OP Amplifier

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OP Amplifier

© All Rights Reserved

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المرحلة الثانية

هندسة تقنيات القدرة الكهربائية

اللكترونيك

Agenda

Introduction

Background

Amplifier Introduction

Basic Circuits Review

Characteristics of an Ideal Op

Amp

Types of Op Amps

Practical Applications

Conclusion

Quiz

Purpose

Amplifier by providing background,

functionality, applications, and

relevance to Electric Power class

projects.

Introduction

Operational Amplifiers are

represented both schematically

and realistically below:

◦ Active component!

Background

Originallyinvented in early 1940s

using vacuum tube technology.

◦ Initial purpose was to execute math

operations in analog electronic

calculating machines

Shrunk in size with invention of

transistor

Most now made on integrated

circuit (IC)

◦ Only most demanding applications use

discrete components

Huge variety of applications, low

Amplifiers

Single-ended Differential Amplifier

Amplifier ◦ Amplifies difference

between inputs

Operational Amplifier

Output gain high

◦ A ~= 106

Tiny difference in the

input voltages result

in a very large output

voltage

◦ Output limited by

supply voltages

Comparator

◦ If V+ > V- , Vout =

HVS

◦ If V+ < V- , Vout =

LVS

3-stage Op-Amp

Why are they useful?

Sensor signals are often too weak

or too noisy

◦ Op Amps ideally increase the signal

amplitude without affecting its other

properties.

Why are they useful?

equilibrium

Voltage follower (direct feedback)

◦ If Vout = V- , then V out ~ V+

Closed Loop Transfer

Function

H(s) = A / (1 +

AF)

…When AF >> 1

H(s) = 1 / F

Gain

F = Feedback Loop Gain

Op Amp Golden Rules

whatever is necessary to make the

voltage difference between the

inputs zero.

2.The inputs draw no current.

Basic Circuits Review

Kirchoff’s Law

◦ Voltage Law: The

sum of all the

voltage drops V1 + V2 + V3 =

Vin

around the loop =

Vin

Resistance (Ohms

– Ω)

◦ Series

Basic Circuits Review

Capacitance (Farad –

F)

◦ Series

◦ Parallel

Inductance (Henry –

H)

◦ Series

◦ Parallel

Ideal Op Amp

Zin is infinite

Zout is zero

Amplification (Gain) Vout / Vin = ∞

Unlimited bandwidth

Vout = 0 when Voltage inputs = 0

Ideal Op Amp

Ideal Op-Amp Typical Op-Amp

Input Resistance infinity 106 (bipolar)

109 - 1012 (FET)

Input Current 0 10-12 – 10-8 A

Output Resistance 0 100 – 1000

Operational Gain infinity 105 - 109

Common Mode 0 10-5

Gain

Bandwidth infinity Attenuates and phases at

high frequencies (depends

on slew rate)

Temperature independent Bandwidth and gain

Voltage Transfer

Characteristic

Range where

we operate

the op amp as

.an amplifier

vd

?How are Op-Amps used

Comparator

Voltage follower

Signal Modulation

Mathematical Operations

Filters

Voltage-Current signal conversion

Non-inverting Op-Amp

Uses: Amplify…straight up

Inverting Op-Amp

Uses: Analog inverter

Example #2: Closed Loop

Gain

if

is i1 = 0

v1

v2

i2 = 0

Example #2 (con’t)

if

is i1

io

i2

The output voltage will never reach V+ or V-.

Example #2 (con’t)

if

Virtual ground

is i1

i2

voltage Vo such that V1 = V2.

Example #2 (con’t)

is

i1 if

i

i2

Example #2: Closed Loop

Gain

A B

v1 0V

C

VS R1is

vo R f i f

is i f i

vo / Vs R f / R1

AV R f / R1

This circuit is known as an inverting

Types of Gain

if

is i1

io

i2

Types of Closed Loop Gain

e Name n

Voltage Gain AV vo/vs None or V/V

Current Gain AI io/is None or A/A

Transresistance AR vo/is V/A or

Gain

Transconductan AG io/vs A/V or 1

ce Gain

Example #3: Closed Loop Gain

with Real Op Amp

if

is i1

v1

v2

i2

Example #3 (con’t)

is = i 1 + i f

i = if

i1 = i2-

vd = v2 – v1 = Ri (- i1) = Ri (i2)

Vo = Avd - Ro(- i)

Vs = R1(is) – vd

Vs = R1(is) + Rf(if) + Vo

(R1+Rf)

Comparator

V1

Vout

V2

controller

Example #1: Voltage

Comparator

is = 0 i1 = 0

i2 = 0

When Vs is smaller than 0V, Vo = V+.

When Vs is larger than 0V, Vo = V-.

Electronic Response

Given how an op amp functions,

what do you expect Vo to be if v2

= 5V when:

1. Vs = 0V?

2. Vs = 5V?

3. Vs = 6V?

Pulse Width Modulator

Output changes

when

◦ Vin ~= Vpot

Potentiometer used

to vary duty cycle

Summation

inputs until a threshold is

. reached

Difference

V 2 R3 R1 R4 V1 R3

Vout

( R4 R2 ) R1 R1

:equal

Vout V2 V1

Integrating Op-Amp

Differentiating Op-Amp

Filters

• Decouple the low-pass

RC filter from the load.

Remove frequencies

over 20kHz (audible)

Low-pass Filter (active)

Cutoff

frequency

Thisworks

because the

capacitor

needs time to

charge.

High pass filter (active)

Conclusions

Op-Amps are often used for

◦ Sensor amplification

◦ Mathematical operations (sums,

difference, inverse)

◦ Filters (High/Low/Band pass)

◦ Measurement devices

Current in –> Voltage out

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