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m Earthing practices adopted at generating stations,

substations, distribution structures and lines are of great


m The earth is made up of materials that is electrically


m When a fault occurs , the current increases rapidly. This

unwanted fault current will flow to Ǯearthǯ through the live
conductor i.e. through low resistance path
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onnection between part of
substation in an operating system like LV neutral of a
Transformer winding and earth.
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onnecting frames of
equipment (Transformer tank, Switch gear box, Bases
of Ts & PTs, circuit breakers, Busbars etc.) to earth.
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onnecting fence
(which is of steel) to earth.

à Let size of MAT is l × b

à Area Ǯaǯ= l × b
à Average soil resistivity = ɖ

à aor line to ground fault calculation-
à If = 3I0 (if station resistance neglected)

à where

à alculate X/R ratio from z1,z2,z0 and Rf

à The fault current If is used to size the grounding
à for maximum fault duration tc , we take decrement
factor (Df) by the given datasheet
à We have to consider melting temperature for fault
duration of tc

à Where I is in KA

à 1 Kcmil = 5.056 mm2

à Amm2 = ɕ r2
à Radius of conductor can be calculated by above