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LABORATORY

GROUP 6

GROUP MEMBERS

GÖRKEM DEMİR

MUSTAFA BENT

NERGİS GÜNDÜZ

UMUT BAYKARA

UĞUR KARPUZ

Purpose:

The purpose of this experiment is to observe pressure distribution around a symmetric airfoil

at various angle of attack . The pressure distribution over a symmetric airfoil NACA

0020 with tapping fits onto the AF 10 and shows characteristics of lift. Although, it is

small scaled wing model used in the experiment it’s possible to scale up to make

comparison between smaller and larger one.

Procedure:

Set up:

The airfoil is contained in a clear sided duct in ‘closed ends’ arrangement thus airflow is only

across the curved surfaces of the airfoil. This condition comes over the wing tip vortices or

drag caused by wing tips. By the way two dimensional flow is observed around airfoil. One of

the best advantage of the arrangement is ‘infinite span’. Airfoil holds by duct in a position

which is vertical to the ground.

Pressure tappings are placed along the top and bottom surfaces of the airfoil. Each of them

numbered according to their placement. For instance upper sided tapping has number of

2,4,6,8,10,12 while lower sided one has number of 1,3,5,7,9,11. These tappings are connected

to a set of numbered small pipe connectors on a plate which are located next to the airfoil. A

set of larger bore pipes connects the numbered pipe connectors to the AF10 manometer. At

the inlet part of the duct, just above the airfoil there is an extra pressure tapping which is

placed to measure static pressure upstream of the airfoil. Moreover, it is placed for use with

the tapping on the AF10 to calculate air velocity upstream of the airfoil.

Incidence angle of the airfoil can be changed according to the numbered scale in front of the

airfoil.

Here are the positions of tappings over airfoil from the leading edge.

Theory:

It is well known that an object in a flow produces lift when pressure at the lower side is higher

than the pressure at upper side. Lift is also related with incidence angle for example, there is

no lift when incidence angle is zero for symmetric airfoil in an airflow. Lift is increased with

increasing positive angle of incidence.

However there is a certain point where the airflow over the upper surface starts to separate

from the wing. Change in pressure distribution results in change in center of lift position. The

aerodynamic lift center of the airfoil moves through backward. As a result of stall lift is

reduced and drag is increased. The performance of an airfoil can be observed from lift curves.

In this experiment we want to measure the performance of the wing by using this type of

airfoil. We can measure performance of the wing by measuring the pressures on the two

surfaces of the airfoil, relative to local air pressure.

The chord ratio is simply the ratio between the position of tapping and chord of the airfoil.

Both measurements units are same thus t/c ratio is dimensionless.

Experiment;

*Leave one manometer tube and the common manometer connection open to the atmosphere

*Arrange the locking screw and set the airfoil to zero angle

*Connect the static pressure at the top of the wind tunnel to the last manometer tube then

measure the pressure

*Move this manometer connection down to the inlet static pressure tapping and measure the

pressure

*Record the all manometer readings for the tapping for the airfoil.

*Increase angle of attack positively 5 degree in each step up to 25.

*Repeat these steps for each 5 degree

*Convert all these pressure readings to Pa (Pascal)

CALCULATIONS;

To understand lift characteristics the pressure distribution around an airfoil should be used. To

show the pressure distribution in non dimensional way cp can be calculated from the equation

given above. However, we need to calculate free stream velocity to find pressure coefficient.

Peff can be calculated to find correct free stream velocity around the airfoil. The duct inlet

tapping is 135mm upstream of the exit of the duct. The center of the airfoil is 85mm

downstream from these tapping.

Pa =

Po =

Pairbox =

The free stream velocity at each tapping point will be calculated by the formula:

AOA

0 5 10 15 20 25

Tapping

11

AOA

0 5 10 15 20 25

Tapping

10

12

2) Plot the pressure coefficient and the thickness to chord ratio for each angle of attack.

3) Draw the best fit lines for the pressures on the upper and lower surfaces.

4) The area between your curves is the coefficient of lift.

5) Use the trapezium rule or other methods to find this area for each angle.

6) Plot cL angle of attack graph to find stall angle

7) Maximum lift coefficient should be found from your curve

8) The gradient of the lift curve should be found from your curve

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