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‫‪Operation Amplifier‬‬

‫م‪.‬م‪ .‬محمد ضياء علي‬


‫المرحلة الثانية‬
‫هندسة تقنيات القدرة الكهربائية‬
‫اللكترونيك‬
Agenda
Introduction
Background
Amplifier Introduction
Basic Circuits Review
Characteristics of an Ideal Op
Amp
Types of Op Amps
Practical Applications
Conclusion
Quiz
Purpose

To introduce the Operational


Amplifier by providing background,
functionality, applications, and
relevance to Electric Power class
projects.
Introduction
Operational Amplifiers are
represented both schematically
and realistically below:
◦ Active component!
Background
Originallyinvented in early 1940s
using vacuum tube technology.
◦ Initial purpose was to execute math
operations in analog electronic
calculating machines
Shrunk in size with invention of
transistor
Most now made on integrated
circuit (IC)
◦ Only most demanding applications use
discrete components
Huge variety of applications, low
Amplifiers
Single-ended  Differential Amplifier
Amplifier ◦ Amplifies difference
between inputs
Operational Amplifier
Output gain high
◦ A ~= 106
Tiny difference in the
input voltages result
in a very large output
voltage
◦ Output limited by
supply voltages
Comparator
◦ If V+ > V- , Vout =
HVS
◦ If V+ < V- , Vout =
LVS
3-stage Op-Amp
Why are they useful?
Sensor signals are often too weak
or too noisy
◦ Op Amps ideally increase the signal
amplitude without affecting its other
properties.
Why are they useful?

Negative feedback leads to stable


equilibrium
Voltage follower (direct feedback)
◦ If Vout = V- , then V out ~ V+
Closed Loop Transfer
Function
H(s) = A / (1 +
AF)
…When AF >> 1

H(s) = 1 / F

Where: A = Op Amp Open Loop


Gain
F = Feedback Loop Gain
Op Amp Golden Rules

1.The output attempts to do


whatever is necessary to make the
voltage difference between the
inputs zero.
2.The inputs draw no current.
Basic Circuits Review

Kirchoff’s Law
◦ Voltage Law: The
sum of all the
voltage drops V1 + V2 + V3 =
Vin
around the loop =
Vin

Resistance (Ohms
– Ω)
◦ Series
Basic Circuits Review

 Capacitance (Farad –
F)
◦ Series

◦ Parallel

 Inductance (Henry –
H)
◦ Series

◦ Parallel
Ideal Op Amp

Zin is infinite
Zout is zero
Amplification (Gain) Vout / Vin = ∞
Unlimited bandwidth
Vout = 0 when Voltage inputs = 0
Ideal Op Amp
Ideal Op-Amp Typical Op-Amp
Input Resistance infinity 106  (bipolar)
109  - 1012  (FET)
Input Current 0 10-12 – 10-8 A
Output Resistance 0 100 – 1000 
Operational Gain infinity 105 - 109
Common Mode 0 10-5
Gain
Bandwidth infinity Attenuates and phases at
high frequencies (depends
on slew rate)
Temperature independent Bandwidth and gain
Voltage Transfer
Characteristic

Range where
we operate
the op amp as
.an amplifier

vd
?How are Op-Amps used
Comparator
Voltage follower
Signal Modulation
Mathematical Operations
Filters
Voltage-Current signal conversion
Non-inverting Op-Amp

Uses: Amplify…straight up
Inverting Op-Amp

                                            

                         
 
Uses: Analog inverter
Example #2: Closed Loop
Gain
if

is i1 = 0

v1

v2
i2 = 0
Example #2 (con’t)
if

is i1

io

i2

For an almost ideal op amp, Ri = ∞  and Ro = 0 .


The output voltage will never reach V+ or V-.
Example #2 (con’t)
if
Virtual ground

is i1

i2

The op amp outputs a


voltage Vo such that V1 = V2.
Example #2 (con’t)

is
i1 if
i

i2
Example #2: Closed Loop
Gain

A B
v1  0V
C
VS  R1is
vo   R f i f
is  i f  i
vo / Vs   R f / R1
AV   R f / R1
This circuit is known as an inverting
Types of Gain
if

is i1
io

i2
Types of Closed Loop Gain

Gain Variabl Equatio Units


e Name n
Voltage Gain AV vo/vs None or V/V
Current Gain AI io/is None or A/A
Transresistance AR vo/is V/A or 
Gain
Transconductan AG io/vs A/V or 1
ce Gain
Example #3: Closed Loop Gain
with Real Op Amp
if

is i1

v1

v2
i2
Example #3 (con’t)
is = i 1 + i f
i = if
i1 = i2-
vd = v2 – v1 = Ri (- i1) = Ri (i2)
Vo = Avd - Ro(- i)
Vs = R1(is) – vd
Vs = R1(is) + Rf(if) + Vo

Vo /Vs = (-Rf/R1){Ab/[1 +Ab]}, where b = R1/


(R1+Rf)
Comparator

V1
Vout
V2

Uses: Low-voltage alarms, night light


controller
Example #1: Voltage
Comparator

is = 0 i1 = 0

i2 = 0

When Vs is equal to 0V, Vo = 0V.


When Vs is smaller than 0V, Vo = V+.
When Vs is larger than 0V, Vo = V-.
Electronic Response
Given how an op amp functions,
what do you expect Vo to be if v2
= 5V when:
1. Vs = 0V?
2. Vs = 5V?
3. Vs = 6V?
Pulse Width Modulator
 Output changes
when
◦ Vin ~= Vpot
 Potentiometer used
to vary duty cycle

Uses: Motor controllers


Summation

Uses: Add multiple sensors


inputs until a threshold is
. reached
Difference

V 2  R3  R1  R4 V1 R3
Vout  
( R4  R2 ) R1 R1

If all resistors are


:equal
Vout  V2  V1
Integrating Op-Amp

Uses: PID Controller


Differentiating Op-Amp

(where Vin and Vout are functions of time)


Filters
• Decouple the low-pass
RC filter from the load.

Uses: Simple audio.


Remove frequencies
over 20kHz (audible)
Low-pass Filter (active)

Cutoff
frequency

Thisworks
because the
capacitor
needs time to
charge.
High pass filter (active)

Band-pass filter cascades both high-pass and low-pas


Conclusions
Op-Amps are often used for
◦ Sensor amplification
◦ Mathematical operations (sums,
difference, inverse)
◦ Filters (High/Low/Band pass)
◦ Measurement devices
Current in –> Voltage out