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Electricity · Magnetism
generates a electric field (see electromagnetism). In special relativity, the electric field and magnetic field are two interrelated aspects of a single object, called the electromagnetic field. A pure electric field in one reference frame is observed as a combination of both an electric field and a magnetic field in a moving reference frame.
B and H
See also: Magnetization
Alternative names for B and H B name magnetic flux density magnetic induction magnetic field used by electrical engineers electrical engineers physicists
Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings. The high permeability of individual iron filings causes the magnetic field to be larger at the ends of the filings. This causes individual filings to attract each other, forming elongated clusters that trace out the appearance of lines. It would not be expected that these "lines" be precisely accurate field lines for this magnet; rather, the magnetization of the iron itself would be expected to alter the field somewhat. A magnetic field is a vector field which surrounds magnets and electric currents, and is detected by the force it exerts on moving electric charges and on magnetic materials. When placed in a magnetic field, magnetic dipoles tend to align their axes parallel to the magnetic field. Magnetic fields also have their own energy with an energy density proportional to the square of the field intensity. For the physics of magnetic materials, see magnetism and magnet, and more specifically ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism. For constant magnetic fields, such as are generated by magnetic materials and steady currents, see magnetostatics. A changing electric field results in a magnetic field, and a changing magnetic field also
H name magnetic field intensity magnetic field strength auxiliary magnetic field magnetizing field used by electrical engineers electrical engineers physicists physicists
The term magnetic field is used for two different vector fields, denoted B and H, although there are many alternative names for both (see sidebar). To avoid confusion, this article uses B-field and H-field for these fields, and uses magnetic field where either or both fields apply. The B-field can be defined in many equivalent ways based on the effects it has on its environment. For instance, a particle having an electric charge, q, and moving in a B-field with a velocity, v, experiences a force, F, called the Lorentz force (see below). In SI units, the Lorentz force equation is
where × is the vector cross product. The Bfield is measured in teslas in SI units and in gauss in cgs units.
This force is often described as ’like poles repel while opposites attract’. each pole sees a different field and consequently is subject to a different force. In a nonuniform magnetic field.From Wikipedia. Further. when
Torque on a magnet due to a Bfield
See also: Faraday’s law of induction A magnet placed in a magnetic field will feel a torque that will try to align the magnet with the magnetic field. It is used to determine the direction of a local magnetic field as well (see below). Permanent magnets are made of ferromagnetic materials such as iron and nickel that have been magnetized. The difference in the two forces moves the magnet in the direction of increasing magnetic field. For example. though. The ability of a nonuniform magnetic field to sort differently oriented dipoles is the basis of the Stern-Gerlach experiment.
The magnetic field and permanent magnets
Permanent magnets are objects that produce their own persistent magnetic fields. The more physically correct description of magnetism involves atomic sized loops of current distributed throughout the magnet. (There may also be a net torque. ferromagnetic materials and superconductors have a magnetization that is a multiple-valued function of B due to hysteresis. For instance. an external magnetic field exerts a force in the direction of the magnetic field for a north pole and in the opposite direction for the south pole. For many materials. The torque on a magnet due to an external magnetic field is easy to observe by placing two magnets near each other while allowing one to rotate. that also applies to magnetic fields that have no poles (such as that due to the current through a straight wire). The force on a magnet due to a non-uniform magnetic field can be determined by summing up all of the forces on the elementary magnets that make up the entire magnet.
Force on a magnet due to a nonuniform B
See also: Magnet#Two models for magnets: magnetic poles and atomic currents and Magnetic moment The most commonly experienced effect of the magnetic field is the force between two magnets. the free encyclopedia
Although views have shifted over the years. a small magnet placed inside of a larger magnet will feel a force in the opposite direction. A small magnet is mounted such that it is free to turn (in a given plane) and its north pole is
. See History of B and H below for further discussion. the idea of "poles" does not accurately reflect what happens inside a magnet (see ferromagnetism). A more general description. In free space. and no net magnetic force. there is no magnetization M so that H = B ⁄ μ0 (free space). Mathematically. there is no simple relationship between B and M. the force on a magnet having a magnetic moment m is: . B is now understood as being the fundamental quantity. while H is a derived field. For more details about magnets see magnetization below and the article ferromagnetism. The alignment of a magnet with the magnetic field of the Earth is how compasses work. In materials for which M is proportional to B the relationship between B and H can be cast into the simpler form: H = B ⁄ μ. no matter how strong the field is. In this model.) In contrast. each magnetic pole is a source of a magnetic field that is stronger near the pole.
(definition of H ) where M is the magnetization of the material and μ0 is the magnetic constant. where μ is a material dependent parameter called the permeability. a magnet in a uniform magnetic field experiences at most a torque. Like poles repel and opposite poles attract. which established the quantum mechanical nature of the magnetic dipoles associated with atoms and electrons. is that a magnet experiences a force. It is defined as a modification of B due to material media such that (in SI):
placed in a non-uniform external magnetic field. The Hfield is measured in amperes per meter (A/m) in SI units and in oersteds (Oe) in cgs units. All permanent magnets have both a north and a south pole. Unfortunately.
though. These field lines provide a simple way to depict or draw the magnetic field (or any other vector field). By flipping component electromagnet polarities in sequence. For example. measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field at a large number of locations. In a motor. lines or curves appear that follow along the direction of the local magnetic field. This magnet is subjected to a magnetic field from an array of electromagnets —called the stator. By definition. in which visible streaks of light line up with the local direction of Earth’s magnetic field (due to plasma particle dipole interactions). The magnetic torque also provides the driving torque for simple electric motors. A compass placed near the north pole of a magnet will point away from that pole—like poles repel. the magnetic field points towards a magnet’s south pole and away from its north pole. See Rotating magnetic fields below for an example using this effect with electromagnets. iron filings placed in a magnetic field will line up in such a way as to visually show the orientation of the magnetic field (see figure at top).
The direction of the magnetic field near the poles of a magnet is revealed by placing compasses nearby. A straight current-carrying wire. The magnetic field points away from a magnet near its north pole and towards a magnet near its south pole. The opposite occurs for a compass placed near a magnet’s south pole. Another place where magnetic fields are visually displayed is in the polar auroras. An electric motor changes electrical energy into mechanical energy (motion).  The magnetic field can be estimated at any point (whether on a field
. changing mechanical motion to electrical energy. First. As seen here. An alternative method of visualizing the magnetic field which greatly simplifies the diagram while containing the same information is to ’connect’ the arrows to form "magnetic field lines". Then mark each location with an arrow (called a vector) pointing in the direction of the local magnetic field with a length proportional to the strength of the magnetic field.
Visualizing the magnetic field
Mapping out the strength and direction of the magnetic field is simple in principle. The inverse process. The polarity of each individual electromagnet in the stator easily can be flipped by switching the direction of the current through its coils. for instance. Not all magnetic fields are describable in terms of poles. produces a magnetic field that points neither towards nor away from the wire.From Wikipedia. but encircles it instead. the direction of the local magnetic field is the direction that the north pole of a compass (or of any magnet) tends to point. the field of the stator continuously changes to place like poles next to the rotor. the free encyclopedia
the shaft. In these phenomena. subjecting the rotor to a torque that is transferred to
Various physical phenomena have the effect of displaying magnetic field lines. is accomplished by the inverse of the above mechanism in the electric generator. a magnet is fixed to a shaft free to rotate (forming a rotor). marked.
Despite these efforts. which is constant in time and in which charge is neither building up nor depleting at any point). One important property of the B-field that can be verified with field lines is that magnetic field lines always make complete loops.  If a magnetic field line enters a magnet somewhere it has to leave the magnet somewhere else.
Electrical currents (moving charges) as a source of magnetic field
All moving charges produce a magnetic field.) Since magnetic field lines always come in loops. is described by the Biot-Savart law.
The magnetic field and electrical currents
Currents of electrical charges both generate a magnetic field and feel a force due to magnetic B-fields. When dealing with magnetic fields in ferromagnetic substances like iron. that predict either the existence or the possibility of magnetic monopoles. (See Jefimenko’s equations. for example through a wire. the free encyclopedia
line or not) by looking at the direction and density of the field lines nearby. (See magnetic monopole below. as its name suggests. pushing on each other. These theories and others have inspired extensive efforts to search Current (I) through a wire produces a magnetic field (B) around the wire. Magnetic field lines neither start nor end (although they can extend to or from infinity). it is not allowed to have an end point. only one magnetic pole (either a north pole or a south pole). Field lines are also a good tool for visualizing magnetic forces. The field is oriented according to the right hand grip rule.From Wikipedia.  The magnetic field of a moving charge is very complicated but is well known. while ’like’ poles repel because the field lines between them don’t meet. To date no exception to this rule has been found. no magnetic monopole has been observed to date. The magnetic field of a current on the other hand is much easier to calculate. In other words. notably Grand Unified Theories and superstring theories. the magnetic forces can be understood by imagining that the field lines exert a tension. cutting a magnet in half will result in two separate magnets each with both a north and a south pole. For this reason as well. it would possess a "magnetic charge" analogous to electric charge. This is a
Magnetic field of a steady current
Magnetic monopole (hypothetical)
A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical particle (or class of particles) that has. Modern interest in this concept stems from particle theories.) It forms closed loops around a line that is pointing in the direction the charge is moving.
B-field lines always form closed loops
Field lines are a useful way to represent any vector field and often reveal sophisticated properties of fields quite simply. and in plasmas. but run parallel. and a pressure perpendicular to their length on neighboring field lines. Magnetic field leaves a magnet near its north pole and enters the magnet near its south pole but inside the magnet the magnetic field continues from the south pole back to the north. magnetic poles always come in N and S pairs. The ’unlike’ poles of magnets attract because they are linked by many field lines. The magnetic field generated by a steady current (a continual flow of charges. (like a rubber band) along their length.
This force is known as the Lorentz force.) The strength of the magnetic field decreases with distance from the wire. This can be used to create an important type of electrical motor. A finite length electromagnet will produce essentially the same magnetic field as a uniform permanent magnet of the same shape and size. that you can easily vary the strength (even creating a field in the opposite direction) simply by controlling the input current. An electromagnet has the advantage. A current carrying wire can be bent in a loop such that the field is concentrated (and in the same direction) inside of the loop. q is the electric charge of the particle (in coulombs) v is the instantaneous velocity of the particle (in meters per second) where F is the force (in newtons) B is the magnetic field (in teslas).
Charged particle drifts in a homogeneous magnetic field. grad H
Force due to a B-field on a moving charge
Force on a charged particle
A charged particle moving in a B-field will feel a sideways force that is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. An infinitely long solenoid will have a uniform magnetic field inside of the loops and no magnetic field outside. One can also imagine driving a bus along the current. F (e. it points down. (A) No disturbing force (B) With an electric field. though. The field will be weaker outside of the loop. One important use is to continually switch the polarity of a stationary electromagnet to force a rotating permanent magnet to continually rotate using the fact that opposite poles attract and like poles repel. gravity) (D) In an inhomogeneous magnetic field.From Wikipedia. To your right. E (C) With an independent force.
. one of the four Maxwell’s equations that describe electricity and magnetism. Stacking many such loops to form a solenoid (or long coil) can greatly increase the magnetic field in the center and decrease the magnetic field outside of the solenoid. The direction of the magnetic field of the loops is determined by the right hand grip rule. Lighting is caused by excitation of atoms of gas in a bulb. To your left. The magnetic field lines generated by a current carrying wire form concentric circles around the wire. Such devices are called electromagnets and are extremely important in generating strong and well controlled magnetic fields. and is given by Beam of electrons moving in a circle. the component of the velocity that is perpendicular to the magnetic field and the charge of the particle. the free encyclopedia
consequence of Ampere’s law. the magnetic field points up. (See figure to the right.g.
Electromagnetism: the relationship between magnetic and electric fields
The magnetic field due to a changing electric field
See also: Ampere’s Law and Maxwell’s equations A changing electric field generates a magnetic field proportional to the time rate of the change of the electric field. The inverse process also occurs: a magnet moving through a stationary coil will generate an electric field (and therefore tend to drive a current) in the coil.) Both these phenomena play a part in
. similar trick to the right hand rule is Fleming’s left hand rule. Because the magnetic force is always perpendicular to the motion. this is called cyclotron motion.) On the other hand.
Electric force due to a changing B-field
Above is a discussion of how a changing Efield can cause a B-field. the magnetic fields can do no work on an isolated charge. For that reason a magnetic field measurement (by itself) cannot distinguish whether there is a positive charge moving to the right or a negative charge moving to the left. however. The Lorentz force on a macroscopic current is often referred to as the Laplace force. (Both of these will produce the same current. a magnetic field combined with an electric field can distinguish between these. and partial derivatives indicate spatial location is fixed when the time derivative is taken. but in practice it is often easier to use an alternate equation . For that reason. Therefore the full Ampere’s Law is:
Direction of force
The right-hand rule: With the thumb of the right hand pointing in the direction of the conventional current or moving positive charge and the fingers pointing in the direction of the magnetic field the force on the current will be in a direction out of the palm. A current carrying wire will feel a sideways force in the presence of a magnetic field. even to the extent that a force applied in one direction can cause the particle to drift in a perpendicular direction. the free encyclopedia
The force is always perpendicular to both the velocity of the particle and the magnetic field that created it. such as light. charged particles move in a circle (or more generally.
Force on current-carrying wire
The force on a current carrying wire is similar to that of a moving charge as expected since a charge carrying wire is a collection of moving charges. change the particle’s direction. The direction of the force is reversed for a negative charge. (These two effects bootstrap together to form electromagnetic waves. See the figure on the right. Using the right hand and pointing the thumb in the direction of the moving positive charge or positive current and the fingers in the direction of the magnetic field the resulting force on the
where J is the current density. The force on a negative charged particle is in the opposite direction. The last term is Maxwell’s correction. The direction of force on a positive charge or a current is determined by the right-hand rule.) The magnetic force can do work to a magnetic dipole. or to a charged particle whose motion is constrained by other forces. This fact is known as Maxwell’s correction to Ampere’s Law. This equation is valid even when magnetic materials are involved. see Hall effect below. If both the speed and the charge are reversed then the direction of the force remains the same. An alternative. It can and does.
charge will point outwards from the palm. (See figure.From Wikipedia. Neither a stationary particle nor one moving in the direction of the magnetic field lines will experience a force. in a helix) around magnetic field lines.
this fact is described by the combination of the above Gauss’s law with the Ampère-Maxwell equation:
Mathematical properties of B
The magnitude of B is defined (in SI units) in terms of the voltage induced per unit area on a current carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field normal to the loop when the magnetic field is reduced to zero in a unit amount of time. These two properties.
where ∇ · represents the divergence operation. This equation is valid even in the presence of magnetic material. The first property is that a B-field line never starts nor ends at a point but instead forms a complete loop. but it is always within the loops of magnetic field they create. This is mathematically equivalent to saying that the divergence of B is zero. Important classes of magnetometers include using a rotating coil. Faraday’s law is commonly represented as:
is proportional to the torque on a dipole. (Such vector fields are called solenoidal vector fields. The appearance of the magnetic flux in this law is why engineers often refer to the B-field as the "magnetic flux density". the free encyclopedia
Faraday’s Law. a force tending to drive a current. make up Maxwell’s Equations. A limited form of Faraday’s law of induction that does not include motional electromotive force is the Maxwell-Faraday equation:
which is one of Maxwell’s equations. electrons spiraling around a field line will produce
. SQUID magnetometer. or a changing electric field. a magnet. The magnetic field vector is a pseudovector (also called an axial vector). Mathematically.
Measuring the B-field
Devices used to measure the local magnetic field are called magnetometers. (This is a technical statement about how the magnetic field behaves when you reflect the world in a mirror. The second mathematical property of the magnetic field is that it always loops around the source that creates it. This law includes both the case when the flux changes because of the magnetic field generated by a time varying E-field (socalled transformer EMF) and the case when the flux changes because of movement through a magnetic field (so-called motional EMF).) This property is called Gauss’ law for magnetism and is equivalent to the statement that there are no magnetic charges or magnetic monopoles:
where is the electromotive force (the voltage generated around a closed loop) and Φm is the magnetic flux (the product of the area times the magnetic field normal to that area). Certain calculations involving magnetic fields are easier when formulated in terms of flux density. Maxwell’s Equations together with the Lorentz force law form a complete description of classical electrodynamics including both electricity and magnetism.
As a vector field. the B-field has two important mathematical properties that relates this magnetic field to its sources. For instance. NMR magnetometer. and a fluxgate magnetometer. and torque is a well-known pseudovector. the magnitude of the field
where ∇ × represents the curl operation. More generally. for example. Hall effect magnetometers. along with the two corresponding properties of the electric field. which forms the basis of many electric generators and electrical motors.From Wikipedia. Mathematically. for example. in magnetic circuits. This source could be a current. The magnetic fields of distant astronomical objects can be determined by noting their effects on local charged particles. Faraday’s law states that any change in the magnetic field linking a circuit will generate an electromotive force or EMF. J = complete microscopic current density and E = electric field.) This fact is apparent from many of the definitions and properties of the field.
From Wikipedia. Magnetization is due to the accumulated effect of many tiny magnetic dipole moments that occur on the atomic level. Mathematically. The Hfield is defined as:
(definition of H in SI units)
. loops of superconducting material broken up by Josephson junctions can function as very sensitive magnetometers. D. when charges and currents are divided into "free" and "bound" categories. only the Eand B-fields occur. if the magnetic dipoles of the material becomes aligned a net magnetization and magnetic field is produced. with the H-field determined by the "free" current and time rate of change of D. Typically. Materials placed in a magnetic field can become magnetized. in which many superconductors can perfectly expel magnetic fields). In non-magnetized materials. On the other hand. See Myers. H is measured in amperes per meter (A/m) in SI and in oersteds (Oe) for cgs. An equivalent way to represent magnetization is to add all of the currents of the dipole moments that produce the magnetization. Most materials produce a magnetization in response to an applied B-field. the magnetic dipoles align randomly such that the net magnetic moment cancels producing no net magnetic field.
Hierarchy of types of magnetism.
When a current carrying conductor is placed in a transverse magnetic field the sideways Lorentz force on the charge carriers results in a charge separation in a direction perpendicular to both the current and the magnetic field. Thus. The magnetization field M represents how strongly a region is magnetized and is defined as the volume density of the net magnetic dipole moment in that region of material. In SI units. magnetization must begin and end near the poles.) Therefore. Unlike B. (There is no magnetization outside of the material. is proportional to the applied magnetic field. when the "free" and "bound" division of currents and charges is introduced. The resultant current is called bound current and is the source of the magnetic field due to the magnet. μ0 is a defined constant called the magnetic constant (μ0 = 4π × 10−7 Tm/A). Due to these properties. SQUID magnetometers are used in a Scanning SQUID microscope to create a 2D map of the magnetic field. the H-field appears and simplifies the equations for the magnetic field because microscopic details of the B. The resultant voltage. The Hall effect is often used to measure the magnitude of a magnetic field as well as to find the sign of the dominant charge carriers in semiconductors (negative electrons or positive holes).
See also: Magnetization
See also: superconductivity Superconductors are materials with both distinctive electric properties (perfect conductivity) and magnetic properties (such as the Meissner effect. But.
(definition of H in cgs units) where M is magnetization density of any magnetic material. the response is very weak and exists only when the magnetic field is applied. the curl of M equals the bound current. though. due to that charge separation. This is known as the Hall effect. called SQUIDs. Materials are
In the formulation of Maxwell’s equations at a microscopic level where all charges and currents are treated explicitly.and E-fields inside materials can be treated separately as problems of condensed-matter physics.and H-fields are used. the free encyclopedia
synchotron radiation which is detectable in radio waves. the divergence of M must be non-zero near the poles of a magnet.
Similarly. The magnetic dipole originating in an atom. a line integral of the H-field in a closed loop will yield the total free current in the loop (not including the bound current). a surface integral of H over any closed surface will pick out the ’magnetic charges’ within that closed surface. the free encyclopedia
divided into groups based upon their magnetic behavior: • Diamagnetic materials produce a magnetization that opposes the magnetic field. the magnetism is almost entirely spin magnetism. However. Superconductors often have a broad range of temperatures and magnetic fields (the so named mixed state) for which they exhibit a complex hysteretic dependence of M on B. These relations between B and H are examples of constitutive equations. electron. The magnetic field of permanent magnets and of all magnetic material originate at the atomic level. In the case of paramagnetism. due to the inherent connection between angular momentum and magnetism. In all cases the original definitions of H in terms of B and M still are valid. where μ is a material dependent parameter called the permeability (see constitutive equations). However. In some cases the permeability may be a second rank tensor so that H may not point in the same direction as B. in magnetic materials such as alloys of iron. The advantage of the H-field is that its bound sources are treated so differently that they can often be isolated from the free sources. not orbital magnetism. • Superconductors (and ferromagnetic superconductors) are materials that are characterized by perfect conductivity below a critical temperature and magnetic field. The connection between angular momentum and magnetism is the basis of the Einstein-de Haas effect "rotation by magnetization" and its inverse. Both the magnetic moment and the angular momentum increase with the rate of rotation
See also: Spin Micromagnetism magnetic moment and
.From Wikipedia. superconductors and ferromagnets have a more complex B to H relation. Orbiting electrons along with the nucleus form tiny magnets. as is an electric dipole. see hysteresis. The magnetic field of an ideal magnetic dipole is depicted on the right. Viewing a magnetic dipole as a rotating charged sphere brings out the close connection between magnetic moment and angular momentum. the Barnett effect or "magnetization by rotation". • Ferromagnetic materials and the closely related ferrimagnetic materials and antferromagnetic materials can have a magnetization independent of an applied B-field with a complex relationship between the two fields.
Magnetic field lines around a ”magnetostatic dipole” the magnetic dipole itself is in the center and is seen from the side. or nucleus is not a true dipole. For example. magnetic dipoles in actual materials are not ideal magnetic dipoles. As discussed below. The dipole moment of that dipole is defined as the current times the area of the loop and represents the strength of that magnet (magnetic dipole). and diamagnetism the B-field often is proportional to the H-field such that: . They also are highly magnetic and can be perfect diamagnets below a lower critical magnetic field. cobalt and nickel. however. The orbital component of these tiny magnets can be modeled as tiny loops of current with associated magnetic dipoles. • Paramagnetic materials produce a magnetization in the same direction as the applied magnetic field.
The ratio of the two is called the gyromagnetic ratio. λ = damping coefficient and Heff = effective magnetic field (the external field plus any self-field). Extending this analogy we derive the counterpart to the macroscopic Ohm’s law ( I = V ⁄ R ) as:
where γ =gyromagnetic ratio. m = magnetic moment. while the second is a damping term related to dissipation of energy caused by interaction with surroundings. torque is proportional to rate of change of angular momentum. These two then are added using angular momentum coupling to get a total angular momentum. is the magnetomotive force applied to the circuit. where J is the current density. individual electron spins are added to get a total spin and individual orbital angular momenta are added to get a total orbital angular momentum. The component of this magnetic moment along the direction of the magnetic field is then:
where m is called the magnetic quantum number or the equatorial quantum number. the free encyclopedia
of the sphere. The magnitude of the atomic dipole moment is then:
between free and bound currents.
Uses of the H-field
Energy stored in magnetic fields
In asking how much energy does it take to create a specific magnetic field using a particular current it is important to distinguish
is the magnetic flux
in the circuit.From Wikipedia. so precession occurs: the direction of spin changes.
A second use for H is in magnetic circuits where inside a linear material B = μ H. therefore.
where J is the total angular momentum quantum number. Here. The field does exert a torque on the magnetic dipole tending to align it with the field. (J−1). For an atom. … . The bound currents create a magnetic field that the free current has to work against without doing any of the work. It is not surprising. It is the free current that we directly ’push’ on to create the magnetic field. J. The negative sign occurs because electrons have negative charge. This behavior is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation:
For linear materials (such that B = μH ). The first term describes precession of the moment about the effective field. μ is the magnetic permeability of the material. which can take on any of 2J+1 values: -J. Because of the angular momentum. σ is the conductance and E is the electric field. and μB is the Bohr magneton. In particular. usually denoted by the symbol γ. In general the incremental amount of work per unit volume δW needed to cause a small change of magnetic field δB is: If there are no magnetic materials around then we can replace H with B ⁄ μ0. and ’×’ = vector cross product. the dynamics of a magnetic dipole in a magnetic field differs from that of an electric dipole in an electric field. the energy density can be expressed as:
(Valid only for linear materials) Nonlinear materials cannot use the above equation but must return to the first equation which is always valid. and Rm is the reluctance of the circuit. This result is similar in form to Ohm’s Law J = σ E. the energy density stored in the fields of hysteretic materials such as ferromagnets and superconductors will depend on how the magnetic field was created. that the Hfield is important in magnetic energy calculations since it treats the two sources differently. gJ is the Landé g-factor. Here the
. −(J-1). However.
In this model.From Wikipedia. unfortunately. the free encyclopedia
reluctance Rm is a quantity similar in nature to resistance for the flux. One example of its utility is the concept of magnetic circuits. The formation of the correct theory of magnetism begins with a series of revolutionary discoveries in 1820. William Gilbert’s great work De Magnete was published in 1600 A. B = μ0 (H + M ) is an effective magnetization which includes the H-field term to account for the energy of setting up the magnetic field in a vacuum.
History of B and H
The modern understanding that the B-field is the more fundamental field with the H-field being an auxiliary field was not easy to arrive at. assumed that magnetism was due to magnetic charges. Noting that the resulting field lines crossed at two points he named those points ’poles’ in analogy to Earth’s poles. was remarkably successful for being fundamentally wrong.D. in stretching and twisting the bonds between magnetic charge to increment the magnetization by μ0δM is W = H · μ0δM. Ampere extended this revolution by publishing his Ampere’s Law which provided a more mathematically subtle and correct description of the magnetic field generated by a current than the Biot-Savart Law. Magnetism is not due to magnetic charges. This is the correct result. It even predicts the correct energy stored in the magnetic fields. and in analogy to the physics of springs.D. for the magnetic field of a current carrying wire. Poisson’s model was. even though it wrongly places H as the fundamental field with B as the auxiliary field. but it is derived from an incorrect model. developed in 1824. largely because of mathematical similarities to the electric field. near the end of the sixteenth century. the H-field was developed first and was thought at first to be the more fundamental of the two. the BiotSavart Law. In analogy to electric charges. Petrus Peregrinus mapped out the magnetic field on the surface of a spherical magnet. Perhaps the earliest description of a magnetic field was performed by Petrus Peregrinus and published in his “Epistola Petri Peregrini de Maricourt ad Sygerum de Foucaucourt Militem de Magnete” and is dated 1269 A. Nor is magnetism created by the Hfield polarizing magnetic charge in a material. William Gilbert of Colchester replicated Petrus Peregrinus work and was the first to state explicitly that Earth itself was a magnet. In retrospect the success of this model is due largely to the remarkable coincidence that from the ’outside’ the field of an electric dipole has the exact same form as that of a magnetic dipole. The model. The modern distinction between the Band H. and by Jean-Baptiste Biot and Felix Savart developing the correct equation.fields does not become important until Siméon-Denis Poisson (1781–1840) developed one of the first mathematical theories of magnetism. In 1825. Almost three centuries later. Indeed. Poisson’s model was exactly analogous to electrostatics with the H-field replacing the electric field E-field and the B-field replacing the auxiliary Dfield. By the definition of magnetization. was that unlike electrical charges magnetic poles cannot be separated from each other or form magnetic currents. It is also important to note that this model is still useful in many situations dealing with magnetic material. however. and helped to establish the study of magnetism as a science. though. Poisson’s model. in this model. A brief history of this important transition in thought is instructional in giving insight into the nature of both H and B. In a quick succession that discovery was followed by Andre Marie Ampere showing that parallel wires having currents in the same direction attract. (The first clue that something was amiss. Using this analogy it is straight-forward to calculate the magnetic flux of complicated magnetic field geometries. these magnetic charges produce a H-field.) The revolution began when Hans Christian Oersted discovered that an electrical current generates a magnetic field that encircles the wire.
predicts the correct relationship between the H-field and the B-field. In modern notation. four years before Poisson’s model was developed. It
. Therefore the total energy density increment needed to increment the magnetic field is W = H · δB. the work done per unit volume. It is therefore only for the physics of magnetism ’inside’ of magnetic material where the simpler model of magnetic charges fails. by using all the available techniques of circuit theory. It predicts the correct forces between magnets. incorrect.
as seen by an observer on the magnet. Although the classical theory of electrodynamics was essentially complete with Maxwell’s equations. until the concept of magnetic charge was not needed.
Moving magnet and conductor problem
Imagine a moving conducting loop that is passing by a stationary magnet. an observer on the moving loop would see a changing magnetic field because the loop is not moving in this observer’s reference frame. The quantity v corresponds reasonably closely to the modern magnetic field vector H. James Clerk-Maxwell wrote a paper entitled ’On Physical Lines of Force’  in which he attempted to explain Faraday’s magnetic lines of force in terms of a sea of tiny molecular vortices. In 1861.
Special relativity and electromagnetism
Magnetic fields played an important role in helping to develop the theory of special relativity. and contrast this with an observer on the loop. according to special relativity. Magnetism became an electric phenomenon with even the magnetism of permanent magnets being due to small loops of current in their interior. the free encyclopedia
Subsequent development in the nineteenth century interlinked magnetic and electric phenomena even tighter. Which is true? Does the electric field exist or not? The answer. When two like magnetic poles repel each other.From Wikipedia. In more detail. Albert Einstein. in his great paper of 1905 that established relativity. whereas the customary view draws a sharp distinction between the two cases in which either the one or the other of these bodies is in motion: in the stationary magnet case. and the product μv corresponds very closely to the modern magnetic flux density B. Lorentz force. In the 1861 paper. was always multiplied by the term μ as a weighting for the cross sectional density of the lines of force. the magnetic intensity which we will denote as v. the magnetic lines of force spread outwards from each other in the space between the two poles. the twentieth century saw a number of improvements and extensions to the theory. Bringing these two descriptions together was one factor that led Albert Einstein to develop his theory of special relativity. Maxwell considered that magnetic repulsion was the consequence of a lateral pressure between adjacent lines of force. who sees a stationary loop near a moving magnet. The observer for whom the loop is stationary claims that there is both a magnetic and an electric field but all of the force is due to the electric field. Maxwell used a quantity which was closely related to the circumferential speed of the vortices. all of the charges that make up the loop also are moving. Contrariwise. This development was aided greatly by Michael Faraday. but the magnet is. showed that both the electric and magnetic fields were part of the same phenomena viewed from different reference frames. This changing magnetic field generates an electric field that generates the current. carriers moving in a magnetic field are subject to a magnetic force that gives rise to the current (the so-called motional electromotive force). This quantity was therefore a measure of the vorticity in the magnetic lines of force. When deriving the equation for magnetic force in part I of his 1861 paper. where μ is referred to as the magnetic permeability. and Maxwell referred to it as the intensity of the magnetic force. Because the loop is moving. an observer for whom the magnet is stationary would see an unchanging magnetic field and a moving conducting loop. Finally. while if the magnet is in motion and the conductor at rest. Each of these charges will have a sideways. is that both
. due to centrifugal force in the equatorial plane of the molecular vortices. and this force generates the current. These molecular vortices occupied all space and they were aligned in a solenoidal fashion such that their rotation axes traced out the magnetic lines of force. The observer for whom the magnet is stationary claims there is only a magnetic field that creates a magnetic force on a moving charge. The observable phenomenon here depends only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet. who in 1831 showed that a changing magnetic field generates an encircling electric field. the emergent field of quantum mechanics was merged with electrodynamics to form quantum electrodynamics or QED. a changing magnetic field induces an electric field that drives the current (the so-called transformer electromotive force). acting on it due to the B-field.
and is found. The field strength grows linearly with the radial distance from its longitudinal axis. This is analogous to the way that special relativity "mixes" space and time into spacetime. for example. A magnetic field is corkscrew-shaped. rather than treating the electric and magnetic fields as separate fields. the free encyclopedia
observers are right from their reference frame. There are four steel pole tips. but varies with the observational frame of reference. the electric current spiraling around the tube-like surface. a process called the omega-effect. momentum and energy into fourmomentum. In the solar dynamo model of the Sun.
Electric and magnetic fields different aspects of the same phenomenon
According to special relativity. for example. electric and magnetic forces are part of a single physical phenomenon. and mass. The reverse process is called the alphaeffect. A magnetic field occurs in a doughnutshaped coil. electromagnetism. and sometimes seen in space plasmas such as the Orion Molecular Cloud. magnet is replaced by a hollow electromagnetic coil magnet. similar to the spokes in a bicycle wheel. A pure magnetic field in one reference can be a mixture of magnetic and electric field in another reference frame. differential rotation of the solar plasma causes the meridional magnetic field to stretch into an azimuthal magnetic field.From Wikipedia. • A quadrupole magnetic field is one seen. in a tokamak. toward Earth’s north magnetic pole in northern Canada. A magnetic field is one in which the field lines are directed from the center outwards. two opposing magnetic north poles and two opposing magnetic south poles. an electric force perceived by one observer will be perceived by another observer in a different frame of reference as a mixture of electric and magnetic forces. A magnetic field is generated by a current flowing in a ring. An example can be found in a loudspeaker transducers (driver). • A magnetic field is one that runs northsouth.
Magnetic field shape descriptions
• An magnetic field is one that runs eastwest. although other equivalent
. More specifically. called the electromagnetic tensor. for example. in a tokamak. between the poles of four bar magnets. This is the traditional definition of the "north pole" of a magnet. and the partition of the electromagnetic force into separate electric and magnetic components is not fundamental. • A magnetic field is similar to a dipole magnetic field. a compass placed anywhere on Earth will turn so that the "north pole" of the magnet inside the compass points roughly north. Magnetic and electric forces are facets of the underlying electromagnetic force.
Schematic quadrupole magnet ("four-pole") magnetic field. except that a solid bar
Important uses and examples of magnetic field
Earth’s magnetic field
See also: North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole Because of Earth’s magnetic field. special relativity shows that they naturally mix together into a rank-2 tensor. • A dipole magnetic field is one seen around a bar magnet or around a charged elementary particle with nonzero spin. and is found.
Because magnets degrade with time. Also in 1888. the south pole of that magnet would be the one nearer the north magnetic pole. However. The poles even
General • Electric field — field produced by electric charges and changing magnetic fields that affects charged particles. In 1885. One confusion that arises from this definition is that if Earth itself is considered as a magnet.From Wikipedia. Earth’s magnetic field is not constant: Its strength and the location of its poles vary.) The magnetic field is as if there were a magnet deep in Earth’s interior. three-phase systems are used where the three currents are equal in magnitude and have 120 degrees phase difference. and vice-versa. A permanent magnet in such a field will rotate so as to maintain its alignment with the external field. Tesla gained U. Patent 381. and others’. The magnetic field at any given point does not point straight toward (or away) from the poles and has a significant up/down component for most locations. This effect was conceptualized by Nikola Tesla.S. Nikola Tesla identified the concept of the rotating magnetic field. The north pole of earth is near the top of the diagram. and later utilized in his. Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept. Three similar coils having mutual geometrical angles of 120 degrees will create the rotating magnetic field in this case. A rotating magnetic field can be constructed using two orthogonal coils with 90 degrees phase difference in their AC currents. The short-circuited turns of the rotor develop eddy currents in the rotating field of the stator.
A sketch of Earth’s magnetic field representing the source of Earth’s magnetic field as a magnet. The figure to the right is a sketch of Earth’s magnetic field represented by field lines. definitions are also possible. the south pole near the bottom. Earth’s magnetic field is probably due to a dynamo that produces electric currents in the outer liquid part of its core. In 1888. The ability of the three-phase system to create a rotating field. in order to overcome it. and these currents in turn move the rotor by the Lorentz force. (In addition. Notice that the south pole of that magnet is deep in Earth’s interior below Earth’s North Magnetic Pole. In 1882. Earth’s magnetic field is produced in the outer liquid part of its core due to a dynamo that produce electrical currents there. This inequality would cause serious problems in standardization of the conductor size and so. utilized in electric motors.
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periodically reverse direction.) The north magnetic pole is so named not because of the polarity of the field there but because of its geographical location. synchronous motors and induction motors use short-circuited rotors (instead of a magnet) following the rotating magnetic field of a multicoiled stator. (Opposite poles attract and the north pole of the compass magnet is attracted to the north magnetic pole.
Rotating magnetic fields
The rotating magnetic field is a key principle in the operation of alternating-current motors. there is an East/West component as Earth’s magnetic poles do not coincide exactly with Earth’s geological pole. • Electromagnetic field — a field composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. early AC (alternating-current) electric motors.968 for his work. is one of the main reasons why three-phase systems dominate the world’s electrical power supply systems. Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin. in practice such a system would be supplied through a three-wire arrangement with unequal currents. in a process called geomagnetic reversal.
Edward P. • Orders of magnitude (magnetic field) — list of magnetic field sources and measurement devices from smallest magnetic fields to largest detected.). • SI electromagnetism units — common units used in electromagnetism. • Jackson. Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity.org/ unit_converter/magnetic-fieldstrength. (1969). Curtis C. Arnulf (2006-11-02). Academic Press Series in Electromagnetism. Mathematics • Ampère’s law — law describing how currents act as circulation sources for magnetic fields. "Magnetic Field Strength H".). • Biot-Savart law — the magnetic field set up by a steadily flowing line current.00.html. W. "magnetic field strength". OCLC 40251748. (1999). David J. Introduction to modern electromagnetics. Prentice Hall.
• Maxwell coil — a device for producing a large volume of almost constant magnetic field. ISBN 0-7167-0810-8.html. OCLC 221993786. Nannapaneni N. H. OCLC 224523909. Elements of engineering electromagnetics (4th ed. (1994). • Magnetic monopole — hypothetical particle which causes nonzero divergence of magnetic field. ISBN 0-07-018388-0. • Teltron Tube — device used to display an electron beam and demonstrates effect of electric and magnetic fields on moving charges.290660.sid44_gci763586. Permanent Magnet and Electromechanical Devices: Materials. • Magnetic nanoparticles — extremely small magnetic particles that are tens of atoms wide • Magnetic reconnection — an effect which causes solar flares and auroras. • Tipler.). and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.unitconversion. (1999). • Magnetic potential — the vector and scalar potential representation of magnetism. Books • Durney. • Faraday’s law of induction — the connection between electric and magnetic fields as found in motors and generators • Lorentz force — the connection between fields and forces • Magnetism — phenomenon by which materials exert a magnetic force on other materials. ISBN 0-13-948746-8. D.gsu. • Magnetic helicity — extent to which a magnetic field "wraps around itself".
Notes and references
 The standard graduate textbook by J. ISBN 0-12-269951-3. • Magnetohydrodynamics — the study of the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. http://hyperphysics. and Johnson. the free encyclopedia
• Electromagnetism — the physics of the electromagnetic field.phy-astr.edu/ hbase/magnetic/magfield. Applications • Dynamo theory — a proposed mechanism for the creation of the Earth’s magnetic field. • Oppelt. R. McGraw-Hill. • Maxwell’s equations — four equations describing the behavior of electric and magnetic fields and their interaction with matter. OCLC 162129430. • "magnetic field strength converter". • Helmholtz coil — a device for producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field.com/ sDefinition/ 0. OCLC 51095685. • Electric motor — AC motors used magnetic fields. Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.. Analysis and Applications. Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed. http://www. John D. • Rao.html. • Stellar magnetic field — a discussion of the magnetic field of stars. Light. Wiley. • Furlani. • Magnetic flux — amount of ’magnetic field’ through a given loop.). • Magnetic field viewing film — Film used to view the magnetic field of an area. • Earth’s magnetic field — a discussion of the magnetic field of the Earth. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. ISBN 0-13-805326-X.techtarget. Paul (2004). http://searchsmb. (2001). Prentice Hall. Freeman.
Web • Nave. Jackson "Classical Electrodynamics"
. Carl H. • Griffiths.From Wikipedia. Magnetism.
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specifically follows the historical tradition. Taylor & Francis.com/ books?id=JStYf6WlXpgC&pg=PA381. but drop the word ’magnetic’ from H so as to maintain the distinction … As Purcell points out. though. More importantly it is not always possible to move into a coordinate system in which all of the charges are stationary. 366. The use of iron filings to display a field presents something of an exception to this picture: the magnetic field is in fact much larger along the "lines" of iron. http://books.com/ books?id=QhqyWH7DDQ0C&pg=PA366. says: “So we may think of both B and H as magnetic fields." In a similar vein. (One could just as easily say that the magnetic field caused an electric field).). Similarly. 11. to say that the electric field causes the magnetic field when relativity is accounted for. The Particle Hunters (2 ed. p. but these are now regarded to be inconclusive. Yet. http://books.com/ books?id=3_7uriPX028C&pg=PA3. Hence. H is referred to as the magnetic field. it is not meant to imply that the field is only nonzero along the drawn-in field lines." You will seldom hear a geophysicist refer to the Earth’s magnetic induction. 110. That direction is by definition the direction of the magnetic flux density. we shall call it "the field H" or even "the magnetic field H. George L.  John S Townsend (2000). ISBN 0521476860. see magnetic monopole. University Science Books. since relativity favors no particular reference frame. Trigg (2003). See Eq.). We propose to keep on calling B the magnetic field. P. Myers (1997). 1963. due to the large permeability of iron relative to air. Even some modern writers who treat B as the primary field feel obliged to call it the magnetic induction because the name magnetic field was historically preempted by H. Y.google. A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics (2 ed. Birkhäuser. or an astrophysicist talk about the magnetic induction of the galaxy. As for H. http://books. Edward Purcell. p. Cambridge University Press. ’it is only the names that give trouble.  Note that when a magnetic field is depicted with field lines.com/ books?id=Ovo8AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA110. not the symbols’. p. Richard Cohen. denoted by B.From Wikipedia. specifically. For details and references. M Gerloch (1983). p. Cambridge University Press. McGraw-Hill. See classical electromagnetism and special relativity for more information. It is probably a mistake. in Section 5 of Jackson. 381. The north pole of the compass will point toward the north pole of the magnet since magnets stacked on each other point in the same direction.google. David R.). writes. Kirsh (1996). pp.  In special relativity this means that the electrical field and the magnetic field must be two parts of the same phenomenon. ISBN 0521249392. Introductory solid state physics (2 ed. the physics has to be the same in all reference systems.42 in E.  Two experiments produced candidate events that were initially interpreted as monopoles. he’ll probably answer "magnetic field". provided the dipole is sufficiently small and weak that it does not perturb the existing field". "Stern-Gerlach experiments". For a moving single charge or charges moving together we can always shift to a reference system in which they are not moving.google. "In the presence of magnetic materials the dipole tends to align itself in a certain direction. This seems clumsy and pedantic.com/ books?id=K4jcfCguj8YC&pg=PA56.google. 56. ISBN 0387989730.  To see that this must be true imagine placing a compass inside of the magnet. ISBN 1891389130. Lide. in Electricity and Magnetism. In that reference system there is no magnetic field. ISBN 074840659X. If you go into the laboratory and ask a physicist what causes the pion trajectories in his bubble chamber to curve. http://books. Magnetism and Ligandfield Analysis. not "magnetic induction. http://books. although other names have been invented for it. AIP physics desk reference (3 ed. It turns out the electric field changes as well which produces the same force in the original reference frame.
  
. 1–23.).” Magnetic Field Strength H Magnetic Field Strength Converter H.
 Yuval Ne ̕eman.google.
1215–1216. http://books. p. Wiley-IEEE.google. CRC Press. Lasers.  A complete expression for Faraday’s law of induction in terms of the electric E and magnetic fields can be written as:
 M Brian Maple et al.com/ books?id=SPrAMy8glocC&pg=PA187. 640. http://books. p. ISBN 1590338618.google.com/  Richard B. (The true nature of the can be used to show this equation is internal magnetic field of the electrons equivalent to the Maxwell-Faraday and of the nucleons that make up the equation. Chad D. 103.com/ books?id=1BZVwUZLTkAC&pg=PA1234#PPA1215.com/ books?id=xZ_QelBmkxYC&pg=PA151. D. 151–152. 322. Springer.  ^ Uwe Krey & Anthony Owen (2007). "Itinerant ferromagnetism and superconductivity". atoms and quanta (6 ed.  Amikam Aharoni (2000). the Kelvin-Stokes theorem and the nucleus.). ISBN Figure 11. 0198508085. 368. Introduction to When these tiny atomic magnetic dipoles the theory of ferromagnetism (2 ed. and books?id=ixAe4qIGEmwC&pg=PA103. Springer.) Uwe  John Clarke Slater. books?id=xZ_QelBmkxYC&pg=PA151.google. books?id=Uc1pCo5TrYUC&pg=PA322.com/ books?id=3AFo_yxBkD0C&pg=PA169. ISBN 0486622630. Nova Publishers. http://books. Di (CON) Castro. (1997). Introduction books?id=9RvNuIDh0qMC&pg=PA27. Electromagnetism (first Theoretical Physics. (2008).com/ http://books.  B. http://books. ISBN 3540732527. ISBN 3540368043. Basic Frank (1969). Graham (2008). Springer.M books?id=ZVgOLCXNoMoC&pg=PA368. In the magnetic material plus a spin component case where the bounding surface is of the magnetic moment of the electrons stationary. 0935702113. Buxton (2002).  Naoum Karchev (2003). http://books.  The total magnetic moment of an atom is The first integral calculates the work due to a combination of ’currents’ of done moving a charge a distance dℓ electrons ’orbiting’ the nuclei of the based upon the Lorentz force law. ISBN where ∂Σ(t) is the moving closed path 0471477419. The physics of state physics (2 ed. p. 69. nucleus is relativistic in nature. http://books. Understanding Science Books. http://books.). D. p. H. D. p. Superconductivity. C.google. Nathaniel Herman Krey.). in K. and H.  Sōshin Chikazumi. Bennemann. Physics of ferromagnetism (2 pp.google. p.google. books?id=GYsphnFwUuUC&pg=PA69. are aligned in the same direction. This situation is known as being quasistatic.). http://books. ISBN Solids. 169. Haken. in Paul S. Cullity.). pp. the free encyclopedia
 In practice the Biot-Savart law and other laws of magnetostatics can often be used even when the charge is changing in time as long as it is not changing too quickly.1. Courier Dover ISBN 3540368043. 3540672745. E. "Unconventional superconductivity in novel materials". 118. Ketterson. 151.com/ http://books. University  ^ RJD Tilley (2004).google.google. John B. Siegman (1986).com/ http://books. they Oxford University Press.com/ books?id=PguAgEQTiQwC&pg=PA640. Hans Christoph Wolf. published in 1947 ed. to functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anthony Owen (2007).From Wikipedia. Graham Basic Theoretical Physics. p.  HP Meyers (1997).
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