2 and

a − b = d is a natural number.

Question 11. Let I be the incenter of triangle ABC and ω be


its circumcircle. Let the line AI intersect ω at point D 6= A. Let
F and E be points on side BC and arc BDC respectively such
1
that ∠BAF = ∠CAE < ∠BAC. Let X be the second point of
2
2.2 Senior section 67

intersection of line EI with ω and T be the point of intersection of


segment DX with line AF . Prove that T F.AD = ID.AT .

Solution. Let the line AF intersect ω at point K 6= A and L be


the foot of the bisector of angle BAC. Since ∠BAK = ∠CAE we
_ _
have BK = CE, hence KE k BC. Notice that ∠IAT = ∠DAK =
∠EAD = ∠IXT , so the points I, A, X, T are concyclic. Hence,
∠IT A = ∠IXA = ∠EXA = ∠EKA, so IT k KE k BC. There-
TF IL
fore, = .
AT AI

Figure 2.10: Fugure of Question 11

IL CL
Since CI is bisector of ∠ACL, we get = . Furthermore,
AI AC
1
∠DCL = ∠DCB = ∠DAB = ∠CAD = ∠BAC. Hence, the
2
CL DC
triangles DCL and DCA are similar. Therefore, = .
AC AD
Finally, we have ∠DIC = ∠IAC + ∠ICA = ∠ICL + ∠LCD =
DC
∠ICD. It follows DIC is a isosceles triangle at D. Hence =
AD
ID
.
AD
Summarizing all these equalities, we get

TF IL CL DC ID
= = = = ,
AT AI AC AD AD
68 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

or
TF ID
= , and T F.AD = ID.AT,
AT AD
as desired.

Question 12. Let A be point inside the acute angle xOy. An


arbitrary circle ω passes through O, A; intersecting Ox and Oy
at the second intersection B and C, respectively. Let M be the
midpoint of BC. Prove that M is always on a fixed line (when ω
changes, but always goes through O and A).

Solution. Let (Ox ), (Oy ) be circles passing throught O, A and


tangent to Ox, Oy, respectively. Circle (Ox ) intersects the ray Oy
at D, distinct from O and circle (Oy ) intersects the ray Ox at
E, distinct from O. Let N and P be midpoint of OE and OD,
respectively. Then N, P are fixed. We’ll show that M, N, P are
NO P O
collinear. For this, it is sufficient to prove that =
NB P C

Figure 2.11: Fugure of Question 12

Since (Ox ) is tangent to Ox, ∠ADC = ∠AOB. Since OBAC


is cyclic, ∠ABO = ∠ACD. So triangles AOB, ADC are similar.
AB OB
Therefore = (1)
AC DC
2.2 Senior section 69

BE AB
Similarly, 4ABE v 4ACO, so = (2)
CO AC
From (1) and (2), we deduce that

OB BE OB CD
= ⇒ =
CD OC BE OC
Hence
OE OD
= ,
BE OC
ON OP
= ,
BE OC
ON ON OP OP
= = = .
NB BE − N O OC − OP CP
It follows, if N P intersects BC at M, then
MB P C NO
· · =1
MC P O NB
MB
(by Menelaus’ Theorem in triangle OBC) conclusion = 1, it
MC
follows N P passes through M is midpoint of BC.

Question 13. Find all triples (a, b, c) of real numbers such that
|2a + b| ≥ 4 and

|ax2 + bx + c| ≤ 1 ∀x ∈ [−1, 1].

Solution. From the assumptions, we have |f (±1)| ≤ 1, |f (0)| ≤ 1


and 
f (1) = a + b + c

f (−1) = a − b + c

f (0) = c

Equivalently,
1


 a = [f (1) + f (−1)] − f (0)

 2
1
b = [f (1) − f (−1)]


 2
c = f (0)
70 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

That follows
1
4 ≤ |2a + b| = [f (1) + f (−1)] − 2f (0) + [f (1) − f (−1)]

2
3 1
= f (1) + f (−1) − 2f (0)

2 2
3 1 3 1
≤ |f (1)| + |f (−1)| + 2|f (0)| ≤ + + 2 = 4.
2 2 2 2
Hence |2a + b| = 4. Therefore,

|f (1)| = |a + b + c| = 1

|f (−1)| = |a − b + c| = 1

|f (0)| = |c| = 1.

Equivalently, 
(a, b, c) = (2, 0, −1)
(a, b, c) = (−2, 0, 1)
It is easely seen that both two triples (2, 0, −1) and (−2, 0, 1) satisfy
the required conditions.

Question 14. Let f (x) = x2 + px + q, where p, q are integers.


Prove that there is an integer m such that
f (m) = f (2015).f (2016).

Solution. We shall prove that


f [f (x) + x] = f (x)f (x + 1). (1)
Indeed, we have
f [f (x) + x] = [f (x) + x]2 + p[f (x) + x] + q
= f 2 (x) + 2f (x).x + x2 + pf (x) + px + q
= f (x)[f (x) + 2x + p] + x2 + px + q
= f (x)[f (x) + 2x + p] + f (x)
= f (x)[f (x) + 2x + p + 1]
= f (x)[x2 + px + q + 2x + p + 1]
= f (x)[(x + 1)2 + p(x + 1) + q]
= f (x)f (x + 1),
2.2 Senior section 71

which proves (1).


Putting m := f (2015) + 2015 gives
f (m) = f [f (2015)+2015] = f (2015)f (2015+1) = f (2015)f (2016),
as desired.

Question 15. Let a, b, c be real numbers satisfying the condition


18ab + 9ca + 29bc = 1.
Find the minimum value of the expression
T = 42a2 + 34b2 + 43c2 .
Solution. We have
T −2(18ab + 9ca + 29bc) =
= (5a − 3b)2 + (4a − 3c)2 + (4b − 5c)2 + (a − 3b + 3c)2
≥ 0, ∀a, b, c ∈ R.
That follows T ≥ 2. The equality occures if and only if


 5a − 3b = 0

4a − 3c = 0



4b − 5c = 0

a − 3b + 3c = 0





18ab + 9ca + 29bc = 1.

Equivalently, 
5a − 3b = 0


4a − 3c = 0


 4b − 5c = 0

18ab + 9ca + 29bc = 1,
and (
a = 3t, b = 5t, c = 4t
(18 × 15 + 9 × 12 + 29 × 20)t2 = 1.
We thus have
±3 ±5 ±4
a= √ , b= √ , c= √ .
958 958 958
72 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

2.2.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017

Question 1. Suppose x1 , x2 , x3 are the roots of polynomial


3 2
P (x) = x − 4x − 3x + 2. The sum |x1 | + |x2 | + |x3 | is
(A): 4 (B): 6 (C): 8 (D): 10 (E): None of the above.
Solution. The solution is (B).
Question 2. How many pairs of positive integers (x, y) are there,
those satisfy the identity

2x − y 2 = 4?

(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 3 (D): 4 (E): None of the above.


Solution. The solution is (A).
Question 3. The number of real triples (x, y, z) that satisfy the
equation
x4 + 4y 4 + z 4 + 4 = 8xyz
is
(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 2; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.
Solution. The solution is (E).
Question 4. Let a, b, c be three distinct positive numbers. Con-
sider the quadratic polynomial

c(x − a)(x − b) a(x − b)(x − c) b(x − c)(x − a)


P (x) = + + + 1.
(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

The value of P (2017) is


(A): 2015 (B): 2016 (C): 2017 (D): 2018 (E): None of the above.

Solution. The solution is (D).


Question 5. Write 2017 following numbers on the blackboard:
1008 1007 1 1 2 1007 1008
− ,− ,...,− , 0, , ,..., , .
1008 1008 1008 1008 1008 1008 1008
2.2 Senior section 73

One processes some steps as: erase two arbitrary numbers x, y on


the blackboard and then write on it the number x + 7xy + y. After
2016 steps, there is only one number. The last one on the black-
board is
1 1 144
(A): − (B): 0 (C): (D): − (E): None of the
1008 1008 1008
above.
Solution. The solution is (D).

Question 6. Find all pairs of integers a, b such that the following


system of equations has a unique integral solution (x, y, z)
(
x+y =a−1
x(y + 1) − z 2 = b.

Solution. Write the given system in the form


(
x+y+1=a
(∗)
x(y + 1) − z 2 = b.

System (*) is symmetric by x, y + 1 and is reflect in z at 0 then the


necessary condition for (*) to have a unique solution is (x, y+1, z) =
(t, t, 0). Putting this in (*), we find a2 = 4b. Conversely, if a2 = 4b
then

(x − (y + 1))2 + 4z 2 = (x + y + 1)2 + 4z 2 − 4x(y + 1) = a2 − 4b = 0.

This implies the system has a unique solution


a a 
(x, y + 1, z) = , ,0 .
2 2

Question 7. Let two positive integers x, y satisfy the condition


.
x2 + y 2 .. 44. Determine the smallest value of T = x3 + y 3 .

.
Solution. By the assumption we have x2 + y 2 .. 11. One can prove
. .
that x .. 11 and y .. 11. Due to limitted space we left the proof
74 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

for the reader. In other side, by the assumption we have x and


y are even. Hence, x ≡ 0 (mod 22) and y ≡ 0 (mod 22). Thus,
min A = (22)3 + (22)3 = 21296.

Question 8. Let a, b, c be the side-lengths of triangle ABC with


a + b + c = 12. Determine the smallest value of
a 4b 9c
M= + + .
b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c
b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c
Solution. Let x = ,y = ,z = then
2 2 2
a+b+c
x, y, z > 0 and x + y + z = = 6, a = y + z, b = z + x, c =
2
x + y. We have

y + z 4(z + x) 9(x + y)
M= + +
2x 2y 2z
     
1 y 4x z 9x 4z 9y
= + + + + +
2 x y x z y z
r r r !
1 y 4x z 9x 4z 9y
≥ 2 . +2 . +2 . = 11.
2 x y x z y z

The equality yields if and only if


 y 4x
 =
x y



z 9x

=
 x z

 4z 9y
= .


y z

Equivelently, 
 y = 2x

z = 3x

2z = 3y.

By simple computation we receivex = 1, y = 2, z = 3. Therefore,


min S = 11 when (a, b, c) = 5, 4, 3 .
2.2 Senior section 75

Question 9. Cut off a square carton by a straight line into two


pieces, then cut one of two pieces into two small pieces by a straight
line, ect. By cutting 2017 times we obtain 2018 pieces. We write
number 2 in every triangle, number 1 in every quadrilateral, and 0
in the polygons. Is the sum of all inserted numbers always greater
than 2017?

Solution. After 2017 cuts, we obtain 2018 n-convex polygons


with n ≥ 3. After each cut the total of all sides of those n-convex
polygons increases at most 4. We deduce that the total number of
sides of 2018 pieces is not greater than 4 × 2018. If the side of a
piece is kj , then the number inserted on it is greater or equal to
5 − kj . Therefore, the total of all inserted numbers on the pieces is
greater or equal to
X X
(5−kj ) = 5×2018− kj ≥ 5×2018−4×2018 = 2018 > 2017.
j j

The answer is positive.

Question 10. Consider all words constituted by eight letters


from {C, H, M, O}. We arrange the words in an alphabet sequence.
Precisely, the first word is CCCCCCCC, the second one is CCCCC-
CCH, the third is CCCCCCCM, the fourth one is CCCCCCCO,. . . ,
and the last word is OOOOOOOO.
a) Determine the 2017th word of the sequence?
b) What is the position of the word HOMCHOMC in the se-
quence?

Solution. We can associate the letters C, H, M, O with four num-


bers 0, 1, 2, 3, respectively. Thus, the arrangement of those words
as a dictionary is equivalent to arrangement of those numbers in-
creasing.
a) Number 2017 in quaternary is {133201}4 = {00133201}4 ∼
CCHOOM CH.
b) The word HOM CHOM C is corresponding to the num-
ber {13201320}4 which means the number 13201320 in quaternary.
Namely,
{13201320}4 = 47 +3×46 +2×45 +0×44 +1×43 +3×42 +2×4+0.
76 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

A simple computation gives {13201320}4 = 30840. Thus, the word


HOM CHOM C is 30840th in the sequence.

Question 11. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle, and let P stand


for an arbitrary point inside the triangle. Is it true that

P AB − P AC ≥ P BC − P CB ?
[ [ \ \

Solution. If P lies on the symmetric straightline Ax of ∆ABC,

Figure 2.12: For Question 11

then
P AB − P AC = P BC − P CB .
[ [ \ \

We should consider other cases. Let P 0 denote the symmetric point


of P with respect to Ax. The straightline P P 00 intersects AB and
AC at M and N, respectively. Choose B 0 that is symmetric point
of B with respect to M N. Then

\0
P AB − P AC = P AP ,
[ [
2.2 Senior section 77

and
\ \ \0
P BC − P CB B0P 0.
= P BP = P\
We will prove that
P
\ AP 0 ≥ P\
B0P 0. (∗)
Indeed, consider the circumscribed circle (O) of the equilateral tri-
angle AM N. Since
M
\ B0N = M
\ BN ≤ M
\ BC = M
\ AN = 600 ,
B 0 is outside (O). Consider the circumscribed circle (O0 ) of the
equilateral triangle AP P 0 . It is easy to see that (O0 ) inside (O), by
which B 0 is outside (O0 ). Hence, P \AP 0 ≥ P\ B 0 P 0 . The inequality
(*) is proved.

Question 12. Let (O) denote a circle with a chord AB, and let W
be the midpoint of the minor arc AB. Let C stand for an arbitrary
point on the major arc AB. The tangent to the circle (O) at C
meets the tangents at A and B at points X and Y, respectively.
The lines W X and W Y meet AB at points N and M , respectively.
Does the length of segment N M depend on position of C?

Solution. Let T be the common point of AB and CW . Consider


circle (Q) touching XY at C and touching AB at T .
Since
1 _ 1 _ 
ACW
\ =W \ AT = AW = W B
2 2
and AW\ T = CW
\ A, we obtain that ∆AW T, ∆CW A are similar
triangles. Then
W A2 = W T × W C.
It is easy to see that W X is the radical axis of A and (Q), thus
it passes through the midpoint N of segment AT . Similarly, W Y
passes through the midpoint M of segment BT . We deduce M N =
AB
.
2
Question 13. Let ABC be a triangle. For some d > 0 let P stand
for a point inside the triangle such that
|AB| − |P B| ≥ d, and |AC| − |P C| ≥ d.
78 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Figure 2.13: For Question 12

Is the following inequality true

|AM | − |P M | ≥ d,

for any position of M ∈ BC?

Solution. Note that AM always intersects P B or P C of ∆P BC.


Without loss of generality, assume that AM has common point
with P B. Then ABM P is a convex quadrilateral with diagonals
AM and P B.
It is known that for every convex quadrilateral, we have

|AM | + |P B| ≥ |AB| + |P M |,

that follows

|AM | − |P M | ≥ |AB| − |P B| ≥ d.

Question 14. Put

P = m2003 n2017 − m2017 n2003 , where m, n ∈ N.

a) Is P divisible by 24?
2.2 Senior section 79

Figure 2.14: For Question 13

b) Do there exist m, n ∈ N such that P is not divisible by 7?

Solution. We have

P = m2003 n2013 n14 − m14 ) = m2003 n2013 n7 − m7 ) n7 + m7 ).

It is easy to prove P is divisible by 8, and by 3.


b) It suffices to chose m, n such that the remainders of those
divided by 7 are not 0 and distinct. For instance, m = 2 and n = 1.

Question 15. Let S denote a square of side-length 7, and let eight


squares with side-length 3 be given. Show that it is impossible
to cover S by those eight small squares with the condition: an
arbitrary side of those (eight) squares is either coincided, parallel,
or perpendicular to others of S.

Solution. For convenient, ABCD is denoted by the square S.


Let M, N, P, Q be the midpoints of sides of S, and O be the center
of ABCD. Consider nine points: A, B, C, D, M, N, P, Q, O. Each
square of the side-length 3 satisfied the condition cover at most one
of those nine points. The proof is complete.