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AASHTOLRFD DESIGN EXAMPLE
HORIZONTALLY CURVED STEEL BOX GIRDER BRIDGE
FINAL REPORT
Prepared for
National Cooperative Highway Research Program
Transportation Research Board
National Research Council
John M. Kulicki
Wagdy G. Wassef
Christopher Smith
Kevin Johns
Modjeski and Masters, Inc.
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
October 2005
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF SPONSORSHIP
This work was sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, and was
conducted in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program which is administered by the
Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council.
DISCLAIMER
This is an uncorrected draft as submitted by the research agency. The opinions and
conclusions expressed or implied in the report are those of the research agency. They are not
necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the
Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials, or of the individual states participating in the National Cooperative
Highway Research Program.
Project No. NCHRP 1252
AASHTOLRFD DESIGN EXAMPLE
HORIZONTALLY CURVED STEEL BOX GIRDER BRIDGE
FINAL REPORT
Prepared for
National Cooperative Highway Research Program
Transportation Research Board
National Research Council
John M. Kulicki
Wagdy G. Wassef
Christopher Smith
Kevin Johns
Modjeski and Masters, Inc.
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
October 2005
(This page is intentionally left blank.)
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ iii
LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................................................... vi
LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................................... vii
PREFACE..................................................................................................................................... ix
OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................1
DESIGN PARAMETERS .............................................................................................................2
STEEL FRAMING........................................................................................................................3
Girder Depth ......................................................................................................................3
Internal and External Bracing..........................................................................................3
Bracing of Tub Flanges .....................................................................................................4
Longitudinal Flange Stiffener...........................................................................................5
Field Section .......................................................................................................................5
ANALYSES ....................................................................................................................................6
Loading Combinations ......................................................................................................6
ThreeDimensional Finite Element Analyses ..................................................................7
LOADS............................................................................................................................................8
Dead Load...........................................................................................................................8
Live Load............................................................................................................................8
LIMIT STATES.............................................................................................................................9
Strength...............................................................................................................................9
Constructibility ..................................................................................................................9
Fatigue.................................................................................................................................9
Live Load Deflection........................................................................................................10
DESIGN........................................................................................................................................11
Section Properties ............................................................................................................11
Shear Connectors.............................................................................................................11
Flanges ..............................................................................................................................11
Webs ................................................................................................................................12
Diaphragms ......................................................................................................................12
Sample Calculations ........................................................................................................12
iv
APPENDIX A Girder Field Sections .................................................................................. A1
APPENDIX B Girder Moments, Shears, and Torques at TenthPoints..........................B1
APPENDIX C Selected Design Forces and Girder 2 Section Properties .........................C1
APPENDIX D Sample Calculations ................................................................................... D1
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Girder Section Proportioning.............................................................................. D3
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Web ........................................................................................ D4
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression ................................................... D6
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Strength  Ductility Requirement...................................................................... D13
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G1 Node 36
Constructibility  Top Flange in Tension.......................................................... D15
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression ................................................. D16
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9
Constructibility  Top Flange in Tension.......................................................... D18
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Fatigue  Bottom Flange ................................................................................... D19
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Fatigue  Shear Connectors............................................................................... D20
Girder Stress Check Section 88 G2 Node 48
Shear Connectors  Maximum Transverse Spacing.......................................... D23
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange.................................................................................. D25
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Longitudinal Flange Stiffener ........................................................................... D33
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Design of Internal Diaphragm.......................................................................... D34
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Design of Bearing Stiffener .............................................................................. D37
Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1
Top Flange Bracing Member Design  Constructibility................................... D40
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Transverse Bending Stress................................................................................ D44
Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Stresses............................................................................................................. D49
Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Bottom Flange.................................................................................. D51
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
v
Design Action Summary and Section Information........................................... D54
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Top Flange............................................................................ D57
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Bottom Flange ...................................................................... D59
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Top and Bottom Flange ................................................................... D61
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Web ...................................................................................... D67
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Web.................................................................................................. D70
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Splice Plates...................................................................................................... D74
APPENDIX E Tabulation of Various Stress Checks .........................................................E1
vi
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Box Girder Bridge Cross Section...................................................................................13
Figure 2. Node Numbers................................................................................................................14
Figure 3. DoubleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due
to Deck Weight with Overhang Brackets, Inclined Webs ..............................................15
Figure 4. SingleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due
to Entire Deck Weight with Overhang Brackets, Inclined Webs ...................................16
Figure 5. SingleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due
to Cast #1 with Overhang Brackets, Inclined Webs .......................................................17
Figure D1. Overhang Bracket Loading ................................................................................... D81
Figure D2. Diaphragm and Bearing Stiffener at Pier of Girder 2, Looking Upstation ........... D81
Figure D3. Composite Box Cross Section, Girder 2 ............................................................... D82
Figure D4. Effective Width of Web Plate, d
o
, with Transverse Stiffener ............................... D82
Figure D5. Bolt Patterns for Top and Bottom Flange ............................................................. D83
Figure D6. Bolt Pattern for Web ............................................................................................. D84
vii
LIST OF TABLES
Table C1. Selected Unfactored Moments (kft) and Web Fatigue Shears (kips), Girder 2 ......C3
Table C2. Shear (kips), Girder 2 Span 1 at TenthPoints...........................................................C4
Table C3. Selected Unfactored Torque (kft), Girder 2 .............................................................C5
Table C4. Top Flange Bracing Forces (kips), Girder 2 Span 1..................................................C6
Table C5. Selected Section Properties for Girder 2 ...................................................................C7
Table D1. Strength Limit State at 100 feet from Left Abutment ............................................ D85
Table D2. Constructibility Limit State at 100 feet from Left Abutment................................. D85
Table D3. Unfactored Actions................................................................................................. D86
Table D4. Tub Cross Section................................................................................................... D86
Table E1. Constructibility – Top Flange ....................................................................................E4
Table E2. Constructibility – Web, Box Girder 2........................................................................E4
Table E3. Strength – Bottom Flange, Box Girder 2...................................................................E5
Table E4. Maximum Pricipal Stresses – Bottom Flange, Box Girder 2.....................................E5
viii
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ix
PREFACE
AASHTO first published Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges in
1980. These Guide Specifications included Allowable Stress Design (ASD) provisions developed
by the Consortium of University Research Teams (CURT) and approved by ballot of the AASHTO
Highway Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures in November 1976. CURT consisted of
CarnegieMellon University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Rhode Island and
Syracuse University. The 1980 Guide Specifications also included Load Factor Design (LFD)
provisions developed in American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Project 190 and approved by ballot
of the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures (HSCOBS) in October 1979.
The Guide Specifications covered both I and box girders.
Changes to the 1980 Guide Specifications were included in the AASHTO Interim
Specifications  Bridges for the years 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986, and 1990. A new version of the
Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges was published in 1993. It included
these interim changes, and additional changes, but did not reflect the extensive research on curved
girder bridges that has been conducted since 1980 or many important changes in related provisions
of the straightgirder specifications.
As a result of the research work on curved bridges conducted by the FHWA and several
research institutes, design provisions for both straight and curved bridges were developed. As part
of the NCHRP 1252 project, these design provisions were incorporated into the AASHTOLRFD
Bridge Design Specifications in two stages. The design provisions for straight bridges were
approved by ballot of the HSCOBS in 2003 and were incorporated into the third edition of the
AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications, published in 2004. The design provisions for
curved bridges were approved by ballot of the HSCOBS in 2004 and are to be published as part of
the 2005 Interim Specifications to the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications.
This Horizontally Curved Steel Box Girder Bridge Design Example was originally developed
in the NCHRP 1238 project using the 1993 AASHTO Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved
Steel Girder Bridges. It was updated to illustrate the applicability of the revisions to the AASHTO
LRFD Bridge Design Specifications included in the 2005 Interim Specifications which were meant
to incorporate curved bridges. As in the NCHRP 1238 example, a composite bottom flange option
is provided for the bottom flange in the negative moment regions. This Design Example was
compiled as a part of the deliverables in National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project
1252.
The following terms are used to identify particular specifications:
• ANSI/AASHTO/AWS refers to the 2002 edition of D1.5:2002 Bridge Welding Code,
American Welding Society and 2003 Interim Specifications,
• LFD/ASD refers to the current year AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges,
x
17th edition and Interim Specifications and
• LRFD refers to the 2003 AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Third Edition, with
the 2005 Interims. Article and equation numbers in this example refer to those of the
AASHTOLRFD Specifications.
1
OBJECTIVES
Using the 2004 AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications with the 2005 Interim
Specifications (hereafter referred to as the LRFD Specifications), design a threespan horizontally
curved steel box girder bridge with two tub girders in the cross section.
2
DESIGN PARAMETERS
The bridge has spans of 160210160 feet measured along the centerline of the bridge. Span
lengths are arranged to give relatively equal positive dead load moments in the end and center spans.
The radius of the bridge is 700 feet at the center of the roadway.
Outtoout deck width is 40.5 feet. There are three 12foot traffic lanes. Supports are radial
with respect to the roadway. There are two tub girders in the cross section.
Structural steel having a specified minimum yield stress of 50 ksi is used throughout. The
deck is conventional castinplace concrete with a specified minimum 28day compressive strength
of 4,000 psi. The structural deck thickness is 9.5 inches (no integral wearing surface is assumed).
The deck haunch is 4.0 inches deep measured from the top of the web to the bottom of the deck.
The width of the haunch is assumed to be 20.0 inches. A future wearing surface of 30 psf is
specified. Parapets are each assumed to weigh 495 plf.
The roadway is superelevated 5 percent.
Live load used is the HL93. Live load for fatigue is taken as defined in Article 3.6.1.4 of the
LRFD Specifications. The bridge is designed for a 75year fatigue life. The bridge site is assumed
to be located in earthquake Zone A so earthquake loading need not be considered.
Sequential placement of the concrete deck is considered. Permanent steel deck forms are
assumed to be used between the two girders and between the flanges of the individual tubs; the
forms are assumed to weigh 15 psf.
3
STEEL FRAMING
The steel framing consists of two trapezoidal tub girders with the tops of the webs in each tub
spaced 10 feet apart at the top of the tub and with a clear deck span of 12.5 feet between the top of
the interior webs of the two tubs. The cross section is shown in Figure 1. Two bearings set one foot
inside of each web are used under each box at each support, as permitted in Article 6.11.1.2.4.
Girder Depth
For Ibeams Article 2.5.2.6.3 provides for a preferred minimum depth limit of 0.04 of the
span of the girder, L, for simple spans and 0.032L for continuous spans. There is no explicit limit
given for steel box beams. The longest effective span length (either end or interior span) controls.
The length of the center span of the outside girder, G2, is 213.38 feet (measured along the
longitudinal centerline of the box), which is the girder with the longest effective span in this
example. Therefore, the recommended girder depth is computed as 0.032(213.38)(12) = 81.9 in.
The actual vertical web depth is 78 inches, which is slightly less than the preferred minimum depth.
However, box girders are generally stiffer than Igirders because an individual box nearly acts as
two Igirders for vertical bending. For torsion, an individual box girder is significantly stiffer than
two Igirders.
The slope of the webs is oneonfour, which is the limit given in Article 6.11.2.1.1. As a
result, the width of the bottom flange of each tub is 81 inches between webs. The actual box flange
width is 83 inches to provide a 1inch lip outside of each web, which is needed for welding of the
webs to the bottom flange.
Internal and External Bracing
The boxes are braced internally at intermediate locations with Kframes. The internal K
frames are spaced longitudinally at approximately 16 feet (measured along the centerline of the
bridge). At locations where a longitudinal flange stiffener is not used, the transverse bracing
members are attached to the bottom flange. At these locations, the bottom strut of the Kframe is
assumed in this example to be welded to the bottom flange and bolted to the connection plates on the
webs. At locations where a longitudinal flange stiffener is used, the bottom strut is assumed to be
bolted to the top of the longitudinal stiffener and to the connection plates on the webs. The cross
frames are assumed to be singleangle members bolted to connection plates. The working points are
assumed to be located as close to the flangeweb intersections as practical, except where the
longitudinal flange stiffening causes the bracing to be offset from the flange.
Design of the internal cross bracing members is not shown in this example. It was
determined from the analysis that the largest factored load in any of the internal cross frame
members on the bridge is 80 kips in the diagonal members located at Nodes 11 and 12 in Span 1.
Cross frame members were modeled as truss members in the analysis, with a crosssectional area of
5.0 square inches. Article 6.7.4.3 specifies that the crosssectional area and stiffness of the top and
bottom transverse bracing members not be smaller than the area and stiffness of the diagonal
members. In addition, at locations where a longitudinal flange stiffener is present, the moment of
inertia of the transverse bracing member should equal or exceed the moment of inertia of the
4
longitudinal stiffener taken about the base of the stiffener.
The largest range of stress due to fatigue loading in the internal cross frames was found to be
approximately 15 ksi. This maximum stress range was determined by passing the factored fatigue
truck defined in Article 3.6.1.4 over the left and right web of a tub, resulting in a reversal of stress in
each member. The fatigue stress range, i.e. sum of the absolute values of the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses, was approximately 15 ksi. According to Table 3.4.11, only 75 percent of the
stress range so determined is used to check fatigue for transverse members. Thus, the design fatigue
stress range is approximately 11 ksi. The fatigue category of these member end connections is
Category E. The design stress range exceeds the nominal fatigue resistance of 2.25 ksi specified for
a Category E detail according to Article 6.6.1.2. The value of 2.25 ksi is equal to onehalf of the
constantamplitude fatigue threshold of 4.5 ksi specified for a Category E detail in Table 6.6.1.2.53
of AASHTOLRFD. This value is used whenever the fatigue strength is governed by the constant
amplitude fatigue threshold, which is assumed to be the case in this example. Since the design
fatigue stress range exceeds the nominal fatigue resistance for a fatigue Category E detail, fillet
welds cannot be used for these member connections in this particular case.
As required in Article 6.7.4.3, there are fulldepth internal and external diaphragms provided
at support lines, but there are no other external braces provided between the boxes in this example.
For the analysis, the diaphragm plates for both the internal and external diaphragms were assumed to
be 0.5 inches thick. The external diaphragms were assumed to have top and bottom flanges with an
area of 8.0 square inches for each flange.
Bracing of Tub Flanges
The top flanges of the individual tubs are braced with single members placed diagonally
between the tub flanges. Figure 2 shows the arrangement of the top diagonal bracing in each girder.
Figure 2 also gives the node numbers for part of Span 1 so that the locations can be related to
subsequent sample design calculations given in Appendix D. The bracing is assumed to be directly
connected to the flanges at each internal cross frame, i.e. in the plane of the flange, as required in
Article 6.7.5.1. These top flange bracing members provide torsional continuity to the box before the
deck cures, and therefore, must have adequate resistance to resist the torsional shear flow in the non
composite section at the constructibility limit state. One end of each internal cross frame does not
have lateral bracing attached. The tub flanges tend to develop larger lateral flange bending stresses
at the points where the lateral bracing is not connected because the top flange must provide the
majority of the torsional resistance. Top flange bracing should be continuous along the length of the
girder to ensure that the top flanges are not required to resist the entire torsion at any one location.
There are several causes of the lateral moments in the top flanges including curvature,
inclination of the webs and overhang bracket loads. The effect of curvature can be conservatively
estimated using Equation C4.6.1.2.4b1. The inclination of the webs causes a radial force, which
must be resisted by the flanges. On the exterior of the bridge, a portion of the deck weight is applied
to overhang brackets, which results in a radial tensile force on the outside top flanges and an
opposite force on the bottom flange.
The single top flange lateral bracing members used in the design example cause the lateral
flange moments to vary depending on whether or not the brace is connected to an interior or exterior
5
flange. To illustrate, both singlediagonal and doublediagonal (or X) topflange bracing
arrangements were analyzed using a 3D finiteelement model assuming inclined webs. The lateral
flange moments in the two top flanges, and in some cases, the forces in the top flange bracing
members in part of Span 1 due to the entire deck weight and Cast #1 (with the effect of the overhang
brackets considered in each case) are reported in Figures 3 through 5. Half of the overhang weight
was assumed to be applied to the brackets in the analysis, as shown in Figure D1 (Appendix D). In
Figures 3 through 5, the lateral flange moments are shown above and below the top flanges of each
girder, whereas the axial forces in the top chord of the internal Kbraces and in the top lateral
bracing are shown near the appropriate members. Note that the inverted Kbracing inside the boxes
results in two top chord members across the tub in the finiteelement model. Figure 3 shows the
results for the case of the entire deck weight applied to the boxes and overhang brackets assuming
double top flange lateral bracing and inclined webs. Figure 4 shows similar results for the case
assumed in the design example (singlediagonal top flange lateral bracing and inclined webs) under
the loading due to the entire deck weight. Finally, Figure 5 shows the results due to Cast #1 for the
singlediagonal bracing case with inclined webs (again the case assumed in the design example).
This loading case causes larger girder moments and bracing forces in Span 1 than does the entire
deck load because the load in Span 2 tends to counter the load in Span 1.
From examination of the results shown in Figures 3 through 5, the singlediagonal bracing
pattern chosen for the design example results in the largest lateral flange bending moments and
bracing member forces. While these effects are reduced somewhat when doublediagonal bracing is
utilized, additional bracing members and connections are required. A suggested solution is to utilize
parallel singlediagonal bracing members in each bay, which would result in lower lateral flange
bending moments in combination with fewer members and connections.
Longitudinal Flange Stiffener
A single longitudinal flange stiffener is used on the box flanges over the negative moment
sections. The longitudinal stiffener is terminated at the bolted field splices in Spans 1, 2 and 3. By
terminating the longitudinal flange stiffener at the bolted splices, there is no need to consider fatigue
at the terminus of the stiffener. The bottom flange splice plates inside the box must be split to
permit the stiffener to extend to the free edge of the flange where the longitudinal stress is zero, as
shown in Figure D6 (Appendix D). The weight and stiffness of the longitudinal flange stiffeners is
considered in the analysis.
Field Sections
Final girder field sections for each girder are given in Appendix A. The longest field section,
the center field section in Girder 2, is approximately 122 feet in length.
6
ANALYSES
Loading Combinations
Article 3.4 is used to determine load combinations for strength. Strength I loading is used for
design of most members for the strength limit state. For temperature and wind loadings in
combination with vertical loading, Strength III and V and Service I and II from Table 3.4.11 must
also be checked. These load groups are defined as follows:
Strength I η x [1.25(DC) + 1.5(DW) + 1.75((LL + IM) + CE + BR) + 0.5(TU)]
Strength III η x [1.25(DC) + 1.5(DW) + 1.4(WS) + 0.5(TU)]
Strength V η x [1.25(DC) + 1.5(DW) + 1.35((LL+IM)+CE+BR) + 0.4(WS)+WL+0.5(TU)]
Service I η x [DC + DW + (LL+IM) + CE +0.3(WS) + WL + 1.0(TU)]
Service II η x [DC + DW + 1.3((LL + IM) + CE) + 1.0(TU)]
where:
η = Load modifier specified in Article 1.3.2
DC = Dead load: components and attachments
DW = Dead load: wearing surface and utilities
LL = Vehicular live load
IM = Vehicular dynamic load allowance
CE = Vehicular centrifugal force
WS = Wind load on structure
WL = Wind on live load
TU = Uniform temperature
BR = Vehicular braking force
In addition to the above load combinations, the AASHTOLRFD Specifications include a
load combination for the constructibility limit state defined in Article 3.4.2 as follows:
Construction: η x [1.25(D) + 1.5(C) + 1.25(W
c
)]
where:
D = Dead load
C = Construction loads
W
c
= Wind load for construction conditions from an assumed critical direction.
Magnitude of wind may be less than that used for final bridge design.
It has been assumed that there is no equipment on the bridge during construction and the
wind load on the girders is negligible.
7
In this example, only the Strength I and Construction load combinations are checked. Other
load cases may be critical, but for simplicity, these other load cases are not considered in this
example. Selected analysis results for these two load combinations are given in Tables C2 and C4,
Appendix C. Table C2 gives the Strength I shears for Girder 2 at the tenth points of Span 1. Table
C4 gives the Strength I and Construction top flange bracing forces in Span 1 of Girder 2.
ThreeDimensional Finite Element Analyses
Article 4.4 requires that the analysis be performed using a rational method that accounts for
the interaction of the entire superstructure. Smalldeflection elastic theory is acceptable.
Analyses for this example are performed using a threedimensional finite element program.
The section depth is recognized. Girder webs and bottom flanges are modeled using plate elements.
Top flanges are modeled with beam elements. Curvature is represented by straight elements with
small kinks at node points rather than by curved elements.
The composite deck is modeled using a series of eightnode solid elements attached to the
girders with beam elements, which represent the shear studs.
Bearings are represented by dimensionless elements called "foundation elements", which
attach from a lower girder node to the "earth".
Cross frames are modeled as individual truss elements connected to the nodes at the top and
bottom of the girders. Internal solidplate diaphragms at supports are modeled with a single plate
element and external solidplate diaphragms at supports are modeled utilizing three full depth plate
elements along the length for the web and three beam elements placed at the top and bottom of the
web representing the top and bottom flanges of the diaphragm. Since the plate and beam elements
are isoparametric, three elements are used to model the web and flanges of the external diaphragm to
allow for the possibility of reverse curvature.
8
LOADS
Dead Load
The self weight of the steel girders and attachments, e.g. crossframes and bracing, is applied
to the erected steel structure. Steel weight is introduced into the 3D model by the use of body forces
in the 3D finite elements. This analysis assumption requires that the steel be fit and erected in the
noload condition. The steel may be fit up by the fabricator prior to shipping. Erection without
introduction of significant gravity induced stresses until the erection is completed is the
responsibility of the steel erector. Falsework or multiple cranes may be required to support the
girders until all the bolted connections are tightened.
The deck weight is also assumed to be placed at one time on the noncomposite steel
structure for the strength limit state checks. Deck weight includes the deck, concrete haunches and
an assumed weight of 15 pounds per square foot for the permanent deck forms inside the boxes and
between the boxes.
The superimposed dead load includes the parapets and an assumed future wearing surface of
30 pounds per square foot of roadway. The total superimposed dead load is assumed to be applied to
the composite structure. The parapet weight is applied as line loads along the edges of the deck in
the 3D analysis. Creep of the concrete deck is accounted for by using a modular ratio of "3n" in
computing the transformed composite section properties, which produces larger stresses in the steel.
The use of composite section properties computed using a modular ratio of "n" results in larger
stresses in the concrete deck.
Dead load moments, shears and torques from the 3D analysis are given in Appendix B.
Future wearing surface moments, shears and torques were calculated separately.
Live Load
Analysis for live load is accomplished by first applying a series of unit vertical loads, one at
a time, to the deck surface in the 3D model. Numerous responses are determined for each unit load,
including girder moments, shears, torques, deflections, reactions, cross frame forces, etc. The
magnitude of the response for a particular unit load is the magnitude of the ordinate of the influence
surface for that response at the point on the deck where that unit load is applied. Curve fitting is
used to determine responses between points on the influence surfaces. The specified live loads are
applied mathematically to each influence surface and a search is then made to determine the
maximum and minimum value of each response for each live load position. The dynamic load
allowance is applied according to Article 3.6.2. The multiple presence factors are considered. The
effects of the centrifugal forces are not considered in this example. For additional information on
the centrifugal force calculations, refer to Appendix D of the Horizontally Curved Steel IGirder
Design Example.
Unfactored live load plus the dynamic load allowance moments, shears and torques in each
girder for LRFD HL93 loading from the 3D analysis are also given in Appendix B.
9
LIMIT STATES
Strength
For the strength limit state, each component of the boxes is designed to ensure the
component has adequate strength to resist the actions due to the factored loads. In reality, stresses or
forces in the elements are factored so that the loads can be applied to the model or to the influence
surfaces without factors in the analysis.
Constructibility
For the constructibility limit state, a check is made only with regard to placement of the
concrete in this example. For this check, the deck is assumed to be placed in four separate casts. All
casts are assumed to be made across the entire deck width. The first cast is in Span 1 from the
beginning of the span through member 13 in Girder 1 (refer to Appendix A and Figure 2 for the
location of the indicated members). The second cast is in Span 2 starting over member 23 through
member 38. The third cast is in Span 3 starting over member 48 to the end of the bridge. The fourth
cast is for the remaining sections over the piers. This sequence assures that uplift does not occur at
any time and that the girder stresses and deflections are within the prescribed limits in Article
6.10.3.2. Shorter casts over the piers would have led to uplift and larger moments in Span 1. Larger
top flange plates and perhaps a thicker web may have been required, as well as counter weights over
some supports, to prevent uplift.
The unfactored moments from the deck staging analysis are presented in Table C1,
Appendix C. "Steel" identifies moments due to the steel weight based on the assumption that it was
placed at one time; "Deck" identifies moments due to the deck weight assumed to be placed on the
bridge at one time; "Cast" identifies the moments due to a particular deck cast; "SupImp" identifies
the moments due to the superimposed dead load placed on the fully composite bridge; and AFWS@
identifies the moments due to the future wearing surface placed on the fully composite bridge.
Included in the "Deck" and "Cast" moments are the moments due to the deck haunch and the stayin
place forms.
Reactions are accumulated sequentially in the staging analysis to check for uplift at each
stage. Accumulated deflections by stage are also computed. In each analysis of the deck placement,
prior casts are assumed to be composite. The modular ratio for the deck is assumed to be “3n” to
account for creep. A somewhat smaller modular ratio may be desirable for the staging analysis since
full creep usually takes approximately three years to occur. A modular ratio of “n” should be used to
check deck stresses since a smaller modular ratio results in higher stresses in the deck. Moments
and other actions determined from the deckstaging analysis are not considered for the strength limit
state checks.
Fatigue
The fatigue limit state is checked by using the stress ranges due to the passage of one fatigue
vehicle, defined in Article 3.6.1.4, traversing the length of the bridge in the critical transverse
position on the deck for each response. The load factor is 0.75 for the fatigue truck, as specified in
10
Table 3.4.11. The dynamic load allowance is 15 percent for the fatigue truck (Table 3.6.2.11).
Centrifugal force effects are included in this example. The transverse position of the truck may be
different for each response and for positive and negative values of the same response. The fatigue
truck is assumed to travel in either direction, or in opposite directions, to produce the maximum
stress range. Marked traffic lanes are not considered. This assumption provides larger fatigue
stresses than would be obtained if the fatigue truck were held to marked traffic lanes. The fatigue
truck is permitted to travel within two feet of the curb line. As specified in Article 6.6.1.2.1, stress
ranges are computed using the shortterm composite section for both positive and negative bending
given that the deck slab longitudinal reinforcement specified in 6.10.1.7 are satisfied.
For points where the dead load produces compressive stress, Article 6.6.1.2.1 specifies that
twice the factored fatigue live load defined in Article 3.6.1.4, and factored according to the fatigue
load combination of Table 3.4.11, is to be used to determine if a net tensile stress is produced at the
point under consideration. The fatigue live load is placed in a single lane. If the dead load produces
tensile stress or, where dead load produces compressive stress, a net tensile stress occurs under dead
load combined with twice the factored fatigue load at a point, fatigue must be checked at that point
using the stress range produced by the single factored fatigue truck, whether or not the factored
fatigue truck by itself produces a net tensile stress.
Article 6.11.5 requires that longitudinal stress ranges due to warping and due to transverse
moments be considered when determining the sum of the stress ranges used in fatigue analysis. In
addition, the throughthickness bending stress range due to crosssectional distortion at flangeto
web fillet welds and at the termination of fillet welds connecting transverse elements must be
checked for fatigue. Computation of these throughthickness bending stresses is illustrated in the
Sample Calculations given in Appendix D.
Live Load Deflection
Article 2.5.2.6.2 provides optional deflection criteria that may be checked if required by the
bridge owner. Live load deflection is to be checked using the live load portion of Load Combination
Service I (Table 3.4.11) including the dynamic load allowance. The limiting live load deflection is
specified as the fraction of the span defined in Article 2.5.2.6.2. Different live load positions must
be examined for each girder and span since the deflections of curved girders usually differ
significantly at any one cross section. The uncracked composite section along the entire length of
the bridge should be used in computing the deflections. Centrifugal force effects are to be
considered. The multiple presence factors specified in Article 3.6.1.1.2 should be applied.
If a sidewalk were present, vehicular traffic would be constrained from a portion of the deck
(unless vehicles were permitted to mount the sidewalk), which would cause the computed live load
deflections to be reduced depending on which side of the bridge the sidewalk was placed. Sidewalk
load is discussed further in Article 3.6.1.6.
11
DESIGN
Section Properties
Table C5, Appendix C, gives selected section properties for Girder 2. Locations from the
neutral axis to the top (T) and bottom (B) extreme fiber of the steel section are given. The section
properties include the longitudinal component of the topflange bracing area. Longitudinal flange
stiffeners and the 1inch bottom flange lips are also included in the section properties.
When the section is composite, the entire overhang, the concrete between the tub webs, and
half of the concrete between girders is considered effective, as specified in Article 4.5.2.2. The
haunch depth is considered in computing the section properties, but the area of the haunch is not
included. Since the actual depth of the haunch may vary from its theoretical value to account for
construction tolerances, many designers ignore the thickness of the haunch in all calculations. The
longitudinal reinforcing steel area equal to 20.0 square inches per box is assumed placed at the
neutral axis of the of the effective structural deck area. Considering that Article 6.10.1.7 requires
that two thirds of the deck longitudinal steel be placed in the top layer and that the deck top concrete
cover is thicker than the deck bottom concrete cover, the centroid of the deck reinforcement is
usually close to the assumed location. The longitudinal reinforcing steel within the effective portion
of the concrete deck is considered effective when the section is subjected to negative bending at the
strength limit state. The deck area is divided by “3n” and the reinforcing steel area is divided by 3
(for positive and negative bending, respectively) for computing the transformed section properties to
account for creep in the concrete for calculations involving the superimposed dead load. The
reinforcing steel area is adjusted since the concrete is assumed to transfer the force from the deck
steel to the rest of the cross section. This reduction in steel area is not applied by all designers and
may be ignored if it is not consistent with the practices of the owner agency.
Table D1 in the Sample Calculations (Appendix D) also gives section properties for Girder
2 for the case where the bottom flange is composed of composite steel and concrete, as an alternative
to a conventional longitudinally stiffened bottom flange. The Sample Calculations in Appendix D
discuss the computation of the section properties given in Table D1 in more detail.
Shear Connectors
Shear connectors are 7/8inch diameter by 6 inches long.
The sum of the torsional and vertical bending shears is used with half of the girder to design
the shear connectors.
Flanges
The top flanges of the tubs must meet the criteria of Article 6.11.3.2 at the constructibility
limit state.
Two types of bottom (box) flanges are used in this example. In positive moment regions, the
12
bottom flange is an unstiffened plate. In the negative moment regions, a single longitudinal stiffener
is used to increase the compressive strength of the bottom flange. The critical stress for box flanges
is determined at the constructibility limit state.
Webs
In this example, transversely stiffened webs are used throughout. Transverse stiffener
designs are not shown, but are similar to the designs illustrated in the companion example of the I
girder curved bridge. Transverse stiffeners are required throughout most of the girder length. The
spacing of the transverse stiffeners near the interior supports is 62 inches.
Diaphragms
Interior diaphragms at supports are solid plates with pairs of bearing stiffeners welded on
each side of an access hole. External diaphragms at supports are also solid plates.
Sample Calculations
Sample calculations at selected critical locations of Girder 2 are presented in Appendix D.
The calculations are intended to illustrate the application of some of the more significant provisions
of the Specifications. As such, complete calculations are not shown at all sections for each design.
The sample calculations illustrate calculations to be made at the Strength, Fatigue, Constructibility
and Serviceability limit states. The calculations also include longitudinal flange stiffener and
bearing stiffener designs, a top flange bracing member design, a diaphragm design, transverse
bending stress computations and a bolted field splice design. The calculations make use of the
moments, shears, torques, and top flange bracing forces contained in Tables C1 through C4 of
Appendix C and the section properties contained in Table C5.
13
Deck concrete – f’
c
= 4,000 psi E = 3.6x10
6
psi
Haunch – 20 in. wide, 4 in. deep measured from top of web
Permanent deck forms are present
Total deck thickness = 9.5 in.
Figure 1. Box Girder Bridge Cross Section
14
23
24
20
19
16
15
12
11
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
10
14
18
22
21
17
13
9
R = 700 feet
Girder G2
Girder G1
2
11
2
*
*
*
*
1
49
50
46
45
44
43
40
39
36
35
32
31
28
27
24
42
48
47
41
R = 700 feet
Girder G2
Girder G1
Bearing Locations
*
*
*
*
*
Note: Sections 11, 22, etc. refer to the design
sections in Appendix C tables.
Section 99 is at the midspan of Span 2.
26
30
34
6
6
38
3
3
4
4
5
5
7
7
8
8
25
29
33 37
Figure 2. Node Numbers
15
0
0
0
0
6
1 3 3
4 3
5
0 0 1
1 0
2
8
9
3
5
6
0
0
3
2
6
8 21
16
19
14
16
12 11
15 15
11
13
9
12
8
9
9
9
57 43 36
44
11 4
53
29 51 49
15
28
2
12
48 41 32
39
8
2
43
29 44 45
14
23
5
44
53
53
44
27
42
50 50
42
26
42
51 51
42
25
50
60 60
50
31
Figure 3. Case of DoubleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces
(kips) Due to Entire Deck Weight with Overhang Brackets, Inclined Webs
16
Figure 4. Case of SingleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces
(kips) Due to Entire Deck Weight with Overhang Brackets, Inclined Webs
17
0
5
11
2
5
12
15
14 3 15
15 2
0
12 16 8
20 6
4
0
10
12
4
12
2
5
12
20
23 28
22
9
4
23
18 29
34 20
15
8
4
24
18
20
47
55
21
100
60
90
0
37
25
14
47 2
47
21
76 33
17
11
81
5
37
3
37
4
27
20
34
20
29
31
24
39
24
33
1
38
1
38
1
0
5
14
Figure 5. Case of SingleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces
(kips) Due to Cast #1 with Overhang Brackets, Inclined Webs
18
(This page is intentionally left blank.)
A1
APPENDIX A
Girder Field Sections
A2
(This page is intentionally left blank.)
A3
June 21, 1997 9:25 AM
Bridge Type > Box Girder Date Created > 07/29/94
Project > Sample Box Design Initials > DHH
Project ID > BOX1SAMPLE
Description > 160210160 spans 2boxes
Number of girders > 2
Number of spans > 3
Project units > English
BRIDGESYSTEMsm 3D Version > 2.1
Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990
Bridge Software Development International, Ltd.
Box girder cross section
center line of box 
to the top of the web  width of
left side right side bottom flng
In In. In.
Girder 1 > 60.00 60.00 81.00
Girder 2 > 60.00 60.00 81.00
A4
Girder > 1 Field Section > 1
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
1 3 15.74 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
2 5 15.74 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
3 7 15.74 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
4 9 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
5 11 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
6 13 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
7 15 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
8 17 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
9 19 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 10285. 16673. 29072. 56031. Ft.> 94.46
Girder > 1 Field Section > 2
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
10 21 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
11 23 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
12 25 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
13 27 7.87 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
14 29 7.87 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
15 31 7.87 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
16 33 7.87 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
17 35 7.87 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Sup > 157.43
18 37 7.38 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
19 39 7.38 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
20 41 7.38 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
21 43 7.38 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
22 45 14.76 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 23544. 32096. 33009. 88649. Ft.> 107.25
A5
Girder > 1 Field Section > 3
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
23 47 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
24 49 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
25 51 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
26 53 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
27 55 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
28 57 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
29 59 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
30 61 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
31 63 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
32 65 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
33 67 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
34 69 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
35 71 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
36 73 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
37 75 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
38 77 7.38 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 12857. 25010. 36340. 74207. Ft.> 118.07
Girder > 1 Field Section > 4
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
39 79 14.76 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
40 81 7.38 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
41 83 7.38 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
42 85 7.38 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
43 87 7.38 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Sup > 206.63
44 89 7.87 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
45 91 7.87 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
46 93 7.87 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
47 95 7.87 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
48 97 7.87 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
49 99 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
50 101 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
51 103 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 23544. 32097. 33009. 88650. Ft.> 107.25
A6
Girder > 1 Field Section > 5
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
52 105 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
53 107 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
54 109 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
55 111 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
56 113 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
57 115 7.87 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
58 117 15.74 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
59 119 15.74 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
60 121 15.74 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Sup > 157.43
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 10285. 16674. 29072. 56031. Ft.> 94.46
Girder
Weight > 80515. 122550. 160504. 363569. Ft.> 521.48
Girder > 2 Field Section > 1
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
61 4 16.26 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
62 6 16.26 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
63 8 16.26 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
64 10 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
65 12 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
66 14 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
67 16 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
68 18 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
69 20 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 10621. 17218. 30022. 57862. Ft.> 97.54
A7
Girder > 2 Field Section > 2
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
70 22 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
71 24 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
72 26 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
73 28 8.13 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
74 30 8.13 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
75 32 8.13 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
76 34 8.13 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
77 36 8.13 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Sup > 162.57
78 38 7.62 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
79 40 7.62 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
80 42 7.62 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
81 44 7.62 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
82 46 15.24 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 24313. 33145. 34088. 91545. Ft.> 110.75
Girder > 2 Field Section > 3
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
83 48 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
84 50 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
85 52 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
86 54 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
87 56 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
88 58 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
89 60 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
90 62 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
91 64 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
92 66 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
93 68 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
94 70 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
95 72 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
96 74 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
97 76 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
98 78 7.62 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .7500 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 13277. 25827. 37528. 76632. Ft.> 121.93
A8
Girder > 2 Field Section > 4
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
99 80 15.24 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
100 82 7.62 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
101 84 7.62 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
102 86 7.62 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
103 88 7.62 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Sup > 213.38
104 90 8.13 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
105 92 8.13 18.00 3.0000 50. 81.00 1.5000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
106 94 8.13 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
107 96 8.13 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
108 98 8.13 18.00 1.5000 50. 81.00 1.0000 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
109 100 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
110 102 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
111 104 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 24313. 33145. 34088. 91546. Ft.> 110.75
Girder > 2 Field Section > 5
Rght Top Flange Bottom Flange  Web 
Mem. Node Length Width Thick. Fy Width Thick. Fy Depth Thick. Fy
Lip> 1.00
112 106 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
113 108 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
114 110 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
115 112 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
116 114 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
117 116 8.13 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
118 118 16.26 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
119 120 16.26 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
120 122 16.26 16.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 .6250 50. 78.00 .5625 50.
Sup > 162.57
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL Length
Section
Weight > 10621. 17218. 30022. 57862. Ft.> 97.54
Girder
Weight > 83145. 126554. 165747. 375446. Ft.> 538.52
 S T R U C T U R E 
Top Flange Bot Flange Web TOTAL
Weight > 163660. 249104. 326251. 739015.
B1
APPENDIX B
Girder Moments, Shears, and Torques at TenthPoints
B2
(This page is intentionally left blank.)
B3
STRENGTH  HL93 Plus Dynamic Load Allow., Multiple Presence, and Centrifugal Forces
April 5, 1997 10:51 AM
Revised November 16, 2001
Bridge Type > Box Girder Date Created > 07/29/94
Project > Sample Box Design Initials > DHH
Project ID > BOX1SAMPLE
Description > 160210160 spans 2boxes
Number of girders > 2
Number of spans > 3
Project units > English
BRIDGESYSTEMsm 3D Version > 2.1
Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990
Bridge Software Development International, Ltd.
Stage Definition
Stg1 = Load due to weight of structural steel including girders and internal cross
bracing and top flange diagonal bracing
Stg6 = Load due to weight of concrete deck placed at one time
Stg7 = Load due to weight of parapets and wearing surface placed on composite
bridge
Special = LRFD HL93 live load vehicle responses including the dynamic load
allowance
B4
Girder > 1 Span > 1 Length > 157.43
D E A D L O A D S
 MOMENTS   SHEARS   TORQUES 
Length Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7
.00 0 0 0 27 114 58 42 286 145
15.74 521 2191 790 19 80 27 82 398 125
31.49 882 3666 1377 10 45 18 34 189 93
47.23 1049 4321 1684 5 23 11 30 153 92
62.97 1047 4320 1706 6 25 7 1 9 54
78.71 851 3503 1441 11 44 13 29 125 30
94.46 493 2043 901 16 69 19 33 158 0
110.20 75 315 83 23 98 30 54 262 49
125.94 837 3461 1010 28 116 41 25 165 108
141.69 1781 7206 2357 34 137 56 10 135 193
157.43 2969 11629 4097 44 171 94 22 231 294
L I V E L O A D S
 Moments 
 Lane   Truck   Special 1Lane Truck
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15.74 0 0 505 66 2472 469 505 66
31.49 0 0 845 132 4330 938 845 132
47.23 0 0 997 198 5412 1408 997 198
62.97 0 0 1043 260 5863 1878 1043 260
78.71 0 0 1014 318 5777 2338 1014 318
94.46 0 0 923 373 5189 2795 923 373
110.20 0 0 748 450 4109 3915 748 450
125.94 0 0 482 549 2602 4547 482 549
141.69 0 0 182 669 1252 5559 182 669
157.43 0 0 156 843 1061 7784 156 843
 Shears  Torque 
 Lane   Truck   Special Maximums
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 35 3 139 24 660 398
15.74 0 0 28 4 115 29 775 448
31.49 0 0 23 6 94 35 756 482
47.23 0 0 19 8 78 41 597 389
62.97 0 0 15 11 53 52 389 307
78.71 0 0 11 15 40 63 309 354
94.46 0 0 9 18 31 83 360 479
110.20 0 0 7 23 25 101 462 636
125.94 0 0 5 27 21 116 569 766
141.69 0 0 5 29 19 127 668 866
157.43 0 0 3 36 14 163 1049 922
B5
Girder > 1 Span > 2 Length > 206.63
D E A D L O A D S
 MOMENTS   SHEARS   TORQUES 
Length Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7
.00 2969 11629 4097 45 175 96 36 294 335
20.66 1422 5845 1864 31 128 54 4 105 206
41.33 326 1516 220 25 110 37 60 309 120
61.99 493 1881 988 17 72 23 39 205 52
82.65 977 3900 1705 11 47 11 61 261 20
103.31 1118 4442 1944 0 0 0 0 0 0
123.98 976 3900 1705 11 47 11 64 261 20
144.64 492 1880 986 17 72 24 39 205 51
165.30 327 1519 222 25 110 37 60 309 120
185.96 1422 5848 1867 31 127 54 4 105 206
206.63 2969 11633 4098 45 175 96 36 294 334
L I V E L O A D S
 Moments 
 Lane   Truck   Special 1Lane Truck
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 156 843 1061 7784 156 843
20.66 0 0 245 547 1310 4411 245 547
41.33 0 0 624 417 2993 3033 624 417
61.99 0 0 894 317 4784 2275 894 317
82.65 0 0 1050 248 5926 2008 1050 248
103.31 0 0 1091 188 6304 1749 1091 188
123.98 0 0 1050 249 5928 2013 1050 249
144.64 0 0 895 318 4775 2279 895 318
165.30 0 0 623 416 3000 3021 623 416
185.96 0 0 257 547 1315 4421 257 547
206.63 0 0 157 830 1062 7788 157 830
 Shears  Torque 
 Lane   Truck   Special Maximums
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 39 3 171 15 1049 922
20.66 0 0 30 4 140 23 995 702
41.33 0 0 26 5 124 26 919 598
61.99 0 0 21 8 101 37 716 464
82.65 0 0 18 10 78 45 555 383
103.31 0 0 15 15 58 57 446 430
123.98 0 0 10 18 43 78 413 540
144.64 0 0 8 21 36 101 500 724
165.30 0 0 4 26 26 124 625 906
185.96 0 0 4 31 23 140 713 991
206.63 0 0 3 37 14 166 928 1046
B6
Girder > 1 Span > 3 Length > 157.43
D E A D L O A D S
 MOMENTS   SHEARS   TORQUES 
Length Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7
.00 2969 11633 4098 44 171 94 22 231 296
15.74 1780 7203 2359 34 137 56 10 134 194
31.49 837 3459 1013 28 116 41 25 166 109
47.23 74 312 80 23 98 30 54 262 50
62.97 493 2044 897 16 69 19 33 158 1
78.71 851 3504 1437 11 44 13 30 125 29
94.46 1047 4320 1703 6 25 7 1 10 53
110.20 1048 4321 1681 5 23 11 30 153 90
125.94 882 3666 1375 10 45 18 34 190 91
141.69 521 2189 788 19 80 28 82 398 132
157.43 0 0 0 27 114 59 42 285 174
L I V E L O A D S
 Moments 
 Lane   Truck   Special 1Lane Truck
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 157 830 1062 7788 157 830
15.74 0 0 182 673 1248 5556 182 673
31.49 0 0 482 547 2591 4532 482 547
47.23 0 0 747 449 4099 3900 747 449
62.97 0 0 923 372 5181 2783 923 372
78.71 0 0 1014 312 5769 2328 1014 312
94.46 0 0 1042 255 5855 1868 1042 255
110.20 0 0 997 193 5405 1402 997 193
125.94 0 0 845 129 4326 993 845 129
141.69 0 0 505 65 2470 466 505 65
157.43 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Shears  Torque 
 Lane   Truck   Special Maximums
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 38 3 167 15 928 1046
15.74 0 0 29 5 128 19 874 657
31.49 0 0 27 5 116 21 770 549
47.23 0 0 23 7 101 25 640 434
62.97 0 0 18 9 83 31 482 319
78.71 0 0 15 11 64 38 375 281
94.46 0 0 11 15 51 52 346 378
110.20 0 0 8 19 41 77 434 591
125.94 0 0 6 23 32 92 512 751
141.69 0 0 4 28 27 113 503 772
157.43 0 0 3 35 24 139 399 662
B7
Girder > 2 Span > 1 Length > 162.57
D E A D L O A D S
 MOMENTS   SHEARS   TORQUES 
Length Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7
.00 0 0 0 31 110 91 43 98 418
16.26 555 2268 816 19 74 39 87 276 323
32.51 938 3868 1418 11 44 26 35 92 241
48.77 1116 4632 1726 5 21 14 32 88 148
65.03 1115 4633 1733 7 26 8 2 22 49
81.29 905 3780 1446 11 45 14 32 129 45
97.54 525 2207 867 17 69 28 36 125 134
113.80 79 256 2 24 97 40 59 203 201
130.06 892 3579 1166 29 117 51 28 53 247
146.31 1896 7599 2610 35 137 62 10 63 273
162.57 3154 12272 4473 46 185 96 22 48 346
L I V E L O A D S
 Moments 
 Lane   Truck   Special 1Lane Truck
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16.26 0 0 537 64 2606 484 537 64
32.51 0 0 898 129 4559 967 898 129
48.77 0 0 1056 195 5687 1446 1056 195
65.03 0 0 1100 263 6152 1931 1100 263
81.29 0 0 1066 336 6059 2416 1066 336
97.54 0 0 963 416 5434 2907 963 416
113.80 0 0 775 511 4308 4097 775 511
130.06 0 0 506 619 2751 4768 506 619
146.31 0 0 194 749 1305 5836 194 749
162.57 0 0 173 934 1114 8127 173 934
 Shears  Torque 
 Lane   Truck   Special Maximums
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 41 8 128 26 621 533
16.26 0 0 35 8 110 29 774 503
32.51 0 0 30 8 93 35 785 469
48.77 0 0 24 8 75 44 638 427
65.03 0 0 17 12 54 52 412 391
81.29 0 0 12 18 40 67 348 439
97.54 0 0 9 23 36 85 333 535
113.80 0 0 8 29 33 102 433 676
130.06 0 0 5 33 26 114 552 793
146.31 0 0 3 36 16 127 687 848
162.57 0 0 3 41 13 155 980 863
B8
Girder > 2 Span > 2 Length > 213.38
D E A D L O A D S
 MOMENTS   SHEARS   TORQUES 
Length Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7
.00 3154 12272 4473 47 185 102 36 33 447
21.34 1513 6169 2107 32 130 65 3 101 372
42.68 348 1473 371 26 105 50 64 183 333
64.01 525 2077 893 17 69 35 40 118 243
85.35 1040 4196 1638 12 46 17 68 237 126
106.69 1190 4826 1890 0 0 0 0 0 0
128.03 1039 4195 1638 12 46 17 68 237 127
149.36 525 2075 893 17 69 35 40 118 243
170.70 348 1476 370 26 105 50 64 183 335
192.04 1514 6173 2106 32 130 65 3 102 373
213.38 3155 12275 4469 47 185 102 36 33 448
L I V E L O A D S
 Moments 
 Lane   Truck   Special 1Lane Truck
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 173 934 1114 8127 173 934
21.34 0 0 262 609 1401 4629 262 609
42.68 0 0 630 467 3176 3197 630 467
64.01 0 0 908 356 5018 2366 908 356
85.35 0 0 1071 265 6205 2070 1071 265
106.69 0 0 1117 187 6598 1786 1117 187
128.03 0 0 1070 264 6204 2065 1070 264
149.36 0 0 907 354 5001 2355 907 354
170.70 0 0 629 466 3166 3165 629 466
192.04 0 0 269 608 1393 4627 269 608
213.38 0 0 172 930 1114 8128 172 930
 Shears  Torque 
 Lane   Truck   Special Maximums
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 44 3 160 14 980 863
21.34 0 0 37 3 135 22 978 709
42.68 0 0 33 6 120 33 925 569
64.01 0 0 28 9 100 42 754 433
85.35 0 0 22 11 78 46 580 425
106.69 0 0 16 16 57 57 477 491
128.03 0 0 11 22 46 78 391 596
149.36 0 0 9 28 41 99 456 746
170.70 0 0 6 34 33 120 603 915
192.04 0 0 3 37 22 135 725 974
213.38 0 0 3 43 14 159 878 976
B9
Girder > 2 Span > 3 Length > 162.57
D E A D L O A D S
 MOMENTS   SHEARS   TORQUES 
Length Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 Stg1 Stg6 Stg7
.00 3155 12275 4469 46 185 96 22 48 346
16.26 1895 7595 2606 35 137 62 10 63 273
32.51 891 3577 1162 29 117 51 28 53 247
48.77 79 253 3 24 97 40 59 203 201
65.03 525 2208 871 17 69 28 36 125 134
81.29 906 3781 1450 11 45 14 32 129 45
97.54 1115 4634 1737 7 26 8 1 22 49
113.80 1116 4632 1729 5 21 14 32 88 148
130.06 938 3867 1421 11 44 26 35 92 241
146.31 555 2266 816 19 74 39 87 276 323
162.57 0 0 0 31 110 91 43 98 417
L I V E L O A D S
 Moments 
 Lane   Truck   Special 1Lane Truck
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 172 930 1114 8128 172 930
16.26 0 0 195 751 1312 5843 195 751
32.51 0 0 507 623 2762 4778 507 623
48.77 0 0 777 513 4320 4106 777 513
65.03 0 0 965 419 5445 2917 965 419
81.29 0 0 1067 334 6068 2424 1067 334
97.54 0 0 1101 261 6160 1936 1101 261
113.80 0 0 1056 194 5689 1451 1056 194
130.06 0 0 898 128 4560 971 898 128
146.31 0 0 538 64 2607 487 538 64
162.57 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Shears  Torque 
 Lane   Truck   Special Maximums
Length POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG
.00 0 0 43 3 158 14 878 976
16.26 0 0 36 3 128 15 853 674
32.51 0 0 33 5 115 26 799 536
48.77 0 0 28 8 102 33 685 430
65.03 0 0 22 9 85 36 542 321
81.29 0 0 18 12 67 40 415 360
97.54 0 0 12 17 52 54 385 440
113.80 0 0 8 24 44 75 433 626
130.06 0 0 8 30 34 93 502 782
146.31 0 0 8 35 28 111 533 783
162.57 0 0 8 41 26 129 533 621
B10
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C1
APPENDIX C
Selected Design Forces and Girder 2 Section Properties
C2
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C3
Table C1. Selected Unfactored Moments (kft) and Web Fatigue Shears (kips),
Girder 2
Section
Node
Steel
Deck
Cast(#)
1
SupImp
2
FWS
3
LLmax
4
Fat
min
5
Fat
max
5
11
10
1,144
4,747
2,979(1)
1,038(2)
765
1,006
5,920
1,689
239
V = 14k
1,258
V = 23k
22
20.3
Splice
462
1,941
2,749(1)
647(2)
326
428
5,264
3,087
451
V = 26k
1,108
V = 12k
33
28
892
3,579
752(1)
3,682(2)
504
663
2,751
4,768
649
V = 34
646
V = 8k
44
32
1,896
7,599
317(1)
5,305(2)
1,127
1,483
1,305
5,836
784
V = 36
258
V = 2k
55
36
3,154
12,272
1,378(1)
6,915(2)
1,932
2,541
1,114
8,127
961
V = 44k
173
V = 4k
66
40
1,956
7,866
1,378(1)
4,654(2)
1,163
1,530
1,049
5,445
656
V = 5k
192
V = 37k
77
44
979
4,015
1,378(1)
2,392(2)
563
740
2,132
3,753
542
V = 8k
554
V = 35k
88
48
184
634
1,378(1)
922(2)
142
186
4,121
2,525
403
V = 11k
917
V = 32k
99
62
1,190
4,826
1,378(1)
4,960(2)
816
1,074
6,598
1,786
182
V = 18k
1,271
V = 18K
1
(#) denotes Deck Cast number
Cast #1 begins at Section 11 and ends at Section 33 (similar for span 3)
Cast #2 begins at Section 88 and is symmetrical in the center span (includes Cast #1)
Steel, Deck and Cast moments are unfactored. Deck and Cast moments include the
moments due to the deck haunch and stayinplace forms.
2
SupImp  Unfactored superimposed dead load
3
FWS  Unfactored future wearing surface dead load
4
LLmax  Unfactored liveload plus the dynamic load allowance moment due to multiple lanes of LRFD HL93.
Dynamic load allowance is included according to Article 3.6.2.
5
Fat  Maximum and minimum fatigue moment due to one fatigue vehicle plus 15% dynamic load allowance times
the load factor of 0.75 specified in Table 3.4.11. Vertical shears in the critical web (V) due to the factored
fatigue vehicle are given in the “Fat” columns. Fatigue moments and shears are increased by 10 percent to
allow for warping.
All live load moments and shears, including fatigue moments and shears, include centrifugal force effects.
Multiple presence factors (Table 3.6.1.1.21) were considered in determining LLmax.
The location of nodes and sections may be found by referring to Figure 2 and Appendix A.
C4
Table C2. Shear (kips), Girder 2 Span 1 at TenthPoints
Tenth
Point
Steel
Deck
SupImp
FWS
Total DL
LL + IM
Factored
Shear
0
31
110
39
52
232
128
527
1
19
74
17
22
132
110
363
2
11
44
11
15
81
93
268
3
5
21
6
8
40
75
183
4
7
26
3
5
41
52
143
5
11
45
6
8
70
67
207
6
17
69
12
16
114
85
295
7
24
97
17
23
161
102
385
8
29
117
22
29
197
114
453
9
35
137
27
35
234
127
524
10
46/47
185/185
41/44
55/58
327/334
155/160
694/712
Live load shear of the same sign as the dead load shear is reported. Reported shears are vertical shears and are for
bending plus torsion in the critical web.
C5
Table C3. Selected Unfactored Torques (kft), Girder 2
Section
Node
Steel
Deck
SupImp
1
FWS
2
LL
max
3
Fat
min
4
Fat
max
4
11
10
59
205
464
5
41
54
525
409
85
174
22
20.3
Splice
36
125
188
58
76
348
556
165
96
33
28
28
53
352
107
140
552
793
238
108
44
32
10
63
420
118
155
687
848
241
132
55
36
22
36
48
33
149
193
197
254
980
6
863
232
6
254
6
66
40
23
52
335
163
215
979
753
171
260
77
44
28
13
305
145
191
955
649
105
264
88
48
72
211
298
125
164
839
501
90
244
99
62
0
0
0
0
0
477
491
100
116
1
SupImp  Unfactored superimposed dead load
2
FWS  Unfactored future wearing surface dead load
3
LL
max
 Unfactored liveload plus dynamic load allowance torque due to multiple lanes of LRFD HL93. Dynamic
load allowance is included according to Article 3.6.2.
4
Fat  Maximum and minimum torques due to one fatigue vehicle plus 15% dynamic load allowance times the
load factor of 0.75 specified in Table 3.4.11.
5
Bottom value, where listed, is the torque due to Cast #1.
6
Only the minimum and maximum liveload torques are reported at the pier section.
All live load torques, including fatigue torques, include centrifugal force effects. Multiple presence factors (Table
3.6.1.1.21) were considered in determining LL
MAX
.
The location of nodes and sections are shown in Figure 2 and Appendix A.
C6
Table C4. Top Flange Bracing Forces (kip), Girder 2 Span 1
Element
Steel
Deck
SupImp
FWS LL+I
M
Fact
*Cast #1
Cast #2
Const
1
13
40
3
4
2
79
100
7
141
2
6
12
2
2
3
12
60
0
83
3
11
39
5
6
4
85
90
13
126
4
4
20
4
5
5
51
0
7
5
5
2
7
4
5
5
33
37
18
49
6
10
38
4
5
4
80
55
15
81
7
7
25
1
2
4
29
25
23
69
8
6
15
2
2
3
37
76
31
103
9
11
31
3
3
3
66
70
15
120
10
9
46
3
3
3
82
51
64
53
11
7
42
2
3
2
72
71
31
98
12
12
33
3
4
3
71
25
82
86
13
8
16
2
3
3
42
43
76
51
Notes: 1. Casts consider overhang bracing forces
2. Fact = 1.0[1.25(DL) + 1.75(LL+IM)]
3. Const = 1.25[Steel + Cast #1]
or 1.25[Steel + Cast #1 + Cast #2]
*These values are taken from Figure 5
C7
Table C5. Selected Section Properties for Girder 2
Section
Node
Section
Size (in.)
Section
Type
Moment of
Inertia (in
4
)
Neutral
Axis B (in.)
Neutral
Axis T (in.)
Noncomp
185,187
36.83
42.80
Comp DL
354,925
55.35
24.27
11
10
22
20.3
2  16 x 1
2  78 x 0.5625
83 x 0.625
A = 181 in
2
CompLL
479,646
68.84
10.78
Noncomp
275,175
35.32
45.18
CompDL
475,329
51.05
29.45
CompDL Bars
292,858
36.72
43.78
CompLL
650,889
64.77
15.73
33
28
2  18 x 1.5
2  78 x 0.5625
83 x 1
LS WT 8 x 28.5
A = 243 in
2
CompLL Bars
325,531
39.30
41.20
Noncomp
438,966
38.81
43.69
CompDL
633,467
50.44
32.06
CompDL Bars
454,805
39.76
42.74
CompLL
836,080
62.50
20.00
55
36
2  18 x 3
2  78 x 0.5625
83 x 1.5
LS WT 8 x 28.5
A = 338 in
2
CompLL Bars
484,714
41.55
40.95
Legend:
B = vertical distance from the neutral axis to the outermost edge of the bottom flange
T = vertical distance from the neutral axis to the outermost edge of the top flange
Noncomp = steel section only
Comp DL = steel section plus concrete deck transformed using modular ratio of 3n
Comp DL Bars = steel section plus longitudinal reinforcement area divided by 3
Comp LL = steel section plus concrete deck transformed using modular ratio of n
Comp LL Bars = steel section plus longitudinal reinforcement
LS = single longitudinal bottom flange stiffener
A = total steel area of box section
Composite section properties, including the concrete deck, are computed using the structural deck area including the
overhang and half of the deck width between girders. The area of the deck haunch is not included. For composite
section properties including only the longitudinal reinforcement, a haunch depth is considered when determine the
position of the deck reinforcement relative to the steel girder. The longitudinal reinforcing steel area equal to 20.0 in
2
per
box is assumed placed at the neutral axis of the effective structural deck area.
The modular ratio, n, for live load is 7.56 and 3n is used for superimposed dead load. The effective area of reinforcing
steel used for superimposed dead load is adjusted for creep by a factor of 3. Thus, the reinforcing area used for the
superimposed dead load is 6.67 in
2
(20.0 in
2
/3).
The area and moment of inertia of the box section include the longitudinal component of the top flange bracing area, the
longitudinal flange stiffener (where present) and the 1inch bottom flange lips. A single topflange bracing member of
8.0 in
2
placed at an angle of 30 degrees from tangent to the girder is assumed. The vertical web depth is shown in the
above table. However, the total area of the inclined webs is used in computing all section properties.
C8
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D1
APPENDIX D
Sample Calculations
D2
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Therefore, all section proportions for this location are satisfied. Section proportion checks for the other
design locations will not be shown. All subsequent sections satisfy these limits.
in. < 1.0 in. OK 1.1 0.5625 ( ) 0.62 =
Eq (6.11.2.23)
t
f
1.1t
w
≥
in. < 16 in. OK
80.4
6
13.4 =
Eq (6.11.2.22)
b
f
D
6
≥
< 12 OK
16
2 1 ( )
8 =
Eq (6.11.2.21)
b
f
2t
f
12.0 ≤
Top flanges: 16 in. x 1.0 in.
Top flanges of tub sections subjected to compression and tension are proportioned such that:
Flange proportions (Article 6.11.2.2):
< 150 OK
80.4
0.5625
142.9 =
in.
78
4.123
4.0

\

.
80.4 =
D =
Determine the web depth along the incline. The web rise over run is 4:1.
Eq (6.11.2.1.21)
D
t
w
150 ≤
For a web without longitudinal stiffeners, the web is proportioned such that:
Web proportions per Article 6.11.2.1:
The web and the flanges must be proportioned according to the provisions of Article 6.11.2.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Girder Section Proportioning
D3
9
43.09
80.4

\

.
2
31.3 = =
9
D
c
D

\

.
2
where: k =
Eq (6.10.1.9.11) but cannot exceed R
h
F
yc
or F
yw
/0.7
0.9Ek
D
t
w

\

.
2
F
crw
=
Compute the nominal bendbuckling stress for the transversely stiffened web without longitudinal
stiffeners.
The nominal bendbuckling resistance in girder webs for constructibility is determined according to the
provisions of Article 6.10.1.9.
Article C6.10.1.9.1 states that the compression flange stress may be used instead of the compression in
the web since the difference is negligible. This approach will be used in all subsequent web checks in this
example.
ksi (C)
4123 41.8 ( ) 12 ( )
185187
− 1.25 ( ) 13.96 − = f
cw
= f
top web
=
in. (inclined distance) 41.8
4.123
4.0

\

.
43.09 = =
in. (vertical distance) 42.80 1.0 − 41.8 = =
N.A. to top of top flange  top flange thickness D
c
=
D = 80.4 in.
Compute the bending stress at the top of the web due to the above moment using the section properties
for the noncomposite section from Table C5.
Constructibility Load Factor = 1.25 according to the provisions of Article 3.4.2. Neglect the effects of
wind on the structure and the presence of construction equipment for this example.
Load Moment
Steel 1,144 kft
Cast #1 2,979 kft
Total Moment 4,123 kft
In accordance with Article 6.11.1, the web bendbuckling provisions of Article 6.10.1.9 for the non
composite section must be checked for steel weight and for the Cast #1 of the concrete deck. The web
bendbuckling check is not needed for the final condition. The unfactored moments are from Table C1 .
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Web
D4
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Web (continued)
0.9 29000 ( ) 31.3 ( )
80.4
0.5625

\

.
2
39.99 =
ksi < R
h
F
yc
= 1.0(50) = 50 ksi, therefore, F
crw
= 39.99 ksi
13.96 ksi < φ
f
F
crw
= 1.0(39.99) = 39.99 ksi OK
D5
Eq (C6.10.3.42) kft
0.411 16.3 ( )
2
12
− 9.1 − = F
l
L
b
2
/ 12 = M
l
=
Since the example girder is a tub box girder, the provisions of Article 6.10.3.2 are used. Compute the
lateral flange moment on the outermost tub flange due to the overhang forces. The lateral flange moment
at the brace points due to the overhang forces is negative in the top flange of G2 on the outside of the
curve because the stress due to the lateral moment is compressive on the convex side of the flange at
the brace points. The opposite would be true on the convex side of the G1 top flange on the inside of the
curve at the brace points, as illustrated in later calculations. The flange is treated as a continuous beam
supported at brace points; therefore, the unfactored lateral moment is calculated as follows:
k/ft
474
tan 49.1
2π
360

\

.
1000 ( )
0.411 = F
l
=
49.1 degrees = tan
1 −
78
67.5

\

.
α =
Compute the lateral force on the flanges due to overhang brackets. See Figure D1.
Uniform load on brackets = 474 lbs/ft
Deck forms + Screed rail = 224 lbs/ft
lbs/ft
1
2
4 ×
10
12
150 × × 250 = Deck:
Compute the vertical load on the overhang brackets.
The unbraced length of the top flange is approximately 16.3 feet in Span 1. Assume that the average
deck thickness in the overhang is 10 inches. The weight of the deck finishing machine is not considered.
The bracket loads are assumed to be applied uniformly although the brackets are actually spaced at
approximately 3 feet along the girder.
Since G2 is an outside girder, half of the overhang weight is assumed placed on the girder and the other
half is placed on the overhang brackets, as shown in Figure D1.
Overhang Bracket Load
The flanges must be checked in flexure for steel weight and for Cast #1 of the concrete deck on the
noncomposite section according to the provisions of Article 6.11.3.2. The factored steel stresses during
the sequential placement of the concrete are not to exceed the nominal stresses. The effect of the
overhang brackets on the flanges must also be considered since G2 is an outside girder. The provisions
of Articles 6.10.3.2.1 through 6.10.3.2.3 are applied to the design of the top flange of tub box girders.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression
D6
f
l
is defined as the flange lateral bending stress determined using the provisions of Article 6.10.1.6 This
value may be determined directly from firstorder elastic analysis in discretely braced compression
flanges if the following is satisfied.
kft (factored)
11.77 − 9.1 − ( ) + [ ] 1.25 ( ) 26.09 − =
M
tot_lat
=
The lateral flange moment at the brace points due to curvature is negative when the top flanges are
subjected to compression because the stress due to the lateral moment is compressive on the convex
side of the flange at the brace points. The opposite is true whenever the top flanges are subjected to
tension.
Eq (C4.6.1.2.4b1) kft
2062 16.3 ( )
2
10 716.25 ( ) 6.5 ( )
− 11.77 − =
=
Ml
2
NRD
M
lat
=
The top flange size is constant between brace points in this region. In positive moment regions, the
largest value of f
bu
may not necessarily be at either brace point. Generally though, f
bu
will not be
significantly larger than the value at adjacent brace points, which is the case in this example. Therefore,
the computed value of f
bu
at Section 11 will be conservatively used in the strength check. The
approximate Eq (C4.6.1.2.4b1) is used below to compute the lateral flange bending moment due to
curvature. Eq (C4.6.1.2.4b1) assumes the presence of a cross frame at the point under investigation
and, as mentioned previously, M is constant over the distance between brace points. Although the use
of Eq (C4.6.1.2.4b1) is not theoretically pure for tub girders or at locations inbetween brace points, it
may conservatively be used. Note that the vertical web depth has been conservatively used in the
following calculation. For a single flange, consider only half of the girder moment due to steel and Cast
#1. M = 4,123/2 = 2062 kft.
ksi (C)
4123 12 ( ) 42.80 ( )
185187
− 1.25 ( ) 14.29 − =
f
top flg
= f
bu
=
From Table C1, the moment due to the steel weight plus Cast #1 is 4,123 kft. The load factor for
constructibility is 1.25 according to the provisions of Article 3.4.2. Using the section properties from
Table C5, the bending stress, f
bu
, in the top flange without consideration of longitudinal warping is
computed as:
In addition to the moment due to the overhang brackets, the inclined webs of the box cause a lateral
force on the top flanges. This force is relatively small in this case and will be ignored. A third source of
lateral bending is due to curvature, which can be conservatively estimated by the approximate Vload
Equation (C4.6.1.2.4b1) given in the LRFD Specifications, as illustrated below.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression (continued)
D7
ksi (factored)
26.09 − 12 ( )
42.7
7.3 − = =
M
tot_lat
S
top_flange
f
l
=
in
3
1.0 16 ( )
2
6
42.7 = S
top_flange
=
Therefore, the flange lateral bending stress, f
l
, may be determined from firstorder elastic analysis.
ft. 1.2 7.57 ( )
1.0 1.0 ( )
14.29 −
50
16.99 = L
b
= 16.3 ft. <
Check the relation given in Eq (6.10.1.62):
Article 6.10.1.10.2 indicates that the web loadshedding factor, R
b
, is taken as 1.0 for
constructibility.
Since the stresses remain reasonably constant over the section, C
b
is taken as 1.0.
in.
16
12 1
1
3
43.08 0.5625 ( )
16 1 ( )
+
3.77 = =
Eq (6.10.8.2.39)
b
fc
12 1
1
3
D
c
t
w
b
fc
t
fc
+

\

.
r
t
=
where:
Eq (6.10.8.2.34) ft.
1.0 3.77 ( )
29000
50
12
7.57 = = 1.0r
t
E
F
yc
L
p
=
where:
Eq (6.10.1.62) L
b
1.2L
p
C
b
R
b
f
bu
F
yc
≤
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression (continued)
D8
Eq (6.10.8.2.23)
16
2 1 ( )
8 =
=
b
fc
2t
c
λ
f
=
Check if the slenderness ratio, λ
f
, of the compression flange is less than or equal to λ
pf
The local buckling resistance of the compression flange is computed as follows:
Article 6.10.3.2.1 directs the designer to the provisions of Article 6.10.8.2 for the determination of the
nominal flexural resistance, F
nc
, for the top flanges of tub box girders in compression. For constructibility,
the web loadshedding factor, R
b
, is taken as 1.0. The resistance is taken as the smaller of the local
buckling resistance determined as specified in Article 6.10.8.2.2 and the lateral torsional buckling
resistance determined using Article 6.10.8.2.3.
Eq (6.10.3.2.12)
f
bu
1
3
f
l
+ φ
f
F
nc
≤
Second, check the relation given by Eq (6.10.3.2.12).
14.29 + 7.3 = 21.59 ksi < 1.0(1.0)(50) = 50 ksi OK
Therefore, checking the relation given by Eq (6.10.3.2.11) we obtain:
R
h
= 1.0 (Article 6.10.1.10.1)
φ
f
= 1.0 (Article 6.5.4.2)
where:
Eq (6.10.3.2.11)
f
bu
f
l
+ φ
f
R
h
F
yc
≤
First, check the relation given by Eq (6.10.3.2.11).
For critical stages of construction, the resistance of the compression flange in noncomposite boxes with
a single web (including tub flanges) at the constructibility limit state is to be computed according to the
criteria given in Article 6.10.3.2. The resistance of a flange and the approximate Vload Eq
(C4.6.1.2.4b1) both assume that the lateral bending is equal at each end of a panel. As can be seen
from an examination of Figures 3 through 5 in the introduction section, this is obviously not the case.
Check the three relations given for discretely braced compression flanges in Article 6.10.3.2.1
Another significant source of lateral flange bending not considered in this calculation is the forces that
develop in singlediagonal top flange bracing members (arranged in the pattern shown in Figure 2 of the
introduction section) as a result of vertical bending of the box girder. This effect is recognized in lateral
flange moments taken directly from a finite element analysis, but a closedform solution is more elusive.
As mentioned previously, this effect can probably be minimized most effectively by utilizing parallel
singlediagonal bracing members in each bay.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression (continued)
D9
in. < L
b
= 195.6 in.
Determine if the unbraced length, L
b
, is greater than or less than L
r
.
L
r
= πr
t
E
F
yr
= π 3.77 ( )
29000
0.7 50 ( )
341 = in. Eq (6.10.8.2.35)
L
p
< L
b
< L
r
, therefore, use Eq (6.10.8.2.32) for the lateral torsional buckling resistance.
F
nc
= C
b
1 1
F
yr
R
h
F
yc
−

\

.
L
b
L
p
−
L
r
L
p
−

\

.
−
R
b
R
h
F
yc
R
b
R
h
F
yc
≤ Eq (6.10.8.2.32)
where:
C
b
= for members where f
mid
/f
2
> 1 or f
2
= 0, this value is taken
as 1.0.
Eq (6.10.8.2.36)
f
mid
= 14.29 ksi (calculated above)
f
2
= largest compressive stress without consideration of lateral bending at either end
of the unbraced length of the flange under consideration.
The largest compressive stress in the top flange occurs at Node 12 of the 3D model,
approximately 65.04 ft. into span 1.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression (continued)
λ
pf
= 0.38
E
F
yc
= 0.38
29000
50
9.15 = Eq (6.10.8.2.24)
Since λ
f
< λ
pf
, the nominal flexural resistance is taken as F
nc
= R
b
R
h
F
yc
Since R
b
is taken as 1.0 for constructibility, F
nc
is equal to 50 ksi for the local buckling resistance.
The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange is computed as follows:
Determine if the unbraced length, L
b
, is greater than or less than L
p
.
L
b
= 16.3 12 ( ) 195.6 = in.
L
p
= 1.0r
t
E
F
yc
= 7.57 ft. (calculated previously) Eq (6.10.8.2.34)
L
p
= 7.57 12 ( ) 91 =
D10
ksi < 1.0(1.0)(50) = 50 ksi
1.09 1 1
0.7 50 ( )
1.0 50 ( )
−
195.6 91 −
341 91 −

\

.
−
1.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 50 ( ) 47.7 =
F
nc
=
Therefore, the lateral torsional buckling resistance is:
1.75 1.05
12.84
15.52

\

.
− 0.3
12.84
15.52

\

.
2
+ 1.09 =
C
b
=
ksi
3704 12 ( ) 42.8 ( )
185187
1.25 ( ) 12.84 =
f
1
=
Load Moment Source
Steel 1,116 kft Appendix B
Cast #1 2,588 kft From separate calculations
Total unfactored moment 3,704 kft
f
1
occurs at Node 8 of the 3D model, approximately 48.78 ft. into span 1.
f
1
= stress without consideration of lateral bending at the brace point opposite to the
one corresponding to f
2
.
Eq (6.10.8.2.37)
1.75 1.05
f
1
f
2

\

.
− 0.3
f
1
f
2

\

.
2
+ 2.3 ≤
C
b
=
< 1.0 therefore, C
b
is calculated using Eq (6.10.8.2.37)
14.29
15.52
0.92 =
f
mid
/f
2
=
ksi
4476 12 ( ) 42.8 ( )
185187
1.25 ( ) 15.52 =
f
2
=
Load Moment Source
Steel 1,115 kft Appendix B
Cast #1 3,361 kft From separate calculations
Total unfactored moment 4,476 kft
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression (continued)
D11
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression (continued)
Therefore, the nominal flexural resistance, F
nc
, of the compression flange is 47.7 ksi.
f
bu
1
3
f
l
+ φ
f
F
nc
≤ Eq (6.10.3.2.12)
14.29 + 1/3(7.3) = 16.72 ksi < 1.0(47.7) = 47.7 ksi OK
Both flange requirements of Article 6.10.3.2.1 for discretely braced flanges in compression are satisfied.
The third requirement which involves the web bendbuckling resistance, Eq (6.10.3.2.13), was already
satisfied on page D5 for this section.
D12
= F
yc
b
c
t
c
=
50
83
2

\

.
0.625 ( ) 1297 =
kips
P
w
= force in the web
= F
yw
Dt
w
=
50 80.4 ( ) 0.5625 ( ) 2261 =
kips (D is meaured along the incline)
Check if Case I, plastic neutral axis is in the web:
P
t
P
w
+ P
c
P
s
+ P
rb
+ P
rt
+ ≥
800 2261 + 3061 =
<
1297 3521 + 4818 =
PNA not in the web
Check if Case II, plastic neutral axis is in the top flange:
P
t
P
w
+ P
c
+ P
s
P
rb
+ P
rt
+ ≥
800 2261 + 1297 + 4358 =
> 3521 PNA is in the top flange
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Strength  Ductility Requirement
According to Article 6.11.6.2.2 for sections in positive flexure, the ductility requirements of Article 6.10.7.3
must be satisfied for compact and noncompact sections inorder to protect the deck from premature
crushing. The total depth of the composite section, D
t
, is calculated neglecting the haunch thickness and
using the structural thickness of the deck. All other field sections are checked similarly (not shown).
D
p
0.42D
t
≤
Eq (6.10.7.31)
where:
D
p
= distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite
section at the plastic moment, in.
This value can be calculated by solving for the depth of the web in compression at the
plastic moment, D
cp
, according to Table D6.11 of Appendix D, and adding the structural
thickness of the deck plus the top flange thickness (Case I) or adding only the structural
thickness (Case II).
First, determine if the plastic neutral axis is in the web, top flange, or deck. Neglect the
affect of the deck steel.
P
s
= force in the slab
= 0.85f
c
'b
s
t
s
=
0.85 4 ( ) 109 ( ) 9.5 ( ) 3521 =
kips (the effective width, b
s
, is taken
from separate calculations per
Article 4.6.2.6.1)
P
t
= force in the compression flange
= F
yt
b
t
t
t
=
50 16 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 800 =
kips
P
c
= force in the tension flange
D13
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Strength  Ductility Requirement (continued)
Therefore, the following expression from Table D6.11 is used for determining the location
of the plastic neutral axis measured from the top of the top flange.
Y
bar
=
t
c
2

\

.
P
w
P
t
+ P
s
− P
rt
− P
rb
−
P
c
1 +

\

.
=
1
2

\

.
2261 800 + 3521 − 0 − 0 −
1297
1 +

\

.
0.3 = in.
Therefore,
D
p
= 0.3 9.5 + 9.8 = in. < 0.42D
t
= 0.42 0.625 80.4 + 1 + 9.5 + ( ) 38.4 = in. OK
D14
15.03 + 6.16 = 21.19 ksi < 1.0(1.0)(50) = 50 ksi OK
Therefore,
ksi (factored)
83.2 12 ( )
162
6.16 =
=
M
tot_lat
S
top_flange
f
l
=
in
3
18
2
3 ( )
6
162 =
S
top_flange
=
kft (factored)
57.46 9.1 −
( )
+ [ ] 1.25 ( ) 83.2 =
M
tot_lat
=
M
l
= 9.1 kft
Assume the overhang bracket loading is applied to the top flange as well.
kft
10069 − 16.3 ( )
2
10 716.25 ( ) 6.5 ( )
− 57.46 =
=
Ml
2
NRD
M
lat
=
Determine the tensile flange lateral bending stress, f
l
, as specified in Article 6.10.1.6. A summary of this
calculation is shown here, refer to Section 11 computations for the expanded version.
ksi (T)
10069 − 12 ( ) 43.69 ( )
438966
− 1.25 ( ) 15.03 =
f
bu
=
Determine the factored tensile flange stress, f
bu
, calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending
for the top flanges of tub box girders.
Load Moment
Steel 3,154 kft
Cast #2 6,915 kft
Total unfactored moment 10,069 kft
The noncomposite section must be checked for steel weight and for the maximum deck cast loading
(Cast #2) of the concrete deck for the section in the negative bending region. The unfactored moments
are from Table C1.
Eq (6.10.3.2.21)
f
bu
f
l
+ φ
f
R
h
F
yt
≤
For critical stages of construction, the following requirement must be met for tension in the top flange of a
tub girder. It is assumed that the flange is not continuously braced for constructibility.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Constructibility  Top Flange in Tension
D15
13.2 + 0.74 = 13.94 ksi < 1.0(1.0)(50) = 50 ksi OK
f
bu
f
l
+ φ
f
R
h
F
yc
≤
Therefore, check Eq (6.10.3.2.11)
ksi
2.1 − 12 ( )
42.7
1.25 ( ) 0.74 − = =
M
lat_tot
S
top_flange
f
l
=
Compute the total factored lateral flange bending stress, f
l
. From separate calculations, a firstorder
elastic analysis can be used to compute the flange lateral bending stress. The crosssection, and its
associated properties, at this location for girder G1 are the same as previously calculated for girder G2.
kft 10.56 − 8.44 + 2.1 − = M
lat_tot
=
Therefore, the total unfactored lateral moment is:
kft
0.411 15.7 ( )
2
12
8.44 = M
l
=
Compute the lateral flange moment due to the overhang bracket load.
Eq (C4.6.1.2.4b1) kft (C)
1904 15.7 ( )
2
10 683.75 ( ) 6.5 ( )
− 10.56 − = =
Ml
2
NRD
M
lat
=
Unbraced length of flange = 15.7 ft.
M = 3,807/2 = 1,904 kft
Compute the lateral flange bending moment due to curvature using Eq (C4.6.1.2.4b1). For a single
flange, consider only half of the girder moment due to Steel plus Cast #1 according to Article C6.11.3.2.
Load Moment
Steel 1,075 kft (Unfactored results are shown)
Cast #1 2,732 kft
Total moment 3,807 kft
Compute the bending moment in the box. Moment values used below are not tabulated.
The load on the overhang bracket produces a lateral flange moment at the brace points on the convex
side of the G1 inner top flange of the opposite sense from that on the convex side of the G2 outer top
flange. Therefore, check the constructibility stress in the G1 top flange on the inside of the curve at this
section. The basis of the following calculations is similiar to the girder G2 check.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression
D16
13.2 ksi < 1.0(39.99) = 39.99 ksi OK
f
bu
φ
f
F
crw
≤
Lastly, check the web bendbuckling given by Eq (6.10.3.2.13). The nominal web bendbuckling
resistance, F
crw
, was calculated previously for girder G2 and is the same for this location.
13.2 + 1/3(0.74) = 13.45 ksi < 1.0(44.2) = 44.2 ksi OK
f
bu
1
3
f
l
+ φ
f
F
nc
≤
Therefore, the nominal flexural resistance, F
nc
, of the compression flange is 44.2 ksi.
ksi < 1.0(1.0)(50) = 50 ksi
1.0 1 1
0.7 50 ( )
1.0 50 ( )
−
188 91 −
341 91 −

\

.
−
1.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 50 ( ) 44.2 =
F
nc
=
Assume C
b
= 1.0 for this girder for this example, a detailed calculation for C
b
is given for girder G2
L
p
< L
b
< L
r
, therefore, use Eq (6.10.8.2.32) for the lateral torsional buckling resistance.
L
r
= 341 in.
L
p
= 91 in.
in.
15.7 12 ( ) 188 =
L
b
=
The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange is computed as follows:
F
nc
= R
b
R
h
F
yc
= 1.0(1.0)(50) = 50 ksi
λ
pf
= 9.15
λ
f
= 8
From previous calculations:
The local buckling resistance of the compression flange is computed as follows:
Determine the nominal flexural resistance for compression flanges of tub box girders according to Article
6.10.3.2.1.
Eq (6.10.3.2.12)
f
bu
1
3
f
l
+ φ
f
F
nc
≤
Check the second constructibility requirement according to Article 6.10.3.2.1.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9
Constructibility  Top Flange in Compression (continued)
D17
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9
Constructibility  Top Flange in Tension
The constructibility check for the top flange in tension may be conducted using the same procedure given
for girder G2 at Section 55.
D18
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Fatigue  Bottom Flange
Check the fatigue stress in the bottom flange at this section according to the provisions of Articles
3.6.1.4 and 6.11.5. The fatigue design life is 75 years.
Base metal at transverse stiffener weld terminations and at stiffenerconnection plate welds at locations
subject to a net tensile stress must be checked for Category C' (refer to Table 6.6.1.2.31). It is
assumed that stiffenerconnection plates are fillet welded to the bottom flange. Thus, the base metal at
the top of the bottom flange adjacent to the weld must be checked for Category C'. It is further assumed
that the 75year ADTT in a single lane will exceed the value of 745 trucks/day for a Category C' detail
above which the fatigue resistance is governed by the constantamplitude fatigue threshold (refer to Table
C6.6.1.2.51).
One factored fatigue vehicle is to be placed at critical locations on the deck per the AASHTOLRFD
fatigue provisions. According to Table 3.6.2.11, the dynamic load allowance is 0.15. Centrifugal force
effects are not included in this example, but should be considered by the designer. Onehalf of the
fatigue threshold is specified as the limiting stress range for this case since it is assumed that at some
time in the life of the bridge, a truck loading of twice the magnitude of the factored fatigue truck will occur.
By using half of the fatigue threshold, twice the factored truck is actually considered. According to the
provisions of Article 6.6.1.2.1, uncracked concrete section properties are to be used for fatigue checks.
As specified in Article 6.11.5, the stress range due to longitudinal warping is considered in checking the
fatigue resistance of the base metal at all details on the box section (6.6.1). The transverse bending
stress range is considered separately in evaluating the the fatigue resistance fo the base metal adjacent
to flangetoweb fillet welds and adjacent to the termination of fillet welds connecting transverse elements
to webs and box flanges. In this example, the fatigue moments have been increased by 10 percent to
allow for warping.
Moment
M
min
239 kft Table C1 (factored)
M
max
1,258 kft Table C1 (factored)
M
range
1,497 kft
According to Article 6.6.1.2, the limiting stress range for Category C' = 6 ksi for the case where the
fatigue resistance is governed by the constantamplitude fatigue threshold. The value of 6 ksi is equal to
onehalf of the fatigue threshold of 12 ksi specified for a Category C' detail in Table 6.6.1.2.53.
Compute the range of vertical bending stress at the top of the bottom flange (section properties are taken
from Table C5):
f
range
=
1497 68.84 0.625 − ( )
479646
12 ( ) 2.55 =
ksi
f
range
< φF
n
2.55 ksi < 6.0 ksi OK
D19
in. 11.25 12 ( ) 135 = The average spacing of adjacent beams:
< controls in. 12 9.5 ( ) 0.5 16 ( ) + 122 = or
in. 12 9.5 ( ) 0.5625 + 115 = 12.0t
s
+ the greater of t
w
or 1/2b
f
:
in. 0.25 112.4 ( ) 12 ( ) 337 = Onequarter of the effective span length:
The effective width of the interior beam is the lesser of:
According to the provisions of Article 4.5.2.2, the entire deck cross sectional area is assumed to be
effective. The structural deck thickness, t
s
, is 9.5 in. The modular ratio, n, is 7.56. Calculate the
effective width according to Article 4.6.2.6.1. For open boxes, the effective flange width of each web
should be determined as though each web was an individual supporting element.
From Table C1, the bending plus torsional shear range due to one factored fatigue truck =
23 + (14) = 37 kips. The shear values in Table C1 are vertical shears and are for the critical
web, which is subject to additive bending and torsional shears. The values have been increased
by 10 percent to account for warping.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Fatigue  Shear Connectors
The shear connectors are designed according to the provisions of Article 6.11.10 which refers to Article
6.10.10.
The longitudinal fatigue shear range per unit length, V
fat
, for one top flange of a tub girder must be
computed for the web subjected to additive flexural and torsionial shears.
Determine the required pitch, p, of the shear connectors for fatigue at this section according to the
provisions of Article 6.10.10.1.2. The pitch, p, of the shear connectors must satisfy the following:
p
nZ
r
V
sr
≤ Eq (6.10.10.1.21)
The fatigue threshold for one stud shear connector in kips, Z
r
, is defined in Article 6.10.10.2 as follows:
Z
r
= αd
2
5.5d
2
2
≥
Since a value for (ADTT)
SL
is needed for the calculation of α, for purposes of this example this
value has not been calculated. When traffic data is available, check αd
2
.
Use: 3  6 in. x 7/8 in. dia. studs/row.
Fatigue threshold for one 7/8 in. dia. shear stud =
5.5
2
0.875 ( )
2
2.105 = kips.
Fatigue threshold for 3 such connectors/row = nZ
r
= 3 2.105 ( ) 6.315 = kips/row.
D20
Moment arm of the deck = Neutral axis  t
flg
+ haunch + t
s
/2
Moment arm =
10.78 1.0 − 4.0 +
9.5
2
+ 18.53 =
in
2
The horizontal fatigue shear range per unit length, V
sr
, is determined as the vector sum of the longitudinal
fatigue shear range, V
fat
, given by Eq (6.10.10.1.23) and the torsional fatigue shear range in the concrete
deck.
Compute the longitudinal fatigue shear range, V
fat
, for one top flange of the tub girder. Use onehalf
of the moment of inertia.
Q =
137 18.53 ( ) 2539 =
in
3
V
fat
=
VQ
I
=
37 2539 ( )
0.5 479646 ( )
0.39 =
k/in. Eq (6.10.10.1.23)
The torsional fatigue shear range in the concrete deck is computed as:
T
fat
=
85 − 174 + 259 =
kft (Table C3)
Compute the enclosed area within the composite box section including the midheight of the deck.
A
o
=
120 83 2 1 ( ) − [ ] + [ ]
2
0.625
2
78 + 1 +
9.5
2
+

\

.
1
144

\

.
59 =
ft
2
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Fatigue  Shear Connectors (continued)
The effective width of the exterior beam is taken as onhalf the effective width of the interior beam plus the
lesser of:
Oneeighth of the effective span length:
0.125 112.4 ( ) 12 ( ) 169 =
in.
6.0t
s
+ the greater of t
w
or 1/4b
f
:
6 9.5 ( ) 0.5625 + 58 =
in.
or
6 9.5 ( ) 0.25 16 ( ) + 61 =
in.
The width of the overhang:
4.0 12 ( ) 48 =
in. < controls
Transformed deck area =
Area
n
=
122
2
48 +

\

.
9.5 ( )
7.56
137 =
in
2
Compute the first moment of the deck with respect to the neutral axis of the uncracked live load
composite section.
Determine the distance from the center of the deck to the neutral axis.
Section properties are from Table C5.
Neutral axis of the section is 10.78 in. from the top of the steel.
D21
Although not illustrated here, the number of shear connectors that is provided must also be checked at
the strength limit state according to the provisions of Article 6.11.10 and subsequently Article 6.10.10.4.
in./row
6.315
0.43
14.7 = =
nZ
r
V
sr
Shear stud pitch =
Compute the required shear connector pitch for fatigue for 3 studs per row.
0.39 ( )
2
0.18 ( )
2
+ 0.43 = =
V
fat
( )
2
F
fat
( )
2
+ V
sr
=
Therefore,
k/in.
259
2 59 ( ) 12 ( )
0.18 = =
T
2A
o
F
fat
=
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10
Fatigue  Shear Connectors (continued)
D22
ksi
2224.25 12 ( )
2 55 ( ) 144 1.0 ( )
1.69 =
=
T
2A
o
t
fc
f
v
=
ft
2
120 83 2 1 ( ) − [ ] + [ ]
2
0.75
2
78 +
1
2
+

\

.
1
144

\

.
55 =
A
o
=
Section Properties at Section 88
Top flange: 16 in. x 1.0 in. (compression flange)
Web: 78 in. x 0.5625 in.
Bottom flange: 83 in. x 0.75 in.
Load Torque (kft)
Steel 1.25(72) = 90.0 (Table C3)
Deck 1.25(211) = 263.75
SupImp 1.25(125) = 156.25
FWS 1.5(164) = 246.0
LL + IM 1.75(839) = 1468.25
Total factored torque = 2224.25 kft
where:
Eq (6.11.8.2.28)
0.57
1
2
∆ ∆
2
4
f
v
F
yc

\

.
2
k
k
s

\

.
2
+ +
=
R
1
= limiting slenderness ratio for the box flange determined using Eq 6.11.8.2.28.
k = 4.0 according to Article 6.11.8.2 for the platebuckling coefficient for uniform normal
stress
where:
Eq (6.11.101)
s
t
t
f
F
yf
k E
R
1
≤
Check the maximum transverse spacing, s
t
, between shear connectors on composite box flanges using
Eq 6.11.101. This limit insures that local buckling of the flange is prevented when it is subject to
compression. In positive bending regions, the maximum torque occurs at Section 88, therefore, the
maximum transverse shear connector spacing is determined at this location.
Girder Stress Check Section 88 G2 Node 48
Shear Connectors  Maximum Transverse Spacing
D23
Girder Stress Check Section 88 G2 Node 48
Shear Connectors  Maximum Transverse Spacing (continued)
∆ = 1 3
f
v
F
yc

\

.
2
− = 1 3
1.69
50

\

.
2
− 0.998 = Eq (6.11.8.2.25)
Therefore,
R
1
=
0.57
1
2
0.998 0.998
2
4
1.69
50

\

.
2
4.0
5.34

\

.
2
+ +
0.57 =
Solve for the maximum transverse shear connector spacing, s
t
.
s
t
1.0
50
4.0 29000 ( )
= 0.57
s
t
=
1.0 0.57 ( )
50
4.0 29000 ( )
27.45 = in. > shear connector spacing provided = 14.7 in. from fatigue
calculations
D24
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange
Check the bottom (box) flange for strength at this section according to the provisions of Article 6.11.8.2
for compression flanges in negative flexure. The section will be checked for the Strength I limit state in
the following computations. Assume one longitudinal compression flange stiffener.
Load Moment
Steel 3,154 kft All values are from Table C1
Deck 12,272 kft Unfactored results are shown
Total noncomposite 15,426 kft
Superimposed DL 1,932 kft
FWS 2,541 kft
LL + IM 8,127 kft
The dynamic load allowance has been applied to the live load according to Article 3.6.2. Multiple
presence factors, specified in Table 3.6.1.1.21 were also considered in the live load analysis.
Compute the factored vertical bending stress in the bottom flange due to dead and live load. For loads
applied to the composite section, assume a cracked section, as specified in Article 4.5.2.2. Section
properties are from Table C5. Shear lag need not be considered since the box flange width does not
exceed onefifth of the span of the bridge (Article C6.11.1.1). The longitudinal vertical bending stress is,
therefore, assumed to be uniform across the flange because shear lag need not be considered and
because it is assumed that the spacing of the internal bracing is such that the longitudinal warping
stress at the strength limit state is limited to 10 percent of the stresses due to majoraxis bending
(Article C6.7.4.3).
f
bot flg
= f
bu
=
γ
DC
M
DC
C
nc
I
nc
γ
DC2
M
DC2
γ
DW
M
DW
+ ( )C
3n
I
3n
+
γ
LL
M
LL
C
n
I
n
+
12 ( ) η
=
1.25 15426 − ( ) 38.81 ( )
438966
1.25 1932 − ( ) 1.5 2541 − ( ) + [ ] 39.76
454805
+
1.75 8127 − ( ) 41.55 ( )
484714
+
12 ( ) 1 ( ) 41.6 − =
ksi
(C)
Compute the factored St. Venant torsional shear stress, f
v
, in the bottom flange due to the noncomposite
loads. Torques are taken from Table C3.
Load Torque
Steel 1.25(22) = 28 kft
Deck 1.25(48) = 60 kft
Total Noncomposite Torque = 32 kft
D25
A
o
=
120 81 + ( )
2
80.25 7.25 + ( )
1
144

\

.
61.1 = ft
2
Therefore, the factored torsional shear stress is:
f
v
=
T
2A
o
t
fc
=
2337 12 ( )
2 61.1 ( ) 144 ( ) 1.5 ( )
1.06 = ksi
f
v tot
= 0.016 1.06 + 1.08 = ksi
Check the applied torsional stress against the factored torsional shear resistance of the flange, F
vr
.
F
vr
= 0.75φ
v
F
yf
3
Eq (6.11.1.11)
= 0.75 1.0 ( )
50
3

\

.
21.65 = ksi > f
v tot
= 1.08 ksi OK
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange (continued)
The nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange of a longitudinally stiffened flange is determined
according to Article 6.11.8.2.3.
Compute the enclosed area within the noncomposite box section, A
o
.
A
o
=
120 83 2 1 ( ) − [ ] + [ ]
2
1.5
2
78 +
3
2
+

\

.
1
144

\

.
56 = ft
2
f
v
=
T
2A
o
t
fc
=
32 12 ( )
2 56 ( ) 144 ( ) 1.5 ( )
0.016 = ksi Eq (6.11.8.2.26)
where: T = internal torque from factored loads (kft); t
f
= bottom flange thickness (in.)
Compute the factored torsional shear stress in the bottom flange due to the composite loads. Torques
are taken from Table C3.
Load Torque () Torque (+)
SupImp DL 1.25(149) = 186 kft 1.25(193) = 241 kft
FWS 1.50(197) = 296 kft 1.50(254) = 381 kft
LL + IM 1.75(863) = 1,510 kft 1.75(980) = 1,715 kft
Total Comp. Torque = 1,992 kft = 2,337 kft
Since 1992 − 2337 < , use positive torque.
Compute the enclosed area of the composite box, A
o
.
D26
t
fc
= thickness of the flange plate (in.)
w = larger of the width of the flange between longitudinal flange stiffeners or
the distance from a web to the nearest longitudinal flange stiffener (in.)
where: n = number of equally spaced longitudinal flange stiffeners
I
s
= actual moment of inertia of one longiudinal flange stiffener about an axis
parallel to the flange at the base of the stiffener (in
4
)
Eq (6.11.8.2.33)
5.34 2.84
I
s
wt
fc
3

\

.
1
3
+
n 1 + ( )
2
5.34 ≤
k
s
=
Eq (6.11.8.2.31)
8I
s
wt
fc
3

\

.
1
3
k =
for flanges with one longitudinal stiffener (n = 1), the platebuckling coefficient for uniform
normal stress, k, is taken as:
Eq (6.11.8.2.25)
1 3
1.08
50

\

.
2
− 0.999 =
=
1 3
f
v
F
yc

\

.
2
− ∆ =
where:
Eq (6.11.8.2.28)
0.57
1
2
∆ ∆
2
4
f
v
F
yc

\

.
2
k
k
s

\

.
2
+ +
R
1
=
81
2

\

.
1.5
27 =
=
w
t
fc
λ
f
=
Compute the slenderness ratio for the compression flange to determine which nominal flexural resistance
equation to use. According to Article 6.11.8.2.3, "b
fc
" is taken as "w" in the following design. The variable
"w" is taken as the larger of the width of the flange between longitudinal flange stiffeners or the distance
from a web to the nearest longitudinal flange stiffener.
Although the torques on the noncomposite and composite box act in opposite directions, the resulting
shear flows are conservatively added together in determining the total factored torsional shear stress.
Generally this is acceptable because of the small magnitude of the noncomposite torque.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange (continued)
D27
ksi 0.999 0.4 − ( ) 50 ( ) 29.95 = =
Eq (6.11.8.2.27) ∆ 0.4 − ( )F
yc
F
yw
≤ F
yr
=
where:
Eq (6.11.8.2.29)
1.23
1
1.2
F
yr
F
yc
F
yr
F
yc

\

.
2
4
f
v
F
yc

\

.
2
k
k
s

\

.
2
+ +
R
2
=
< λ
f
= 27.0 0.57
2.81 29000 ( )
50
23.01 = = R
1
k E
F
yc
0.57
1
2
0.999 0.999 ( )
2
4
1.08
50

\

.
2
2.81
2.33

\

.
2
+ +
0.57 = R
1
=
5.34 2.84
378.7
40.5 1.5 ( )
3
1
3
+
1 1 + ( )
2
2.33 = k
s
=
8 378.7 ( )
40.5 1.5 ( )
3
1
3
2.81 = k =
in
4
48.7 8.38 6.275 ( )
2
+ 378.7 = I
l
=
Compute the moment of inertia about the base of the stiffener.
From the AISC Manual of Steel Construction: I
l
= 48.7 in
4
; A = 8.38 in
2
; N.A.= 6.275 in. from the tip of
the stem (i.e. edge of the bottom flange)
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange (continued)
D28
Eq (6.10.1.10.23)
1
a
wc
1200 300a
wc
+

\

.
2D
c
t
w
λ
rw
−

\

.
− 1.0 ≤
R
b
=
Since this relation is not satisfied, R
b
must be calculated using Eq (6.10.1.10.23)
> λ
rw
= 137
2 41.28 ( )
0.5625
147 =
in. (along the inclined web)
41.55 1.5 − ( )
4.123
4.0

\

.
41.28 =
D
c
=
D
c
is calculated using the provisions of Article D6.3.1. These provisions state that for composite
sections in negative flexure, D
c
is computed for the section consisting of the steel girder plus the
longitudinal deck reinforcement. For this example, the larger value between "Comp DL Bars" and
"Comp LL Bars" from Table C5 was used.
Eq (6.10.1.10.22)
2D
c
t
w
λ
rw
≤
R
h
is taken as 1.0 from Article 6.10.1.10.1 and R
b
is calculated using the provisions of Article
6.10.1.10.2. For composite sections in negative flexure that satisfy Eq 2, R
b
is also taken as 1.0
since the web slenderness, 2D
c
/t
w
, is at or below the value at which the theoretcial elastic
bendbuckling stress is equal to F
yc
at the strength limit state.
Eq (6.11.8.2.22)
R
b
R
h
F
yc
∆ ∆
F
yr
R
h
F
yc
−

\

.
1 sin
π
2
R
2
w
t
fc
F
yc
k E
−
R
2
R
1
−

\


.
−
−
F
nc
=
The nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange, F
nc
, is taken as:
> 27.0, therefore, use Eq (6.11.8.2.22)
1.23
2.81 29000 ( )
50
49.7 =
=
R
2
k E
F
yc
1.23
1
1.2
29.95
50
29.95
50

\

.
2
4
1.08
50

\

.
2
2.81
2.33

\

.
2
+ +
1.23 =
R
2
=
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange (continued)
D29
To estimate the shear stress in the bottom flange due to the internal diaphragm shear, assume a 1 in. x
12 in. top flange for the diaphragm. As specified in Article C6.11.8.1.1, a flange width equal to 18 times
its thickness (18 x 1.5 in. = 27 in.) may be considered effective with the internal diaphragm. The
diaphragm is assumed to be 78 inches deep and 1 inch thick. From separate calculations, the moment
of inertia of the effective section is 112,375 in
4
and the neutral axis is located 31.05 in. above the
midthickness of the bottom flange. Subsequent calculations on page D34 indicate that the total
factored vertical component of the diaphragm shear is 1406 kips.
From previous calculations, the total factored St. Venant torsional shear stress in the bottom flange, f
v
, is
equal to 1.08 ksi.
Article C6.11.8.1.1 states that in general, bottom box flanges at interiorpier sections are subjected to
biaxial stresses due to majoraxis bending of the box section and majoraxis bending of the internal
diaphragm over the bearing sole plate. The flange is also subject to shear stresses due to the internal
diaphragm vertical shear, and in cases where it needs to be considered, the St. Venant torsional shear.
For a box supported on two bearings (the case in this example), bottomflange bending stresses due to
bending of the diaphragm over the bearing sole plates are relatively small and will be neglected for
simplicity in this example.
Eq (6.11.7.2.11) f
bu
= 41.6 ksi < φ
f
F
nc
= 49.25 ksi OK
ksi
0.997 1.0 ( ) 50 ( ) 0.999 0.999
29.95
1.0 50 ( )
−
1 sin
π
2
1.23
81
2

\

.
1.5
50
2.81 29000 ( )
−
1.23 0.57 −
−
−
49.25 = F
nc
=
1
0.373
1200 300 0.373 ( ) +
2 41.28 ( )
0.5625
137 −
− 0.997 = R
b
=
Eq (6.10.1.10.24) λ
rw
= 137
2 41.28 ( ) 0.5625 ( )
83 1.5 ( )
0.373 = =
Eq (6.10.1.10.25)
2D
c
t
w
b
fc
t
fc
a
wc
=
where:
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange (continued)
D30
where σ
1
, σ
2
are the maximum and minimum principle stresses in the diaphragm
σ
1
2
σ
1
σ
2
− σ
2
2
+ F
y
≤
The combined principal stresses in the diaphragm due to the factored loads is checked using the general
form of the Hubervon MisesHencky yield criterion.
ksi
1.0 0.997 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 50 49.85 =
< ksi
41.6 − ( )
2
41.6 − ( ) 0 ( ) − 0 ( )
2
+ 3 5.24 1.08 + ( )
2
+ 43.02 =
R
b
= 0.997 (previously calculated)
R
h
= 1.0 (Article 6.10.1.10.1)
= taken as 0.0 ksi for a box supported on two bearings
f
by
= stress in the flange due to the factored loads caused by majoraxis bending of the internal
diaphragm over the bearing sole plate
The factored vertical bending stress in the bottom flange, f
bu
, was computed earlier to be 41.6 ksi.
Eq (C6.11.8.1.11)
f
bu
2
f
bu
f
by
− f
by
2
+ 3 f
d
f
v
+ ( )
2
+ φ
f
R
b
R
h
F
yc
≤
The effect of bending in the plane of the diaphragm for boxes supported on two bearings is insignificant
and was, therefore, ignored in the design of the example girder. The effect of these forces on a box
supported on a single bearing is likely to be more significant and should be considered. The effective
section specified in Article C6.11.8.1.1 may be used to compute the flange bending stress about the
tangential zaxis due to bending of the internal diaphragm over the sole plate. In this case, the resulting
minimum and maximum principal stresses in the flange should be input into the more general form of the
Hubervon MisesHencky yield criterion given as follows:
ksi
1.08 5.24 + 6.32 =
f
v tot
=
Eq (C6.11.8.1.12) ksi
1406
27
2

\

.
1.5 ( ) 31.05 ( )
112375 1.5 ( )
5.24 =
=
VQ
I t
fc
( )
f
d
=
The shear stress in the flange, f
d
, caused by the internal diaphragm vertical shear due to factored loads is
approximated as:
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange (continued)
D31
ksi < 36 ksi OK 6.32
2
6.32 ( ) 6.32 − ( ) − 6.32 − ( )
2
+ 10.95 =
Check the combined principal stresses.
6.32 ksi = 0 ( )
2
6.32
2
+ 0 σ
1,2
=
± ±
Since the example box is supported on two bearings, the stress in the diaphragm due to vertical bending
of the diaphragm over the bearing sole plate is typically relatively small and will be neglected for simplicity
in this example. σ
z
is also typically neglected. If no bending is assumed, the two principal stresses are
simply equal to the tensile and compressive stresses with a magnitude equal to the shear stress.
σ
y
= stress in the diaphragm due to vertical bending of the diaphragm over the bearing sole plate
σ
z
= stress in the diaphragm due to bending of the diaphragm about its longitudinal axis
f
v
= shear stress in the diaphragm
F
y
= specified minimum yield stress of the diaphragm
σ
y
σ
z
−
2

\

.
2
f
v
2
+
σ
y
σ
z
+
2

\

.
σ
1
, σ
2
=
±
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Strength  Bottom Flange (continued)
D32
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Longitudinal Flange Stiffener
Try a WT 8x28.5 structural tee for the longitudinal stiffener with the stem welded to the bottom flange.
The projecting width, b
l
, of the stiffener must satisfy the following requirement:
b
l
0.48t
s
E
F
yc
≤
=
0.48 0.715 ( )
29000
50
8.27 =
in. Eq (6.11.11.21)
where t
s
is taken as the flange thickness of the structural tee since each halfflange buckles
similarly to a single plate connected to a web.
For structural tees, b
l
should be taken as onehalf the width of the flange.
b
l
= 7.12/2 = 3.56 in. < 8.27 in. OK
According to Article 6.7.4.3, transverse top and bottom bracing members (i.e. top and bottom struts of
internal cross frames) are required to ensure that the cross section shape is retained. Whenever
longitudinal flange stiffeners are present, the bottom transverse bracing members are to be attached to the
longitudinal stiffener(s) to better control the transverse distortion of the box flange. At other locations, the
bottom transverse member is to be attached directly to the box flange. The crosssectional area and
stiffness of the top and bottom transverse bracing members is not to be less than the area and stiffness of
the diagonal members. At the pier section (the point of maximum compressive flexural stress in a box
flange in most cases), the bottom transverse bracing member, when properly attached to the longitudinal
flange stiffener, can be assumed to provide the required transverse stiffening of the box flange. Use a
W10x68 (I = 394 in
4
) for the bottom transverse bracing member.
The longitudinal flange stiffener should be attached to the internal diaphragm with a pair of clip angles as
shown in Figure D2 (page D81).
D33
kips 579 1.87 − 577.1 = V
b
=
kips 1.93
78
80.4

\

.
1.87 = (V
T
)
v
=
The vertical component of V
T
is computed as:
kips 0.024 80.4 ( ) 1.93 = V
T
=
Eq (C6.11.1.11) k/in.
32
2 56 ( ) 12 ( )
0.024 = =
T
2A
o
f
v
=
The sum of the total steel plus deck factored shears is equal to 1.25(93 + 370) = 579 kips. Referring to
the calculations on page D25, the shear flow in the noncomposite box is computed as:
Compute the maximum factored shear stress in the diaphragm web. First, separate out the shears due
to bending, V
b
, and due to St. Venant torsion, V
T
.
The internal diaphragm is subject to vertical bending over the bearing sole plates in addition to shear.
Therefore, Article 6.11.8.1.1 requires that the principal stresses in support diaphragms not exceed the
factored compressive resistance given by Eq (C6.11.8.1.11), which is a yield criterion for combined
stress. The example box is supported by two bearings, therefore, f
by
in this equation is taken as 0.0 ksi
since it is typically relatively small.
kips 1.25 93 370 + 85 + ( ) 1.5 113 ( ) + 1.75 315 ( ) + 1406 = V
u
=
Load Shear Source
Steel 47 + 46 = 93 k 3D Finite Element Analysis
Deck 185 + 185 = 370 k (in critical web from Table C2)
SupImp 44 + 41 = 85 k Unfactored results are shown
FWS 58 + 55 = 113 k
LL + IM 160 + 155 = 315 k
Compute the maximum factored vertical shear in the diaphragm.
Try a 1inch thick A36 diaphragm plate.
Article 6.11.1 directs the designer to the provisions of Article 6.7.4 for general design considerations for
crossframes and diaphragms.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Design of the Internal Diaphragm
D34
ksi
1.61 16.4 + 18.01 =
f
v
= (f
v
)
T
+ (f
v
)
b
=
Therefore, for this case, since bending in the plane of the diaphragm is ignored, the maximum principal
stress is simply equal to the total factored shear stress.
As mentioned previously, for a box supported on two bearings, the bending stresses in the plane of the
diaphragm due to vertical bending of the diaphragm over the bearing sole plates are relatively small and
will be neglected in this example for simplicity. For a box supported on a single bearing, the effect of the
bending stresses in the plane of the diaphragm are likely to be more significant and should be considered.
As specified in Article C6.11.8.1.1, a width of the bottom (box) flange equal to 18 times its thickness may
be considered effective with the diaphragm in resisting bending.
ksi
577.1 703 +
78 1.0 ( )
16.4 =
(f
v
)
b
=
The average factored shear stress due to bending is equal to:
ksi
0.024
1.0
1.59
1.0
+ 1.61 =
(f
v
)
T
=
The factored shear stress due to torsion is therefore equal to:
kips
827 124 − 703 =
V
b
=
kips
127.8
78
80.4

\

.
124 =
(V
T
)
v
=
The vertical component of V
T
is computed as:
kips
1.59 80.4 ( ) 127.8 =
V
T
=
Eq (C6.11.1.11) k/in.
2337
2 61.1 ( ) 12 ( )
1.59 =
=
T
2A
o
f
v
=
The sum of the total Superimposed Dead Load, including the FWS, plus Live Load factored shears is
equal to 1.25(85) + 1.5(113) + 1.75(315) = 827 kips. Referring to the calculations on page D26, the
shear flow in the composite box is computed as:
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Design of Internal Diaphragm (continued)
D35
18.01 ksi
Check the combined principal stresses.
18.01
2
18.01 ( ) 18.01 − ( ) − 18.01 − ( )
2
+ 31.19 = ksi < F
y
= 36 ksi OK
Compute the shear resistance according to Article 6.11.9 which specifies the use of the provisions of
Article 6.10.9 for the horizontally curved Igirder design. Separate calculations indicate that C = 1.0.
V
u
φ
v
V
n
≤ Eq (6.10.9.11)
V
n
= V
cr
= CV
p
Eq (6.10.9.21)
V
p
= 0.58F
y
Dt
w
= 0.58 36 ( ) 78 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 1629 = kips Eq (6.10.9.22)
V
n
= 1.0 1629 ( ) 1629 = kips
V
u
= 1406 k < φ
v
V
n
= 1.0(1629) = 1629 k OK
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Design of Internal Diaphragm (continued)
The combined principal stresses in the diaphragm due to the factored loads is checked using the general
form of the Hubervon MisesHencky yield criterion (similarly calculations shown previously).
σ
1
2
σ
1
σ
2
− σ
2
2
+ F
y
≤
where σ
1
, σ
2
are the maximum and minimum principle stresses in the diaphragm
± σ
1
, σ
2
=
σ
y
σ
z
+
2

\

.
σ
y
σ
z
−
2

\

.
2
f
v
2
+
where:
σ
y
= 0
σ
z
= 0
If no bending is assumed, the two principal stresses are simply equal to the tensile and compressive
stresses with a magnitude equal to the shear stress.
± ± σ
1,2
= 0 0 ( )
2
18.01
2
+ =
D36
in
2
18 1.0 ( )
2
36
50

\

.
12.96 =
=
18t
w
2
F
yw
F
ys

\

.
A
d
=
Compute the effective area of the diaphragm, A
d
, to which the stiffeners are attached (t
w
= 1.0 in.)
according to the provisions of Article 6.10.11.2.4b.
Eq (6.10.11.2.21) > 11 in. OK 0.48 1 ( )
29000
50
11.6 =
=
b
t
0.48t
p
E
F
ys
≤
Try 2plates 11 in. x 1 in.; Bearing area = 2(11  1.0)(1.0) = 20.0 in
2
(Assume 1 in. for stiffener clip).
Use bars with F
y
= 50 ksi. Compute the maximum permissible widthtothickness ratio of the stiffener
plates according to Eq (6.10.11.2.21).
Assume that the bearings are fixed at the piers. Thus, there will be no expansion causing eccentric
loading on the bearing stiffeners. Bearing stiffeners should be attached to diaphragms rather than
inclined webs. According to Article 6.11.11.1, design the bearing stiffeners attached to the diaphragms
using the provisions of Article 6.10.11.2.4b. The provisions are applied to the diaphragm rather than the
web.
Ignore uplift.
kips
1.25 93 370 + 11 + ( ) 1.5 15 ( ) + 1.75 287 ( ) + 1117 =
R
right
=
kips (controls)
1.25 79 238 + 85 + ( ) 1.5 113 ( ) + 1.75 294 ( ) + 1187 =
R
left
=
Reaction Location
Load Left Right Source
Steel 79 k 93 k 3D Finite Element Analysis
Deck 238 k 370 k (Not tabulated)
SupImp 85 k 11 k Unfactored results are shown
FWS 113 k 15 k
Total DL 515 k 489 k
LL + IM 294 k 287 k
65 k 16 k uplift
Compute the factored reactions.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Design of Bearing Stiffeners
D37
Eq (6.9.4.13)
Kl
r
s
π

\

.
2
F
y
E

\

.
λ =
Calculate P
n
. Check if λ is greater than or less than 2.25.
where: P
n
= nominal compressive resistance as specified in Article 6.9.4
φ
c
= resistance factor according to Article 6.5.4.2
Eq (6.9.2.11) P
r
= φ
c
P
n
Assume the concentrated load is applied concentrically with respect to the centroidal axes of the bearing
stiffener. The bearing stiffener assembly may then be designed as a centrally loaded compression
member according to the provisions of Article 6.10.11.2.4 for the axial resistance of bearing stiffeners.
These provisions state that the factored axial resistance, P
r
, is determined using Article 6.9.2.1 where the
radius of gyration is computed about the midthickness of the web and the effective length shall be taken
as 0.75D.
1187 k < 1.0(1400) = 1400 k OK
The resistance factor, φ
b
, is taken to be 1.0 from Article 6.5.4.2.
k 1.4 20 ( ) 50 ( ) 1400 = (R
sb
)
n
=
F
ys
= 50 ksi
= 20 in
2
A
pn
= area of the projecting elements of the stiffener outside the webtoflange fillet welds
but not beyond the edge of the flange (in
2
)
where:
Eq (6.10.11.2.32) 1.4A
pn
F
ys
(R
sb
)
n
=
The nominal bearing resistance for the fitted ends, (R
sb
)
n
, is:
Eq (6.10.11.2.31) (R
sb
)
r
= φ
b
(R
sb
)
n
The factored bearing resistance for the fitted ends of bearing stiffeners is determined using the provisions
of Article 6.10.11.2.3.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Design of Bearing Stiffeners (continued)
D38
P
u
= 1187 k < P
r
= 1559 k OK
k
0.9 ( ) 1732 ( ) 1559 =
P
r
=
P
r
= φ
c
P
n
Eq (6.9.4.11) k
0.66
0.022
50 ( ) 34.96 ( ) 1732 =
P
n
= 0.66
λ
F
y
A
s
=
< 2.25, use Eq (6.9.4.11) for P
n
0.75 80.4 ( )
5.39 π ( )
2
50
29000

\

.
0.022 = λ =
Therefore;
1014
34.96
5.39 =
r
s
=
in
4
2
1 11 ( )
3
12
11 6 ( )
2
+
1014 =
I =
in
2
12.96 2 ( )11 + 34.96 =
A =
I
A
r
s
=
Calculate r
s
.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Design of Bearing Stiffeners (continued)
D39
Eq (6.9.4.21)
b
t
k
E
F
y
≤
The provisions of Article 6.9.4.1 are used to determine the nominal compressive resistance of non
composite members when Eq (6.9.4.21) is satisfied. There is no eccentricity with respect to the yaxis.
< 140 OK
0.75 222 ( )
2.65
62.8 =
=
Kl
r
y
Check buckling about the yaxis. The limiting slenderness ratio for compression members is specified
in Article 6.9.3. Use the effective length factor, as specified in Article 4.6.2.5, for bolted connections at
both ends.
Try: WT 9x48.5
From AISC Manual: A = 14.3 in
2
; y = 1.91 in.; S
x
= 12.7 in
3
; r
x
= 2.56 in.; r
y
= 2.65 in.
Try a structural tee (WT) section with the stem down and its flange bolted to the bottom of the tub
flanges, which is the preferable method of connection. Assume that a timber member will brace the
structural tee at midlength in the vertical plane during construction. Therefore, the unbraced length with
respect to the xaxis equals 222/2 = 111 in. The unbraced length with respect to the yaxis = 222 in.
in.
104
2
196
2
+ 222 =
L
c
=
Tub width at top = 120 in.; top flange width = 16 in.
Clear distance between top flanges = 120  16 = 104 in.
Distance between cross frames = 16.3 feet = 195.6 in., say 196 in.
Compute the bracing length, L
c
.
kips (C)
1.25 113 − ( ) 141 − =
Load Factor = 1.25 (Article 3.4.2); Design load =
Load Force Source
Steel 13 k Table C4 (from 3D finite element analysis)
Cast #1 100 k Unfactored results are shown
113 k
Top flanges of tub girders subjected to torsional loads need braced so that the section acts as a
pseudobox for noncomposite loads applied before the concrete deck hardens or is made composite.
Design the top (tub) flange single diagonal bracing member in Span 1 of Girder 2 in the first bay adjacent
to the abutment (Element 1 in Table C4). Article 6.11.1 specifies that the top lateral bracing for tub
sections must satisfy the provisions of Article 6.7.5. Tub flange bracing must be designed to satisfy the
constructibility limit state as well as the final condition. Since lateral bracing is not required for
continuously braced flanges, investigate the bracing for the construction staging only. The bracing is
designed according to the provisions of Articles 6.8 and 6.9 for tension and compression, respectively.
Wind lateral loading is neglected in this example.
Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1
Top Flange Bracing Member Design  Constructibility
D40
Check buckling about the xaxis.
Consider the eccentricity of the connection.
Compute the moment due to the eccentricity of the force at the flange face.
M
ux
= 141 1.91 ( ) 269 = kin
Verify that the limiting slenderness ratio of Article 6.9.3 is satisfied.
Kl
r
x
=
0.75 111 ( )
2.56
32.5 = < 140 OK
Use the provisions of Article 6.9.2.2 to check the resistance of the member under combined axial
compression and flexure.
P
u
P
r
=
141 −
483.3
0.292 = > 0.2, therefore, use Eq (6.9.2.22)
P
u
P
r
8.0
9.0
M
ux
M
rx
M
uy
M
ry
+

\

.
+ 1.0 ≤ Eq (6.9.2.22)
Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1
Top Flange Bracing Member Design  Constructibility (continued)
The plate buckling coefficient is taken as 0.75 from Table 6.9.4.21 for stems of rolled tees. The width, b,
is taken as the full depth of the tee section and thickness, t, is for that of the stem.
9.295
0.535
17.4 = < 0.75
29000
50
18.1 = OK
Therefore, the provisions of Article 6.9.4.1 apply. Determine if Eq (6.9.4.11 or 2) is to be used for the
nominal compressive resistance, P
n
.
λ =
Kl
r
s
π

\

.
2
F
y
E
=
0.75 222 ( )
2.65π
2
50
29000

\

.
0.69 = Eq (6.9.4.13)
Since λ is less than 2.25, Eq (6.9.4.11) is used for the calculation of P
n
.
P
n
= 0.66
λ
F
y
A
s
Eq (6.9.4.11)
= 0.66
0.69
50 ( ) 14.3 ( ) 537 = k
P
u
= 141 k < P
r
= φ
c
P
n
= 0.9(537) = 483.3 k OK
D41
G = shear modulus of elasticity of steel, 11,200 ksi
I
y
= 100 in
4
E = 29,000 ksi
for stems in compression
M
n
1.0M
y
≤
for stems in tension, this is used for this example since the member is in
positive bending. 1.5M
y
was calculated previously as 79.38 kft.
M
n
1.5M
y
≤
where:
AISC Eq (F115)
π EI
y
GJ
L
b
B 1 B
2
+ +

\

.
M
n
= M
cr
=
For tee sections, use Chapter F1.2c in the Specification section of the AISC Manual.
Lateraltorsional buckling:
M
p
= 50(22.6)/12 = 93.75 kft > 79.38 kft, therefore, M
n
= 79.38 kft
1.5M
y
= 79.38 kft
kft
50 12.7 ( )
12
52.92 =
M
y
= F
y
S =
where:
AISC Eq (F11)
F
y
Z 1.5M
y
≤
M
n
= M
p
=
Yielding:
Use the provisions of Article 6.12.2.2.4 for noncomposite structural tees. The nominal bending
resistance is the lowest value as limited by yielding, lateral torsional buckling or local buckling of the
elements. The Specifications direct the designer to the AISC Manual for Steel Construction for the
determination of M
n
. The nominal flexural resistance, M
n
, is the lowest value according to the limit
states of: yielding, lateral torsional buckling, flange local buckling and web local buckling. For unbraced
compact and noncompact tees, only the yielding and lateraltorsional buckling limit states are applicable.
Eq (6.12.1.2.11)
M
rx
= φ
f
M
n
Determine the factored flexural resistance about the xaxis using the provisions of Article 6.12 for the
miscellaneous flexural members.
Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1
Top Flange Bracing Member Design  Constructibility (continued)
D42
< 1.0 OK 0.292
8.0
9.0
269
79.38 12 ( )
0 +
+ 0.54 =
M
rx
is taken as the value for yielding, 1.0(79.38) = 79.38 kft in Eq (6.9.2.22)
619.2 kft > 1.5M
y
kin
π 29000 100 ( ) 11200 ( ) 2.88 ( )
222
0.567 1 0.567
2
+ +

\

.
7430 = M
n
=
Therefore, the lateraltorsional buckling nominal flexural resistance is:
AISC Eq (F16) 2.3
9.295
222

\

.
100
2.88
0.567 = = 2.3
d
L
b

\

.
I
y
J
B =
11.145 0.870 ( )
3
8.425 0.535 ( )
3
+
3
2.88 = =
Σ
bt
3
3
J = torsional constant =
Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1
Top Flange Bracing Member Design  Constructibility (continued)
D43
Compute D
c
considering the transverse stiffeners according to Bethlehem Guide Equation (A3d) since
Article 6.11.1.1 permits transverse stiffeners to be considered effective in resisting transverse bending.
D
c
= flexural rigidity of web
kin
2
/in.
29000 1.5 ( )
3
12 1 0.30
2
−
( )
8963 =
=
E
s
t
b
3
12 1 u
s
2
−

\

.
D
b
=
kin
2
/in.
3834 9.5 ( )
3
12 1 0.2
2
−
( )
285345 =
=
E
c
t
a
3
12 1 u
c
2
−

\

.
D
a
=
D
a
= flexural rigidity of deck; D
b
= flexural rigidity of bottom flange
Compute the transverse flexural rigidities of the deck and bottom flange from Bethlehem Guide Equations
(A3a) and (A3b), respectively.
Poisson's ratio for concrete, u
c
= 0.2 (Article 5.4.2.5); Poisson's ratio for steel, u
s
= 0.30
Transverse stiffener  try a plate 5.5 in. x 0.5 in.
I
comp
= 836,080 in
4
(from Table C5)
Minimum transverse stiffener spacing = 62 in. (Calculations not shown)
Cross frame spacing = 16.3 ft. = 196 in.
t
c
= web thickness = 0.5625 in.
t
b
= bottom flange thickness = 1.50 in.
t
a
= slab thickness = 9.5 in.
E
c
= 3,834 ksi; E
s
= 29,000 ksi
The fatigue loading produces a positive torque of 254 kft and a negative torque of 232 kft at the pier,
Section 55 Node 36, as given in Table C3. The total range of factored torque is 486 kft (5,832 kin).
The "Design Guide to Box Girder Bridges," Bethlehem Steel Corporation, 1981, presents a method
developed by Wright and AbdelSamed (1968) to estimate transverse bending stresses using the Beam
on Elastic Foundation Analogy (BEF). In this method, the deflection of the BEF is analogous to the
transverse bending stress.
The most critical condition is likely to be fatigue at the termination of fillet welds connecting transverse
stiffeners to the web (Category E).
Article 6.11.1.1 requires that the transverse bending stresses in webs and flanges be investigated and
determined by rational structural analysis. These provisions limit the transverse bending stresses due to
the factored loads at the strength limit state to 20 ksi. The transverse bending stress range due to cross
section distortion must be checked for fatigue as specified in Article 6.11.5 and at the strength limit state.
Longitudinal warping stresses due to crosssection distortion are considered for fatigue as specified in
Article 6.11.5, but may be ignored at the strength limit state.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Transverse Bending Stress
D44
The stiffness of the transverse stiffener is assumed to be distributed evenly along the web.
Bethlehem Guide Eq (A3d) kin
2
/in.
29000 26.5 ( )
62
12395 = =
E
s
I
s
d
D
c
=
in.
1
12

\

.
0.5 ( ) 5.5 ( )
3
2.75
5.5
2
0.5625 + 1.0 −

\

.
2
+
1
12
0.5625 ( )
3
15.8 ( ) + 8.89
0.5625
2
1 −

\

.
2
+ 26.5 = I
s
=
in.
2.75 0.5625
5.5
2
+

\

.
8.89
0.5625
2

\

.
+
11.64
1.0 = N.A. =
Area of stiffener = 5.5 x 0.5 = 2.75 in
2
Area of web = 15.8 x 0.5625 = 8.89 in
2
11.64 in
2
Compute the location of the neutral axis of the effective section from the web face.
in.
62 ( )tanh 5.6
62
80.4

\

.
5.6
62
80.4

\

.
1 0.3
2
−
( )
15.8 = d
o
=
h = c
c = 80.4 in.
d = 62 in. spacing of transverse stiffeners.
Bethlehem Guide Eq (A4)
dtanh 5.6
d
h

\

.
5.6
d
h
1 u
s
2
−

\

.
d
o
=
Compute d
o
in Figure D4 using Equation (A4) from the Bethlehem Guide.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Transverse Bending Stress (continued)
D45
where: l = the distance between cross frames (in.)
0.00327 196 ( ) 0.64 = β l =
in
1
4
1
29000 836080 ( ) 0.36 ( )
0.00327 = β =
where: I = moment of inertia of the composite box
Bethlehem Guide Eq (A5)
4
1
EI
c
δ
1
β =
Compute the BEF stiffness parameter, β, using Bethlehem Guide Equation (A5).
in
2
/k
120 81 ( )
24 120 81 + ( )
80.4
12395
2 120 ( ) 81 ( )
120 81 +
0.22 2 120 ( ) 81 + [ ] −
120
2
285345
81
120 81 +
0.22 −

\

.
+
0.36 = δ
1
=
Bethlehem Guide Eq (A1)
ab
24 a b + ( )
c
D
c
2ab
a b +
v 2a b + ( ) −

\

.
a
2
D
a
b
a b +
v −

\

.
+
δ
1
=
Compute δ
1
, the box distortion per kip per inch of load without diaphragms, according to Equation (A1)
from the Bethlehem Guide.
1
12395
2 120 ( ) 81 + [ ] 120 ( ) 81 ( ) 80.4 ( ) [ ]
1
285345
81 ( ) 120
3
( )
+
120 81 + ( )
120
3
285345
2 80.4 ( ) 120
2
120 81 ( ) + 81
2
+
12395
+
81
3
8963
+
0.22 =
v =
Bethlehem Guide Eq (A2)
1
D
c
2a b + ( )abc [ ]
1
D
a
ba
3
+
a b + ( )
a
3
D
a
2c a
2
ab + b
2
+
( )
D
c
+
b
3
D
b
+

\

.
v =
Compute the compatibility shear at the center of the box (bottom) flange according to Bethlehem Guide
Equation (A2).
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Transverse Bending Stress (continued)
D46
in
1
81 0.22 ( )
2 0.0527 ( )
169 = F
d
=
bv
2S
F
d
= For the bottom corner of the box,
in
3
/in.
1 ( ) 0.5625 ( )
2
6
0.0527 = S
=
Compute S (per inch) for unstiffened portions of the web (more critical than the bottom flange).
Bethlehem Guide Equation (A9a) in
1
81 0.22 ( )
2 0.084 ( )
106 = =
bv
2S
F
d
=
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Transverse Bending Stress (continued)
The transverse bending stress range at the top or bottom corners of the box section may be determined
from Bethlehem Guide Equation (A8).
σ
t
= C
t
F
d
β
1
2a
(ml or T) Bethlehem Guide Equation (A8)
where: C
t
= BEF factor for determining the transverse distortional bending stress from Bethlehem
Guide Figure A6.
m = uniform range of torque per unit length.
l = cross frame spacing
a = distance between webs at the top of the box
T = range of concentrated torque
F
d
= (bv)/(2S) for bottom corner of the box
= a/(2S)[b/(a + b)  v] for top corner of box
S = section modulus of the transverse member (per inch)
Compute the section modulus, S, for stiffened portions of the web.
S =
I
c
=
26.5
5.5 0.5625 + 1.0 − ( )
5.23 = in
3
Compute S per inch.
S =
5.23
62
0.084 = in
3
/in.
D47
The transverse bending stress range caused by the fatigue loading is negligible in this case.
The quantity, q, in Figure A6 represents the ratio of the diaphragm brace stiffness to the box stiffness per
unit length. For the βl value in this example, the curves for q = 1,000 to infinity are clustered around a C
t
value of 0.03. Therefore, C
t
= 0.03 is used. For other cases, q may be calculated from Equation (A6) in
the Bethlehem Guide (not shown). An additional example of the computation of transverse bending
stresses is also given in the Bethlehem Guide.
ksi < 20.0 ksi OK 0.03 208 ( ) 0.00327 ( )
5832
2 120 ( )
0.5 = σ
t
=
Read C
t
from Bethlehem Guide Figure A6: C
t
= 0.03
Bethlehem Guide Equation (A8)
C
t
F
d
β
T
2a
σ
t
=
Compute f
t
using Bethlehem Guide Equation (A8).
(Unstiffened) in
1
(controls)
120
2 0.0527 ( )
81
201
0.22 −

\

.
208 =
F
d
=
(Stiffened) in
1
120
2 0.084 ( )
81
120 81 +
0.22 −

\

.
131 =
F
d
=
Bethlehem Guide Equation (A9b)
a
2S
b
a b +
v −

\

.
For the top corner of the box, F
d
=
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36
Transverse Bending Stress (continued)
D48
ksi for cracked section
w/o rebar (T)
1.75 3087 −
( )
42.80 ( )
185187
12 ( ) 14.98 =
f
top
(LL + IM) =
ksi for n (C)
1.75 5264 ( ) 10.78 ( )
479646
− 12 ( ) 2.48 − =
f
top
(LL + IM) =
ksi for cracked section
w/o rebar (C)
1.5 428 ( ) 42.80 ( )
185187
− 12 ( ) 1.78 − =
f
top
(FWS) =
ksi for 3n (C)
1.5 428 ( ) 24.27 ( )
354925
− 12 ( ) 0.53 − =
f
top
(FWS) =
ksi for cracked section
w/o rebar (C)
1.25 326 ( ) 42.80 ( )
185187
− 12 ( ) 1.13 − =
f
top
(Superimposed DL) =
ksi for 3n (C)
1.25 326 ( ) 24.27 ( )
354925
− 12 ( ) 0.33 − =
f
top
(Superimposed DL) =
ksi (C)
1.25 1941 ( ) 42.80 ( )
185187
− 12 ( ) 6.73 − =
f
top
(Deck) =
ksi (C)
1.25 462 ( ) 42.80 ( )
185187
− 12 ( ) 1.6 − =
f
top
(Steel) =
Compute the vertical bending stresses in the top extreme fiber of the steel at this section. Moments are
from Table C1 and section properties are from Table C5. In this particular case, the girder sections
immediately to the left and right of Section 22 are the same (except for the flange stiffener).
Check the bottom flange bending stress at Section 22, which is located 100 feet from the abutment.
Since this is the location of the bolted field splice in Span 1, it is desirable to terminate the longitudinal
flange stiffener at this location where the longitudinal stress at the free edge of the flange is zero. By
terminating the longitudinal flange stiffener at the free edge of the flange (at the bolted splice) and not
extending it further into the end span, fatigue of the base metal at the terminus of the stiffenertoflange
weld need not be considered. The bottom flange splice plate inside the box must be split to permit the
stiffener to extend to the free edge of the flange (Figure D5). Also, the compressive resistance of the
unstiffened bottom (box) flange on the side of the field splice directly across from the stiffener termination
must be checked at the strength limit state to ensure that the stiffener can be terminated at this section.
The section properties of the section without the flange stiffener are used below. The effect of the
concrete reinforcement in the stress calculation is neglected in this example.
Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Stresses
D49
Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Stresses (continued)
Compute the factored vertical bending stress in the top flange at the strength limit state.
f
top
= 1.6 − 6.73 − ( ) + 0.33 − ( ) + 0.53 − ( ) + 2.48 − ( ) + 11.67 − = ksi
f
top
= 1.6 − 6.73 − ( ) + 1.13 − ( ) + 1.78 − ( ) + 14.98 + 3.74 = ksi (for cracked section without
rebar)
By similar computations, Tables D1 and D2 are created.
D50
The enclosed area of the composite box is computed to be A
o
= 60.8 ft
2
.
f
v
=
T
2A
o
t
fc
=
1160 −
2 60.8 ( ) 0.625 ( )
1
12

\

.
1.27 =
ksi
f
v
=
0.24 1.27 + ( ) 1.51 =
ksi
Compute the nominal flexural resistance for the bottom flange at the strength limit state according to
Article 6.11.8 for sections in negative flexure.
First, determine λ
f
, the slenderness ratio for the compression flange.
Eq (6.11.8.2.24)
λ
f
=
b
fc
t
fc
=
81
0.625
129.6 =
where b
fc
is the flange width between webs measured in inches
Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Bottom Flange
Check the compressive resistance of the unstiffened bottom flange directly across from the flange stiffener
termination according to the provisions of Article 6.11.8.2.2.
Compute the St. Venant torsional shear stress in the bottom flange due to the noncomposite loads.
Load Torque
Steel 1.25(36) = 45 kft All values are from Table C3
Deck 1.25(125) = 156 kft
Total Factored NC DL Torque = 201 kft
Compute the bottom flange shear stress due to the noncomposite loads.
The enclosed area of the noncomposite box is computed to be A
o
= 55.0 ft
2
.
f
v
=
T
2A
o
t
fc
=
201 −
2 55.0 ( ) 0.625 ( )
1
12

\

.
0.24 =
ksi Eq (6.11.8.2.26)
where: T = torque; A
o
= enclosed area of box; t
fc
= flange thickness
Compute the St. Venant torsional shear stress in the bottom flange due to the composite loads.
Load Torque
SupImp DL 1.25(58) = 73 kft All values are from Table C3
FWS 1.50(76) = 114 kft
LL + IM 1.75(556) = 973 kft
Total Factored Comp. DL Torque = 1,160 kft
Compute the bottom flange shear stress due to the composite loads.
D51
Eq (6.11.8.2.29)
1.23
1
1.2
F
yr
F
yc
F
yr
F
yc

\

.
2
4
f
v
F
yc

\

.
2
k
k
s

\

.
2
+ +
R
2
=
R
2
k E
F
yc
Determine if λ
f
is less than or greater than
< λ
f
= 129.6 0.57
4.0 29000 ( )
50
27.5 =
k = platebuckling coefficient for uniform normal stress = 4.0
k
s
= platebuckling coefficient for shear stress = 5.34
0.57
1
2
0.999 0.999
2
4
1.51
50

\

.
2
4.0
5.34

\

.
2
+ +
0.57 = R
1
=
1 3
1.51
50

\

.
2
− 0.999 = =
Eq (6.11.8.2.25) 1 3
f
v
F
y

\

.
2
− ∆ =
Compute ∆ according to Eq (6.11.8.2.25).
Eq (6.11.8.2.28)
0.57
1
2
∆ ∆
2
4
f
v
F
yc

\

.
2
k
k
s

\

.
2
+ +
R
1
=
where:
R
1
k E
F
yc
Determine the equation used to compute the nominal flexural resistance.
Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Bottom Flange
D52
Therefore, the longitudinal flange stiffener may be discontinued at the field splice.
3.22 ksi < 1.0(6.01) = 6.01 ksi OK
Eq (6.11.8.1.11)
f
bu
φ
f
F
nc
≤
From Table D1, the computed factored compressive stress in the bottom flange for strength = 3.22 ksi.
ksi
0.9 29000 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 4.0 ( )
81
0.625

\

.
2
1.0 ( ) 1.51 ( )
2
4.0 ( )
0.9 29000 ( ) 5.34 ( )
2
81
0.625

\

.
2
− 6.01 =
F
nc
=
R
b
is determined using the provisions of 6.10.1.10.2. Since this section is composite, is
in positive flexure and satisfies the web proportioning limits of Article 6.10.2.1, R
b
is
taken as 1.0.
where:
Eq (6.11.8.2.23)
0.9ER
b
k
b
fc
t
fc

\

.
2
R
b
f
v
2
k
0.9Ek
s
2
b
fc
t
fc

\

.
2
−
F
nc
=
< 129.6 therefore, use Eq (6.11.8.2.23) for the calculation of F
nc
1.23
4.0 29000 ( )
50
59.2 =
1.23
1
1.2
29.95
50
29.95
50

\

.
2
4
1.51
50

\

.
2
4.0
5.34

\

.
2
+ +
1.23 =
R
2
=
ksi
0.999 0.4 − ( )50 29.95 =
=
Eq (6.11.8.2.27)
∆ 0.4 − ( )F
yc
F
yw
≤
F
yr
=
where:
Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Bottom Flange
D53
Article 6.13.6.1.4a states that the factored flexural resistance of the section at the point of the splice at
the strength limit state must satisfy the applicable provisions of Article 6.10.6.2.
Eq (6.13.2.22) where φ is specified in Article 6.5.4.2 R
r
= φR
n
The factored resistance, R
r
of a bolted connection at the strength limit state shall be taken as:
Strength
k/bolt 1.0 ( ) 0.50 ( ) 2 ( ) 39 ( ) 39 = R
n
=
N
s
= number of slip planes per bolt
P
t
= minimum required bolt tension specified in Table 6.13.2.81 (kips)
K
h
= hole size factor specified in Table 6.13.2.82
K
s
= surface condition factor specified in Table 6.13.2.83
where:
Eq (6.13.2.81) R
n
= K
h
K
s
N
s
P
t
The nominal slip resistance of a bolt in a slipcritical connection is taken as:
where: R
n
= the nominal resistance as specified in Article 6.13.2.8 R
r
= R
n
For slipcritical connections, the factored resistance, R
r
, of a bolt at the Service II Load Combination is
taken as:
Slip Resistance (Article 6.13.2.8)
Service and Constructibility
Use a Class B surface condition for unpainted blastcleaned surfaces. Bolts are in double shear and
threads are not permitted in the shear planes.
Use 7/8 in. diameter ASTM A 325 bolts. Table 6.13.2.4.21 provides a standard hole size of 15/16 in. for a
7/8 in. diameter bolt.
Bolt capacities (Articles 6.13.2.3.1 and 6.4.3)
Design the bolted field splice at this section according to the provisions of Article 6.13.6.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Design Action Summary and Section Information
D54
k/bolt
0.8 65.81 ( ) 52.65 =
R
r
=
where: φ
bb
is from Article 6.5.4.2 R
r
= φ
bb
R
n
k/bolt
1.2 1.5 ( ) 0.5625 ( ) 65 ( ) 65.81 =
R
n
=
In this case, the end distance is 2.0 in. creating a clear end distance of 1.5 in. which less than 2.0d,
therefore, Eq (6.13.2.92) applies. The nominal bolt resistance for the end row of bolts is:
d = nominal diameter of the bolt (in.)
L
c
= clear distance between holes or between the hole and the end of the member
in the direction of the applied force (in.)
t = thickness of the connected material (in.)
F
u
= tensile resistance of the connected material specified in Table 6.4.11 (ksi)
where:
Eq (6.13.2.92) R
n
= 1.2L
c
tF
u
If either the clear distance between holes is less than 2.0d, or the clear end distance is less than 2.0d:
Eq (6.13.2.91) R
n
= 2.4dtF
u
With bolts spaced at a clear distance between holes not less than 2.0d and with a clear end distance
not less than 2.0d:
For standard holes, the nominal resistance of interior and end bolt holes at the strength limit state, R
n
, is
taken as:
Bearing Resistance (Article 6.13.2.9)
k/bolt
0.8 69.2 ( ) 55.4 =
R
r
=
where φ
s
is the shear resistance factor from Article 6.5.4.2 R
r
= φ
s
R
n
k/bolt
0.48 0.601 ( ) 120 ( ) 2 ( ) 69.2 =
R
n
=
Eq (6.13.2.71) R
n
= 0.48A
b
F
ub
N
s
The nominal shear resistance, R
n
, of a highstrength bolt at the strength limit state where the length
between extreme fasteners measured parallel to the line of action of the force is less than 50.0 in. and
the threads are excluded from the shear plane is as follows:
Shear Resistance (Article 6.13.2.7)
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Design Action Summary and Section Information (continued)
D55
The tensile bolt resistance is not used in this example.
k/bolt 0.76 0.601 ( ) 120 ( ) 54.8 = T
n
=
Eq (6.13.2.10.21) T
n
= 0.76A
b
F
ub
The nominal tensile resistance of a bolt, T
n
, independent of any initial tightening force shall be taken as:
Tensile Resistance (Article 6.13.2.10)
k/bolt 0.8 76.78 ( ) 61.42 = R
r
=
Eq (6.13.2.91) k/bolt 2.4 0.875 ( ) 0.5625 ( ) 65 ( ) 76.78 = R
n
=
The nominal bolt resistance for the interior rows is computed as:
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Design Action Summary and Section Information (continued)
D56
k/bolt
176 −
12
14.67 =
F
Long
vert
=
Compute the force in each bolt resulting from the vertical bending stress.
kips
11.13 − 10.87 −
2

\

.
16.0 ( ) 176 − =
F
top
=
Compute the force in the top flange using the average vertical bending stress in the flange. The gross
section of the flange is used to check for slip.
f
top web
= 10.87 ksi
f
top flg
= 11.13 ksi
The factored vertical bending stresses for steel and Cast #1 are taken from Table D2.
kft (unfactored from Table D3)
1 − 15 − ( ) + 16 − =
Lateral flange moment =
kft (unfactored from Table D3)
462 2749 + 3211 =
Moment =
A
b
= area of one bolt (in
2
)
where:
= 342 A
b
in
4
A
b
2 3 ( ) 3.0
2
6.0
2
+
( )
2 4 ( ) 3.0
2
( )
+
I
p
=
Compute the polar moment of inertia of the top flange bolt pattern shown in Figure D5.
Article 6.13.6.1.4c requires that lateral bending effects in discretely braced top flanges of tub sections be
considered in the design of bolted flange splices. Lateral flange bending must be considered for the top
flanges of tub girders prior to hardening of the deck. To account for the effects of lateral flange bending,
the flange splice bolts will be designed for the combined effects of shear and moment using the traditional
elastic vector method. The shear on the bolts is caused by the flange force calculated from the average
vertical bending stress in the flange and the moment on the bolts is caused by the lateral flange bending.
Since Cast #1 causes a larger positive moment than the entire deck, Steel + Cast #1 controls.
Constructibility: Load factor = 1.25 (Article 3.4.2).
Constructibility
Article 6.13.6.1.4a requires that highstrength bolted connections designated as slip critical be
proportioned to prevent slip under Load Combination Service II. In addition, bearing, shear, and tensile
resistance at the applicable strength limit state load combinations must be provided. Article 6.13.6.1.4a
also requires that highstrength bolted connections be proportioned to prevent slip for constructibility.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Top Flange
D57
R
u
= 19.0 k/bolt < R
r
= 39 k/bolt OK
R
u
R
r
≤ Check
k/bolt 2.11
2
18.88
2
+ 19 = Σ
F
=
Compute the resultant force on the critical bolt.
k/bolt
16 − 3.0 ( )
342
12 ( ) 1.25 ( ) 2.11 = F
Trans
=
Compute the transverse component of force in the critical bolt.
k/bolt 14.67 4.21 + 18.88 = F
Long tot
=
Therefore,
k/bolt
16 − 6.0 ( )
342
12 ( ) 1.25 ( ) 4.21 = F
Long lat
=
Compute the longitudinal component of force in the critical bolt due to the lateral flange moment.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Top Flange (continued)
D58
k/bolt
77.4 36.25 ( )
19859
0.14 =
F
Long M
=
Compute the longitudinal component of force in the critical bolt due to the factored moment.
kin
17.2 2.25 2.25 + ( ) 77.4 =
M =
Compute the factored moment in the bottom flange due to the torsional shear. Assume the shear is
applied at the centerline of the splice (i.e. at the juncture of the two flange plates).
kips
224 −
2 55.0 ( )
81
12

\

.
1.25 ( ) 17.2 =
=
T
2A
o
b
f
V =
Compute the factored St. Venant torsional shear in the bottom flange. From Table D3, the unfactored
torque due to Steel plus Cast #1 = 36 + (188) = 224 kft. The enclosed area of the noncomposite box,
A
o
, is computed to be 55.0 ft
2
.
I
p
= A
b
[2(20)(2.25)
2
+ 2(2)(2.5
2
+ 6.25
2
+ 10
2
+ 13.75
2
+ 17.5
2
+ 21.25
2
+ 25
2
+ 28.75
2
+ 32.5
2
+ 36.25
2
)] = 19,859A
b
in
4
Compute the polar moment of inertia of the bottom flange bolt pattern shown in Figure D5.
To account for the effects of the St. Venant torsional shear in the bottom flange, the flange splice bolts
will again be designed for the combined effects of shear and moment using the traditional elastic vector
method, as illustrated below.
kips
9.58 9.42 +
2

\

.
51.88 ( ) 493 =
F
bot
=
Compute the force in the bottom flange from the average constructibility vertical bending stress. The
gross section of the flange is used to check for slip.
f
bot web
= 9.42 ksi
f
bot flg
= 9.58 ksi
Since Cast #1 causes a larger positive moment than the entire deck, Steel + Cast #1 controls
constructibility. Load factor = 1.25 (Article 3.4.2). The factored vertical bending stresses are taken from
Table D2.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Bottom Flange
D59
R
u
= 12.47 k/bolt < R
r
= 39 k/bolt OK
R
u
R
r
≤ Check
k/bolt 12.46
2
0.44
2
+ 12.47 = Σ
F
=
Compute the resultant force in the critical bolt.
k/bolt 0.009 0.43 + 0.44 = F
Trans tot
=
k/bolt
17.2
40
0.43 = F
v
=
Compute the force in each bolt resulting from the torsional shear.
k/bolt
77.4 2.25 ( )
19859
0.009 = F
Trans
=
Compute the transverse component of force in the critical bolt.
k/bolt 0.14 12.32 + 12.46 = F
Long tot
=
Therefore,
k/bolt
493
40
12.32 = F
Long
vert
=
Compute the force in each bolt resulting from the vertical bending stress.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Bottom Flange (continued)
D60
The effective width of the top flange is computed as:
(b
f
)
eff
=
A
e
t
=
12
1.0
12 =
in.
Section properties computed using the effective top flange width are used to calculate the vertical
bending stresses in the flange at the splice for strength whenever the top flange is subjected to
tension. The gross area is used for the bottom flange since it is in compression.
Similarly, the effective area of the bottom flange is computed as:
A
n
=
83.0 20 0.875 0.125 + ( ) − [ ] 0.625 ( ) 39.4 =
in
2
A
g
=
83.0 ( ) 0.625 ( ) 51.9 =
in
2
A
e
=
0.8 65 ( )
0.95 50 ( )
39.4 ( ) 43.13 =
in
2
< 51.9 in
2
Therefore,
A
e
= 43.13 in
2
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Top and Bottom Flange
The effective area of the top flange is computed from Article 6.13.6.1.4c as follows:
A
e
=
φ
u
F
u
φ
y
F
yt

\

.
A
n
A
g
≤
Eq (6.13.6.1.4c2)
where:
F
u
= minimum tensile resistance of the tension flange, ksi
F
yt
= minimum yield resistance of the tension flange, ksi
A
n
= net area of the flange calculated as specified in Article 6.8.3, in
2
=
16.0 4 0.875 0.125 + ( ) − [ ] 1.0 ( ) 12 =
in
2
A
g
= gross area of the flange, in
2
=
16.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 16 =
in
2
A
e
=
0.8 65 ( )
0.95 50 ( )
12 ( ) 13.14 =
in
2
< 16 in
2
D61
ksi (T)
1.25 2403 ( ) 37.52 ( )
179050
1.25 326 ( ) 1.5 428 ( ) + [ ] 55.63 ( )
338310
+
1.75 5264 ( ) 68.90 ( )
456064
+
12 26.32 = F
bot flg
=
ksi (C)
1.25 2403 ( ) 41.29 ( )
179050
1.25 326 ( ) 1.5 428 ( ) + [ ] 23.18 ( )
338310
+
1.75 5264 ( ) 9.91 ( )
456064
+
− 12 11.58 − = F
top flg
=
Positive live load bending case
ksi (C)
1.25 2403 ( ) 37.52 ( )
179050
1.25 326 ( ) 1.5 428 ( ) + [ ] 35.79 ( )
179740
+
1.75 3087 − ( ) 35.79 ( )
179740
+
12 2.85 − = F
bot flg
=
ksi (T)
1.25 2403 ( ) 41.29 ( )
179050
1.25 326 ( ) 1.5 428 ( ) + [ ] 43.02 ( )
179740
+
1.75 3087 − ( ) 43.02 ( )
179740
+
− 12 4.19 = F
top flg
=
Negative live load bending case
Using the effective section properties (from separate calculations), calculate the average factored bending
stress in the top and bottom flange at the Strength limit state for both the positive and the negative live
load bending conditions.
Calculate the factored vertical bending stress in the top and bottom flange midthicknesses at the
strength limit state for both the positive and negative live load bending conditions. The longitudinal
component of the top flange bracing area is again included in the effective section properties. The
contribution of deck reinforcement is not included in the section properties at this section. The smaller
section is to be used to design the splice, therefore, the longitudinal flange stiffener is not included. The
provisions of Article 4.5.2.2 are followed to determine which composite section (cracked or uncracked) to
use.
Section properties from Table C5 are computed using the effective bottom flange thickness are used to
calculate the vertical bending stresses in the flange at the splice for strength whenever the bottom flange
is subjected to tension. The gross area is used for the top flange in this case. For flanges and splice
plates subjected to compression, net section fracture is not a concern and the effective area is taken
equal to the gross area.
It is more advantageous to determine the effective thickness for the bottom flange and not the effective
width in order to maintain the web slopes.
in.
43.13
83.0
0.52 = =
A
e
b
f
(t
f
)
eff
=
For the bottom flange of the box, an effective flange thickness will be computed. The effective thickness
of the bottom flange is computed as:
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Top and Bottom Flange (continued)
D62
where α is again taken as 1.0. For a continuously braced top flange in tension, α should also be taken
equal to 1.0.
Eq (6.13.6.1.4c3)
R
cf
f
ncf
R
h
0.75αφ
f
F
y
≥
F
ncf
=
The minimum design stress for the noncontrolling (top) flange for this case is specified in Article
6.13.6.1.4c as:
kips (T)
38.16 43.13 ( ) 1646 =
P
cf
=
The minimum design force for the controlling (bottom) flange, P
cf
, is taken equal to F
cf
times the smaller
effective flange area, A
e
, on either side of the splice. The area of the smaller flange is used to ensure that
the design force does not exceed the strength of the smaller flange. In this case, the effective flange
areas are the same on both sides of the splice.
ksi; therefore, use 38.16 ksi
0.75 1.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 50 ( ) 37.5 =
0.75αφ
f
F
yf
=
ksi
26.32
1.0
1.0 1.0 ( ) 50 ( ) +
2
38.16 =
F
cf
=
f
cf
is the maximum flexural stress due to the factored loads at the midthickness of the controlling flange
at the point of splice. The hybrid factor R
h
is taken as 1.0 when F
cf
does not exceed the specified
minimum yield resistance of the web. α is taken as 1.0, except that a lower value equal to (F
n
/F
yf
) may
be used for flanges where F
n
is less than F
yf
.
Eq (6.13.6.1.4c1)
f
cf
R
h
αφ
f
F
yf
+

\

.
2
0.75αφ
f
F
yf
≥
F
cf
=
Separate calculations (similar to subsequent calculations) show that the positive live load bending case is
critical. For this loading case, the bottom flange is the controlling flange since it has the largest ratio of
the flexural stress to the corresponding critical flange stress. Article 6.13.6.1.4c defines the design
stress, F
cf
, for the controlling flange as follows:
An acceptable alternative to the preceding calculation is to calculate the average factored vertical bending
stress in both flanges for both live load bending conditions using the appropriate gross section properties.
Then, for the flange in tension, multiply the calculated average stress times the gross area, A
g
, of the
flange, and then divide the resulting force by the effective area, A
e
, of the flange to determine an adjusted
average tensionflange stress. Then, for the critical live load bending condition, use the adjusted average
stress in the tension flange and the calculated average stress in the compression flange to determine
which flange is the controllong flange, as defined below.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Top and Bottom Flange (continued)
D63
Load Torque
Steel 1.25(36) = 45 kft
Deck 1.25(125) = 156 kft
Noncomposite torque 201 kft
Compute the factored St. Venant torsional shear in the bottom flange at the strength limit state. Warping
torsion is ignored since it is assumed in this example that the spacing of the internal bracing is sufficient
to limit the warping stress to 10 percent of the vertical bending stress at the strength limit state (Article
6.7.5.3). Further, the specifications do not require warping to be considered in the design of bolted box
flange splices at the strength limit state. From Table D3, the torques are as follows:
Bottom Flange
Since a fill plate is not required for the top flange splice, no reduction in the bolt design shear resistance
is required per the requirements of Article 6.13.6.1.5.
k/bolt < 55.4 k/bolt OK
600
12
50 =
bolts, use 12 bolts
600
55.4
10.8 = =
F
ncf
A
e
R
r
No. bolts required =
St. Venant torsional shears are not considered in the top flanges of tub girders. Lateral flange bending in
the top flange is also not considered after the deck has hardened and the section is closed. Therefore:
Top Flange
where the effective flange area, A
e
, is taken equal to the smaller gross flange area, A
g
, on either side of
the splice since the flange is subjected to compression. In this case, the gross flange areas are the
same on both sides of the splice.
kips (C) 37.5 ( ) 16.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 600 = P
ncf
= F
ncf
A
e
=
The minimum design force for the noncontrolling flange, P
ncf
, is computed as:
ksi (controls) 0.75 1.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 50 ( ) 37.5 = 0.75αφ
f
F
yf
=
ksi 1.45
11.58 −
1.0
16.79 = = R
cf
f
ncf
R
h
f
ncf
is the factored vertical bending stress in the noncontrolling flange at the splice concurrent with f
cf
.
38.16
26.32
1.45 = =
F
cf
f
cf
R
cf
=
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Top and Bottom Flange (continued)
D64
105.7 2.25 2.25 + ( ) 475.7 =
kin
Compute the longitudinal component of force in the critical bolt due to the factored moment.
F
Long M
=
475.7 36.25 ( )
19859
0.87 =
k/bolt
Compute the force in each bolt due to the minimum design force, P
cf
.
F
L
=
1646
40
41.1 =
k/bolt
Therefore,
F
Long tot
=
0.87 41.1 + 42 =
k/bolt
Compute the transverse component of force in the critical bolt.
F
Trans
=
475.7 2.25 ( )
19859
0.05 =
k/bolt
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Top and Bottom Flange (continued)
SupImp DL 1.25(58) = 73 kft
FWS 1.50(76) = 114 kft
LL + IM 1.75(517) = 905 kft
Composite torque 1,092 kft
V =
T
2A
o
b
f
V
noncomp
=
201 −
2 55.0 ( )
81
12

\

.
12.3 =
kips
V
comp
=
1092 −
2 60.8 ( )
81
12

\

.
60.6 =
kips
V
total
=
12.3 60.6 + 72.9 =
kips
The total torsional shear is then factored up by R
cf
= 1.45 (see earlier calculations) to be consistent with
the computation of F
cf
and P
cf
.
V
fact
=
72.9 1.45 ( ) 105.7 =
kips
Compute the factored moment in the bottom flange due to the torsional design shear. Assume the shear
is applied at the centerline of the splice (i.e. at the juncture of the two flange plates).
M =
D65
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Top and Bottom Flange (continued)
Compute the force in each bolt resulting from the factored torsional design shear.
F
v
=
105.7
40
2.64 = k/bolt
F
Trans tot
= 2.64 0.05 + 2.69 = k/bolt
Compute the resultant force on the critical bolt.
Σ
F
= 42
2
2.69
2
+ 42.09 = k/bolt
Check R
u
R
r
≤
R
u
= 42.09 k/bolt < R
r
= 55.4 k/bolt OK
Note that a fill plate is also not required for the bottom flange splice. Therefore, no reduction in the bolt
design shear resistance is necessary.
D66
kft
93.75
3
2
4.5
2
+

\

.
1
12

\

.
29.3 =
M
v
= Ve =
Compute the moment, M
v
, due to the eccentricity of the factored shear about the centroid of the
connection (refer to the web bolt pattern in Figure D6).
kips
17 − 58 − ( ) 1.25 ( ) 93.75 − =
V =
From Table D3, compute the factored vertical shear at the splice (bending plus torsional shear in the
critical web) due to Steel plus Cast #1.
Constructibility
As stated previously, Article 6.13.6.1.4a requires that highstrength bolted connections be proportioned to
prevent slip for constructibility. Article 6.13.6.1.4b requires that bolted web splices be designed to prevent
slip under the most critical combination of the design actions at service load, Load Combination Service II.
in
4
20 2 ( )
12
3.75
2
20
2
1 −
( )
3
2
2
2
1 −
( )
+
18793 =
I
p
=
For n = 20; m = 2; s = 3.75 in.; g = 3 in.,
m = number of vertical rows of bolts
n = number of bolts in one vertical row
s = vertical pitch, in.
g = horizontal pitch, in.
where:
Eq (C6.13.6.1.4b3)
nm
12
s
2
n
2
1 −
( )
g
2
m
2
1 −
( )
+
I
p
=
Compute the polar moment of inertia of the web bolts about the centroid of the bolt group on one side of
the connection.
A pattern of two rows of 7/8 in. bolts spaced vertically at 3.75 in. will be tried for the web splice. There
are 40 bolts on each side of the web splice. The pattern is shown in Figure D6. Although not illustrated
here, the number of bolts in the web splice could be decreased by spacing a group of bolts closer to the
middepth of the web (where the flexural stress is relatively low) at the maximum spacing specified for
sealing (Article 6.13.2.6.2), and by spacing the remaining two groups of bolts near the top and bottom of
the web at a closer spacing. Note that there is 4.625 in. between the inside of the flanges and the first
bolt to provide sufficient assembly clearance. In this example, the web splice is designed under the
conservative assumption that the maximum moment and shear at the splice will occur under the same
loading condition.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Web
D67
kips
Eq (C6.13.6.1.4b2)
The total moment on the web splice is computed as:
M
tot
= M
v
+ M
uw
= 29.3 487 + 516 = kft
Compute the inplane bolt force due to the factored vertical shear.
F
s
=
V
N
b
=
93.75
40
2.34 = k/bolt;
2.34
cos 14.0
2π
360

\

.
2.4 = k/bolt
Compute the inplane bolt force due to the horizontal force resultant.
F
H
=
H
uw
N
b
=
32.9 −
40
0.82 = k/bolt
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Web (continued)
Determine the portion of the design moment resisted by the web, M
uw
, and the design horizontal force
resultant in the web, H
uw
, using equations similar to those provided in Article C6.13.6.1.4b for Load
Combination Service II. M
uw
and H
uw
are assumed to be applied at the middepth of the web for
designing the web splice plates and their connections. Using the results from earlier calculations (Table
D2), the average factored vertical bending stress in the top flange for Steel plus Cast #1 is computed as:
F
cf
=
11.13 − 10.87 −
2

\

.
11 − = ksi
The average factored vertical bending stress in the bottom flange is (see Table D2)
f
ncf
=
9.58 9.42 +
2

\

.
9.5 = ksi
Using these stresses (set R
h
and R
cf
equal to 1.0)
M
uw
=
t
w
D
2
12
R
h
F
cf
R
cf
f
ncf
− =
0.5625 78 ( )
2
12
1.0 11.0 − ( ) 1.0 9.5 ( ) −
1
12

\

.
487 = kft
Eq (C6.13.6.1.4b1)
H
uw
=
t
w
D
2
R
h
F
cf
R
cf
f
ncf
+ ( )
=
0.5625 78 ( )
2
1.0 11.0 − ( ) 1.0 9.5 ( ) + [ ] 32.9 − =
D68
F
r
= 12.24 k/bolt < R
r
= 39 k/bolt OK
k/bolt
2.4 0.48 + ( )
2
0.82 11.08 + ( )
2
+ 12.24 =
=
F
s
F
Mv
+ ( )
2
F
H
F
Mh
+ ( )
2
+
F
r
=
Compute the resultant inplane bolt force.
k/bolt
487 12 ( ) 35.625 ( )
18793
11.08 =
=
M
tot
y
I
p
F
Mh
=
k/bolt
0.47
cos 14.0
2π
360

\

.
0.48 =
k/bolt;
487 12 ( )
3
2

\

.
18793
0.47 =
=
M
tot
x
I
p
F
Mv
=
Compute the inplane horizontal and vertical components of the force on the extreme bolt
due to the total moment on the splice.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Constructibility  Web (continued)
D69
Eq (6.10.9.3.27) 5
5
196
80.4

\

.
2
+ 5.84 = = 5
5
d
o
D

\

.
2
+ k =
80.4
0.5625
143 = =
D
t
w
Determine which equation is to be used to compute the ratio of the shearbuckling resistance to the
shear yield resistance, C.
Eq (6.10.9.3.23) V
p
= 0.58F
yw
Dt
w
where:
Eq (6.10.9.3.22) V
p
C
0.87 1 C − ( )
1
d
o
D

\

.
2
+
+
V
n
=
The nominal shear resistance, V
n
, is taken as:
< 2.5, the provisions of Article 6.10.9.3.2 may be used.
2 80.4 ( ) 0.5625 ( )
81 0.625 ( ) 16 1 ( ) + [ ]
1.4 =
Eq (6.10.9.3.21)
2Dt
w
b
fc
t
fc
b
ft
t
ft
+ ( )
2.5 ≤
Article 6.10.9.3.2 is used for the nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel. The section along the
entire panel must be proportioned according to Eq (6.10.9.3.21).
Separate calculations indicate that transverse stiffeners are required for this web thickness, therefore,
use Article 6.10.9.3.
Try a stiffener spacing equal to the crossframe spacing, d
o
= 196 in.
Compute the nominal shear resistance of the 0.5625 in. thick web at the splice according to the
provisions of Articles 6.10.9.2 and 6.10.9.3 for unstiffened and stiffened webs, respectively.
kips 1.25 17 − 69 − 12 − ( ) 1.5 16 − ( ) + 1.75 85 − ( ) + 295 − = V
u
=
From Table D3, the factored vertical shear at the splice (bending plus torsional shear in the critical web
at the strength limit state) is computed as:
Determine the vertical design shear, V
uw
, for the web splice for strength according to the provisions of
Article 6.13.6.1.4b.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Strength  Web
D70
V
n
=
1312 0.26
0.87 1 0.26 − ( )
1
196
80.4

\

.
2
+
+
662 =
kips
φ
v
V
n
= 1.0(662) = 662 kips > V
ui
=
295
cos 14.0
2π
360

\

.
304 =
kips OK Eq (6.10.9.11)
Therefore, according to Article 6.13.6.1.4b, since V
u
< 0.5φ
v
V
n
:
V
uw
= 1.5V
u
=
1.5 304 ( ) 456 =
kips Eq (6.13.6.1.4b1)
The moment, M
uv
, due to the eccentricity, e, of V
uw
from the centerline of the splice to the centroid of the
web splice bolt group is computed as follows (refer to web bolt pattern in Figure D6):
M
uv
= V
uw
e
M
uv
=
456
3
2
4.5
2
+

\

.
1
12

\

.
143 =
kft
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Web  Strength (continued)
1.12
Ek
F
yw
=
1.12
29000 5.84 ( )
50
65 =
< 143
1.40
Ek
F
yw
=
1.40
29000 5.84 ( )
50
81 =
< 143
Therefore, use Eq (6.10.9.3.26).
C =
1.57
D
t
w

\

.
2
Ek
F
yw

\

.
=
1.57
80.4
0.5625

\

.
2
29000 5.84 ( )
50
0.26 =
Eq (6.10.9.3.26)
V
p
= 0.58F
yw
Dt
w
=
0.58 50 ( ) 80.4 ( ) 0.5625 ( ) 1312 =
kips
D71
Eq (C6.13.6.1.4b2)
The total moment on the web splice is computed as:
M
tot
= M
uv
+ M
uw
= 143 1306 + 1449 = kft
Compute the inplane bolt force due to the vertical design shear.
F
s
=
V
uw
N
b
=
456
40
11.4 = k/bolt;
11.4
cos 14.0
2π
360

\

.
11.75 = k/bolt
Compute the inplane bolt force due to the horizontal design force resultant.
F
H
=
H
uw
N
b
=
443
40
11.1 = k/bolt
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Web  Strength (continued)
Determine the portion of the design moment resisted by the web, M
uw
, and the design horizontal force
resultant in the web, H
uw
, according to the provisions of Article C6.13.6.1.4b. M
uw
and H
uw
are applied
at the middepth of the web. Separate calculations indicate that the positive live load bending condition
controls.
As computed earlier (pages D62 and D63) for the positive live load bending case:
f
cf
= 26.32 ksi
F
cf
= 38.16 ksi
f
ncf
= 11.58 ksi
R
cf
= 1.45 ksi
From the equations in Article C6.13.6.1.4b:
M
uw
=
t
w
D
2
12
R
h
F
cf
R
cf
f
ncf
− =
0.5625 78 ( )
2
12
1.0 38.16 ( ) 1.45 11.58 − ( ) −
1
12

\

.
1306 = kft
Eq (C6.13.6.1.4b1)
H
uw
=
t
w
D
2
R
h
F
cf
R
cf
f
ncf
+ ( )
=
0.5625 78 ( )
2
1.0 38.16 ( ) 1.45 11.58 − ( ) + [ ] 469 = kips
D72
F
res
= 46.0 k/bolt < R
r
= 55.4 k/bolt OK
k/bolt
11.75 1.43 + ( )
2
11.1 32.97 + ( )
2
+ 46 =
=
F
s
F
Mv
+ ( )
2
F
H
F
Mh
+ ( )
2
+
F
resultant
=
Compute the resultant inplane bolt force.
k/bolt
1449 12 ( ) 35.63 ( )
18793
32.97 =
=
M
tot
y
I
p
F
Mh
=
k/bolt
1.39
cos 14.0
2π
360

\

.
1.43 =
k/bolt;
1449 12 ( )
3
2

\

.
18793
1.39 =
=
M
tot
x
I
p
F
Mv
=
Compute the inplane horizontal and vertical components of the force on the extreme bolt due to the total
moment on the splice.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Web  Strength (continued)
D73
in
3
2
0.375 ( )75.25
3
12
cos 14
2π
360

\

.
2
75.25
2

\

.
cos 14
2π
360

\

.
686.8 = =
I
x
cos
2
θ
c
S
PL
=
in
2
2 0.375 ( ) 75.25 ( ) 56.44 = A
g
=
According to Article 6.13.6.1.4b, check for flexural yielding on the gross section of the web splice plates
at the strength limit state. The flexural stress is limited to φ
f
F
y
.
kips OK 0.8 65.81 ( ) 52.65 = F
resultant
= 46.0 kips < φ
bb
R
n
=
The maximum resultant inplane force on the extreme bolt was computed earlier (page D73) for strength
to be:
Check bearing of the bolts on the connected material assuming the bolts have slipped and gone into
bearing. Since the bearing resistance of the web controls, the bearing resistance of the outermost hole in
the thinner web at the splice, calculated using the clear edge distance, will conservatively be checked
against the maximum resultant force acting on the extreme bolt in the connection. This check is
conservative since the resultant force acts in the direction of an inclined distance that is larger than the
clear edge distance. Should the bearing resistance be exceeded, it is recommended that the edge
distance be increased slightly in lieu of increasing the number of bolts or thickening the web. Another
option would be to calculate the bearing resistance based on the inclined distance, or else resolve the
resultant force in the direction parallel to the edge distance. In cases where the bearing resistance of the
web splice plates controls, the smaller of the clear edge or end distance on the splice plates can be used
to compute the bearing resistance of the outermost hole.
4 + 4(0.375) = 5.5 in. < 7.0 = 4 4t + 7.0 ≤ The maximum permissible spacing of the bolts for sealing =
Use nominal 0.375in. thick splice plates. Fill plates are not required in this case.
Web Splice Plate Design
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Splice Plates
D74
< 7.5 in
2
OK
0.8 65 ( )
0.95 50 ( )
5.0 ( ) 5.47 =
Inner plate:
< 8.0 in
2
OK
0.8 65 ( )
0.95 50 ( )
6.0 ( ) 6.57 =
Outer plate:
in
2
2 6.0 2 0.875 0.125 + ( ) − [ ] 0.625 5 =
Inner plate: A
n
=
in
2
16.0 4 0.875 0.125 + ( ) − [ ] 0.5 ( ) 6 =
Outer plate: A
n
=
Eq (6.13.6.1.4c2)
φ
u
F
u
φ
y
F
yt

\

.
A
n
A
g
≤
A
e
=
The effective areas of the inner and outer splice plates are computed as:
As specified in Article 6.13.6.1.4c, the effective area, A
e
, of each splice plate is to be sufficient to prevent
yielding of each splice plate under its calculated portion of the minimum flange design force. For splice
plates subjected to compression, the effective area is equal to the gross area.
Try: 16 x 0.5 in. outer plate Try: 2  6 x 0.625 in. inner plates
A
g
= 8.0 in
2
A
g
= 7.50 in
2
The width of the outside splice plate should be at least as wide as the width of the narrowest flange at
the splice. In this case, however, the width of the top flange is the same on either side of the splice.
Therefore;
Top Flange
Flange Splice Plate Design
Since the thickness of the two splice plates exceeds t
w
, say the shear resistance in the splice plates
is adequate.
ksi < φ
f
F
y
= 1.0(50) = 50 ksi OK
143 1306 + ( ) 12 ( )
686.8
469
56.44
+ 33.63 =
=
M
uv
M
uw
+
S
PL
H
uw
A
g
+
f =
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Splice Plates (continued)
D75
Outer plate
P
r
= 0.95 50 ( ) 7.50 ( ) 356 = kips Inner plates
or
P
r
= φ
u
P
nu
= φ
u
F
u
A
n
U Eq (6.8.2.12)
P
r
= 0.80 65 ( ) 6.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 312 = kips Outer plate
P
r
= 0.80 65 ( ) 5.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 260 = kips Inner plates (controls) >
450
2
225 = kips OK
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Splice Plates (continued)
As specified in Article C6.13.6.1.4c, if the combined area of the inner splice plates is within 10 percent of
the area of the outside splice plate, then both the inner and outer plates may be designed for onehalf the
flange design force (which is the case here). Double shear may then be assumed in designing the
connections. If the areas differ by more than 10 percent, the design force in each splice plate and its
connection at the strength limit state should be determined by multiplying the flange design force by the
ratio of the area of the splice plate under consideration to the total area of the inner and outer splice
plates. In this case, the shear resistance of the connection would be checked for the maximum
calculated splice plate force actings on a single shear plane.
For the negative live load bending case, the controlling flange is the top flange. The flange is subjected to
tension under this live load bending condition (see page D62). Compute the minimum resistance, F
cf
A
e
,
in the top flange for this load case. The factored tensile resistance, P
r
, is taken as the lesser of the
values given by Eqs (6.8.2.11 and 6.8.2.12). The factor α in Eq (6.13.6.1.4c1) is generally taken equal
to 1.0.
F
cf
=
4.19
1.0
1.0 1.0 ( ) 50 ( ) +
2
27.09 = ksi Eq (6.13.6.1.4c1)
0.75αφ
f
F
yf
= 0.75 1.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 50 ( ) 37.5 = ksi (controls)
F
cf
A
e
= 37.5 13.14 ( ) 493 = kips
As discussed previously, St. Venant torsional shear and lateral flange bending are not considered in the
top flange at the strength limit state. Warping torsion is also ignored. According to Article 6.13.6.1.4c,
the capacity of the splice plates to resist tension is computed using the provisions of Article 6.8.2. The
factored tensile resistance, P
r
, is taken as the lesser of:
P
r
= φ
y
P
ny
= φ
y
F
y
A
g
Eq (6.8.2.11)
P
r
= 0.95 50 ( ) 8.0 ( ) 380 = kips
D76
Clear distance between holes =
3.0 1.0 − 2.0 =
in.
For the four bolts adjacent to the end of the splice plate, the end distance is assumed to be 1.5 in.
Therefore, the clear distance between the edge of the holes and the end of the splice plate is:
Clear end distance =
1.5
1.0
2
− 1.0 =
in.
The value 2.0d is equal to 1.75 in. Since the clear end distance is less than 2.0d, use Eq (6.13.2.92).
R
n
= 1.2L
c
tF
u
=
1.2 1.0 ( ) 1.0 ( ) 65 ( ) 78 =
k/bolt Eq (6.13.2.92)
φ
bb
= 0.8
F
ncf
A
e
= 600 k < φ
bb
R
n
= 0.8(12)(78) = 748.8 k OK
Bottom Flange
Try: 75.5 x 0.375 in. outer plate Try: 2  36.75 x 0.375 in. inner plates
A
g
= 28.3 in
2
A
g
= 27.6 in
2
Note: Since the inner splice plate must be partially split to accommodate the longitudinal flange
stiffener (Figure D5), it will conservatively be treated as two separate plates in the subsequent
calculations although this is physically not the case.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Splice Plates (continued)
Under the positive live load bending case, the top flange is the noncontrolling flange and is subjected to
compression. The minimum design force, F
ncf
A
e
, for the top flange for this load case was computed
earlier (see page D64) to be 600 kips. The factored compressive resistance, R
r
, is taken as:
R
r
= φ
c
F
y
A
s
(Outer and Inner plates, respectively) Eq (6.13.6.1.4c4)
R
r
=
0.9 50 ( ) 8.0 ( ) 360 =
kips
=
0.9 50 ( ) 7.50 ( ) 338 =
kips >
600
2
300 =
kips OK
Bearing Resistance at Bolt Holes
Check bearing of the bolts on the connected material under the minimum design force, F
ncf
A
e
= 600 kips,
for the top flange. The design bearing resistance, R
n
, is computed using the provisions of Article 6.13.2.9.
According to Article 6.13.2.9, the bearing resistance for the end and interior rows of bolts is computed
using Eq (6.13.2.91 ) or Eq (6.13.2.92). Calculate the clear distance between holes and the clear end
distance and compare to 2.0d to determine the equation to be used to solve for the bearing resistance.
The centertocenter distance between the bolts in the direction of the force is 3.0 in. Therefore:
D77
26.5 15.0 −
26.5
0.43 = Outer:
According to Article 6.8.1, the application of the 85% maximum effeciency factor for splice plates should
be included when using the net section. Therefore, the fraction of hole area that must be deducted in
determining the net section modulus is:
%
10 0.875 0.125 + ( ) 0.375 ( )
36.75 0.375 ( )
100 27.2 = Inner:
%
20 0.875 0.125 + ( ) 0.375 ( )
75.5 0.375 ( )
100 26.5 = Outer:
Since the flange is subjected to a net tension, the holes will be considered in computing a net section
modulus for the splice plates. The holes remove the following percentage of crosssectional area from
each splice plate:
in
2
< 27.6 in
2
OK
0.8 65 ( )
0.95 50 ( )
20.06 ( ) 21.96 =
in
2
2 36.75 10 0.875 0.125 + ( ) − [ ] 0.375 ( ) 20.06 = Inner: A
n
=
in
2
< 28.3 in
2
OK
0.8 65 ( )
0.95 50 ( )
20.81 ( ) 22.78 =
in
2
75.5 20 0.875 0.125 + ( ) − [ ] 0.375 ( ) 20.81 = Outer: A
n
=
Eq (6.13.6.1.4c2)
φ
u
F
u
φ
y
F
yt

\

.
A
n
A
g
≤ A
e
=
The effective areas of the inner and outer splice plates are computed as:
The minimum flange design force, F
cf
A
e
, was computed earlier to be 1,646 kips (tension) (page D63).
The factoredup moment for strength due to the St. Venant torsional shear was computed earlier (page
D65) to be 475.7 kin. Warping torsion is ignored since it is assumed in this example that the spacing of
the internal bracing is sufficient to limit the warping stress to 10 percent of the vertical bending stress at
the strength limit state (Article 6.7.5.3). Further, the specifications do not require warping to be
considered in the design of bolted box flange splices at the strength limit state.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Splice Plates (continued)
D78
Separate calculations similar to those illustrated previously (page D77) show that bearing of the bolts on
the bottom flange is not critical.
If the combined area of the equivalent inner splice plates had not been within 10 percent of the area of the
outside splice plate, the minimum design force and factoredup moment would be proportioned to the inner
and outer plates accordingly.
f = 40.9 ksi < F
n
= 50 ksi OK
ksi
1646
20.81 20.06 + ( )
475.7
765
+ 40.9 =
f =
The combined stress in the bottom flange splice plates is equal to:
in
3
1
12

\

.
0.375 ( ) 75.5 ( )
3
1587 −
75.5
2

\

.
2
1
12

\

.
0.375 ( ) 36.75 ( )
3
195.8 − 20.06 18.875 ( )
2
+
75.5
2

\

.
+ 765 =
S
net
=
The net section modulus of the inner and outer splice plates together is therefore equal to:
in
4
2 0.45 ( ) 0.875 0.125 + ( ) 0.375 ( ) 1.875
2
5.625
2
+ 9.375
2
+ 13.125
2
+ 16.875
2
+
( )
195.8 = ΣAd
2
=
27.2 15.0 −
27.2
0.45 =
Inner:
in
4
0.323 2.5
2
6.25
2
+ 10
2
+ 13.75
2
+ 17.5
2
+ 21.25
2
+ 25
2
+ 28.75
2
+ 32.5
2
+ 36.25
2
+
( )
1587 = ΣAd
2
=
in
2
2 0.43 ( ) 0.875 0.125 + ( ) 0.375 ( ) 0.323 =
A =
Calculate ΣAd
2
.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3
Splice Plates (continued)
D79
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D80
D81
Figure D1. Overhang Bracket Loading
8
"
Figure D2. Internal Diaphragm and Bearing Stiffeners at Pier of Girder 2 Looking Upstation
D82
a = 120"
c
=
8
0
.
4
"
b = 81"
Figure D3. Composite Box Cross Section, Girder 2
5
.
5
"
Figure D4. Effective Width of Web Plate, d
o
, Acting with Transverse Stiffener
D83
4 ½”
4 ½”
4 ½”
Flange Width = 81" between centers of webs
Longitudinal
Stiffener
9 Spaces @ 3 ¾” 5" 9 Spaces @ 3 ¾” 1 ½” 1 ½”
6
"
3
"
3
"
Web
3" 3" 3" 3" 3" 3"
Figure D5. Bolt Patterns for Top and Bottom Flange
D84
8
0
.
4
"
9
S
p
a
c
e
s
@
3
¾
”
1
.
8
7
5
"
Notes: (1) 1/2” gap assumed between the edges of the field pieces.
(2) The indicated distances are along the web slope.
Figure D6. Bolt Pattern for Web
D85
Table D1. Strength Limit State at 100 feet from Left Abutment
Factored Loads Shown
Location Steel Deck SupImp FWS LRFD (LL + IM)
Strength I
Loading
ksi ksi ksi ksi ksi ksi
0.33 0.53 Positive 2.48 11.67 Top
Flange
1.6 6.73
1.13 1.78 Negative 14.98 3.74
0.32 0.51 Positive 2.25 11.21 Top
Web
1.56 6.57
1.10 1.74 Negative 14.63 3.66
0.79 1.20 Positive 15.87 25.03 Bottom
Flange
1.38 5.79
0.97 1.53 Negative 12.89 3.22
0.75 1.19 Positive 15.72 24.70 Bottom
Web
1.35 5.69
0.96 1.51 Negative 12.67 3.16
Table D2. Constructability Limit State at 100 feet from Left Abutment
Service Loads Shown
Steel Cast #1 1.25 x Sum
Location
ksi ksi ksi
Top Flange 1.28 7.62 11.13
Top Web 1.25 7.45 10.87
Bottom Flange 1.10 6.56 9.58
Bottom Web 1.08 6.45 9.42
D86
Table D3. Unfactored Actions
Load
Moment
(kft)
Torque
(kft)
Top Flange
Lateral Moment
(kft)
Shear
(kips)
Steel 462 36 1 17
Deck 1,941 125 7 69
Cast #1 2,749 188 15 61
SupImp 326 58 1 12
FWS 428 76 2 16
Moment (kft) Torque (kft) Shear (kips)
Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg
Strength HL
93
with DLA
5,221 3,080 346 517 36 85
Note: Reported shears are vertical shears and are for bending plus torsion in the critical web.
Table D4. Tub Cross Section
Component Size (in.) Area (in
2
) Yield (F
y
)
Tensile
(F
u
)
Top Flanges 2  16 x 1 32.00 50 65
Web
2  78 x
0.5625 90.56 50 65
Bottom
Flange 83 x 0.625 51.88 50 65
Note: Other section properties for the gross section may be found in Table C5. The cross
section is the same on both sides of the splice except for the presence of a bottom flange
longitudinal stiffener on one side.
E1
APPENDIX E
Tabulation of Various Stress Checks
E2
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E3
INTRODUCTION
The following tables show various comparative stress checks between the 2003
AASHTO Guide Specifications and the 2004 AASHTOLRFD including the 2005 Interim
Specifications.
E4
Table E1. Constructability – Top Flange
Guide Specifications (LFD) 2004 LRFD Specifications
Eq (6.10.3.2.11) Eq (6.10.3.2.12) Eq (6.10.3.2.13)
Section/
Node
F
cr
f
b
ratio * φ
f
R
h
F
yc
f
bu
+ f
l
ratio φ
f
F
nc
f
bu
+ 1/3f
l
ratio φ
f
F
crw
f
bu
ratio
11
9 (G1)
32.95 29.32 0.89 50.0 30.69 0.61 44.2 27.68 0.63 39.99 26.18 0.65
11
10 (G2)
36.56 31.86 0.87 50.0 44.54 0.89 43.7 33.81 0.77 39.99 28.45 0.71
*Applied Stress divided by resistance.
Table E2. Constructability – Web, Box Girder 2
Guide Specifications (LFD) 2004 LRFD Specifications
Section/
Node
F
cr
f
b
ratio F
crw
f
cw
ratio
11
10
39.89 31.12 0.78 39.99 27.78 0.69
*Applied Stress divided by resistance.
E5
Table E3. Strength – Bottom Flange, Box Girder 2
Guide Specifications (LFD) 2004 LRFD Specifications
Section/
Node
F
cr
f
b
ratio φ
f
F
nc
f
bu
ratio
55
36
47.26 46.47 0.98 41.57 41.6 1.00
At Splice
(Unstiffened
Flange)
22
20.3
6.04 6.01 0.99 6.01 3.22 0.54
*Applied Stress divided by resistance.
Table E4. Maximum Principal Stresses – Bottom Flange, Box Girder 2
Guide Specifications (LFD) 2004 LRFD Specifications
Section/
Node
F
cr
f
b
ratio F
nc
f
bu
ratio
55
36
49.5 46.84 0.95 41.57 41.6 1.00
*Applied Stress divided by resistance.
E6
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF SPONSORSHIP This work was sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, and was conducted in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council.
DISCLAIMER This is an uncorrected draft as submitted by the research agency. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in the report are those of the research agency. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or of the individual states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program.
Project No. NCHRP 1252
AASHTOLRFD DESIGN EXAMPLE HORIZONTALLY CURVED STEEL BOX GIRDER BRIDGE
FINAL REPORT
Prepared for National Cooperative Highway Research Program Transportation Research Board National Research Council
John M. Kulicki Wagdy G. Wassef Christopher Smith Kevin Johns Modjeski and Masters, Inc. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania October 2005
) .(This page is intentionally left blank.
..................................11 Webs ....................................5 ANALYSES ......................................................................................................................................5 Field Section .............................................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 LIMIT STATES .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Internal and External Bracing..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 STEEL FRAMING .......................12 Sample Calculations ...................4 Longitudinal Flange Stiffener..12 iii ........12 Diaphragms .............................................................................................................................................................11 Section Properties .......................................................................................................................... ix OBJECTIVES .................................................... iii LIST OF FIGURES ...................................6 ThreeDimensional Finite Element Analyses ................. vi LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................9 Strength......................................................................................................8 Dead Load.....................................................................................................................................................1 DESIGN PARAMETERS ...........................................................................................11 Flanges .............9 Live Load Deflection............................................11 Shear Connectors ...........................................................................................................................3 Bracing of Tub Flanges .................6 Loading Combinations .............................................................................................................................................................................................................7 LOADS....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Fatigue................................3 Girder Depth ........ vii PREFACE.............................................................................................................................8 Live Load ...........9 Constructibility .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 DESIGN .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.....Web .......................... D25 Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Longitudinal Flange Stiffener .............................................. D23 Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength .................................................................................................... and Torques at TenthPoints..........................................Top Flange in Tension................................................................................................................................................................................................Bottom Flange ...................................... D13 Girder Stress Check Section 55 G1 Node 36 Constructibility .....................................B1 Selected Design Forces and Girder 2 Section Properties ............................ D1 Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Girder Section Proportioning.... D6 Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Strength ........Shear Connectors.........................................................Constructibility ............Top Flange in Tension........................................... D4 Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .......................................................... D15 Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9 Constructibility ......................................................................................... D19 Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Fatigue ....................Maximum Transverse Spacing....... D51 Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.......................... D44 Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20........................................................3 iv ................................................................... D34 Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Design of Bearing Stiffener ......C1 APPENDIX D Sample Calculations .................................................. D33 Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Design of Internal Diaphragm .......................................................................................3 Stresses.............. D3 Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .................. A1 Girder Moments.....Top Flange in Compression .................................................................................................................... Shears.....................APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C Girder Field Sections ......Top Flange in Compression .........Ductility Requirement......................................... D49 Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20........Bottom Flange..................................3 Strength ................................... D20 Girder Stress Check Section 88 G2 Node 48 Shear Connectors ............. D16 Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9 Constructibility .......................................................... D18 Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Fatigue ....Bottom Flange............ D37 Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1 Top Flange Bracing Member Design .. D40 Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Transverse Bending Stress.....
................... D54 Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20...........................3 Constructibility ............ D59 Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20...............3 Strength .. D70 Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20...............3 Constructibility ............... D61 Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.....................Web ...3 Splice Plates ........................................................................................................... D57 Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.................................................E1 v .... D74 APPENDIX E Tabulation of Various Stress Checks .........Bottom Flange ....................................................Web .....................Top Flange................................................. D67 Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20..........................3 Constructibility .............................................3 Strength ...........................................................................................Top and Bottom Flange ...............Design Action Summary and Section Information..............
....... Inclined Webs ..................... SingleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due to Cast #1 with Overhang Brackets....... Diaphragm and Bearing Stiffener at Pier of Girder 2............................................................................................... Looking Upstation ................ D82 Figure D4................ Box Girder Bridge Cross Section.... DoubleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due to Deck Weight with Overhang Brackets........... Node Numbers.....14 Figure 3..................... with Transverse Stiffener ....... Overhang Bracket Loading ............. D82 Figure D5....17 Figure D1................16 Figure 5................................................................................................... D84 vi .............................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1..................................... D83 Figure D6..... SingleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due to Entire Deck Weight with Overhang Brackets... Effective Width of Web Plate........................... Inclined Webs ................................ Girder 2 ..................... Inclined Webs ............. Bolt Patterns for Top and Bottom Flange ................................. Bolt Pattern for Web ....... D81 Figure D2.15 Figure 4............. D81 Figure D3......................................................................................13 Figure 2........ do....................... Composite Box Cross Section............
........... Selected Unfactored Torque (kft).................... Tub Cross Section................ Girder 2 Span 1 at TenthPoints.. Constructibility – Web..............................................C4 Table C3.............................................................................................................. Selected Section Properties for Girder 2 ....................... Selected Unfactored Moments (kft) and Web Fatigue Shears (kips).....C5 Table C4............................................... Box Girder 2.................C7 Table D1................................................LIST OF TABLES Table C1............................................... Girder 2 .............C3 Table C2. Top Flange Bracing Forces (kips)............... Box Girder 2 ...................................... Maximum Pricipal Stresses – Bottom Flange...... Shear (kips)......................................................... Unfactored Actions......................E5 Table E4............ Strength – Bottom Flange.....................................................................E5 vii ..... D86 Table D4...................... Strength Limit State at 100 feet from Left Abutment ..... Girder 2 .. Constructibility – Top Flange ........................ Constructibility Limit State at 100 feet from Left Abutment.............................. Girder 2 Span 1.. Box Girder 2.................E4 Table E3...........................C6 Table C5...............E4 Table E2............... D85 Table D2..... D86 Table E1.. D85 Table D3.
) viii .(This page is intentionally left blank.
and 1990. The following terms are used to identify particular specifications: • ANSI/AASHTO/AWS refers to the 2002 edition of D1. As part of the NCHRP 1252 project.5:2002 Bridge Welding Code. and additional changes. 1986. The design provisions for straight bridges were approved by ballot of the HSCOBS in 2003 and were incorporated into the third edition of the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 1984. This Design Example was compiled as a part of the deliverables in National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 1252. As in the NCHRP 1238 example. These Guide Specifications included Allowable Stress Design (ASD) provisions developed by the Consortium of University Research Teams (CURT) and approved by ballot of the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures in November 1976. a composite bottom flange option is provided for the bottom flange in the negative moment regions. but did not reflect the extensive research on curvedgirder bridges that has been conducted since 1980 or many important changes in related provisions of the straightgirder specifications. The Guide Specifications covered both I and box girders.Bridges for the years 1981. The 1980 Guide Specifications also included Load Factor Design (LFD) provisions developed in American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Project 190 and approved by ballot of the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures (HSCOBS) in October 1979. It was updated to illustrate the applicability of the revisions to the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications included in the 2005 Interim Specifications which were meant to incorporate curved bridges. CURT consisted of CarnegieMellon University. the University of Rhode Island and Syracuse University. these design provisions were incorporated into the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications in two stages. ix • . The design provisions for curved bridges were approved by ballot of the HSCOBS in 2004 and are to be published as part of the 2005 Interim Specifications to the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications. LFD/ASD refers to the current year AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.PREFACE AASHTO first published Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges in 1980. American Welding Society and 2003 Interim Specifications. Changes to the 1980 Guide Specifications were included in the AASHTO Interim Specifications . A new version of the Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges was published in 1993. the University of Pennsylvania. It included these interim changes. As a result of the research work on curved bridges conducted by the FHWA and several research institutes. This Horizontally Curved Steel Box Girder Bridge Design Example was originally developed in the NCHRP 1238 project using the 1993 AASHTO Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Steel Girder Bridges. design provisions for both straight and curved bridges were developed. published in 2004. 1985. 1982.
17th edition and Interim Specifications and • LRFD refers to the 2003 AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Article and equation numbers in this example refer to those of the AASHTOLRFD Specifications. Third Edition. x . with the 2005 Interims.
OBJECTIVES Using the 2004 AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications with the 2005 Interim Specifications (hereafter referred to as the LRFD Specifications). 1 . design a threespan horizontally curved steel box girder bridge with two tub girders in the cross section.
The deck is conventional castinplace concrete with a specified minimum 28day compressive strength of 4. Live load for fatigue is taken as defined in Article 3. Structural steel having a specified minimum yield stress of 50 ksi is used throughout. The radius of the bridge is 700 feet at the center of the roadway. A future wearing surface of 30 psf is specified. The width of the haunch is assumed to be 20. Outtoout deck width is 40. Permanent steel deck forms are assumed to be used between the two girders and between the flanges of the individual tubs.5 inches (no integral wearing surface is assumed). Parapets are each assumed to weigh 495 plf. 2 . Supports are radial with respect to the roadway. The roadway is superelevated 5 percent.6.5 feet.1. There are two tub girders in the cross section.DESIGN PARAMETERS The bridge has spans of 160210160 feet measured along the centerline of the bridge.0 inches deep measured from the top of the web to the bottom of the deck. The deck haunch is 4. There are three 12foot traffic lanes. The bridge is designed for a 75year fatigue life. The structural deck thickness is 9.0 inches. the forms are assumed to weigh 15 psf. Span lengths are arranged to give relatively equal positive dead load moments in the end and center spans.4 of the LRFD Specifications. Sequential placement of the concrete deck is considered. The bridge site is assumed to be located in earthquake Zone A so earthquake loading need not be considered. Live load used is the HL93.000 psi.
4. the bottom strut of the Kframe is assumed in this example to be welded to the bottom flange and bolted to the connection plates on the webs. the transverse bracing members are attached to the bottom flange.3 provides for a preferred minimum depth limit of 0.4. Girder Depth For Ibeams Article 2. the recommended girder depth is computed as 0.04 of the span of the girder. which is the limit given in Article 6. At locations where a longitudinal flange stiffener is not used.2. is 213. Internal and External Bracing The boxes are braced internally at intermediate locations with Kframes.7.0 square inches. The actual box flange width is 83 inches to provide a 1inch lip outside of each web. The longest effective span length (either end or interior span) controls. except where the longitudinal flange stiffening causes the bracing to be offset from the flange. At these locations. the bottom strut is assumed to be bolted to the top of the longitudinal stiffener and to the connection plates on the webs. In addition. It was determined from the analysis that the largest factored load in any of the internal cross frame members on the bridge is 80 kips in the diagonal members located at Nodes 11 and 12 in Span 1. The internal Kframes are spaced longitudinally at approximately 16 feet (measured along the centerline of the bridge).1. Cross frame members were modeled as truss members in the analysis. As a result. The cross frames are assumed to be singleangle members bolted to connection plates.032L for continuous spans. at locations where a longitudinal flange stiffener is present.38)(12) = 81. as permitted in Article 6. which is needed for welding of the webs to the bottom flange. with a crosssectional area of 5.9 in. For torsion. an individual box girder is significantly stiffer than two Igirders.11. box girders are generally stiffer than Igirders because an individual box nearly acts as two Igirders for vertical bending. Article 6. for simple spans and 0.STEEL FRAMING The steel framing consists of two trapezoidal tub girders with the tops of the webs in each tub spaced 10 feet apart at the top of the tub and with a clear deck span of 12. The cross section is shown in Figure 1.032(213. G2. the moment of inertia of the transverse bracing member should equal or exceed the moment of inertia of the 3 . the width of the bottom flange of each tub is 81 inches between webs. which is the girder with the longest effective span in this example. The slope of the webs is oneonfour. At locations where a longitudinal flange stiffener is used.1.5 feet between the top of the interior webs of the two tubs.2. There is no explicit limit given for steel box beams. Therefore.1. However.5.2. which is slightly less than the preferred minimum depth. The length of the center span of the outside girder. L.3 specifies that the crosssectional area and stiffness of the top and bottom transverse bracing members not be smaller than the area and stiffness of the diagonal members.38 feet (measured along the longitudinal centerline of the box). The actual vertical web depth is 78 inches.11. The working points are assumed to be located as close to the flangeweb intersections as practical.6. Two bearings set one foot inside of each web are used under each box at each support. Design of the internal cross bracing members is not shown in this example.
1. there are fulldepth internal and external diaphragms provided at support lines. The external diaphragms were assumed to have top and bottom flanges with an area of 8. which must be resisted by the flanges. inclination of the webs and overhang bracket loads. The effect of curvature can be conservatively estimated using Equation C4. i.11. This maximum stress range was determined by passing the factored fatigue truck defined in Article 3. sum of the absolute values of the maximum tensile and compressive stresses. the diaphragm plates for both the internal and external diaphragms were assumed to be 0. i. Top flange bracing should be continuous along the length of the girder to ensure that the top flanges are not required to resist the entire torsion at any one location. On the exterior of the bridge.longitudinal stiffener taken about the base of the stiffener. The largest range of stress due to fatigue loading in the internal cross frames was found to be approximately 15 ksi. One end of each internal cross frame does not have lateral bracing attached. a portion of the deck weight is applied to overhang brackets. The fatigue category of these member end connections is Category E. but there are no other external braces provided between the boxes in this example. and therefore. The tub flanges tend to develop larger lateral flange bending stresses at the points where the lateral bracing is not connected because the top flange must provide the majority of the torsional resistance. Thus. which is assumed to be the case in this example.6. the design fatigue stress range is approximately 11 ksi. in the plane of the flange. This value is used whenever the fatigue strength is governed by the constantamplitude fatigue threshold. as required in Article 6. These top flange bracing members provide torsional continuity to the box before the deck cures. There are several causes of the lateral moments in the top flanges including curvature. The inclination of the webs causes a radial force.7. Figure 2 shows the arrangement of the top diagonal bracing in each girder.6.25 ksi is equal to onehalf of the constantamplitude fatigue threshold of 4. Since the design fatigue stress range exceeds the nominal fatigue resistance for a fatigue Category E detail.4. The design stress range exceeds the nominal fatigue resistance of 2. was approximately 15 ksi. which results in a radial tensile force on the outside top flanges and an opposite force on the bottom flange.0 square inches for each flange. fillet welds cannot be used for these member connections in this particular case. As required in Article 6.5 ksi specified for a Category E detail in Table 6. Bracing of Tub Flanges The top flanges of the individual tubs are braced with single members placed diagonally between the tub flanges. The single top flange lateral bracing members used in the design example cause the lateral flange moments to vary depending on whether or not the brace is connected to an interior or exterior 4 .4.4 over the left and right web of a tub.6. resulting in a reversal of stress in each member.4b1.1. only 75 percent of the stress range so determined is used to check fatigue for transverse members.2. The bracing is assumed to be directly connected to the flanges at each internal cross frame.25 ksi specified for a Category E detail according to Article 6. Figure 2 also gives the node numbers for part of Span 1 so that the locations can be related to subsequent sample design calculations given in Appendix D.e. The value of 2. For the analysis.2. must have adequate resistance to resist the torsional shear flow in the noncomposite section at the constructibility limit state.5 inches thick.5.1.6.1.2. The fatigue stress range.1.7. According to Table 3.e.3.53 of AASHTOLRFD.
additional bracing members and connections are required. While these effects are reduced somewhat when doublediagonal bracing is utilized. Figure 5 shows the results due to Cast #1 for the singlediagonal bracing case with inclined webs (again the case assumed in the design example). Field Sections Final girder field sections for each girder are given in Appendix A. as shown in Figure D1 (Appendix D). the center field section in Girder 2. Finally. The longest field section.flange. In Figures 3 through 5. The weight and stiffness of the longitudinal flange stiffeners is considered in the analysis. This loading case causes larger girder moments and bracing forces in Span 1 than does the entire deck load because the load in Span 2 tends to counter the load in Span 1. the forces in the top flange bracing members in part of Span 1 due to the entire deck weight and Cast #1 (with the effect of the overhang brackets considered in each case) are reported in Figures 3 through 5. and in some cases. as shown in Figure D6 (Appendix D). Figure 3 shows the results for the case of the entire deck weight applied to the boxes and overhang brackets assuming double top flange lateral bracing and inclined webs. 2 and 3. there is no need to consider fatigue at the terminus of the stiffener. Note that the inverted Kbracing inside the boxes results in two top chord members across the tub in the finiteelement model. The lateral flange moments in the two top flanges. By terminating the longitudinal flange stiffener at the bolted splices. both singlediagonal and doublediagonal (or X) topflange bracing arrangements were analyzed using a 3D finiteelement model assuming inclined webs. The longitudinal stiffener is terminated at the bolted field splices in Spans 1. which would result in lower lateral flange bending moments in combination with fewer members and connections. Half of the overhang weight was assumed to be applied to the brackets in the analysis. To illustrate. 5 . is approximately 122 feet in length. From examination of the results shown in Figures 3 through 5. A suggested solution is to utilize parallel singlediagonal bracing members in each bay. the singlediagonal bracing pattern chosen for the design example results in the largest lateral flange bending moments and bracing member forces. The bottom flange splice plates inside the box must be split to permit the stiffener to extend to the free edge of the flange where the longitudinal stress is zero. the lateral flange moments are shown above and below the top flanges of each girder. Figure 4 shows similar results for the case assumed in the design example (singlediagonal top flange lateral bracing and inclined webs) under the loading due to the entire deck weight. Longitudinal Flange Stiffener A single longitudinal flange stiffener is used on the box flanges over the negative moment sections. whereas the axial forces in the top chord of the internal Kbraces and in the top lateral bracing are shown near the appropriate members.
4.4.5(TU)] η x [DC + DW + (LL+IM) + CE +0.35((LL+IM)+CE+BR) + 0.4(WS) + 0. It has been assumed that there is no equipment on the bridge during construction and the wind load on the girders is negligible. Magnitude of wind may be less than that used for final bridge design.75((LL + IM) + CE + BR) + 0.5(TU)] η x [1.3. Strength III and V and Service I and II from Table 3.5(C) + 1.2 as follows: Construction: η x [1.5(DW) + 1.3(WS) + WL + 1. These load groups are defined as follows: Strength I Strength III Strength V Service I Service II where: η DC DW LL IM CE WS WL TU BR = = = = = = = = = = Load modifier specified in Article 1.11 must also be checked.4(WS)+WL+0.5(TU)] η x [1.25(DC) + 1.25(DC) + 1.2 Dead load: components and attachments Dead load: wearing surface and utilities Vehicular live load Vehicular dynamic load allowance Vehicular centrifugal force Wind load on structure Wind on live load Uniform temperature Vehicular braking force η x [1. For temperature and wind loadings in combination with vertical loading. Strength I loading is used for design of most members for the strength limit state.3((LL + IM) + CE) + 1.5(DW) + 1.25(Wc)] where: D C Wc = Dead load = Construction loads = Wind load for construction conditions from an assumed critical direction.25(D) + 1.5(DW) + 1.4 is used to determine load combinations for strength.25(DC) + 1.0(TU)] In addition to the above load combinations.ANALYSES Loading Combinations Article 3. the AASHTOLRFD Specifications include a load combination for the constructibility limit state defined in Article 3. 6 .0(TU)] η x [DC + DW + 1.
Appendix C. three elements are used to model the web and flanges of the external diaphragm to allow for the possibility of reverse curvature. Cross frames are modeled as individual truss elements connected to the nodes at the top and bottom of the girders. ThreeDimensional Finite Element Analyses Article 4. Internal solidplate diaphragms at supports are modeled with a single plate element and external solidplate diaphragms at supports are modeled utilizing three full depth plate elements along the length for the web and three beam elements placed at the top and bottom of the web representing the top and bottom flanges of the diaphragm. which attach from a lower girder node to the "earth".In this example. Smalldeflection elastic theory is acceptable. but for simplicity. Table C4 gives the Strength I and Construction top flange bracing forces in Span 1 of Girder 2. these other load cases are not considered in this example. only the Strength I and Construction load combinations are checked. 7 . The composite deck is modeled using a series of eightnode solid elements attached to the girders with beam elements. Other load cases may be critical. which represent the shear studs.4 requires that the analysis be performed using a rational method that accounts for the interaction of the entire superstructure. Analyses for this example are performed using a threedimensional finite element program. Top flanges are modeled with beam elements. The section depth is recognized. Selected analysis results for these two load combinations are given in Tables C2 and C4. Girder webs and bottom flanges are modeled using plate elements. Since the plate and beam elements are isoparametric. Curvature is represented by straight elements with small kinks at node points rather than by curved elements. Bearings are represented by dimensionless elements called "foundation elements". Table C2 gives the Strength I shears for Girder 2 at the tenth points of Span 1.
one at a time.g. Curve fitting is used to determine responses between points on the influence surfaces. Live Load Analysis for live load is accomplished by first applying a series of unit vertical loads. is applied to the erected steel structure. e. to the deck surface in the 3D model. The dynamic load allowance is applied according to Article 3. The total superimposed dead load is assumed to be applied to the composite structure. The specified live loads are applied mathematically to each influence surface and a search is then made to determine the maximum and minimum value of each response for each live load position. The multiple presence factors are considered. Deck weight includes the deck. Numerous responses are determined for each unit load. Erection without introduction of significant gravity induced stresses until the erection is completed is the responsibility of the steel erector.2. For additional information on the centrifugal force calculations. refer to Appendix D of the Horizontally Curved Steel IGirder Design Example.LOADS Dead Load The self weight of the steel girders and attachments. torques. Future wearing surface moments. concrete haunches and an assumed weight of 15 pounds per square foot for the permanent deck forms inside the boxes and between the boxes. The parapet weight is applied as line loads along the edges of the deck in the 3D analysis. shears and torques from the 3D analysis are given in Appendix B.6. Unfactored live load plus the dynamic load allowance moments. Dead load moments. 8 . crossframes and bracing. cross frame forces. reactions. which produces larger stresses in the steel. including girder moments. deflections. The steel may be fit up by the fabricator prior to shipping. The magnitude of the response for a particular unit load is the magnitude of the ordinate of the influence surface for that response at the point on the deck where that unit load is applied. The effects of the centrifugal forces are not considered in this example. shears and torques were calculated separately. The use of composite section properties computed using a modular ratio of "n" results in larger stresses in the concrete deck. Creep of the concrete deck is accounted for by using a modular ratio of "3n" in computing the transformed composite section properties. Steel weight is introduced into the 3D model by the use of body forces in the 3D finite elements. This analysis assumption requires that the steel be fit and erected in the noload condition. Falsework or multiple cranes may be required to support the girders until all the bolted connections are tightened. The deck weight is also assumed to be placed at one time on the noncomposite steel structure for the strength limit state checks. shears and torques in each girder for LRFD HL93 loading from the 3D analysis are also given in Appendix B. The superimposed dead load includes the parapets and an assumed future wearing surface of 30 pounds per square foot of roadway. etc. shears.
In each analysis of the deck placement.10. For this check. The load factor is 0. as well as counter weights over some supports.4. and AFWS@ identifies the moments due to the future wearing surface placed on the fully composite bridge.3. as specified in 9 . "Steel" identifies moments due to the steel weight based on the assumption that it was placed at one time. A modular ratio of “n” should be used to check deck stresses since a smaller modular ratio results in higher stresses in the deck. Accumulated deflections by stage are also computed. "SupImp" identifies the moments due to the superimposed dead load placed on the fully composite bridge.75 for the fatigue truck. Larger top flange plates and perhaps a thicker web may have been required. The modular ratio for the deck is assumed to be “3n” to account for creep. A somewhat smaller modular ratio may be desirable for the staging analysis since full creep usually takes approximately three years to occur. The first cast is in Span 1 from the beginning of the span through member 13 in Girder 1 (refer to Appendix A and Figure 2 for the location of the indicated members). stresses or forces in the elements are factored so that the loads can be applied to the model or to the influence surfaces without factors in the analysis. traversing the length of the bridge in the critical transverse position on the deck for each response. The third cast is in Span 3 starting over member 48 to the end of the bridge. Reactions are accumulated sequentially in the staging analysis to check for uplift at each stage. The fourth cast is for the remaining sections over the piers. Included in the "Deck" and "Cast" moments are the moments due to the deck haunch and the stayinplace forms. This sequence assures that uplift does not occur at any time and that the girder stresses and deflections are within the prescribed limits in Article 6. All casts are assumed to be made across the entire deck width. Moments and other actions determined from the deckstaging analysis are not considered for the strength limit state checks. the deck is assumed to be placed in four separate casts. "Cast" identifies the moments due to a particular deck cast. In reality. Constructibility For the constructibility limit state. Fatigue The fatigue limit state is checked by using the stress ranges due to the passage of one fatigue vehicle.1. a check is made only with regard to placement of the concrete in this example. defined in Article 3. Shorter casts over the piers would have led to uplift and larger moments in Span 1.6. The unfactored moments from the deck staging analysis are presented in Table C1.2. each component of the boxes is designed to ensure the component has adequate strength to resist the actions due to the factored loads. The second cast is in Span 2 starting over member 23 through member 38. prior casts are assumed to be composite. to prevent uplift.LIMIT STATES Strength For the strength limit state. "Deck" identifies moments due to the deck weight assumed to be placed on the bridge at one time. Appendix C.
If the dead load produces tensile stress or. Centrifugal force effects are included in this example. The uncracked composite section along the entire length of the bridge should be used in computing the deflections. Live load deflection is to be checked using the live load portion of Load Combination Service I (Table 3.4.Table 3.2 provides optional deflection criteria that may be checked if required by the bridge owner.6.10. whether or not the factored fatigue truck by itself produces a net tensile stress. Article 6.11) including the dynamic load allowance.1. the throughthickness bending stress range due to crosssectional distortion at flangetoweb fillet welds and at the termination of fillet welds connecting transverse elements must be checked for fatigue.2 should be applied.2. Different live load positions must be examined for each girder and span since the deflections of curved girders usually differ significantly at any one cross section.4.2.6.4. 10 .5. where dead load produces compressive stress. As specified in Article 6.2. stress ranges are computed using the shortterm composite section for both positive and negative bending given that the deck slab longitudinal reinforcement specified in 6. The limiting live load deflection is specified as the fraction of the span defined in Article 2. vehicular traffic would be constrained from a portion of the deck (unless vehicles were permitted to mount the sidewalk). For points where the dead load produces compressive stress. is to be used to determine if a net tensile stress is produced at the point under consideration. This assumption provides larger fatigue stresses than would be obtained if the fatigue truck were held to marked traffic lanes.6. to produce the maximum stress range. Article 6. which would cause the computed live load deflections to be reduced depending on which side of the bridge the sidewalk was placed. and factored according to the fatigue load combination of Table 3.6.5 requires that longitudinal stress ranges due to warping and due to transverse moments be considered when determining the sum of the stress ranges used in fatigue analysis. The dynamic load allowance is 15 percent for the fatigue truck (Table 3.1.11). The fatigue live load is placed in a single lane.6.6.2. Computation of these throughthickness bending stresses is illustrated in the Sample Calculations given in Appendix D.1.1. Centrifugal force effects are to be considered.5. The fatigue truck is permitted to travel within two feet of the curb line. or in opposite directions. Live Load Deflection Article 2.11.4.7 are satisfied.6.1. a net tensile stress occurs under dead load combined with twice the factored fatigue load at a point.6. The transverse position of the truck may be different for each response and for positive and negative values of the same response. If a sidewalk were present. In addition.11. Marked traffic lanes are not considered.1.6.1. The fatigue truck is assumed to travel in either direction.11.2. fatigue must be checked at that point using the stress range produced by the single factored fatigue truck. Sidewalk load is discussed further in Article 3.1. The multiple presence factors specified in Article 3.1 specifies that twice the factored fatigue live load defined in Article 3.2.
DESIGN Section Properties Table C5, Appendix C, gives selected section properties for Girder 2. Locations from the neutral axis to the top (T) and bottom (B) extreme fiber of the steel section are given. The section properties include the longitudinal component of the topflange bracing area. Longitudinal flange stiffeners and the 1inch bottom flange lips are also included in the section properties. When the section is composite, the entire overhang, the concrete between the tub webs, and half of the concrete between girders is considered effective, as specified in Article 4.5.2.2. The haunch depth is considered in computing the section properties, but the area of the haunch is not included. Since the actual depth of the haunch may vary from its theoretical value to account for construction tolerances, many designers ignore the thickness of the haunch in all calculations. The longitudinal reinforcing steel area equal to 20.0 square inches per box is assumed placed at the neutral axis of the of the effective structural deck area. Considering that Article 6.10.1.7 requires that two thirds of the deck longitudinal steel be placed in the top layer and that the deck top concrete cover is thicker than the deck bottom concrete cover, the centroid of the deck reinforcement is usually close to the assumed location. The longitudinal reinforcing steel within the effective portion of the concrete deck is considered effective when the section is subjected to negative bending at the strength limit state. The deck area is divided by “3n” and the reinforcing steel area is divided by 3 (for positive and negative bending, respectively) for computing the transformed section properties to account for creep in the concrete for calculations involving the superimposed dead load. The reinforcing steel area is adjusted since the concrete is assumed to transfer the force from the deck steel to the rest of the cross section. This reduction in steel area is not applied by all designers and may be ignored if it is not consistent with the practices of the owner agency. Table D1 in the Sample Calculations (Appendix D) also gives section properties for Girder 2 for the case where the bottom flange is composed of composite steel and concrete, as an alternative to a conventional longitudinally stiffened bottom flange. The Sample Calculations in Appendix D discuss the computation of the section properties given in Table D1 in more detail. Shear Connectors Shear connectors are 7/8inch diameter by 6 inches long. The sum of the torsional and vertical bending shears is used with half of the girder to design the shear connectors. Flanges The top flanges of the tubs must meet the criteria of Article 6.11.3.2 at the constructibility limit state.
Two types of bottom (box) flanges are used in this example. In positive moment regions, the
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bottom flange is an unstiffened plate. In the negative moment regions, a single longitudinal stiffener is used to increase the compressive strength of the bottom flange. The critical stress for box flanges is determined at the constructibility limit state. Webs In this example, transversely stiffened webs are used throughout. Transverse stiffener designs are not shown, but are similar to the designs illustrated in the companion example of the Igirder curved bridge. Transverse stiffeners are required throughout most of the girder length. The spacing of the transverse stiffeners near the interior supports is 62 inches. Diaphragms Interior diaphragms at supports are solid plates with pairs of bearing stiffeners welded on each side of an access hole. External diaphragms at supports are also solid plates. Sample Calculations Sample calculations at selected critical locations of Girder 2 are presented in Appendix D. The calculations are intended to illustrate the application of some of the more significant provisions of the Specifications. As such, complete calculations are not shown at all sections for each design. The sample calculations illustrate calculations to be made at the Strength, Fatigue, Constructibility and Serviceability limit states. The calculations also include longitudinal flange stiffener and bearing stiffener designs, a top flange bracing member design, a diaphragm design, transverse bending stress computations and a bolted field splice design. The calculations make use of the moments, shears, torques, and top flange bracing forces contained in Tables C1 through C4 of Appendix C and the section properties contained in Table C5.
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Deck concrete – f’c = 4,000 psi E = 3.6x106 psi Haunch – 20 in. wide, 4 in. deep measured from top of web Permanent deck forms are present Total deck thickness = 9.5 in.
Figure 1. Box Girder Bridge Cross Section
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Girder G2 1 2 * * 2 * * 4 6 8 1 R = 700 feet 10 12 14 16 18 2 20 22 24 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 Girder G1 23 3 4 5 Girder G2 6 7 8 24 26 3 28 30 4 32 34 5 * * 36 6 R = 700 feet 38 40 42 7 44 46 8 48 50 25 27 29 31 33 * * 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 Girder G1 49 * Bearing Locations Note: Sections 11. Node Numbers 14 . Figure 2. etc. refer to the design sections in Appendix C tables. Section 99 is at the midspan of Span 2. 22.
Case of DoubleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due to Entire Deck Weight with Overhang Brackets. Inclined Webs 15 .0 53 9 0 0 43 12 0 3 42 50 0 2 42 44 0 29 48 29 57 8 51 60 0 6 50 53 1 21 51 43 19 51 60 49 36 16 15 42 50 15 15 13 25 31 12 28 9 2 4 6 9 5 2 9 1 16 44 41 44 0 14 50 53 0 1 11 42 44 4 2 11 14 39 11 5 8 3 9 26 27 6 23 8 12 45 32 3 3 3 5 8 Figure 3.
Inclined Webs 16 . Case of SingleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due to Entire Deck Weight with Overhang Brackets.Figure 4.
Case of SingleDiagonal Bracing: Lateral Flange Moments (kft) and Bracing Forces (kips) Due to Cast #1 with Overhang Brackets. Inclined Webs 17 .0 100 2 2 81 0 5 14 23 90 28 0 9 39 1 23 34 24 38 20 55 8 33 60 5 5 47 5 31 1 12 12 27 5 11 24 38 16 20 24 20 14 21 37 6 18 25 4 18 8 22 2 12 4 34 3 20 29 20 37 4 15 47 1 12 4 29 4 15 0 12 47 11 21 10 76 20 37 14 33 2 17 3 15 15 0 Figure 5.
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APPENDIX A Girder Field Sections A1 .
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00 60. 1987. 1988.June 21.00 81.00 60. Ltd.00 60.00 A3 . In. Box girder cross section center line of box to the top of the web width of left side right side bottom flng In In.00 81.1 Date Created > 07/29/94 Initials > DHH 2 3 English Copyright (C) 1985. 1986. 1989. Girder Girder 1 > 2 > 60. 1990 Bridge Software Development International. 1997 9:25 AM Bridge Type > Box Girder Project > Sample Box Design Project ID > BOX1SAMPLE Description > 160210160 spans 2boxes Number of girders > Number of spans > Project units > BRIDGESYSTEMsm 3D Version > 2.
16.5625 . 50.00 1.5000 50.00 78. 81. 1. 50. 81.6250 50.00 78.00 81. 50.5625 . Field Section > 2 Top Flange. 10 21 7. 50.00 . 18.5000 1.6250 50. 50.6250 50.87 Sup > 157. 16. 81.43 18 37 7.87 7.00 78.00 78.6250 50.00 1.5000 1. 81. Fy Width Thick.Web Depth Thick.6250 50.00 1. 50.5625 .87 7.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick.00 1.00 . 81.0000 50. 81.00 3.87 17 35 7.6250 50.87 11 23 7.25 50.00 . Top Flange Section Weight > Girder > Rght Mem.0000 1.00 3. 18. 50. 81.00 78.00 .00 1.0000 50.87 12 25 7.00 18. 81.74 15. 81.0000 1. Fy Width Thick. 16.6250 50.0000 50.00 3. 16. 50.Girder > Rght Mem.00 16. 81. 81. 16.0000 50. 50.0000 50. Bot Flange 32096.0000 50.00 18.5625 .00 1. Fy 78.00 1.0000 50.00 78. 81.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick. 16.00 81. TOTAL 88649.46 50. 50.00 1.5625 .00 78.00 81.0000 50.5625 .87 16 33 7.00 1.0000 50. 81.00 . 50.87 14 29 7.38 21 43 7. 50.5625 . 81. .87 7.00 1. 16.00 78. 18.00 18.00 1.0000 50.0000 50.5000 50.5625 .38 20 41 7. 50.00 .5000 50. Ft.00 1.5625 .87 15 31 7. TOTAL 56031.5000 50.5625 .00 . 50. 18. 81.0000 3.00 78.5000 50.00 1.87 13 27 7.5625 . 16.00 18.00 . 50. Web 29072.00 78.5000 50.5625 Length Ft.00 1. Fy Lip> 1.5625 .5000 1.00 78. 50.6250 50.6250 50. Bot Flange 16673.00 78.00 81.0000 50.00 78.00 78. 50.6250 50. A4 .5625 . 81.5625 . Node 1 Length 10285.00 78.0000 50. 16.0000 50.0000 50. 50. 50.00 1. Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 1 Length 15.00 .87 7.5625 . 50.0000 50. 50.0000 1.Web Depth Thick.5625 .0000 50.5000 1.0000 50. 81.00 16. 18.00 1. 50.00 1.38 19 39 7. 81.00 . 50.5625 .38 22 45 14.> 107.6250 50.00 1.76 Section Weight > Top Flange 23544. 50.00 .74 7.00 78. Fy Lip> 1.87 Field Section > 1 Top Flange.5625 .5625 .87 7. 50.00 1.00 78.00 78.00 78.74 15.6250 50.5625 Length 94.00 1.5625 . 16. Fy 78. 50. 50.00 78. 50. 18.00 Web 33009.> .00 .00 .00 .
5000 50.0000 50. Fy 78.0000 50. 50.7500 50. Node 1 Length 12857.0000 50. 50.00 18. 81. 81. A5 .7500 50.25 50.87 46 93 7. TOTAL 74207.00 78. 50.00 1.0000 .6250 . 50.00 18. 16. 81.00 78. Bot Flange 25010.0000 3. 50.76 40 81 7.7500 50. 81. 16. 50.00 1.6250 . 16. 50. 81.00 81. 16.0000 1.00 1.63 44 89 7.0000 50.00 .> 107.7500 50.00 .5625 .00 1.0000 50. 50. 50. 81.00 .6250 50.5625 .0000 50. 50. 50. 81.00 78.87 50 101 7.5000 50.00 16.00 1. 16.00 78.5000 50.00 78.7500 50.00 1.7500 50.0000 50.5000 1.00 78. Fy Lip> 1.5000 1. 50.00 78.5625 .00 1.0000 50. .38 7. .5000 50.00 1. 50. Top Flange Section Weight > Girder > Rght Mem.00 .00 78.7500 50.00 78.5625 .00 16.00 78.00 78.00 .00 .38 7.00 .00 78.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick.00 1. 81.00 16.0000 50.7500 50.38 7.00 3.38 7. 16. 50.00 78.38 7. 16.00 78. 50.00 81.5625 .5625 . 50.5625 .0000 50.38 7.00 78.0000 50.00 .5625 . 50.00 .00 81. 81.00 81.00 1. 50.5625 . 81. 50.0000 1. 81.0000 50.5625 .7500 50.00 3. 50.00 81. 81. 50. 50.0000 50.38 7. 50. Bot Flange 32097.38 43 87 7.7500 50.00 1.38 42 85 7.00 1. 50.38 41 83 7.00 81. 16. 50. 16.38 Sup > 206.00 78.00 .7500 50.00 18.00 78.5000 1.87 49 99 7. 50. Fy 78.00 .0000 50.38 7.00 .5625 .00 1.00 1.00 1.5625 .5625 Length Ft.00 Web 33009.5625 .00 . 50.5625 .5000 1.00 1. 16.38 7. 16. Node 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 1 Length 7.0000 50.00 78. 50. 81.00 78.87 45 91 7.5625 . 50. 81.5625 .38 7.00 81.5625 Length Ft. 18. 18. 50.38 Field Section > 3 Top Flange.5625 . 50. 50.87 48 97 7.00 18. Fy Lip> 1.38 7.5000 50.7500 50.5625 . 1. 16.00 3. Field Section > 4 Top Flange. 81.87 Section Weight > Top Flange 23544.87 51 103 7.07 50.00 . 81.5625 .7500 50. 16.5625 .00 .7500 50. 50.0000 50.38 7.7500 50.5625 .Web Depth Thick.00 78.5625 .5625 .0000 50.5625 . 81.00 .0000 50. Web 36340.00 78.00 1. Fy Width Thick.0000 1.7500 50.5000 1.00 78. 50.0000 50.00 .38 7. 16. 81.00 1. 18. 39 79 14. 50. 18.00 78.00 .00 16.00 18. 81.00 78. 50.38 7.5625 . 81. 50.0000 50. 16.38 7.0000 50.00 1. 81. 18.Girder > Rght Mem.0000 1. 50. 50.00 78. Fy Width Thick. 50.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick.00 78. TOTAL 88650.00 1.5625 .0000 1.00 78.87 47 95 7.> 118.00 1.00 1. 50.00 1.5625 .Web Depth Thick. 81.00 1.0000 50.
5625 . 81.6250 50. 16.0000 50.> .00 78. 16. 80515.5625 Length 97.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick. 16.00 .0000 50. Fy 78. 363569.0000 50.6250 50.26 16. 16. 81. 52 105 7.00 . Node 1 Length Field Section > 5 Top Flange.5625 .6250 50.Girder > Rght Mem. Ft. Fy 78. 122550.6250 50.0000 50.13 8. 81. 81.6250 50.48 Girder > Rght Mem.00 16. 50.5625 .00 78.26 8.00 1. Fy Lip> 1.0000 50. 81.00 1. 50. 16.00 .00 1.00 78. Fy Lip> 1.00 78.00 .00 .00 78.00 1.5625 . Ft. 16.00 1. Web 29072. A6 . 50. 81.00 .00 .00 1. Bot Flange 16674. 16.00 1.00 1. 81.6250 50.46 50. 50.00 .00 1.00 .00 .0000 50.00 78. 50.5625 .0000 50.6250 50.5625 Length 94.0000 50.0000 50.0000 50.43 Section Weight > Girder Weight > Top Flange 10285. 50.0000 50. 50. 81.74 60 121 15. 81. Bot Flange 17218.74 Sup > 157.74 59 119 15. 50.00 78. Web 30022. 81. 50.0000 50.6250 50. 16.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick.00 1.6250 50.5625 . 16. 16.6250 50. 50.00 1. 16.87 57 115 7. 16. Fy Width Thick. 16.00 78.00 1.87 58 117 15. 16.00 78.00 1.5625 .87 55 111 7. 81.6250 50.87 53 107 7.00 78. 50.0000 50.5625 . 50.00 . Node 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2 Length 16.Web Depth Thick.26 16.0000 50.13 8.6250 50.5625 .00 .5625 .00 78.00 .00 78.Web Depth Thick. 81.5625 . 50.6250 50. 81.00 16.00 78.5625 .00 78.6250 50.13 8. TOTAL 56031.00 .6250 50. Fy Width Thick. 160504. 81.6250 50.54 50.0000 50. 81.00 .13 8.0000 50.5625 .87 56 113 7.00 1.5625 .5625 . Top Flange Section Weight > 10621. 16. 81. 81. 16.00 .> .0000 50.6250 50. 50. TOTAL 57862.00 .00 .0000 50.5625 .> 521. Ft.00 1. 50.00 78.13 8.00 78.00 1.6250 50.00 .87 54 109 7.00 .00 1. 50.13 Field Section > 1 Top Flange. 81.00 1.
81.62 82 46 15.00 78.5625 .62 7.5625 .00 . 81.5625 .00 . Fy 78. Bot Flange 25827.0000 50.00 . 50.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick. 50.62 80 42 7. 50. 81. 1.00 78.> 110.00 78. 50.00 . Fy Width Thick. A7 .5625 .00 .Girder > Rght Mem.62 81 44 7.Web Depth Thick. Fy Lip> 1. 50. 50.00 78. 81.00 78.00 1.0000 50.00 1.13 75 32 8.62 7. Fy Lip> 1.00 18.00 1. 81.62 7.00 81.00 78.00 1. 50.0000 50.5625 .00 1. 81.0000 50. 81.62 7.62 7. 50. 81.00 78. 50. 81.00 1.00 18.5000 1. 81.5625 .00 78.7500 50.13 76 34 8.00 78. 16. 16.00 18. 50.6250 50.7500 50. 81.00 78.0000 1. 50.7500 50.5625 .7500 50.00 .00 1.0000 3. 16. Node 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 2 Length 7. 18.0000 50. TOTAL 76632.5625 . 81. TOTAL 91545.> 121.5625 Length Ft.5625 .00 78.62 Top Flange 24313.00 78. 16.00 1.5000 50.00 81.00 .5625 .00 .00 .5625 Length Ft. 50.5625 .00 1. 16.62 7.57 78 38 7.0000 50. 81.00 18.00 78. 16. 50.00 .0000 50. Field Section > 3 Top Flange.0000 50. 16.0000 50.0000 50. 50.5625 .62 7.00 78. 16.5625 .0000 50. 50.0000 50.13 73 28 8. 70 22 8.5000 1.00 .00 .24 Section Weight > Girder > Rght Mem.0000 50.00 . 50.00 16. 18.00 78. 50.00 1. 50. . 81.5625 . 81.5625 . 16.00 1.00 78. 18.5625 .62 7. 50. 50.00 78. Fy Width Thick.00 . Top Flange Section Weight > 13277. 18.00 Web 34088.5625 .00 1.5000 50.5000 1. 50.0000 50.62 7.5625 .5625 .00 .7500 50.00 1. 81.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick. 16. 50.5625 .5000 1.00 78.0000 50.5000 50. 18. 81. 50. 81.00 1. 16.62 7.7500 50.6250 50.00 81.13 71 24 8. 16. 50. .0000 50.5625 .7500 50. 50.62 7.00 78.0000 50. 50.7500 50. 81.5000 50.00 .00 78.00 .7500 50. 81.00 1. 50.00 .00 1. 50.7500 50. Fy 78. 16. 50.7500 50.00 1.00 1. 16. 50.00 1.00 1.13 77 36 8.62 7. Web 37528. 50.00 16. 16.7500 50. Node 2 Length Field Section > 2 Top Flange.5625 . Bot Flange 33145.0000 1.7500 50.00 81. 50.00 78.00 78.0000 1. 50.00 1.00 78.00 1.13 Sup > 162. 18.00 .5625 .Web Depth Thick.00 3.62 7.00 1. 81.00 1.0000 50.0000 50.7500 50.0000 50.5000 50.00 .00 78. 50.75 50.62 79 40 7.7500 50.00 1.00 1.5625 .0000 50.0000 50. 16.0000 50.7500 50.0000 50.00 3.13 74 30 8. 16.00 78.5000 50.62 7.00 78.00 1.00 3.00 78. 50.0000 50.13 72 26 8. 81.6250 50.5625 .00 .62 7. 81.5625 .93 50.5625 . 81. 81.
00 .13 107 96 8.00 1.00 . Ft. 50. 50.00 78.00 16.00 78.5625 .00 78. 1. 126554.6250 50. Web 30022.00 78.6250 . 81.00 78.00 78. 50. 18.26 120 122 16.00 3.00 81.00 .Web Depth Thick.5625 .00 . 50.00 78. 112 106 8.5625 .5000 1.6250 50.13 115 112 8.00 .13 117 116 8. 50. Bot Flange 249104.00 Web 34088. 50.5625 .26 119 120 16. 50.5000 50.00 78.0000 50.62 Sup > 213.13 113 108 8. 50.5000 50. 50.13 108 98 8.75 50.00 81.5000 1.00 16.0000 50. 18.00 1.0000 1.00 78.5625 .0000 1. 50. 50. 81.00 18.54 50. 81.00 .00 78. 81. 81.00 1.6250 50.6250 50.13 106 94 8.S T R U C T U R E Top Flange Weight > 163660. TOTAL 57862.0000 50.5625 .00 1. 81.00 1.0000 50. Fy Width Thick.00 18.00 1.00 1.0000 50.Girder > Rght Mem.13 105 92 8.00 .13 111 104 8.00 81.00 78.0000 50. 50. 16.5625 Length Ft.Web Depth Thick.62 101 84 7. 50.00 18.5625 . Field Section > 5 Top Flange.0000 50.0000 50.00 81.62 103 88 7. Fy 78.5625 Length 97.0000 50.00 1.00 78.5000 1.13 110 102 8.62 102 86 7. 50.00 1.00 78.00 78. 50. Node 2 Length Field Section > 4 Top Flange. 16. 83145.24 100 82 7.52 .Bottom FlangeWidth Thick. 50. 81. 50.5625 . 165747.5625 . 50.0000 1.> 110.6250 50. 50.5625 .57 Section Weight > Girder Weight > Top Flange 10621.00 1. 99 80 15.00 18.00 81.6250 50. . 50.5000 1. 81. 81.00 .0000 .00 1.00 81. A8 .38 104 90 8.0000 50.0000 1.00 1.00 78.13 109 100 8. Node 2 Length Top Flange 24313.5000 50.5625 .13 114 110 8. 50.00 18.5625 . 50. 81.5625 .0000 50. 16. 50. 50. 16.00 78. 16.6250 .00 81.0000 50.00 3.> . 18.6250 50.0000 3. Fy Lip> 1. 81. 50. Ft. 16. 50.00 . 81. Fy 78. 81.5625 .5625 .13 118 118 16.5625 .13 116 114 8.00 78.00 1.0000 50. 18. 16. 50. 50. 81. 50. 50.5625 . 50.> 538.5000 1.Bottom FlangeWidth Thick.0000 50. Bot Flange 17218.5000 50.6250 50. Fy Width Thick. 375446. Fy Lip> 1.5625 .00 1. 18.6250 50. 50.00 78.00 1. 50.5625 . 50. 16. TOTAL 91546. TOTAL 739015. Bot Flange 33145.5000 50.26 Sup > 162.00 .5625 .00 1.6250 50. 81.00 1.00 .00 78.00 78.13 Section Weight > Girder > Rght Mem.00 16. Web 326251.00 3.0000 1.00 16.0000 50.
and Torques at TenthPoints B1 .APPENDIX B Girder Moments. Shears.
) B2 .(This page is intentionally left blank.
1988. and Centrifugal Forces April 5. 1990 Bridge Software Development International.. 1987.HL93 Plus Dynamic Load Allow.STRENGTH . Ltd. 1997 10:51 AM Revised November 16. Multiple Presence. 2001 Bridge Type > Box Girder Project > Sample Box Design Project ID > BOX1SAMPLE Description > 160210160 spans 2boxes Number of girders > Number of spans > Project units > 2 3 English Date Created > 07/29/94 Initials > DHH BRIDGESYSTEMsm 3D Version > 2. Stage Definition Stg1 Stg6 Stg7 = = = Load due to weight of structural steel including girders and internal cross bracing and top flange diagonal bracing Load due to weight of concrete deck placed at one time Load due to weight of parapets and wearing surface placed on composite bridge Special = LRFD HL93 live load vehicle responses including the dynamic load allowance B3 .1 Copyright (C) 1985. 1989. 1986.
94 141.69 157.SpecialPOS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 28 23 19 15 11 9 7 5 5 3 3 4 6 8 11 15 18 23 27 29 36 139 115 94 78 53 40 31 25 21 19 14 24 29 35 41 52 63 83 101 116 127 163 .Girder > 1 Span > 1 Length > D E A D 157.97 78.43 Stg1 0 521 882 1049 1047 851 493 75 837 1781 2969 MOMENTS Stg6 0 2191 3666 4321 4320 3503 2043 315 3461 7206 11629 Stg7 0 790 1377 1684 1706 1441 901 83 1010 2357 4097 Stg1 27 19 10 5 6 11 16 23 28 34 44 SHEARS Stg6 114 80 45 23 25 44 69 98 116 137 171 L I V E L O A D S Length .43 .20 125.97 78.Lane .23 62.46 110.00 15.00 15.49 47.20 125.94 141.97 78.Torque MaximumsPOS NEG 660 775 756 597 389 309 360 462 569 668 1049 398 448 482 389 307 354 479 636 766 866 922 B4 .69 157.71 94.74 31.69 157.43 .74 31.Special1Lane Truck POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 505 845 997 1043 1014 923 748 482 182 156 0 66 132 198 260 318 373 450 549 669 843 0 2472 4330 5412 5863 5777 5189 4109 2602 1252 1061 0 469 938 1408 1878 2338 2795 3915 4547 5559 7784 0 505 845 997 1043 1014 923 748 482 182 156 0 66 132 198 260 318 373 450 549 669 843 Length .46 110.Truck .71 94.94 141.Shears.49 47.49 47.Lane .23 62.00 15.71 94.46 110.23 62.Moments .20 125.43 L O A D S Stg7 58 27 18 11 7 13 19 30 41 56 94 Stg1 42 82 34 30 1 29 33 54 25 10 22 TORQUES Stg6 286 398 189 153 9 125 158 262 165 135 231 Stg7 145 125 93 92 54 30 0 49 108 193 294 Length .Truck .74 31.
63 .Truck .66 41.64 165.33 61.63 L O A D S Stg7 96 54 37 23 11 0 11 24 37 54 96 Stg1 36 4 60 39 61 0 64 39 60 4 36 TORQUES Stg6 294 105 309 205 261 0 261 205 309 105 294 Stg7 335 206 120 52 20 0 20 51 120 206 334 Length .66 41.65 103.00 20.Moments .00 20.99 82.30 185.98 144.99 82.64 165.65 103.63 Stg1 2969 1422 326 493 977 1118 976 492 327 1422 2969 MOMENTS Stg6 11629 5845 1516 1881 3900 4442 3900 1880 1519 5848 11633 Stg7 4097 1864 220 988 1705 1944 1705 986 222 1867 4098 Stg1 45 31 25 17 11 0 11 17 25 31 45 SHEARS Stg6 175 128 110 72 47 0 47 72 110 127 175 L I V E L O A D S Length .Truck .Special1Lane Truck POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 156 245 624 894 1050 1091 1050 895 623 257 157 843 547 417 317 248 188 249 318 416 547 830 1061 1310 2993 4784 5926 6304 5928 4775 3000 1315 1062 7784 4411 3033 2275 2008 1749 2013 2279 3021 4421 7788 156 245 624 894 1050 1091 1050 895 623 257 157 843 547 417 317 248 188 249 318 416 547 830 Length .33 61.64 165.Lane .Girder > 1 Span > 2 Length > D E A D 206.31 123.00 20.SpecialPOS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39 30 26 21 18 15 10 8 4 4 3 3 4 5 8 10 15 18 21 26 31 37 171 140 124 101 78 58 43 36 26 23 14 15 23 26 37 45 57 78 101 124 140 166 .63 .30 185.Shears.Torque MaximumsPOS NEG 1049 995 919 716 555 446 413 500 625 713 928 922 702 598 464 383 430 540 724 906 991 1046 B5 .31 123.99 82.98 144.65 103.31 123.96 206.66 41.98 144.33 61.96 206.30 185.96 206.Lane .
69 157.43 L O A D S Stg7 94 56 41 30 19 13 7 11 18 28 59 Stg1 22 10 25 54 33 30 1 30 34 82 42 TORQUES Stg6 231 134 166 262 158 125 10 153 190 398 285 Stg7 296 194 109 50 1 29 53 90 91 132 174 Length .49 47.Girder > 1 Span > 3 Length > D E A D 157.49 47.71 94.46 110.Truck .46 110.SpecialPOS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 29 27 23 18 15 11 8 6 4 3 3 5 5 7 9 11 15 19 23 28 35 167 128 116 101 83 64 51 41 32 27 24 15 19 21 25 31 38 52 77 92 113 139 .Lane .49 47.23 62.46 110.43 .69 157.97 78.43 Stg1 2969 1780 837 74 493 851 1047 1048 882 521 0 MOMENTS Stg6 11633 7203 3459 312 2044 3504 4320 4321 3666 2189 0 Stg7 4098 2359 1013 80 897 1437 1703 1681 1375 788 0 Stg1 44 34 28 23 16 11 6 5 10 19 27 SHEARS Stg6 171 137 116 98 69 44 25 23 45 80 114 L I V E L O A D S Length .20 125.Truck .00 15.71 94.94 141.Special1Lane Truck POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 157 182 482 747 923 1014 1042 997 845 505 0 830 673 547 449 372 312 255 193 129 65 0 1062 1248 2591 4099 5181 5769 5855 5405 4326 2470 0 7788 5556 4532 3900 2783 2328 1868 1402 993 466 0 157 182 482 747 923 1014 1042 997 845 505 0 830 673 547 449 372 312 255 193 129 65 0 Length .69 157.43 .20 125.71 94.Torque MaximumsPOS NEG 928 874 770 640 482 375 346 434 512 503 399 1046 657 549 434 319 281 378 591 751 772 662 B6 .74 31.23 62.00 15.74 31.Lane .Moments .74 31.Shears.97 78.94 141.20 125.23 62.94 141.97 78.00 15.
00 16.Torque MaximumsPOS NEG 621 774 785 638 412 348 333 433 552 687 980 533 503 469 427 391 439 535 676 793 848 863 B7 .77 65.77 65.26 32.Moments .06 146.29 97.54 113.03 81.SpecialPOS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41 35 30 24 17 12 9 8 5 3 3 8 8 8 8 12 18 23 29 33 36 41 128 110 93 75 54 40 36 33 26 16 13 26 29 35 44 52 67 85 102 114 127 155 .29 97.26 32.80 130.51 48.03 81.57 .00 16.77 65.57 L O A D S Stg7 91 39 26 14 8 14 28 40 51 62 96 Stg1 43 87 35 32 2 32 36 59 28 10 22 TORQUES Stg6 98 276 92 88 22 129 125 203 53 63 48 Stg7 418 323 241 148 49 45 134 201 247 273 346 Length .51 48.31 162.Girder > 2 Span > 1 Length > D E A D 162.29 97.80 130.80 130.51 48.Shears.00 16.Lane .31 162.31 162.Truck .06 146.Lane .Special1Lane Truck POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 537 898 1056 1100 1066 963 775 506 194 173 0 64 129 195 263 336 416 511 619 749 934 0 2606 4559 5687 6152 6059 5434 4308 2751 1305 1114 0 484 967 1446 1931 2416 2907 4097 4768 5836 8127 0 537 898 1056 1100 1066 963 775 506 194 173 0 64 129 195 263 336 416 511 619 749 934 Length .57 Stg1 0 555 938 1116 1115 905 525 79 892 1896 3154 MOMENTS Stg6 0 2268 3868 4632 4633 3780 2207 256 3579 7599 12272 Stg7 0 816 1418 1726 1733 1446 867 2 1166 2610 4473 Stg1 31 19 11 5 7 11 17 24 29 35 46 SHEARS Stg6 110 74 44 21 26 45 69 97 117 137 185 L I V E L O A D S Length .06 146.54 113.57 .54 113.03 81.Truck .26 32.
34 42.Torque MaximumsPOS NEG 980 978 925 754 580 477 391 456 603 725 878 863 709 569 433 425 491 596 746 915 974 976 B8 .38 .38 .Truck .Girder > 2 Span > 2 Length > D E A D 213.70 192.03 149.69 128.68 64.Truck .69 128.36 170.04 213.38 L O A D S Stg7 102 65 50 35 17 0 17 35 50 65 102 Stg1 36 3 64 40 68 0 68 40 64 3 36 TORQUES Stg6 33 101 183 118 237 0 237 118 183 102 33 Stg7 447 372 333 243 126 0 127 243 335 373 448 Length .04 213.Moments .SpecialPOS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 44 37 33 28 22 16 11 9 6 3 3 3 3 6 9 11 16 22 28 34 37 43 160 135 120 100 78 57 46 41 33 22 14 14 22 33 42 46 57 78 99 120 135 159 .Lane .03 149.Special1Lane Truck POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 173 262 630 908 1071 1117 1070 907 629 269 172 934 609 467 356 265 187 264 354 466 608 930 1114 1401 3176 5018 6205 6598 6204 5001 3166 1393 1114 8127 4629 3197 2366 2070 1786 2065 2355 3165 4627 8128 173 262 630 908 1071 1117 1070 907 629 269 172 934 609 467 356 265 187 264 354 466 608 930 Length .35 106.01 85.01 85.69 128.68 64.00 21.36 170.01 85.34 42.38 Stg1 3154 1513 348 525 1040 1190 1039 525 348 1514 3155 MOMENTS Stg6 12272 6169 1473 2077 4196 4826 4195 2075 1476 6173 12275 Stg7 4473 2107 371 893 1638 1890 1638 893 370 2106 4469 Stg1 47 32 26 17 12 0 12 17 26 32 47 SHEARS Stg6 185 130 105 69 46 0 46 69 105 130 185 L I V E L O A D S Length .00 21.Lane .70 192.04 213.36 170.35 106.34 42.03 149.68 64.00 21.35 106.70 192.Shears.
Lane .54 113.54 113.Shears.29 97.80 130.77 65.03 81.Torque MaximumsPOS NEG 878 853 799 685 542 415 385 433 502 533 533 976 674 536 430 321 360 440 626 782 783 621 B9 .Lane .51 48.26 32.31 162.00 16.Girder > 2 Span > 3 Length > D E A D 162.57 Stg1 3155 1895 891 79 525 906 1115 1116 938 555 0 MOMENTS Stg6 12275 7595 3577 253 2208 3781 4634 4632 3867 2266 0 Stg7 4469 2606 1162 3 871 1450 1737 1729 1421 816 0 Stg1 46 35 29 24 17 11 7 5 11 19 31 SHEARS Stg6 185 137 117 97 69 45 26 21 44 74 110 L I V E L O A D S Length .77 65.SpecialPOS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 43 36 33 28 22 18 12 8 8 8 8 3 3 5 8 9 12 17 24 30 35 41 158 128 115 102 85 67 52 44 34 28 26 14 15 26 33 36 40 54 75 93 111 129 .54 113.57 .06 146.80 130.Moments .26 32.31 162.29 97.29 97.80 130.00 16.Truck .57 .03 81.06 146.77 65.57 L O A D S Stg7 96 62 51 40 28 14 8 14 26 39 91 Stg1 22 10 28 59 36 32 1 32 35 87 43 TORQUES Stg6 48 63 53 203 125 129 22 88 92 276 98 Stg7 346 273 247 201 134 45 49 148 241 323 417 Length .51 48.Special1Lane Truck POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG POS NEG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 172 195 507 777 965 1067 1101 1056 898 538 0 930 751 623 513 419 334 261 194 128 64 0 1114 1312 2762 4320 5445 6068 6160 5689 4560 2607 0 8128 5843 4778 4106 2917 2424 1936 1451 971 487 0 172 195 507 777 965 1067 1101 1056 898 538 0 930 751 623 513 419 334 261 194 128 64 0 Length .03 81.31 162.51 48.Truck .06 146.26 32.00 16.
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APPENDIX C Selected Design Forces and Girder 2 Section Properties C1 .
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Vertical shears in the critical web (V) due to the factored fatigue vehicle are given in the “Fat” columns. Dynamic load allowance is included according to Article 3. Multiple presence factors (Table 3.682(2) 317(1) 5. include centrifugal force effects.6.258 V = 23k 1.121 2. All live load moments and shears.190 3. Deck and Cast moments include the moments due to the deck haunch and stayinplace forms.915(2) 1.530 740 186 1.264 3.049 5.1.163 563 142 816 663 1.960(2) SupImp2 765 326 FWS3 1.896 3.378(1) 6.378(1) 2. Girder 2 Section Node 11 10 22 20.21) were considered in determining LLmax.75 specified in Table 3. Selected Unfactored Moments (kft) and Web Fatigue Shears (kips).305 5.015 634 4.127 1.11.445 2.378(1) 4.579 7.127 1. including fatigue moments and shears.541 1.4. Fatigue moments and shears are increased by 10 percent to allow for warping. The location of nodes and sections may be found by referring to Figure 2 and Appendix A.920 1.305(2) 1.271 V = 18K 892 1.154 1.598 1.006 428 LLmax4 5. 2 SupImp .2.932 1.753 4.599 12.836 1. Deck and Cast moments are unfactored.074 (#) denotes Deck Cast number Cast #1 begins at Section 11 and ends at Section 33 (similar for span 3) Cast #2 begins at Section 88 and is symmetrical in the center span (includes Cast #1) Steel.038(2) 2.689 5.826 504 1.956 979 184 1.1.378(1) 4. 5 Fat .108 V = 12k 646 V = 8k 258 V = 2k 173 V = 4k 192 V = 37k 554 V = 35k 917 V = 32k 1.786 Fatmin5 239 V = 14k 451 V = 26k 649 V = 34 784 V = 36 961 V = 44k 656 V = 5k 542 V = 8k 403 V = 11k 182 V = 18k Fatmax5 1.3 Splice 33 28 44 32 55 36 66 40 77 44 88 48 99 62 1 Steel 1.768 1.751 4.272 7.Unfactored superimposed dead load 3 FWS .747 1.Unfactored liveload plus the dynamic load allowance moment due to multiple lanes of LRFD HL93.378(1) 922(2) 1.392(2) 1.654(2) 1.866 4.132 3.941 Cast(#)1 2.Maximum and minimum fatigue moment due to one fatigue vehicle plus 15% dynamic load allowance times the load factor of 0.144 462 Deck 4.525 6.Table C1.Unfactored future wearing surface dead load 4 LLmax .749(1) 647(2) 752(1) 3.114 8.483 2.6.087 2.979(1) 1. C3 .
Shear (kips). Reported shears are vertical shears and are for bending plus torsion in the critical web. C4 .Table C2. Girder 2 Span 1 at TenthPoints Tenth Point 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Steel 31 19 11 5 7 11 17 24 29 35 46/47 Deck 110 74 44 21 26 45 69 97 117 137 185/185 SupImp 39 17 11 6 3 6 12 17 22 27 41/44 FWS 52 22 15 8 5 8 16 23 29 35 55/58 Total DL 232 132 81 40 41 70 114 161 197 234 327/334 LL + IM 128 110 93 75 52 67 85 102 114 127 155/160 Factored Shear 527 363 268 183 143 207 295 385 453 524 694/712 Live load shear of the same sign as the dead load shear is reported.
1.4. where listed.6. Multiple presence factors (Table 3. 4 Fat . C5 .2. Girder 2 Section Node 11 10 22 20. All live load torques.75 specified in Table 3.1. is the torque due to Cast #1.Unfactored future wearing surface dead load 3 LLmax . including fatigue torques.Maximum and minimum torques due to one fatigue vehicle plus 15% dynamic load allowance times the load factor of 0.11. 5 Bottom value. include centrifugal force effects.21) were considered in determining LLMAX. The location of nodes and sections are shown in Figure 2 and Appendix A.Unfactored liveload plus dynamic load allowance torque due to multiple lanes of LRFD HL93.Table C3.3 Splice 33 28 44 32 55 36 66 40 77 44 88 48 99 62 1 2 Steel 59 Deck 205 4645 125 188 53 352 63 420 48 33 52 335 13 305 211 298 0 0 SupImp1 41 FWS2 54 LLmax3 525 409 348 556 552 793 687 848 9806 863 979 753 955 649 839 501 477 491 Fatmin4 85 Fatmax4 174 165 238 241 2326 171 105 90 100 96 108 132 2546 260 264 244 116 36 28 10 22 36 23 28 72 0 58 107 118 149 193 163 145 125 0 76 140 155 197 254 215 191 164 0 SupImp .Unfactored superimposed dead load FWS . Selected Unfactored Torques (kft). Dynamic load allowance is included according to Article 3. 6 Only the minimum and maximum liveload torques are reported at the pier section.6.
Girder 2 Span 1 Element Steel 13 6 11 4 2 10 7 6 11 9 7 12 8 1. 3.Table C4.25[Steel + Cast #1] or 1.25[Steel + Cast #1 + Cast #2] *These values are taken from Figure 5 C6 . Top Flange Bracing Forces (kip).25(DL) + 1. 2.75(LL+IM)] Const = 1. Deck 40 12 39 20 7 38 25 15 31 46 42 33 16 SupImp 3 2 5 4 4 4 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 FWS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Notes: 4 2 6 5 5 5 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 LL+I M 2 3 4 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 Fact 79 12 85 51 33 80 29 37 66 82 72 71 42 *Cast #1 100 60 90 0 37 55 25 76 70 51 71 25 43 Cast #2 7 0 13 7 18 15 23 31 15 64 31 82 76 Const 141 83 126 5 49 81 69 103 120 53 98 86 51 Casts consider overhang bracing forces Fact = 1.0[1.
n.) 36.329 292.889 325. The modular ratio.5 2 .20 43.18 x 3 2 . Selected Section Properties for Girder 2 Section Node 11 10 22 20.Table C5.78 15.805 836.5625 83 x 0.78 x 0.00 40.45 43.) 42. C7 .531 438.78 45.625 A = 181 in2 Section Type Noncomp Comp DL CompLL Noncomp 2 .06 42.5 LS WT 8 x 28.73 41.0 in2 placed at an angle of 30 degrees from tangent to the girder is assumed.187 354.78 x 0.0 in2 per box is assumed placed at the neutral axis of the effective structural deck area. For composite section properties including only the longitudinal reinforcement. Thus.) 2 . the longitudinal flange stiffener (where present) and the 1inch bottom flange lips.32 51. The area of the deck haunch is not included.05 36. including the concrete deck.77 39. The area and moment of inertia of the box section include the longitudinal component of the top flange bracing area.69 32.18 x 1. for live load is 7.16 x 1 2 .0 in2/3).78 x 0. are computed using the structural deck area including the overhang and half of the deck width between girders.080 484.80 24.175 475.95 33 28 55 36 Legend: B T Noncomp Comp DL Comp DL Bars Comp LL Comp LL Bars LS A = = = = = = = = = vertical distance from the neutral axis to the outermost edge of the bottom flange vertical distance from the neutral axis to the outermost edge of the top flange steel section only steel section plus concrete deck transformed using modular ratio of 3n steel section plus longitudinal reinforcement area divided by 3 steel section plus concrete deck transformed using modular ratio of n steel section plus longitudinal reinforcement single longitudinal bottom flange stiffener total steel area of box section Composite section properties.5625 83 x 1. The vertical web depth is shown in the above table. A single topflange bracing member of 8.858 650.3 Section Size (in.74 20.27 10.84 35.30 38.50 41.56 and 3n is used for superimposed dead load.81 50.5 A = 243 in2 CompDL CompDL Bars CompLL CompLL Bars Noncomp 2 .5625 83 x 1 LS WT 8 x 28.966 633.35 68.646 275.55 Neutral Axis T (in.67 in2 (20. The effective area of reinforcing steel used for superimposed dead load is adjusted for creep by a factor of 3.18 29. The longitudinal reinforcing steel area equal to 20.925 479. However.83 55.714 Neutral Axis B (in.44 39.76 62. the reinforcing area used for the superimposed dead load is 6.467 454.72 64. a haunch depth is considered when determine the position of the deck reinforcement relative to the steel girder.5 A = 338 in2 CompDL CompDL Bars CompLL CompLL Bars Moment of Inertia (in4) 185. the total area of the inclined webs is used in computing all section properties.
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APPENDIX D Sample Calculations D1 .
) D2 .(This page is intentionally left blank.
23) Therefore.0 in.4 0.0 Eq (6. < 1.2. < 16 in.11. D= 78 4.4 4. all section proportions for this location are satisfied.2. OK Eq (6.0 in.2.11. bf 2tf 16 2( 1) ≤ 12.5625) = 0.21) =8 < 12 OK bf ≥ D 6 = 13.11. x 1.11.11.2.1.11.21) Determine the web depth along the incline.62 in. the web is proportioned such that: D tw ≤ 150 Eq (6.1: For a web without longitudinal stiffeners. Web proportions per Article 6.2.4 6 tf ≥ 1.2): Top flanges of tub sections subjected to compression and tension are proportioned such that: Top flanges: 16 in. OK Eq (6.123 = 80.1tw 1.9 in.5625 < 150 OK Flange proportions (Article 6. All subsequent sections satisfy these limits.22) 80.2. D3 . The web rise over run is 4:1.2. 80.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Girder Section Proportioning The web and the flanges must be proportioned according to the provisions of Article 6.1( 0.0 = 142. Section proportion checks for the other design locations will not be shown.11.4 in.
8) ( 12 ) 185187 ( 1.0 in.top flange thickness = 42.09 4.9Ek but cannot exceed R h Fyc or Fyw/0.10.25) = −13.8 in.1 states that the compression flange stress may be used instead of the compression in the web since the difference is negligible.10.123 kft Constructibility Load Factor = 1.2.Web In accordance with Article 6.979 kft 4.11) D t w 2 where: k = 9 Dc D 2 = 9 43.A.0 = 41. Compute the nominal bendbuckling stress for the transversely stiffened web without longitudinal stiffeners.9. to top of top flange .9.1.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .3 D4 .7 Eq (6.10. Dc = N.123 = 43.10.1.80 − 1.1.1. The unfactored moments are from Table C1 . (inclined distance) fcw = ftop web = − 4123( 41.9 for the noncomposite section must be checked for steel weight and for the Cast #1 of the concrete deck.9. Neglect the effects of wind on the structure and the presence of construction equipment for this example.09 80. (vertical distance) = 41.4 2 = 31.144 kft 2.4 in. This approach will be used in all subsequent web checks in this example.11. The nominal bendbuckling resistance in girder webs for constructibility is determined according to the provisions of Article 6. Load Steel Cast #1 Total Moment Moment 1. The web bendbuckling check is not needed for the final condition.8 4. Fcrw = 0.1.96 ksi (C) Article C6. D = 80. the web bendbuckling provisions of Article 6.4.25 according to the provisions of Article 3. Compute the bending stress at the top of the web due to the above moment using the section properties for the noncomposite section from Table C5.
9( 29000) ( 31.99 ksi < Rh Fyc = 1.0(39. F crw = 39. therefore.99 ksi OK D5 .99 ksi 13.0(50) = 50 ksi.4 0.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .96 ksi < φfFcrw = 1.5625 2 = 39.99) = 39.Web (continued) 0.3) 80.
2 are used. half of the overhang weight is assumed placed on the girder and the other half is placed on the overhang brackets. Compute the vertical load on the overhang brackets. therefore. as shown in Figure D1.2. the unfactored lateral moment is calculated as follows: 0.3) 2 = −9.10. The weight of the deck finishing machine is not considered.2.411 k/ft Fl = 2π ( 1000) tan 49.10. Compute the lateral flange moment on the outermost tub flange due to the overhang forces. Deck: 1 2 × 4× 10 12 × 150 = 250 lbs/ft Deck forms + Screed rail = 224 lbs/ft Uniform load on brackets = 474 lbs/ft Compute the lateral force on the flanges due to overhang brackets.3. Assume that the average deck thickness in the overhang is 10 inches.3 are applied to the design of the top flange of tub box girders. The factored steel stresses during the sequential placement of the concrete are not to exceed the nominal stresses.3. The flange is treated as a continuous beam supported at brace points. The effect of the overhang brackets on the flanges must also be considered since G2 is an outside girder.3.1 360 Since the example girder is a tub box girder.2.5 474 = 0.411 ( 16.1 Ml = Fl Lb / 12 = − 12 2 kft Eq (C6. Overhang Bracket Load Since G2 is an outside girder. See Figure D1.10. The unbraced length of the top flange is approximately 16. − 1 78 α= tan = 49. the provisions of Article 6.3 feet in Span 1.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .1 degrees 67.Top Flange in Compression The flanges must be checked in flexure for steel weight and for Cast #1 of the concrete deck on the noncomposite section according to the provisions of Article 6. The bracket loads are assumed to be applied uniformly although the brackets are actually spaced at approximately 3 feet along the girder. The lateral flange moment at the brace points due to the overhang forces is negative in the top flange of G2 on the outside of the curve because the stress due to the lateral moment is compressive on the convex side of the flange at the brace points.11. as illustrated in later calculations. The provisions of Articles 6.42) D6 . The opposite would be true on the convex side of the G1 top flange on the inside of the curve at the brace points.3.3.10.1 through 6.
6.2. In positive moment regions.25) ( 6.1.4b1) The lateral flange moment at the brace points due to curvature is negative when the top flanges are subjected to compression because the stress due to the lateral moment is compressive on the convex side of the flange at the brace points. consider only half of the girder moment due to steel and Cast #1.2.1. Generally though. as mentioned previously.6.77 + ( −9.2. f bu. in the top flange without consideration of longitudinal warping is computed as: ftop flg = fbu = − 4123( 12 ) ( 42. the largest value of f bu may not necessarily be at either brace point.2.4b1) is not theoretically pure for tub girders or at locations inbetween brace points. The load factor for constructibility is 1.2. M = 4. Mtot_lat = [ −11.4b1) assumes the presence of a cross frame at the point under investigation and. Although the use of Eq (C4.6. Eq (C4. The approximate Eq (C4.10.4b1) given in the LRFD Specifications. the bending stress.77 10 ( 716.29 ksi (C) 185187 The top flange size is constant between brace points in this region.6. the computed value of f bu at Section 11 will be conservatively used in the strength check.25) = −26. which is the case in this example.3) 2 = −11. as illustrated below.1) ] ( 1. it may conservatively be used. For a single flange. the inclined webs of the box cause a lateral force on the top flanges.09 kft (factored) fl is defined as the flange lateral bending stress determined using the provisions of Article 6.6 This value may be determined directly from firstorder elastic analysis in discretely braced compression flanges if the following is satisfied.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .6.80) ( 1. A third source of lateral bending is due to curvature. M is constant over the distance between brace points.1. Note that the vertical web depth has been conservatively used in the following calculation. From Table C1. f bu will not be significantly larger than the value at adjacent brace points. Therefore.5) kft Eq (C4.1.4b1) is used below to compute the lateral flange bending moment due to curvature.123 kft.25 according to the provisions of Article 3.2.1. The opposite is true whenever the top flanges are subjected to tension.Top Flange in Compression (continued) In addition to the moment due to the overhang brackets. which can be conservatively estimated by the approximate Vload Equation (C4.123/2 = 2062 kft. This force is relatively small in this case and will be ignored. Using the section properties from Table C5. D7 . the moment due to the steel weight plus Cast #1 is 4.1.4. Ml 2 Mlat = NRD = − 2062 ( 16.25) = −14.
f l.8.10.0 for constructibility.09 ( 12 ) 42.0 ( 16 ) 6 = 2 Stop_flange = = 42.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .7 in3 −26.29 50 Lb = 16.39) = Since the stresses remain reasonably constant over the section.62) where: Lp = 1.77 in. may be determined from firstorder elastic analysis.10.10. < 1. R b .3 ksi (factored) D8 .77) = 12 29000 50 = 7.8.1.7 fl = Mtot_lat Stop_flange = −7.62): 1. 1.10.57 ft.2. Eq (6.0. Check the relation given in Eq (6.0) − 14. C b is taken as 1.57) = 16.2Lp Cb Rb fbu Fyc Eq (6.1.34) where: rt = bfc 1 Dc tw 12 1 + 3 bfc tfc 16 1 43.2( 7.0rt E Fyc 1.10.2 indicates that the web loadshedding factor.1. Therefore.2.10.0( 1.0( 3.99 ft.Top Flange in Compression (continued) Lb ≤ 1.3 ft.5625) 12 1 + 16 ( 1) 3 = 3. Article 6. is taken as 1. the flange lateral bending stress.08 ( 0. Eq (6.
0 (Article 6.Top Flange in Compression (continued) Another significant source of lateral flange bending not considered in this calculation is the forces that develop in singlediagonal top flange bracing members (arranged in the pattern shown in Figure 2 of the introduction section) as a result of vertical bending of the box girder. λf.2.1 directs the designer to the provisions of Article 6.8. The resistance is taken as the smaller of the local buckling resistance determined as specified in Article 6.2. of the compression flange is less than or equal to λpf λf = bfc 2tc = 16 2( 1) =8 Eq (6.10. The resistance of a flange and the approximate Vload Eq (C4. check the relation given by Eq (6.3 = 21.10.10. but a closedform solution is more elusive. for the top flanges of tub box girders in compression.10.0 (Article 6.2.0.1.2.4b1) both assume that the lateral bending is equal at each end of a panel.10.8.12).1) Therefore. R b .3.0)(50) = 50 ksi OK Second.3.3.11) we obtain: 14.10.2.2.5. this is obviously not the case.59 ksi < 1. this effect can probably be minimized most effectively by utilizing parallel singlediagonal bracing members in each bay. is taken as 1.10.1. check the relation given by Eq (6. For critical stages of construction.2.11).2 for the determination of the nominal flexural resistance.6.3.12) Eq (6. fbu + fl ≤ φf Rh Fyc where: φf = 1.2. the resistance of the compression flange in noncomposite boxes with a single web (including tub flanges) at the constructibility limit state is to be computed according to the criteria given in Article 6.10.10.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .2.2. The local buckling resistance of the compression flange is computed as follows: Check if the slenderness ratio. As can be seen from an examination of Figures 3 through 5 in the introduction section.4.3.3.8.2) Rh = 1. This effect is recognized in lateral flange moments taken directly from a finite element analysis. fbu + 1 3 fl ≤ φf Fnc Eq (6.1 First. checking the relation given by Eq (6.3.8. For constructibility.11) Article 6.2 and the lateral torsional buckling resistance determined using Article 6.10. As mentioned previously.10.3.2. the web loadshedding factor.29 + 7.10.10.23) D9 .2. F nc .0(1.3.10. Check the three relations given for discretely braced compression flanges in Article 6.
8.2.15 Eq (6. The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange is computed as follows: Determine if the unbraced length. Determine if the unbraced length.10.2.10. The largest compressive stress in the top flange occurs at Node 12 of the 3D model.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .10.77) 29000 0. fmid = 14.04 ft. is greater than or less than L p . approximately 65. Eq (6. < L b = 195. F nc is equal to 50 ksi for the local buckling resistance. Lp = 1.10. L b .7( 50 ) = 341 in.2.2. Lb = 16. (calculated previously) Eq (6.8. L b .6 in.38 = 9.29 ksi (calculated above) f2 = largest compressive stress without consideration of lateral bending at either end of the unbraced length of the flange under consideration. Eq (6.0 for constructibility.35) Lp < Lb < Lr.2.38 = 0.8.8. into span 1.8.6 E Fyc in.10.0.10. use Eq (6. the nominal flexural resistance is taken as F nc = Rb Rh Fyc Since R b is taken as 1.0rt = 7.8.57( 12 ) = 91 in.32) for the lateral torsional buckling resistance.3( 12 ) = 195. is greater than or less than L r. this value is taken as 1.32) where: Cb = for members where fmid/f2 > 1 or f2 = 0.Top Flange in Compression (continued) E Fyc 29000 50 λpf = 0.34) Lp = 7.36) D10 .24) Since λf < λpf.2. Fnc = Cb 1 − 1 − Lb − Lp Rb Rh Fyc ≤ Rb Rh Fyc Rh Fyc Lr − Lp Fyr Eq (6.57 ft. Lr = πrt E Fyr = π ( 3. therefore.
588 kft 3.52 ( 1.0) ( 50 ) = 47.52 Therefore.84 2 ksi Cb = 1.476 kft Source Appendix B From separate calculations f2 = 4476( 12 ) ( 42.84 12.7 ksi < 1.09 15.0 therefore.75 − 1.25) = 12.8.6 − 91 1.0)(50) = 50 ksi D11 .8) 185187 14.78 ft.52 15.92 < 1.3 f2 f2 Eq (6.3 ≤ 2.10. the lateral torsional buckling resistance is: Fnc = 1.Top Flange in Compression (continued) Load Steel Cast #1 Total unfactored moment Moment 1.361 kft 4. approximately 48.29 15. into span 1. Load Steel Cast #1 Total unfactored moment 3704( 12 ) ( 42.25) = 15.704 kft Source Appendix B From separate calculations f1 = ( 1.05 12.0(1.8) 185187 Moment 1.116 kft 2.52 ksi fmid/f2 = = 0.8.05 + 0.3 = 1.0) ( 1.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility . C b is calculated using Eq (6.37) 2 f1 f1 Cb = 1.37) f1 = stress without consideration of lateral bending at the brace point opposite to the one corresponding to f 2 .2.7( 50 ) 195.84 + 0.75 − 1.115 kft 3.2.09 1 − 1 − 0.0( 50 ) 341 − 91 ( 1.10. f1 occurs at Node 8 of the 3D model.
3) = 16.0(47.10. F nc . of the compression flange is 47.10.12) 14.3.29 + 1/3(7.13). Eq (6.7 ksi OK Both flange requirements of Article 6.10.2. D12 .2.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Constructibility .72 ksi < 1.1 for discretely braced flanges in compression are satisfied.Top Flange in Compression (continued) Therefore.7 ksi. was already satisfied on page D5 for this section.7) = 47. fbu + 1 3 fl ≤ φf Fnc Eq (6.3.2.3. the nominal flexural resistance. The third requirement which involves the web bendbuckling resistance.
7.4) ( 0.0) = 800 Pc = force in the tension flange = Fycbctc = 50 kips 83 ( 0.Ductility Requirement According to Article 6.7.6.2. D t.85fc'bsts = 0. is calculated neglecting the haunch thickness and using the structural thickness of the deck. The total depth of the composite section.42Dt where: Dp = distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the plastic moment. in. is taken from separate calculations per Article 4.2 for sections in positive flexure.85( 4) ( 109) ( 9.1) Eq (6. according to Table D6.2.11.5) = 3521 kips (the effective width.10. plastic neutral axis is in the web: Pt + Pw ≥ Pc + Ps + Prb + Prt 800 + 2261 = 3061 < 1297 + 3521 = 4818 PNA not in the web Check if Case II.6. This value can be calculated by solving for the depth of the web in compression at the plastic moment.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Strength . Neglect the affect of the deck steel. top flange. and adding the structural thickness of the deck plus the top flange thickness (Case I) or adding only the structural thickness (Case II).5625) = 2261 Check if Case I.6.11 of Appendix D.625) = 1297 kips 2 kips (D is meaured along the incline) Pw = force in the web = FywDtw = 50 ( 80.3 must be satisfied for compact and noncompact sections inorder to protect the deck from premature crushing. determine if the plastic neutral axis is in the web.31) Pt = force in the compression flange = Fytbttt = 50 ( 16 ) ( 1. Dp ≤ 0. the ductility requirements of Article 6.10. bs. First. plastic neutral axis is in the top flange: Pt + Pw + Pc ≥ Ps + Prb + Prt 800 + 2261 + 1297 = 4358 > 3521 PNA is in the top flange D13 . All other field sections are checked similarly (not shown). or deck. Dcp . Ps = force in the slab = 0.
11 is used for determining the location of the plastic neutral axis measured from the top of the top flange. the following expression from Table D6. = Therefore.42( 0.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Strength .5) = 38.42Dt = 0.3 + 9.8 in.625 + 80. < 0. Dp = 0. OK D14 .4 + 1 + 9.Ductility Requirement (continued) Therefore.5 = 9.3 1297 2 in. Ybar = tc Pw + Pt − Ps − Prt − Prb +1 Pc 2 1 2261 + 800 − 3521 − 0 − 0 + 1 = 0.4 in.
A summary of this calculation is shown here.Top Flange in Tension For critical stages of construction. calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending for the top flanges of tub box girders.03 + 6.10.19 ksi < 1. f l.2( 12 ) 162 = 6. the following requirement must be met for tension in the top flange of a tub girder. fbu = − −10069( 12 ) ( 43.0(1.6. The unfactored moments are from Table C1. Load Steel Cast #2 Total unfactored moment Moment 3.46 + 2 ( −9.2 = 162 in3 kft (factored) Stop_flange = 18 ( 3) 6 fl = Mtot_lat Stop_flange = 83.16 ksi (factored) Therefore. refer to Section 11 computations for the expanded version. Ml 2 Mlat = NRD = − −10069 ( 16.1.3) 2 = 57.69) ( 1.21) The noncomposite section must be checked for steel weight and for the maximum deck cast loading (Cast #2) of the concrete deck for the section in the negative bending region.16 = 21.03 ksi (T) 438966 Determine the tensile flange lateral bending stress. Ml = 9.2. fbu + fl ≤ φf Rh Fyt Eq (6. It is assumed that the flange is not continuously braced for constructibility.46 10 ( 716.915 kft 10.25) = 15.25) = 83. as specified in Article 6.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Constructibility .25) ( 6. 15.1 ) ] ( 1. f bu.10.154 kft 6.3.0)(50) = 50 ksi OK D15 .5) kft Assume the overhang bracket loading is applied to the top flange as well.1 kft Mtot_lat = [ 57.069 kft Determine the factored tensile flange stress.
25) = −0.807/2 = 1. Therefore.4b1) Compute the lateral flange moment due to the overhang bracket load. The crosssection.7) 2 = −10.10.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9 Constructibility .807 kft (Unfactored results are shown) Compute the lateral flange bending moment due to curvature using Eq (C4.3.732 kft 3.904 kft Unbraced length of flange = 15.7 fl = = ( 1. Mlat_tot Stop_flange −2. check the constructibility stress in the G1 top flange on the inside of the curve at this section.74 = 13.4b1).Top Flange in Compression The load on the overhang bracket produces a lateral flange moment at the brace points on the convex side of the G1 inner top flange of the opposite sense from that on the convex side of the G2 outer top flange.2.1 kft Compute the total factored lateral flange bending stress.94 ksi < 1. f l.1. consider only half of the girder moment due to Steel plus Cast #1 according to Article C6. Compute the bending moment in the box. check Eq (6.1. the total unfactored lateral moment is: Mlat_tot = −10.2.0)(50) = 50 ksi OK D16 .11.56 + 8. For a single flange. at this location for girder G1 are the same as previously calculated for girder G2. Moment values used below are not tabulated.7 ft.74 ksi Therefore. Ml 2 Mlat = NRD = − 1904 ( 15.75) ( 6.2. Load Steel Cast #1 Total moment Moment 1.44 = −2.6. M = 3.6.44 kft Therefore.11) fbu + fl ≤ φf Rh Fyc 13.56 10 ( 683.3.1( 12 ) 42. a firstorder elastic analysis can be used to compute the flange lateral bending stress.411 ( 15. Ml = 0. and its associated properties.2.075 kft 2. From separate calculations.0(1. The basis of the following calculations is similiar to the girder G2 check.2 + 0.7) 12 2 = 8.5) kft (C) Eq (C4.
1.2 ksi < 1. Lr = 341 in.10.2) = 44.0) ( 1.15 Fnc = Rb Rh Fyc = 1. Lp < Lb < Lr.0(1. F crw .0( 50 ) 341 − 91 ( 1.8.74) = 13.32) for the lateral torsional buckling resistance.2.2. fbu ≤ φf Fcrw 13. F nc .2.0)(50) = 50 ksi The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange is computed as follows: Lb = 15. of the compression flange is 44.0)(50) = 50 ksi Therefore.0 for this girder for this example.2.3. 0.13).10.10.99 ksi OK D17 . use Eq (6. therefore.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9 Constructibility .7( 50 ) 188 − 91 1.45 ksi < 1.0(1.99) = 39.2 ksi.2 + 1/3(0.10. The nominal web bendbuckling resistance. check the web bendbuckling given by Eq (6.12) Determine the nominal flexural resistance for compression flanges of tub box girders according to Article 6.0 1 − 1 − in. a detailed calculation for C b is given for girder G2 Fnc = 1.2 ksi OK Lastly. was calculated previously for girder G2 and is the same for this location.0(39.2 ksi < 1.0) ( 50 ) = 44.7( 12 ) = 188 Lp = 91 in.10.3.1.3.Top Flange in Compression (continued) Check the second constructibility requirement according to Article 6.2.0(44.3. The local buckling resistance of the compression flange is computed as follows: From previous calculations: λf = 8 λpf = 9. Assume Cb = 1. fbu + 1 3 fl ≤ φf Fnc 13. fbu + 1 3 fl ≤ φf Fnc Eq (6. the nominal flexural resistance.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G1 Node 9 Constructibility .Top Flange in Tension The constructibility check for the top flange in tension may be conducted using the same procedure given for girder G2 at Section 55. D18 .
1.5.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Fatigue .15. twice the factored truck is actually considered. According to Table 3. As specified in Article 6.2. Base metal at transverse stiffener weld terminations and at stiffenerconnection plate welds at locations subject to a net tensile stress must be checked for Category C' (refer to Table 6.258 kft 1.55 ksi < 6.1.5. the base metal at the top of the bottom flange adjacent to the weld must be checked for Category C'.11. uncracked concrete section properties are to be used for fatigue checks.55 ksi frange < φFn 2.6. Onehalf of the fatigue threshold is specified as the limiting stress range for this case since it is assumed that at some time in the life of the bridge.6.11.6. the fatigue moments have been increased by 10 percent to allow for warping. It is further assumed that the 75year ADTT in a single lane will exceed the value of 745 trucks/day for a Category C' detail above which the fatigue resistance is governed by the constantamplitude fatigue threshold (refer to Table C6.6. Moment 239 kft 1.2. The transverse bending stress range is considered separately in evaluating the the fatigue resistance fo the base metal adjacent to flangetoweb fillet welds and adjacent to the termination of fillet welds connecting transverse elements to webs and box flanges. Centrifugal force effects are not included in this example. the stress range due to longitudinal warping is considered in checking the fatigue resistance of the base metal at all details on the box section (6. Compute the range of vertical bending stress at the top of the bottom flange (section properties are taken from Table C5): frange = 1497( 68.6.6.1.84 − 0. Thus.1.Bottom Flange Check the fatigue stress in the bottom flange at this section according to the provisions of Articles 3. According to the provisions of Article 6.53. One factored fatigue vehicle is to be placed at critical locations on the deck per the AASHTOLRFD fatigue provisions. By using half of the fatigue threshold. In this example. The value of 6 ksi is equal to onehalf of the fatigue threshold of 12 ksi specified for a Category C' detail in Table 6.1.1.2.0 ksi OK D19 .31).51). The fatigue design life is 75 years. a truck loading of twice the magnitude of the factored fatigue truck will occur.2.11. It is assumed that stiffenerconnection plates are fillet welded to the bottom flange. the dynamic load allowance is 0. the limiting stress range for Category C' = 6 ksi for the case where the fatigue resistance is governed by the constantamplitude fatigue threshold.2.625 ) 479646 ( 12 ) = 2.497 kft Mmin Mmax Mrange Table C1 (factored) Table C1 (factored) According to Article 6.1.4 and 6.6. but should be considered by the designer.6.2.1).
10.10.2. The shear values in Table C1 are vertical shears and are for the critical web.10. x 7/8 in. <.2.105 ) = 6. The average spacing of adjacent beams: 11.0ts + the greater of t w or 1/2bf: 12 ( 9.1. The effective width of the interior beam is the lesser of: Onequarter of the effective span length: 0.315 kips/row. 12.56.6 in.10.5) + 0. for one top flange of a tub girder must be computed for the web subjected to additive flexural and torsionial shears. Fatigue threshold for one 7/8 in. is 7.5d 2 2 Since a value for (ADTT) SL is needed for the calculation of α. is 9.105 kips.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Fatigue .2. which is subject to additive bending and torsional shears.Shear Connectors The shear connectors are designed according to the provisions of Article 6. of the shear connectors must satisfy the following: p≤ n Zr Vsr Eq (6.1. Determine the required pitch. When traffic data is available. dia. The values have been increased by 10 percent to account for warping. check αd2 .25( 112. From Table C1. the effective flange width of each web should be determined as though each web was an individual supporting element. studs/row. the bending plus torsional shear range due to one factored fatigue truck = 23 + (14) = 37 kips. V fat.10. the entire deck cross sectional area is assumed to be effective. of the shear connectors for fatigue at this section according to the provisions of Article 6. The pitch.11.5 in. Z r.875 ) = 2. in.5.10.4 ) ( 12 ) = 337 in. The modular ratio.1.6.21) The fatigue threshold for one stud shear connector in kips. shear stud = 5.2. For open boxes. According to the provisions of Article 4. for purposes of this example this value has not been calculated. n.25 ( 12 ) = 135 D20 . p.5625 = 115 or in.5) + 0.controls 12 ( 9.6. The structural deck thickness. 2 Fatigue threshold for 3 such connectors/row = nZ r = 3( 2. p.10 which refers to Article 6.5( 16 ) = 122 in. Calculate the effective width according to Article 4. dia. t s.2 as follows: Zr = αd ≥ 2 5. is defined in Article 6.10. The longitudinal fatigue shear range per unit length. Use: 3 .5 2 ( 0.10.
Use onehalf of the moment of inertia. or The width of the overhang: 6( 9.10.controls 4.39 k/in.23) and the torsional fatigue shear range in the concrete deck.25( 16 ) = 61 in.t flg + haunch + ts/2 Moment arm = 10. Determine the distance from the center of the deck to the neutral axis. for one top flange of the tub girder.125 ( 112.5 2 = 18.0( 12 ) = 48 in. Section properties are from Table C5.56 Compute the first moment of the deck with respect to the neutral axis of the uncracked live load composite section.10. V fat.10.Shear Connectors (continued) The effective width of the exterior beam is taken as onhalf the effective width of the interior beam plus the lesser of: Oneeighth of the effective span length: 6. Compute the longitudinal fatigue shear range.625 2 9. Neutral axis of the section is 10.1. Eq (6.53 in2 The horizontal fatigue shear range per unit length.5625 = 58 in.5) + 0.Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Fatigue .10. Q = 137( 18. given by Eq (6. V sr.53 ) = 2539 in3 Vfat = VQ I = 37 ( 2539) 0.5) Area 2 = Transformed deck area = = 137 in2 n 7.5( 479646 ) = 0.0 + 9. Vfat.1. is determined as the vector sum of the longitudinal fatigue shear range.4 ) ( 12 ) = 169 in.5 1 2 Ao = 2 + 78 + 1 + = 59 ft2 144 D21 .0ts + the greater of t w or 1/4bf: 0. 6( 9.78 − 1.5) + 0. <. Moment arm of the deck = Neutral axis .23) The torsional fatigue shear range in the concrete deck is computed as: Tfat = −85 + 174 = 259 kft (Table C3) Compute the enclosed area within the composite box section including the midheight of the deck. [ 120 + [ 83 − 2( 1) ] ] 0.0 + 4.78 in. 122 + 48 ( 9. from the top of the steel.
Girder Stress Check Section 11 G2 Node 10 Fatigue .Shear Connectors (continued) T 2Ao 259 2( 59 ) ( 12 ) Ffat = Therefore.43 Shear stud pitch = = = 14. D22 .4.10. Vsr = = = = 0.39) + ( 0.43 2 2 Compute the required shear connector pitch for fatigue for 3 studs per row. (Vfat)2 + (Ffat)2 ( 0. nZr Vsr 6.11./row Although not illustrated here.7 in.18 k/in.315 0. the number of shear connectors that is provided must also be checked at the strength limit state according to the provisions of Article 6.10 and subsequently Article 6.10.18) = 0.
28.25(72) 1.8.0 in.11. Web: 78 in.75 2 1 1 + 78 + = 55 2 144 2 ft2 fv = T 2Ao tfc = 2224.25 kft (Table C3) Section Properties at Section 88 Top flange: 16 in.8.25( 12 ) 2( 55 ) 144( 1.11. = 0.0 = 263. between shear connectors on composite box flanges using Eq 6. therefore.75 in. st tf Fyf kE ≤ R1 Eq (6.8.11.69 ksi D23 .Maximum Transverse Spacing Check the maximum transverse spacing. the maximum torque occurs at Section 88. s t.0 according to Article 6.25 = 246. This limit insures that local buckling of the flange is prevented when it is subject to compression.75 = 156.2 for the platebuckling coefficient for uniform normal stress R1 = limiting slenderness ratio for the box flange determined using Eq 6.11.101) where: k = 4. Bottom flange: 83 in.11. (compression flange) Ao = [ 120 + [ 83 − 2( 1) ] ] 0. In positive bending regions.5(164) 1. x 0.2.Girder Stress Check Section 88 G2 Node 48 Shear Connectors .57 Eq (6.2.25(211) 1.28) 1 ∆+ 2 f v k 2 2 ∆ + 4 Fyc k s 2 where: Load Steel Deck SupImp FWS LL + IM Total factored torque Torque (kft) 1.75(839) = 90. x 0.25 = 2224.25(125) 1.0 = 1468.101. x 1.5625 in.0) = 1. the maximum transverse shear connector spacing is determined at this location.
0( 0.0 50 5. from fatigue calculations D24 .998 + 2 0.Girder Stress Check Section 88 G2 Node 48 Shear Connectors . s t.34 2 2 = 0.Maximum Transverse Spacing (continued) 2 ∆= 1 − 3 fv Fyc = 1 − 3 1.25) Therefore.57) 50 4.57 Solve for the maximum transverse shear connector spacing.57 R1 = 1 0. st 1.0( 29000) = 27.998 + 4 2 1. > shear connector spacing provided = 14.11. 0.69 = 0.45 in.69 4.57 st = 1.0( 29000) = 0.0 50 4.7 in.2.998 50 2 Eq (6.8.
2.5. assumed to be uniform across the flange because shear lag need not be considered and because it is assumed that the spacing of the internal bracing is such that the longitudinal warping stress at the strength limit state is limited to 10 percent of the stresses due to majoraxis bending (Article C6.127 kft All values are from Table C1 Unfactored results are shown The dynamic load allowance has been applied to the live load according to Article 3. fbot flg = fbu = γ DC MDC Cnc ( γ DC2 MDC2 + γ DW MDW) C3n γ LL MLL Cn + + ( 12 ) η Inc I3n In = 1. The longitudinal vertical bending stress is.1. For loads applied to the composite section. specified in Table 3.25(48) Total Noncomposite Torque = 28 kft = 60 kft = 32 kft D25 .2. Multiple presence factors. Shear lag need not be considered since the box flange width does not exceed onefifth of the span of the bridge (Article C6.81 ) + [ 1.5( −2541) ] 39.2 for compression flanges in negative flexure.1.6 ksi 438966 454805 484714 (C) Compute the factored St.25( −15426) ( 38. Load Steel Deck Total noncomposite Superimposed DL FWS LL + IM Moment 3.75( −8127) ( 41. Assume one longitudinal compression flange stiffener.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength .21 were also considered in the live load analysis.1.76 + 1.Bottom Flange Check the bottom (box) flange for strength at this section according to the provisions of Article 6. f v. Venant torsional shear stress.6.11. as specified in Article 4.272 kft 15.3).6.4.25(22) Deck 1.2. Section properties are from Table C5.932 kft 2.154 kft 12. Torque Load Steel 1.55 ) ( 12 ) ( 1) = −41. The section will be checked for the Strength I limit state in the following computations. Torques are taken from Table C3.8.7. therefore. Compute the factored vertical bending stress in the bottom flange due to dead and live load.426 kft 1.1). assume a cracked section.11.541 kft 8.25( −1932) + 1. in the bottom flange due to the noncomposite loads.
08 ksi OK D26 . Compute the enclosed area within the noncomposite box section.1.65 3 ksi > fv tot = 1.06 ksi fv tot = 0.3. F vr. A o . A o . Fvr = 0.2.75φv Fyf 3 Eq (6. use positive torque.992 kft −1992 < 2337 .016 ksi ft2 fv = 32 ( 12 ) 2( 56 ) ( 144) ( 1.11. Ao = ( 120 + 81 ) 2 ( 80.5) = 1.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength .75(980) = 1. Load Torque () SupImp DL 1.016 + 1.26) where: T = internal torque from factored loads (kft).715 kft = 2.11.06 = 1.8.5 2 T 2Ao tfc = 3 1 + 78 + = 56 2 144 2 = 0.25(193) = 241 kft 1.) Compute the factored torsional shear stress in the bottom flange due to the composite loads.5) Eq (6.50(254) = 381 kft 1.1 ft2 144 Therefore.1) ( 144) ( 1. tf = bottom flange thickness (in. Compute the enclosed area of the composite box.0) 50 = 21.2.08 ksi Check the applied torsional stress against the factored torsional shear resistance of the flange.8.337 kft = 186 kft = 296 kft = 1.Bottom Flange (continued) The nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange of a longitudinally stiffened flange is determined according to Article 6.25) 1 = 61. Torque Since Torque (+) 1. Torques are taken from Table C3.25 + 7.11) = 0.50(197) LL + IM 1.25(149) FWS 1.11. the factored torsional shear stress is: fv = T 2Ao tfc = 2337( 12 ) 2( 61. Ao = [ 120 + [ 83 − 2( 1) ] ] 1.75( 1.510 kft = 1.75(863) Total Comp.
k.8.2.999 50 2 Eq (6.) D27 .33) where: n = number of equally spaced longitudinal flange stiffeners Is = actual moment of inertia of one longiudinal flange stiffener about an axis parallel to the flange at the base of the stiffener (in 4 ) tfc = thickness of the flange plate (in.08 = 0.34 + 2.11. Compute the slenderness ratio for the compression flange to determine which nominal flexural resistance equation to use. the resulting shear flows are conservatively added together in determining the total factored torsional shear stress.Bottom Flange (continued) Although the torques on the noncomposite and composite box act in opposite directions.) w = larger of the width of the flange between longitudinal flange stiffeners or the distance from a web to the nearest longitudinal flange stiffener (in.25) for flanges with one longitudinal stiffener (n = 1). the platebuckling coefficient for uniform normal stress.34 Eq (6.84 w tfc3 ks = ( n + 1) 2 3 ≤ 5.11.8.11. The variable "w" is taken as the larger of the width of the flange between longitudinal flange stiffeners or the distance from a web to the nearest longitudinal flange stiffener.8.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength .31) 1 Is 5. is taken as: 1 k= 8Is w tfc3 3 Eq (6.2.11.2.8. Generally this is acceptable because of the small magnitude of the noncomposite torque.3.2. "b fc" is taken as "w" in the following design.2.28) where: ∆= fv 1 − 3 Fyc = 1 − 3 1.11. According to Article 6.5 0.57 R1 = 1 ∆+ 2 f v k 2 2 ∆ + 4 Fyc k s 2 2 Eq (6.8. λf = w tfc 81 2 = 27 = 1.
57 1 0.5 ( 1.4) ( 50 ) = 29.7) 3 40. from the tip of the stem (i.81 50 2. edge of the bottom flange) Compute the moment of inertia about the base of the stiffener.275 in.57 2.8.2 Fyc Fyr fv k + 4 Fyc Fyc ks 2 2 2 Eq (6.57 R1 kE Fyc = 0.27) D28 . A = 8.A.275 ) = 378.999 + 2 ( 0.7 1 3 2 in4 k= 8( 378.8.= 6.2.95 ksi Eq (6.23 1 Fyr + 1.2.34 + 2.08 2.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength .5) ks = ( 1 + 1) 2 3 = 2.0 R2 = 1.33 2 2 = 0.Bottom Flange (continued) From the AISC Manual of Steel Construction: I l = 48.01 < λf = 27. Il = 48.e.81 1 378.33 R1 = 0.84 3 40.38 ( 6. N.7 5.29) where: Fyr = ( ∆ − 0.7 + 8.7 in4 .999 − 0.81( 29000) 50 = 23.11.4)Fyc ≤ Fyw = ( 0.5) = 2.5 ( 1.999 ) + 4 2 1.11.38 in 2 .
0.81( 29000) 50 = 49. use Eq (6. 2Dc tw ≤ λ rw Eq (6.8.8.95 + 4 1. is at or below the value at which the theoretcial elastic bendbuckling stress is equal to F yc at the strength limit state.1.10. (along the inclined web) 4.23) D29 .28 ) 0.23 R2 = 1. 2D c/tw.5625 = 147 > λrw = 137 Since this relation is not satisfied.2.23 2.08 2.5) 4.10. the larger value between "Comp DL Bars" and "Comp LL Bars" from Table C5 was used.22) Dc is calculated using the provisions of Article D6.Bottom Flange (continued) 1. R b must be calculated using Eq (6.0 2( 41.10.1.2.1.95 + 1. For this example.10.81 50 50 2.0 1200 + 300awc tw Rb = 1− Eq (6.22) The nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange.10.11.0 since the web slenderness.10.10.0 from Article 6. D c is computed for the section consisting of the steel girder plus the longitudinal deck reinforcement.123 = 41. Dc = ( 41.1.10. R b is also taken as 1.55 − 1.22) Rh is taken as 1. therefore.33 2 2 2 = 1.23 R2 = 1 29.10.1 and R b is calculated using the provisions of Article 6.1.23) awc 2Dc − λ rw ≤ 1.1.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength .3.2 50 kE Fyc 29. is taken as: Fyc R2 − w Fyr tfc k E π Fnc = Rb Rh Fyc ∆ − ∆ − 1 − sin 2 R − R Rh Fyc 2 1 Eq (6.7 > 27.11.10.28 in. F nc .2. For composite sections in negative flexure that satisfy Eq 2. These provisions state that for composite sections in negative flexure.
10.997 1200 + 300( 0. bottom box flanges at interiorpier sections are subjected to biaxial stresses due to majoraxis bending of the box section and majoraxis bending of the internal diaphragm over the bearing sole plate.1. For a box supported on two bearings (the case in this example).999 − 1. D30 .24) Rb = 1− Fnc = 0. above the midthickness of the bottom flange.1.10.373 λrw = 137 0. Venant torsional shear.5625) 83 ( 1.10.0( 50 ) 2 81 2 2.95 0.11) fbu = 41.1. top flange for the diaphragm. As specified in Article C6. and in cases where it needs to be considered.5625 Eq (6.8.2. bottomflange bending stresses due to bending of the diaphragm over the bearing sole plates are relatively small and will be neglected for simplicity in this example.0) ( 50 ) 0. = 27 in.375 in 4 and the neutral axis is located 31. The diaphragm is assumed to be 78 inches deep and 1 inch thick.25 ksi OK Article C6.08 ksi. From separate calculations.10.23 − π 29.8.373 2( 41.373 ) 0.11. The flange is also subject to shear stresses due to the internal diaphragm vertical shear. the St.5 = 49.) may be considered effective with the internal diaphragm. a flange width equal to 18 times its thickness (18 x 1.5 in. To estimate the shear stress in the bottom flange due to the internal diaphragm shear.999 − 1 − sin 1.28 ) ( 0. the total factored St.7.25 1. is equal to 1.Bottom Flange (continued) where: awc = 2Dc tw bfc tfc 2( 41. assume a 1 in.6 ksi < φfFnc = 49.57 50 ksi Eq (6.28 ) − 137 = 0.23 − 0. Subsequent calculations on page D34 indicate that the total factored vertical component of the diaphragm shear is 1406 kips.1 states that in general.1. the moment of inertia of the effective section is 112.997 ( 1.11.05 in.25) = = 0.1. f v.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength . Venant torsional shear stress in the bottom flange. x 12 in. From previous calculations.5) Eq (6.11.81( 29000) 1.
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength  Bottom Flange (continued) The shear stress in the flange, f d , caused by the internal diaphragm vertical shear due to factored loads is approximated as: 1406 =
fd =
VQ
I tfc
( )
27 ( 1.5) ( 31.05) 2 = 5.24 ksi
112375 ( 1.5)
Eq (C6.11.8.1.12)
fv tot =
1.08 + 5.24 = 6.32 ksi
The effect of bending in the plane of the diaphragm for boxes supported on two bearings is insignificant and was, therefore, ignored in the design of the example girder. The effect of these forces on a box supported on a single bearing is likely to be more significant and should be considered. The effective section specified in Article C6.11.8.1.1 may be used to compute the flange bending stress about the tangential zaxis due to bending of the internal diaphragm over the sole plate. In this case, the resulting minimum and maximum principal stresses in the flange should be input into the more general form of the Hubervon MisesHencky yield criterion given as follows:
2 2
fbu − fbu fby + fby + 3 fd + fv
(
)2 ≤ φf Rb Rh Fyc
Eq (C6.11.8.1.11)
The factored vertical bending stress in the bottom flange, f bu, was computed earlier to be 41.6 ksi. fby = stress in the flange due to the factored loads caused by majoraxis bending of the internal diaphragm over the bearing sole plate = taken as 0.0 ksi for a box supported on two bearings Rh = 1.0 (Article 6.10.1.10.1) Rb = 0.997 (previously calculated)
( −41.6) − ( −41.6) ( 0) + ( 0) + 3 ( 5.24 + 1.08) = 43.02 ksi
2
2
2
<
1.0( 0.997 ) ( 1.0) 50 = 49.85 ksi
The combined principal stresses in the diaphragm due to the factored loads is checked using the general form of the Hubervon MisesHencky yield criterion.
2 2
σ 1 − σ 1 σ 2 + σ 2 ≤ Fy where σ1 , σ2 are the maximum and minimum principle stresses in the diaphragm
D31
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Strength  Bottom Flange (continued)
2
σy + σz σ1, σ2 = ± 2
σy − σz 2 + fv 2
σy = stress in the diaphragm due to vertical bending of the diaphragm over the bearing sole plate σz = stress in the diaphragm due to bending of the diaphragm about its longitudinal axis fv = shear stress in the diaphragm Fy = specified minimum yield stress of the diaphragm Since the example box is supported on two bearings, the stress in the diaphragm due to vertical bending of the diaphragm over the bearing sole plate is typically relatively small and will be neglected for simplicity in this example. σz is also typically neglected. If no bending is assumed, the two principal stresses are simply equal to the tensile and compressive stresses with a magnitude equal to the shear stress.
σ1,2 = 0 ±
( 0) + 6.32
2
2
=
±
6.32 ksi
Check the combined principal stresses. 6.32 − ( 6.32) ( −6.32) + ( −6.32) = 10.95 ksi < 36 ksi OK
2 2
D32
Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Longitudinal Flange Stiffener Try a WT 8x28.5 structural tee for the longitudinal stiffener with the stem welded to the bottom flange. The projecting width, bl, of the stiffener must satisfy the following requirement: bl ≤ 0.48ts E Fyc = 0.48( 0.715 ) 29000 50 = 8.27 in. Eq (6.11.11.21)
where t s is taken as the flange thickness of the structural tee since each halfflange buckles similarly to a single plate connected to a web. For structural tees, b l should be taken as onehalf the width of the flange. bl = 7.12/2 = 3.56 in. < 8.27 in. OK
According to Article 6.7.4.3, transverse top and bottom bracing members (i.e. top and bottom struts of internal cross frames) are required to ensure that the cross section shape is retained. Whenever longitudinal flange stiffeners are present, the bottom transverse bracing members are to be attached to the longitudinal stiffener(s) to better control the transverse distortion of the box flange. At other locations, the bottom transverse member is to be attached directly to the box flange. The crosssectional area and stiffness of the top and bottom transverse bracing members is not to be less than the area and stiffness of the diagonal members. At the pier section (the point of maximum compressive flexural stress in a box flange in most cases), the bottom transverse bracing member, when properly attached to the longitudinal flange stiffener, can be assumed to provide the required transverse stiffening of the box flange. Use a W10x68 (I = 394 in4 ) for the bottom transverse bracing member. The longitudinal flange stiffener should be attached to the internal diaphragm with a pair of clip angles as shown in Figure D2 (page D81).
D33
11.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Design of the Internal Diaphragm Article 6.93 Vb = 78 = 1.11.1 requires that the principal stresses in support diaphragms not exceed the factored compressive resistance given by Eq (C6. Therefore.024 ( 80.024 k/in.1 directs the designer to the provisions of Article 6.4 kips 579 − 1. V b .1 kips D34 . Load Steel Deck SupImp FWS LL + IM Shear 47 + 46 185 + 185 44 + 41 58 + 55 160 + 155 Source 3D Finite Element Analysis (in critical web from Table C2) Unfactored results are shown = 93 k = 370 k = 85 k = 113 k = 315 k Vu = 1.8.5( 113) + 1. First. Compute the maximum factored vertical shear in the diaphragm.8.1.87 = 577.11. f by in this equation is taken as 0.11) 0.25( 93 + 370 + 85 ) + 1. Eq (C6. which is a yield criterion for combined stress. the shear flow in the noncomposite box is computed as: fv = VT = T 2Ao = 32 2( 56 ) ( 12 ) = 0.75( 315) = 1406 kips The internal diaphragm is subject to vertical bending over the bearing sole plates in addition to shear. and due to St.0 ksi since it is typically relatively small.7.11). therefore. The example box is supported by two bearings.93 kips The vertical component of V T is computed as: (VT)v = 1.25(93 + 370) = 579 kips.1.4 for general design considerations for crossframes and diaphragms. Compute the maximum factored shear stress in the diaphragm web. V T.1. Venant torsion.87 80. separate out the shears due to bending. Referring to the calculations on page D25.11. The sum of the total steel plus deck factored shears is equal to 1.4) = 1. Try a 1inch thick A36 diaphragm plate. Article 6.
for a box supported on two bearings. Eq (C6.1.0) = 16.4 ksi As mentioned previously. the shear flow in the composite box is computed as: T 2Ao 2337 2( 61. a width of the bottom (box) flange equal to 18 times its thickness may be considered effective with the diaphragm in resisting bending.59( 80.59 k/in. As specified in Article C6.0 + 1.4) = 127. plus Live Load factored shears is equal to 1.11.8 kips The vertical component of V T is computed as: (VT)v = 127.01 ksi D35 .4 Vb = 827 − 124 = 703 kips The factored shear stress due to torsion is therefore equal to: (fv)T = 0.1) ( 12 ) fv = VT = = = 1.25(85) + 1.8 78 = 124 kips 80. since bending in the plane of the diaphragm is ignored. fv = (fv)T + (fv)b = 1.4 = 18.61 + 16.11.0 = 1. the maximum principal stress is simply equal to the total factored shear stress.024 1.8.5(113) + 1.1 + 703 78 ( 1. Referring to the calculations on page D26. the bending stresses in the plane of the diaphragm due to vertical bending of the diaphragm over the bearing sole plates are relatively small and will be neglected in this example for simplicity. the effect of the bending stresses in the plane of the diaphragm are likely to be more significant and should be considered.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Design of Internal Diaphragm (continued) The sum of the total Superimposed Dead Load. Therefore.61 ksi The average factored shear stress due to bending is equal to: (fv)b = 577. For a box supported on a single bearing.59 1.11) 1.75(315) = 827 kips.1.1. including the FWS. for this case.
21) Eq (6. the two principal stresses are simply equal to the tensile and compressive stresses with a magnitude equal to the shear stress. σ2 are the maximum and minimum principle stresses in the diaphragm σy + σz σ1. σ2 = ± 2 where: σy = 0 σz = 0 σy − σz 2 + fv 2 2 If no bending is assumed. Separate calculations indicate that C = 1.9. V u ≤ φv V n Vn = V cr = CVp Vp = 0.9 which specifies the use of the provisions of Article 6.9.0) = 1629 kips Eq (6.9.2 = 0 ± ( 0) + 18.9 for the horizontally curved Igirder design.22) 2 2 Vn = 1.58FyDtw = 0.01 ksi Check the combined principal stresses.10.10.0(1629) = 1629 k OK D36 .10.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Design of Internal Diaphragm (continued) The combined principal stresses in the diaphragm due to the factored loads is checked using the general form of the Hubervon MisesHencky yield criterion (similarly calculations shown previously).01 = 2 2 ± 18.0.01 ) = 31.58( 36 ) ( 78 ) ( 1.0( 1629) = 1629 kips Vu = 1406 k < φvVn = 1. σ1. 2 2 σ 1 − σ 1 σ 2 + σ 2 ≤ Fy where σ1 .01 ) + ( −18.01 ) ( −18.10.11.01 − ( 18.19 ksi < Fy = 36 ksi OK Compute the shear resistance according to Article 6.11) Eq (6. 18.
25( 93 + 370 + 11 ) + 1.0) 2 36 = 12.2.11.4b.0)(1.48 tp = 0.11. design the bearing stiffeners attached to the diaphragms using the provisions of Article 6.4b.75( 294) = 1187 kips (controls) Rright = 1.21). According to Article 6. Ad = 18t w 2 Fyw = Fys 18 ( 1. x 1 in. OK Eq (6.48( 1) = 11. Reaction Location Left Right 79 k 93 k 238 k 370 k 85 k 11 k 15 k 113 k 515 k 489 k 294 k 65 k 287 k 16 k Load Steel Deck SupImp FWS Total DL LL + IM Source 3D Finite Element Analysis (Not tabulated) Unfactored results are shown uplift Rleft = 1. Use bars with Fy = 50 ksi. there will be no expansion causing eccentric loading on the bearing stiffeners.10.11.25( 79 + 238 + 85 ) + 1.11. Compute the maximum permissible widthtothickness ratio of the stiffener plates according to Eq (6.10. Thus. Bearing area = 2(11 .96 in2 50 D37 . A d . to which the stiffeners are attached (t w = 1. The provisions are applied to the diaphragm rather than the web. E Fys 29000 50 bt ≤ 0.75( 287) = 1117 kips Ignore uplift.10. Assume that the bearings are fixed at the piers.6 > 11 in.10.11.1. Try 2plates 11 in.5( 113) + 1.2..21) Compute the effective area of the diaphragm.0) = 20.2.5( 15 ) + 1.2.11.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Design of Bearing Stiffeners Compute the factored reactions. Bearing stiffeners should be attached to diaphragms rather than inclined webs.1.) according to the provisions of Article 6.0 in 2 (Assume 1 in.0 in. for stiffener clip).
2. These provisions state that the factored axial resistance.9.5. Eq (6.0 from Article 6.0(1400) = 1400 k OK Assume the concentrated load is applied concentrically with respect to the centroidal axes of the bearing stiffener.5.2.2 Calculate P n . Pr = φcPn where: Pn = nominal compressive resistance as specified in Article 6.9.2.4.10. Check if λ is greater than or less than 2. is taken to be 1.4ApnFys where: Apn = area of the projecting elements of the stiffener outside the webtoflange fillet welds but not beyond the edge of the flange (in 2 ) = 20 in 2 Fys = 50 ksi (Rsb )n = 1.2.25. The bearing stiffener assembly may then be designed as a centrally loaded compression member according to the provisions of Article 6.4. is: (Rsb )n = 1.10.2. (R sb )n .4.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Design of Bearing Stiffeners (continued) The factored bearing resistance for the fitted ends of bearing stiffeners is determined using the provisions of Article 6.4 φc = resistance factor according to Article 6.2.1 where the radius of gyration is computed about the midthickness of the web and the effective length shall be taken as 0.75D.4 for the axial resistance of bearing stiffeners.31) The resistance factor. P r.11) K l Fy λ= rsπ E 2 Eq (6. is determined using Article 6. 1187 k < 1.10.11.4( 20 ) ( 50 ) = 1400 k Eq (6.11. φb .9.3.10.2.11.11.13) D38 .32) Eq (6. (Rsb )r = φb (Rsb )n The nominal bearing resistance for the fitted ends.9.
96 in2 1 ( 11 ) 3 2 I = 2 + 11 ( 6) = 1014 in4 12 rs = 1014 34.11) for P λ= n 5.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Design of Bearing Stiffeners (continued) Calculate rs.25. use Eq (6.66λ FyAs = Pr = φcPn 0.4.66 ( 50 ) ( 34.9.11) Pr = ( 0. 0.75( 80.96 = 5.9) ( 1732) = 1559 k Pu = 1187 k < P r = 1559 k OK D39 .4) 50 = 0.39( π ) 29000 0.96 ) = 1732 k Eq (6.022 2 Pn = 0.022 < 2. rs = I A A = 12.96 + ( 2)11 = 34.9.39 Therefore.4.
7 in3 . Clear distance between top flanges = 120 .4.9. Try: WT 9x48. Since lateral bracing is not required for continuously braced flanges. investigate the bracing for the construction staging only.6 in.8 and 6. top flange width = 16 in.21) D40 .8 < 140 OK The provisions of Article 6. Design the top (tub) flange single diagonal bracing member in Span 1 of Girder 2 in the first bay adjacent to the abutment (Element 1 in Table C4).. Load Steel Cast #1 Force 13 k 100 k 113 k Source Table C4 (from 3D finite element analysis) Unfactored results are shown Load Factor = 1. say 196 in.9 for tension and compression.25( −113) = −141 Tub width at top = 120 in. L c. b t ≤k E Fy Eq (6.5.21) is satisfied.3 in 2 . Check buckling about the yaxis.9. y = 1. Therefore.91 in. Design load = 1. Wind lateral loading is neglected in this example.11. Lc = 104 + 196 = 222 in. rx = 2. The unbraced length with respect to the yaxis = 222 in.Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1 Top Flange Bracing Member Design . Assume that a timber member will brace the structural tee at midlength in the vertical plane during construction. There is no eccentricity with respect to the yaxis. Article 6.9. The limiting slenderness ratio for compression members is specified in Article 6. Tub flange bracing must be designed to satisfy the constructibility limit state as well as the final condition. Compute the bracing length.9.56 in.1 are used to determine the nominal compressive resistance of noncomposite members when Eq (6.2. the unbraced length with respect to the xaxis equals 222/2 = 111 in.5 From AISC Manual: A = 14.65 in. as specified in Article 4.75( 222) 2..3. Kl ry = 0.. for bolted connections at both ends.Constructibility Top flanges of tub girders subjected to torsional loads need braced so that the section acts as a pseudobox for noncomposite loads applied before the concrete deck hardens or is made composite. Use the effective length factor..4.2).6.1 specifies that the top lateral bracing for tub sections must satisfy the provisions of Article 6. which is the preferable method of connection.7. Distance between cross frames = 16.25 (Article 3.4.65 = 62. r y = 2. respectively .4.3 feet = 195. 2 2 kips (C) Try a structural tee (WT) section with the stem down and its flange bolted to the bottom of the tub flanges. The bracing is designed according to the provisions of Articles 6.16 = 104 in. Sx = 12.5.
4.1 apply.2 to check the resistance of the member under combined axial compression and flexure.69 Eq (6. therefore.0 Mry 9.9.535 29000 50 = 17.0 Mrx Eq (6.3) = 537 k Pu = 141 k < Pr = φcPn = 0. use Eq (6. Compute the moment due to the eccentricity of the force at the flange face.4.3 is satisfied.2.75 from Table 6. t.9.56 = 32.1 OK Therefore.9.5 < 140 OK Use the provisions of Article 6.4.295 0. Pn = 0.66 0. Eq (6.75 = 18.9. is taken as the full depth of the tee section and thickness. 2 K l Fy λ= rsπ E = 0.69 2.4 < 0. Consider the eccentricity of the connection.9.66λ FyAs = 0.9(537) = 483.2.4. the provisions of Article 6. Mux = 141( 1.75( 111) 2.Constructibility (continued) The plate buckling coefficient is taken as 0.2.9.0 Mux = = 0.Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1 Top Flange Bracing Member Design .9.3 8. The width.25.4.91) = 269 kin Verify that the limiting slenderness ratio of Article 6. P n . Pu Pr Pu Pr −141 483. Kl rx = 0. b.21 for stems of rolled tees.9. is for that of the stem. Determine if Eq (6.9.292 > 0.2.11) is used for the calculation of P n .9.11) ( 50 ) ( 14.3 k OK Check buckling about the xaxis.22) D41 .4.22) + Muy + ≤ 1.75( 222) 50 = 0.11 or 2) is to be used for the nominal compressive resistance.13) Since λ is less than 2.65π 29000 2 Eq (6. 9.
200 ksi D42 .75 kft > 79. flange local buckling and web local buckling. Yielding: Mn = Mp = Fy Z ≤ 1.2. 1. is the lowest value according to the limit states of: yielding.torsional buckling.5My = 79.12. only the yielding and lateraltorsional buckling limit states are applicable. Mrx = φfMn Eq (6. M n = 79. lateral. lateral torsional buckling or local buckling of the elements. for stems in compression Mn ≤ 1. this is used for this example since the member is in positive bending.Constructibility (continued) Determine the factored flexural resistance about the xaxis using the provisions of Article 6.5My where: My = FyS = 50 ( 12.2. The nominal flexural resistance. The nominal bending resistance is the lowest value as limited by yielding.92 kft AISC Eq (F11) 1.12 for the miscellaneous flexural members. use Chapter F1.12. For unbraced compact and noncompact tees.2c in the Specification section of the AISC Manual. The Specifications direct the designer to the AISC Manual for Steel Construction for the determination of Mn .38 kft Lateraltorsional buckling: For tee sections.5My was calculated previously as 79.7) 12 = 52.38 kft. therefore. 11. M n .4 for noncomposite structural tees.Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1 Top Flange Bracing Member Design .1.5My for stems in tension.000 ksi Iy = 100 in4 G = shear modulus of elasticity of steel.2.38 kft Mp = 50(22. π E Iy G J Lb 2 Mn = Mcr = where: B + 1+B AISC Eq (F115) Mn ≤ 1.38 kft.0My E = 29.11) Use the provisions of Article 6.6)/12 = 93.
38 kft in Eq (6. the lateraltorsional buckling nominal flexural resistance is: π 29000( 100) ( 11200) ( 2.535 ) 3 = 2.54 < 1.9.2 kft > 1.870 ) + 8.292 + 8.5M y Mrx is taken as the value for yielding.38) = 79.0(79.88 B = 2.3 d Lb Iy J = 2.567 + 1 + 0.425 ( 0.0 9.22) 0.567 = 7430kin 619.38 ( 12 ) 269 + 0 = 0.3 9.145 ( 0.0 OK D43 .Constructibility (continued) bt 3 J = torsional constant = 3 Σ 3 3 = 11.0 79.567 AISC Eq (F16) Therefore.88 100 2.2.88) 222 2 Mn = 0.Girder Stress Check G2 Span 1 Bay 1 Top Flange Bracing Member Design .295 222 = 0. 1.
Es = 29.1. the deflection of the BEF is analogous to the transverse bending stress. ta = slab thickness = 9. x 0. 1981.30 2 12 1 − µ s ( ) = 8963 kin 2 /in. The transverse bending stress range due to crosssection distortion must be checked for fatigue as specified in Article 6.50 in. µ s = 0.2 (Article 5.11.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Transverse Bending Stress Article 6.30 Compute the transverse flexural rigidities of the deck and bottom flange from Bethlehem Guide Equations (A3a) and (A3b).5 in.2.5625 in.try a plate 5. The total range of factored torque is 486 kft (5.5 in. Ec = 3.1 requires that the transverse bending stresses in webs and flanges be investigated and determined by rational structural analysis.11. In this method.080 in 4 (from Table C5) Minimum transverse stiffener spacing = 62 in. Db = flexural rigidity of bottom flange Da = Ec t a 3 2 12 1 − µ c Es t b 3 = 3834 ( 9. = 196 in. tc = web thickness = 0. respectively.000 ksi Transverse stiffener .5.1 permits transverse stiffeners to be considered effective in resisting transverse bending.5 and at the strength limit state. These provisions limit the transverse bending stresses due to the factored loads at the strength limit state to 20 ksi. µ c = 0. Dc = flexural rigidity of web Compute Dc considering the transverse stiffeners according to Bethlehem Guide Equation (A3d) since Article 6.11. presents a method developed by Wright and AbdelSamed (1968) to estimate transverse bending stresses using the Beam on Elastic Foundation Analogy (BEF).3 ft.11.5) 12 1 − 0. (Calculations not shown) Cross frame spacing = 16.5). D44 . but may be ignored at the strength limit state.1.4." Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The "Design Guide to Box Girder Bridges.2 3 = ( 2 ) 3 2 = 285345 kin 2 /in.834 ksi.5) 12 1 − 0. Section 55 Node 36. Db = 29000 ( 1. as given in Table C3. Longitudinal warping stresses due to crosssection distortion are considered for fatigue as specified in Article 6. Poisson's ratio for steel. Icomp = 836.5 in. The most critical condition is likely to be fatigue at the termination of fillet welds connecting transverse stiffeners to the web (Category E). Da = flexural rigidity of deck. Poisson's ratio for concrete. tb = bottom flange thickness = 1. The fatigue loading produces a positive torque of 254 kft and a negative torque of 232 kft at the pier.832 kin).
75 5. D45 .75 0.5) 62 = 12395 kin2 /in.5 x 0.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Transverse Bending Stress (continued) Compute d o in Figure D4 using Equation (A4) from the Bethlehem Guide.75 in 2 Area of web = 15. h=c 62 80.0 + 1 ( 0.5) ( 5.64 in2 2. do = 62 1 − 0.4 ( 62 )tanh 5.8 x 0.5625 − 1.6 do = 5.0 in.8 in.5625) 3( 15.5625 = 8.6 80. c = 80. Is = 1 ( 0. spacing of transverse stiffeners.89 in 2 11.5 in. = 5.5625 + N.89 11.5 = 2.6 ( ) Compute the location of the neutral axis of the effective section from the web face.4 in.5) 3 + 2.8) + 8.6 d h d h 2 Bethlehem Guide Eq (A4) 1 − µs d = 62 in.5 + 0.64 0.32 5.5625 2 = 1.A.5625 − 1 = 26.5 2 + 8.89 0. Area of stiffener = 5. 12 12 2 2 Dc = Es Is d = 29000( 26.4 = 15. Bethlehem Guide Eq (A3d) 2 2 The stiffness of the transverse stiffener is assumed to be distributed evenly along the web. d tanh 5.
4) 120 + 120( 81 ) + 81 + 81 ( 120 + 81 ) + 12395 8963 285345 Compute δ1 .64 where: l = the distance between cross frames (in. the box distortion per kip per inch of load without diaphragms. 4 β= 1 EIcδ 1 Bethlehem Guide Eq (A5) where: I = moment of inertia of the composite box 4 β= 1 29000( 836080 ) ( 0.00327 in1 β l = 0.4) ] + 1 285345 ( 81 ) 120 ( 3 ) = 0.) D46 .22 2 2 3 1203 2( 80. 1 v= Dc [ ( 2a + b)abc] + 1 Da ba 3 3 a3 2 c a2 + ab + b2 b ( a + b) + + Da Dc Db ( ) Bethlehem Guide Eq (A2) 1 v= 12395 [ [ 2( 120) + 81 ] ( 120) ( 81 ) ( 80.00327( 196) = 0. δ1 = 2 c 2ab a b − v ( 2a + b) + −v Dc a + b 24 ( a + b) Da a + b ab Bethlehem Guide Eq (A1) δ1 = 2 80. using Bethlehem Guide Equation (A5).36) = 0.36 in2 /k 24 ( 120 + 81 ) 12395 120 + 81 285345 120 + 81 120( 81 ) Compute the BEF stiffness parameter. according to Equation (A1) from the Bethlehem Guide.4 2( 120) ( 81 ) 120 81 − 0.22[ 2( 120) + 81 ] + − 0. β.22 = 0.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Transverse Bending Stress (continued) Compute the compatibility shear at the center of the box (bottom) flange according to Bethlehem Guide Equation (A2).
084 ) = 106 in1 Bethlehem Guide Equation (A9a) S= Fd = Compute S (per inch) for unstiffened portions of the web (more critical than the bottom flange).0527) Fd = = 169 in1 D47 .5625 − 1. for stiffened portions of the web.23 in3 Compute S per inch. ( 1) ( 0. = 81 ( 0.5 + 0.22) 2( 0.0527 in3 /in.23 62 bv 2S = 0. 5. S= I c = 26.084 in3 /in. σt = Ct Fdβ 1 2a (ml or T) Bethlehem Guide Equation (A8) where: Ct = BEF factor for determining the transverse distortional bending stress from Bethlehem Guide Figure A6.0) = 5.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Transverse Bending Stress (continued) The transverse bending stress range at the top or bottom corners of the box section may be determined from Bethlehem Guide Equation (A8).v] for top corner of box S = section modulus of the transverse member (per inch) Compute the section modulus. Fd = 81 ( 0. S. l = cross frame spacing a = distance between webs at the top of the box T = range of concentrated torque Fd = (bv)/(2S) for bottom corner of the box = a/(2S)[b/(a + b) .5625) 6 2 S= = 0. bv 2S For the bottom corner of the box.5 ( 5. m = uniform range of torque per unit length.22) 2( 0.
The transverse bending stress range caused by the fatigue loading is negligible in this case. An additional example of the computation of transverse bending stresses is also given in the Bethlehem Guide. For the βl value in this example.0527) 201 120 (Stiffened) Fd = (Unstiffened) Compute ft using Bethlehem Guide Equation (A8). Therefore. σt = Ct Fdβ T 2a Bethlehem Guide Equation (A8) Read Ct from Bethlehem Guide Figure A6: Ct = 0. the curves for q = 1.22 = 208 in1 (controls) 2( 0.03.084 ) 120 + 81 81 − 0.03 is used. C t = 0. in Figure A6 represents the ratio of the diaphragm brace stiffness to the box stiffness per unit length.5 ksi < 20.0 ksi OK 2( 120) The quantity.000 to infinity are clustered around a C t value of 0. q.03( 208) ( 0.Girder Stress Check Section 55 G2 Node 36 Transverse Bending Stress (continued) For the top corner of the box. q may be calculated from Equation (A6) in the Bethlehem Guide (not shown).00327) 5832 = 0. F d = 120 b − v 2S a + b a Bethlehem Guide Equation (A9b) Fd = 81 − 0.22 = 131 in1 2( 0. For other cases.03 σt = 0. D48 .
48 ksi for n (C) ftop (LL + IM) = 1.75( −3087 ) ( 42.80 ) 185187 ( 12 ) = 14.27 ) 354925 1.3 Stresses Check the bottom flange bending stress at Section 22.53 ksi for 3n (C) ftop (FWS) = − ( 12 ) = −1. the compressive resistance of the unstiffened bottom (box) flange on the side of the field splice directly across from the stiffener termination must be checked at the strength limit state to ensure that the stiffener can be terminated at this section.78 ) 479646 ( 12 ) = −2. In this particular case. By terminating the longitudinal flange stiffener at the free edge of the flange (at the bolted splice) and not extending it further into the end span.6 ksi (C) ftop (Deck) = − 1.78 ksi for cracked section w/o rebar (C) ftop (LL + IM) = − 1.27 ) 354925 1.5( 428) ( 24.73 ksi (C) ftop (Superimposed DL) = − 1.25( 1941) ( 42. the girder sections immediately to the left and right of Section 22 are the same (except for the flange stiffener). The section properties of the section without the flange stiffener are used below. which is located 100 feet from the abutment.13 ksi for cracked section w/o rebar (C) ftop (FWS) = − 1. fatigue of the base metal at the terminus of the stiffenertoflange weld need not be considered.5( 428) ( 42.75( 5264) ( 10. it is desirable to terminate the longitudinal flange stiffener at this location where the longitudinal stress at the free edge of the flange is zero. The effect of the concrete reinforcement in the stress calculation is neglected in this example.80 ) 185187 ftop (Steel) = − ( 12 ) = −1. Moments are from Table C1 and section properties are from Table C5.80 ) 185187 ( 12 ) = −0. The bottom flange splice plate inside the box must be split to permit the stiffener to extend to the free edge of the flange (Figure D5).80 ) 185187 ( 12 ) = −6.Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20. 1.25( 462) ( 42.80 ) 185187 ( 12 ) = −0.98 ksi for cracked section w/o rebar (T) D49 .25( 326) ( 24.25( 326) ( 42.33 ksi for 3n (C) ftop (Superimposed DL) = − ( 12 ) = −1. Since this is the location of the bolted field splice in Span 1. Compute the vertical bending stresses in the top extreme fiber of the steel at this section. Also.
98 = 3. ksi (for cracked section without rebar) D50 .6 + ( −6.3 Stresses (continued) Compute the factored vertical bending stress in the top flange at the strength limit state.74 ksi By similar computations.6 + ( −6. Tables D1 and D2 are created.48) = −11.67 ftop = −1.33) + ( −0.78) + 14. ftop = −1.Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.13) + ( −1.73) + ( −0.73) + ( −1.53) + ( −2.
25(125) Total Factored NC DL Torque = 45 kft = 156 kft = 201 kft All values are from Table C3 Compute the bottom flange shear stress due to the noncomposite loads.8.6 Eq (6.25(36) Deck 1. Compute the St.51 Compute the nominal flexural resistance for the bottom flange at the strength limit state according to Article 6.625 ) 12 −201 Eq (6. the slenderness ratio for the compression flange. t fc = flange thickness Compute the St. First.26) where: T = torque.11.24 + 1.11. fv = T 2Ao tfc = 1 = 1.3 Strength .160 kft Compute the bottom flange shear stress due to the composite loads.8 for sections in negative flexure.50(76) LL + IM 1.625 = 129.2.27) = 1. Venant torsional shear stress in the bottom flange due to the composite loads.8.Bottom Flange Check the compressive resistance of the unstiffened bottom flange directly across from the flange stiffener termination according to the provisions of Article 6.0 ft2 . Ao = enclosed area of box. fv = T 2Ao tfc = 1 = 0.625 ) 12 −1160 ksi fv = ( 0.27 ksi 2( 60. determine λf. The enclosed area of the noncomposite box is computed to be A o = 55.75(556) Total Factored Comp. Venant torsional shear stress in the bottom flange due to the noncomposite loads. λf = bfc tfc = 81 0.11.24 ksi 2( 55.11. Load Torque Steel 1.Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.8 ft2 . DL Torque = = = 73 kft All values are from Table C3 114 kft 973 kft = 1. The enclosed area of the composite box is computed to be A o = 60. Load Torque SupImp DL 1.8.2.8) ( 0.2.0) ( 0.24) where bfc is the flange width between webs measured in inches D51 .2.25(58) FWS 1.
57 k = platebuckling coefficient for uniform normal stress = 4. ∆= fv 1 − 3 Fy 1 − 3 2 Eq (6.Bottom Flange Determine the equation used to compute the nominal flexural resistance.Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.34 4.999 50 0.57 2 R1 = 1 0.29) R2 = 1 Fyr + 1.11.25) = 1.8.0 k s = platebuckling coefficient for shear stress = 5.23 kE Fyc Eq (6.51 4.11.57 1 ∆+ 2 f v k 2 2 ∆ + 4 Fyc k s 2 Eq (6.6 Determine if λf is less than or greater than R2 1.11.51 = 0.5 < λf = 129.2.34 2 2 = 0.2.999 + 4 2 1.3 Strength . R1 kE Fyc where: R1 = 0.8.57 = 27.11.0( 29000) 50 0.999 + 2 0.0 50 5.2.2.8.8.28) Compute ∆ according to Eq (6.25).2 Fyc Fyr f v k 2 + 4 Fyc Fyc ks 2 2 D52 .
2.9E k s fc Rb fv k Eq (6.0) 2 2 From Table D1.0) ( 4. the longitudinal flange stiffener may be discontinued at the field splice. R b is taken as 1.22 ksi.2.23 = 59.0) Fnc = 81 0.51 4.2 < 129. Eq (6.23) where: Rb is determined using the provisions of 6.11.0 50 50 5.95 ksi Eq (6.Girder Stress Check Section 22 G2 Node 20.0.11.9( 29000) ( 1.8.11.01 ksi − 2 0. fbu ≤ φf Fnc 3.27) R2 = 1.8.625 2 81 = 6.1.4)Fyc ≤ Fyw = ( 0.01 ksi OK Therefore.2.6 therefore. Since this section is composite.23 1 29. use Eq (6. 0.22 ksi < 1.1.0( 29000) 50 0.8.34) ( 1.23 1.0) ( 1.9( 29000) ( 5.95 + 4 1.Bottom Flange where: Fyr = ( ∆ − 0.2 50 4.8. the computed factored compressive stress in the bottom flange for strength = 3.01) = 6.10.10.10. is in positive flexure and satisfies the web proportioning limits of Article 6.34 2 2 2 = 1.0(6.23) for the calculation of F nc 2 2 Fnc = bfc tfc 2 bfc − 2 t 0.11.2.4)50 = 29.11) D53 .51) ( 4.625 0.9E Rb k 29.999 − 0.2.3 Strength .1.95 + 1.
3.2.6.22) k/bolt Eq (6.2.1.8) For slipcritical connections.82 Ks = surface condition factor specified in Table 6.4. R r.4.0) ( 0.21 provides a standard hole size of 15/16 in.13.3 Design Action Summary and Section Information Design the bolted field splice at this section according to the provisions of Article 6.50) ( 2) ( 39 ) = 39 Strength The factored resistance.13. D54 .13.6.81 (kips) Kh = hole size factor specified in Table 6.13. diameter bolt.13.2.2.10.2. Table 6.3) Use 7/8 in.2. of a bolt at the Service II Load Combination is taken as: Rr = Rn where: Rn = the nominal resistance as specified in Article 6.8 The nominal slip resistance of a bolt in a slipcritical connection is taken as: Rn = K h Ks Ns Pt where: Ns = number of slip planes per bolt Pt = minimum required bolt tension specified in Table 6.13.6.4a states that the factored flexural resistance of the section at the point of the splice at the strength limit state must satisfy the applicable provisions of Article 6.4. diameter ASTM A 325 bolts.13.2 Eq (6. R r of a bolted connection at the strength limit state shall be taken as: Rr = φRn where φ is specified in Article 6.2. the factored resistance.2.13.13.13. Bolt capacities (Articles 6.83 Rn = ( 1.13. for a 7/8 in.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.2. Bolts are in double shear and threads are not permitted in the shear planes. Use a Class B surface condition for unpainted blastcleaned surfaces.81) Article 6.1 and 6.2. Service and Constructibility Slip Resistance (Article 6.5.
13.48( 0.) Fu = tensile resistance of the connected material specified in Table 6.4. which less than 2.5) ( 0.4 Bearing Resistance (Article 6. R n .5.3 Design Action Summary and Section Information (continued) Shear Resistance (Article 6.2 k/bolt Rr = φsRn where φs is the shear resistance factor from Article 6. and the threads are excluded from the shear plane is as follows: Rn = 0. the nominal resistance of interior and end bolt holes at the strength limit state.4. is taken as: With bolts spaced at a clear distance between holes not less than 2.2.5.0 in.13. the end distance is 2.11 (ksi) In this case.2LctF u where: d = nominal diameter of the bolt (in.5625) ( 65 ) = 65.0d and with a clear end distance not less than 2.2.5 in. The nominal bolt resistance for the end row of bolts is: Rn = 1.0 in.71) Rr = 0.81 k/bolt Rr = φbbRn where: φbb is from Article 6.) Lc = clear distance between holes or between the hole and the end of the member in the direction of the applied force (in.7) The nominal shear resistance.65 k/bolt D55 .2.601 ) ( 120) ( 2) = 69.48Ab FubNs Rn = 0.0d: Rn = 1.2 Eq (6.92) Rr = 0. Eq (6.2) = 55.0d.0d.8( 69. creating a clear end distance of 1.2( 1.81 ) = 52. of a highstrength bolt at the strength limit state where the length between extreme fasteners measured parallel to the line of action of the force is less than 50.2.2 k/bolt Eq (6.8( 65.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.13.91) If either the clear distance between holes is less than 2.4dtFu Eq (6.13.4. or the clear end distance is less than 2. therefore.) t = thickness of the connected material (in.2.92) applies.0d: Rn = 2.9) For standard holes.2.13.13. R n .
76Ab Fub Tn = 0.2.91) Tensile Resistance (Article 6.10.2.42 k/bolt k/bolt Eq (6.21) D56 .2.13.8 k/bolt The tensile bolt resistance is not used in this example.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.4( 0.5625) ( 65 ) = 76.3 Design Action Summary and Section Information (continued) The nominal bolt resistance for the interior rows is computed as: Rn = 2.601 ) ( 120) = 54.8( 76.10) The nominal tensile resistance of a bolt.13.13.78 Rr = 0.875 ) ( 0.76( 0. independent of any initial tightening force shall be taken as: Tn = 0. T n . Eq (6.78 ) = 61.
Article 6. Lateral flange bending must be considered for the top flanges of tub girders prior to hardening of the deck. −176 12 FLong vert = = 14.25 (Article 3.87 ksi Compute the force in the top flange using the average vertical bending stress in the flange. To account for the effects of lateral flange bending. bearing.4c requires that lateral bending effects in discretely braced top flanges of tub sections be considered in the design of bolted flange splices.1.13 − 10.6. the flange splice bolts will be designed for the combined effects of shear and moment using the traditional elastic vector method.4a also requires that highstrength bolted connections be proportioned to prevent slip for constructibility.13 ksi ftop web = 10.4a requires that highstrength bolted connections designated as slip critical be proportioned to prevent slip under Load Combination Service II.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.13. and tensile resistance at the applicable strength limit state load combinations must be provided. In addition. The shear on the bolts is caused by the flange force calculated from the average vertical bending stress in the flange and the moment on the bolts is caused by the lateral flange bending.87 ( 16.Top Flange Article 6. Ftop = −11.0 2 ( 2 ) + 2(4)(3.3 Constructibility . Ip = Ab 2( 3) 3.0 + 6.1.13. ftop flg = 11.0) = −176 2 kips Compute the force in each bolt resulting from the vertical bending stress.1.13.6.2). Steel + Cast #1 controls. shear.6. Constructibility: Load factor = 1. Article 6.67 k/bolt D57 . Compute the polar moment of inertia of the top flange bolt pattern shown in Figure D5.4.02) = 342 Ab in4 where: Ab = area of one bolt (in 2 ) Moment = 462 + 2749 = 3211 kft (unfactored from Table D3) Lateral flange moment = −1 + ( −15 ) = −16 kft (unfactored from Table D3) The factored vertical bending stresses for steel and Cast #1 are taken from Table D2. The gross section of the flange is used to check for slip. Constructibility Since Cast #1 causes a larger positive moment than the entire deck.
11 + 18.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.25) = 4. FLong tot = 14.3 Constructibility .25) = 2.21 = 18.Top Flange (continued) Compute the longitudinal component of force in the critical bolt due to the lateral flange moment.67 + 4.0 k/bolt < Rr = 39 k/bolt OK 2.88 = 19 k/bolt 2 2 D58 .0) 342 ( 12 ) ( 1. FTrans = −16 ( 3.11 k/bolt −16 ( 6. ΣF = Check Ru ≤ Rr Ru = 19.21 k/bolt Compute the resultant force on the critical bolt.88 k/bolt Compute the transverse component of force in the critical bolt. FLong lat = Therefore.0) 342 ( 12 ) ( 1.
The enclosed area of the noncomposite box. Ip = A b [2(20)(2.e. The factored vertical bending stresses are taken from Table D2.42 ksi Compute the force in the bottom flange from the average constructibility vertical bending stress.75 2 + 17.25 (Article 3.52 + 6. as illustrated below.252 )] = 19.0 ft 2 . Compute the polar moment of inertia of the bottom flange bolt pattern shown in Figure D5.4.2 kips 2( 55.75 2 + 32.4 kin Compute the longitudinal component of force in the critical bolt due to the factored moment. Ao .25 ) 19859 = 0.25) = 17.58 ksi fbot web = 9. Venant torsional shear in the bottom flange.25 + 2.52 + 21.14 k/bolt D59 . FLong M = 77.2). T 2Ao V= bf = 81 ( 1.25)2 + 2(2)(2. Fbot = 9. Assume the shear is applied at the centerline of the splice (i. From Table D3 . the unfactored torque due to Steel plus Cast #1 = 36 + (188) = 224 kft.88) = 493 2 kips To account for the effects of the St.Bottom Flange Since Cast #1 causes a larger positive moment than the entire deck. the flange splice bolts will again be designed for the combined effects of shear and moment using the traditional elastic vector method.4( 36. is computed to be 55. Steel + Cast #1 controls constructibility.25 2 + 252 + 28. M = 17.0) 12 −224 Compute the factored moment in the bottom flange due to the torsional shear.2( 2.252 + 102 + 13.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20. fbot flg = 9. at the juncture of the two flange plates). The gross section of the flange is used to check for slip. Venant torsional shear in the bottom flange.859Ab in4 Compute the factored St.58 + 9.52 + 36.3 Constructibility . Load factor = 1.42 ( 51.25) = 77.
FLong vert = Therefore.43 = 0. FTrans = 77.46 + 0.32 = 12.46 k/bolt Compute the transverse component of force in the critical bolt.43 k/bolt FTrans tot = 0.14 + 12.009 + 0.4( 2.009 k/bolt 493 40 = 12.47 k/bolt 2 2 D60 . Fv = 17.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.32 k/bolt Compute the force in each bolt resulting from the torsional shear.44 = 12.47 k/bolt < R r = 39 k/bolt OK 12. FLong tot = 0.Bottom Flange (continued) Compute the force in each bolt resulting from the vertical bending stress.44 k/bolt Compute the resultant force in the critical bolt.25) 19859 = 0. ΣF = Check Ru ≤ Rr Ru = 12.2 40 = 0.3 Constructibility .
4 in2 Ag = ( 83.14 0.6.13. Section properties computed using the effective top flange width are used to calculate the vertical bending stresses in the flange at the splice for strength whenever the top flange is subjected to tension.9 in2 Ae = 0.8( 65 ) ( 12 ) = 13. in 2 = [ 16. ksi An = net area of the flange calculated as specified in Article 6.95( 50 ) in2 < 16 in 2 The effective width of the top flange is computed as: (b f)eff = Ae t = 12 1. Ae = 43.0) = 16 in2 φ u Fu An ≤ Ag φy Fyt Eq (6.9 in2 0.0) = 12 in2 Ag = gross area of the flange.0 − 20 ( 0.875 + 0.0) ( 0.4c as follows: Ae = where: Fu = minimum tensile resistance of the tension flange.1.4c2) Ae = 0. in2 = ( 16.4) = 43.8( 65 ) ( 39.8.0 − 4( 0.13 in2 D61 .625 ) = 39. the effective area of the bottom flange is computed as: An = [ 83.3.125 ) ] ( 1.Top and Bottom Flange The effective area of the top flange is computed from Article 6. ksi Fyt = minimum yield resistance of the tension flange.13 in2 < 51.0 = 12 in.875 + 0.3 Strength .1.625 ) = 51. Similarly.6.0) ( 1.13. The gross area is used for the bottom flange since it is in compression.125 ) ] ( 0.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.95( 50 ) Therefore.
calculate the average factored bending stress in the top and bottom flange at the Strength limit state for both the positive and the negative live load bending conditions.75( −3087) ( 43.13 83. net section fracture is not a concern and the effective area is taken equal to the gross area.79 ) 12 = −2. Calculate the factored vertical bending stress in the top and bottom flange midthicknesses at the strength limit state for both the positive and negative live load bending conditions.25( 326) + 1.85 ksi (C) 179050 179740 179740 Positive live load bending case − Ftop flg = 1.52 in.91) 12 = −11.63 ) + 1.02) 12 = 4.25( 326) + 1.3 Strength .0 = 0.5( 428) ] ( 55.19 ksi (T) 179050 179740 179740 Fbot flg = 1. The contribution of deck reinforcement is not included in the section properties at this section. It is more advantageous to determine the effective thickness for the bottom flange and not the effective width in order to maintain the web slopes. the longitudinal flange stiffener is not included. Section properties from Table C5 are computed using the effective bottom flange thickness are used to calculate the vertical bending stresses in the flange at the splice for strength whenever the bottom flange is subjected to tension. For flanges and splice plates subjected to compression.25( 2403) ( 41. The longitudinal component of the top flange bracing area is again included in the effective section properties. Using the effective section properties (from separate calculations).5( 428) ] ( 23. The gross area is used for the top flange in this case.32 ksi (T) 179050 338310 456064 D62 .18) + 1.25( 326) + 1.25( 2403) ( 37.5( 428) ] ( 35.29) + [ 1.75( 5264) ( 68.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20. an effective flange thickness will be computed. The effective thickness of the bottom flange is computed as: (tf)eff = Ae bf = 43.Top and Bottom Flange (continued) For the bottom flange of the box.75( 5264) ( 9.29) + [ 1. The smaller section is to be used to design the splice. Negative live load bending case − Ftop flg = 1.25( 2403) ( 41.79 ) + 1.5. The provisions of Article 4.5( 428) ] ( 43.58 ksi (C) 179050 338310 456064 Fbot flg = 1.2 are followed to determine which composite section (cracked or uncracked) to use.75( −3087) ( 35.2.25( 2403) ( 37.25( 326) + 1.02) + 1.52 ) + [ 1. therefore.52 ) + [ 1.90) 12 = 26.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3 Strength  Top and Bottom Flange (continued) An acceptable alternative to the preceding calculation is to calculate the average factored vertical bending stress in both flanges for both live load bending conditions using the appropriate gross section properties. Then, for the flange in tension, multiply the calculated average stress times the gross area, A g , of the flange, and then divide the resulting force by the effective area, A e , of the flange to determine an adjusted average tensionflange stress. Then, for the critical live load bending condition, use the adjusted average stress in the tension flange and the calculated average stress in the compression flange to determine which flange is the controllong flange, as defined below. Separate calculations (similar to subsequent calculations) show that the positive live load bending case is critical. For this loading case, the bottom flange is the controlling flange since it has the largest ratio of the flexural stress to the corresponding critical flange stress. Article 6.13.6.1.4c defines the design stress, Fcf, for the controlling flange as follows:
Fcf =
fcf + αφ f Fyf Rh ≥ 0.75αφ F f yf
2
Eq (6.13.6.1.4c1)
fcf is the maximum flexural stress due to the factored loads at the midthickness of the controlling flange at the point of splice. The hybrid factor R h is taken as 1.0 when Fcf does not exceed the specified minimum yield resistance of the web. α is taken as 1.0, except that a lower value equal to (F n /F yf) may be used for flanges where F n is less than F yf.
Fcf =
26.32 + 1.0( 1.0) ( 50 ) 1.0 = 38.16 ksi
2
0.75αφfFyf = 0.75( 1.0) ( 1.0) ( 50 ) = 37.5 ksi; therefore, use 38.16 ksi The minimum design force for the controlling (bottom) flange, P cf, is taken equal to F cf times the smaller effective flange area, Ae , on either side of the splice. The area of the smaller flange is used to ensure that the design force does not exceed the strength of the smaller flange. In this case, the effective flange areas are the same on both sides of the splice. Pcf = 38.16 ( 43.13 ) = 1646 kips (T)
The minimum design stress for the noncontrolling (top) flange for this case is specified in Article 6.13.6.1.4c as: Fncf = Rcf fncf Rh ≥ 0.75αφ f Fy Eq (6.13.6.1.4c3)
where α is again taken as 1.0. For a continuously braced top flange in tension, α should also be taken equal to 1.0.
D63
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3 Strength  Top and Bottom Flange (continued) Fcf fcf
Rcf =
=
38.16 26.32
= 1.45
fncf is the factored vertical bending stress in the noncontrolling flange at the splice concurrent with f cf. Rcf fncf Rh = 1.45 −11.58 1.0 = 16.79 ksi
0.75αφfFyf = 0.75( 1.0) ( 1.0) ( 50 ) = 37.5 ksi (controls) The minimum design force for the noncontrolling flange, P ncf, is computed as: Pncf = FncfAe = ( 37.5) ( 16.0) ( 1.0) = 600 kips (C)
where the effective flange area, Ae , is taken equal to the smaller gross flange area, A g , on either side of the splice since the flange is subjected to compression. In this case, the gross flange areas are the same on both sides of the splice. Top Flange St. Venant torsional shears are not considered in the top flanges of tub girders. Lateral flange bending in the top flange is also not considered after the deck has hardened and the section is closed. Therefore: Fncf Ae Rr 600 55.4
No. bolts required =
=
= 10.8
bolts, use 12 bolts
600 12
= 50
k/bolt < 55.4 k/bolt OK
Since a fill plate is not required for the top flange splice, no reduction in the bolt design shear resistance is required per the requirements of Article 6.13.6.1.5. Bottom Flange Compute the factored St. Venant torsional shear in the bottom flange at the strength limit state. Warping torsion is ignored since it is assumed in this example that the spacing of the internal bracing is sufficient to limit the warping stress to 10 percent of the vertical bending stress at the strength limit state (Article 6.7.5.3). Further, the specifications do not require warping to be considered in the design of bolted box flange splices at the strength limit state. From Table D3, the torques are as follows: Load Steel Deck Noncomposite torque Torque 1.25(36) 1.25(125)
= =
45 kft 156 kft 201 kft
D64
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3 Strength  Top and Bottom Flange (continued) SupImp DL FWS LL + IM Composite torque T 2Ao 1.25(58) 1.50(76) 1.75(517) = = = 73 kft 114 kft 905 kft 1,092 kft
V=
bf
Vnoncomp =
81 = 12.3 kips 2( 55.0) 12
−201
Vcomp =
81 = 60.6 kips 2( 60.8) 12
−1092
Vtotal = 12.3 + 60.6 = 72.9 kips The total torsional shear is then factored up by R cf = 1.45 (see earlier calculations) to be consistent with the computation of F cf and P cf. Vfact = 72.9( 1.45) = 105.7 kips
Compute the factored moment in the bottom flange due to the torsional design shear. Assume the shear is applied at the centerline of the splice (i.e. at the juncture of the two flange plates). M = 105.7 ( 2.25 + 2.25) = 475.7 kin Compute the longitudinal component of force in the critical bolt due to the factored moment. FLong M = 475.7 ( 36.25 ) 19859 = 0.87 k/bolt
Compute the force in each bolt due to the minimum design force, P cf. FL = Therefore, FLong tot = 0.87 + 41.1 = 42 k/bolt 1646 40 = 41.1 k/bolt
Compute the transverse component of force in the critical bolt. FTrans = 475.7 ( 2.25) 19859 = 0.05 k/bolt
D65
69 k/bolt Compute the resultant force on the critical bolt.09 k/bolt 2 2 D66 .69 = 42. ΣF = Check Ru ≤ Rr Ru = 42.Top and Bottom Flange (continued) Compute the force in each bolt resulting from the factored torsional design shear.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.64 k/bolt FTrans tot = 2. Therefore.7 40 = 2.3 Strength .09 k/bolt < Rr = 55.64 + 0. 42 + 2. Fv = 105.4 k/bolt OK Note that a fill plate is also not required for the bottom flange splice. no reduction in the bolt design shear resistance is necessary.05 = 2.
Although not illustrated here. and by spacing the remaining two groups of bolts near the top and bottom of the web at a closer spacing. due to the eccentricity of the factored shear about the centroid of the connection (refer to the web bolt pattern in Figure D6 ). Article 6.3 Constructibility .4a requires that highstrength bolted connections be proportioned to prevent slip for constructibility.625 in. M v.4b3) where: m = number of vertical rows of bolts n = number of bolts in one vertical row s = vertical pitch. Article 6. Mv = Ve = 93. compute the factored vertical shear at the splice (bending plus torsional shear in the critical web) due to Steel plus Cast #1.1. bolts spaced vertically at 3. Compute the polar moment of inertia of the web bolts about the centroid of the bolt group on one side of the connection.6.75 in.Web A pattern of two rows of 7/8 in. will be tried for the web splice. m = 2. g = horizontal pitch. the web splice is designed under the conservative assumption that the maximum moment and shear at the splice will occur under the same loading condition.2). There are 40 bolts on each side of the web splice.6. s = 3.6.4b requires that bolted web splices be designed to prevent slip under the most critical combination of the design actions at service load. in.2. between the inside of the flanges and the first bolt to provide sufficient assembly clearance. in.5 1 = 29.1.13. For n = 20. Load Combination Service II.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.3 kft 2 12 2 D67 . V= ( −17 − 58 ) ( 1. In this example.6. Constructibility From Table D3. Ip = nm 2 2 2 2 s n − 1 + g m − 1 12 ( ) ( ) Eq (C6.13.75 3 + 4.13. the number of bolts in the web splice could be decreased by spacing a group of bolts closer to the middepth of the web (where the flexural stress is relatively low) at the maximum spacing specified for sealing (Article 6.13. Ip = 20 ( 2) 12 2 2 2 2 3.75 in..75 kips Compute the moment. g = 3 in.1. The pattern is shown in Figure D6 .25) = −93.75 20 − 1 + 3 2 − 1 = 18793 in4 ( ) ( ) As stated previously.. Note that there is 4.
9 kips Eq (C6.0( −11. and the design horizontal force resultant in the web.0( −11.75 40 = 2.13 − 10.4b for Load Combination Service II.Web (continued) Determine the portion of the design moment resisted by the web. FH = Huw Nb = −32.3 Constructibility . M uw.13. Fs = V Nb = 93.4b1) Huw = tw D 2 = (Rh Fcf + Rcf fncf ) 0.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.6.82 k/bolt D68 . the average factored vertical bending stress in the top flange for Steel plus Cast #1 is computed as: Fcf = −11. using equations similar to those provided in Article C6.34 k/bolt.5625 ( 78 ) 12 2 1.1.9 40 = 0.6.4 k/bolt 2π cos 14.3 + 487 = 516 kft Compute the inplane bolt force due to the factored vertical shear.13.5625( 78 ) 2 [ 1. 2.1. Muw and Huw are assumed to be applied at the middepth of the web for designing the web splice plates and their connections.0 360 Compute the inplane bolt force due to the horizontal force resultant.4b2) The total moment on the web splice is computed as: Mtot = Mv + Muw = 29.0) + 1.0) − 1.5) 1 = 487 kft 12 Eq (C6.1.13. H uw.6.0( 9. Using the results from earlier calculations (Table D2).34 = 2.5 ksi 2 2 Using these stresses (set R h and Rcf equal to 1.5) ] = −32.58 + 9.42 = 9.0( 9.0) Muw = tw D 12 Rh Fcf − Rcf fncf = 0.87 = −11 ksi 2 The average factored vertical bending stress in the bottom flange is (see Table D2) fncf = 9.
0.08 k/bolt Compute the resultant inplane bolt force.24 k/bolt < R r = 39 k/bolt OK D69 .08 ) = 12.47 2π cos 14.625) 18793 = 11.48 k/bolt FMh = Mtot y Ip = 487( 12 ) ( 35. Fr = (Fs + FMv)2 + (FH + FMh)2 = ( 2.24 k/bolt 2 2 Fr = 12.0 360 = 0.47 k/bolt.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.82 + 11. Mtot x Ip 487( 12 ) = FMv = 18793 3 2 = 0.48) + ( 0.4 + 0.Web (continued) Compute the inplane horizontal and vertical components of the force on the extreme bolt due to the total moment on the splice.3 Constructibility .
for the web splice for strength according to the provisions of Article 6.25( −17 − 69 − 12 ) + 1.10.9.9.2 is used for the nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel.5625 in.9.1.5625) [ 81 ( 0.9.6. Article 6.10.625 ) + 16 ( 1) ] = 1.10. thick web at the splice according to the provisions of Articles 6.27) D70 .Web Determine the vertical design shear.3.9.5 Eq (6. The section along the entire panel must be proportioned according to Eq (6.21) 2( 80.3.3.4 2 = 5. D tw = 80.58FywDtw Eq (6.3. therefore.5. do = 196 in.84 Eq (6.3.5625 5 = 143 k= 5+ do D 2 = 5+ 5 196 80.3 for unstiffened and stiffened webs. is taken as: Vn = Vp C + 0. use Article 6.5( −16 ) + 1.10.10. the provisions of Article 6.2 may be used.9.21). V uw.4 0.22) where: Vp = 0.9.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.9.3 Strength .10. The nominal shear resistance.9.10.10.75( −85 ) = −295 kips Compute the nominal shear resistance of the 0. Try a stiffener spacing equal to the crossframe spacing. From Table D3. C.4 < 2.3.3. Separate calculations indicate that transverse stiffeners are required for this web thickness.9. (bfc tfc + bft tft) 2Dtw ≤ 2. the factored vertical shear at the splice (bending plus torsional shear in the critical web at the strength limit state) is computed as: Vu = 1.10.4b.10.23) Determine which equation is to be used to compute the ratio of the shearbuckling resistance to the shear yield resistance.2 and 6. V n . respectively.13.4) ( 0.87( 1 − C) 2 do 1+ D Eq (6.3.
84) 50 = 65 < 143 1.84) = 0.5625) = 1312 kips Vn = 1312 0.6.9.5625 w 1.26) Vp = 0.3.9.26 F 2 2 50 D yw 80. due to the eccentricity.26).58( 50 ) ( 80.12 Ek Fyw Ek Fyw = 1.6.4) ( 0.40 = 81 < 143 Therefore. 1.4b.4 Vui = 295 = 304 kips OK Eq (6.5( 304) = 456 kips Eq (6.Strength (continued) 1.5V u = 1.57 Ek = 29000( 5.26 + 0.84) 50 29000( 5.58FywDtw = 0.3.0(662) = 662 kips > 2π cos 14.5φvVn : Vuw = 1.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.1.4b1) The moment.26) 1+ 196 80. according to Article 6. of V uw from the centerline of the splice to the centroid of the web splice bolt group is computed as follows (refer to web bolt pattern in Figure D6): Muv = V uwe Muv = 456 3 + 4.0 360 Therefore.57 C= Eq (6. Muv. since V u < 0.12 29000( 5. e.10.11) 2 = 662 kips φvVn = 1.13.4 t 0.3 Web .13.5 1 = 143 2 12 2 kft D71 .10.9.1. use Eq (6.40 = 1.87( 1 − 0.10.
6.16 ) − 1. As computed earlier (pages D62 and D63) for the positive live load bending case: fcf = 26. 2π cos 14. M uw. and the design horizontal force resultant in the web.16 ksi fncf = 11. H uw.Strength (continued) Determine the portion of the design moment resisted by the web.5625 ( 78 ) 12 2 1. Huw Nb 443 40 FH = = = 11. Vuw Nb 456 40 11. Muw and Huw are applied at the middepth of the web.1.5625( 78 ) 2 [ 1.13.58 ) ] = 469 kips Eq (C6. according to the provisions of Article C6.4b2) The total moment on the web splice is computed as: Mtot = Muv + Muw = 143 + 1306 = 1449 kft Compute the inplane bolt force due to the vertical design shear.16 ) + 1.4b.3 Web .1 k/bolt D72 .45( −11.75 k/bolt Compute the inplane bolt force due to the horizontal design force resultant.58 ksi Rcf = 1.4 k/bolt.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.45 ksi From the equations in Article C6.13.0( 38.0 360 = 11.6.32 ksi Fcf = 38.4 Fs = = = 11.1.0( 38.4b: tw D 12 2 Muw = Rh Fcf − Rcf fncf = 0.13.58 ) 1 = 1306 kft 12 Eq (C6.1.1.6.45( −11.6. Separate calculations indicate that the positive live load bending condition controls.13.4b1) Huw = tw D 2 (Rh Fcf + Rcf fncf ) = 0.
Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.39 k/bolt.0 k/bolt < Rr = 55.75 + 1.97 ) = 46 k/bolt 2 2 Fres = 46. 1.4 k/bolt OK D73 .97 k/bolt Compute the resultant inplane bolt force.43) + ( 11. Fresultant = (Fs + FMv)2 + (FH + FMh)2 = ( 11.39 2π cos 14. 1449( 12 ) = 18793 FMv = Mtot x Ip 3 2 = 1.63 ) 18793 = 32.0 360 = 1.Strength (continued) Compute the inplane horizontal and vertical components of the force on the extreme bolt due to the total moment on the splice.43 k/bolt FMh = Mtot y Ip = 1449( 12 ) ( 35.1 + 32.3 Web .
81 ) = 52.3 Splice Plates Web Splice Plate Design Use nominal 0.5 in.0 kips < φbbRn = 0.0 Check bearing of the bolts on the connected material assuming the bolts have slipped and gone into bearing.375 ) ( 75. The maximum permissible spacing of the bolts for sealing = 4 + 4t ≤ 7.375in.8( 65. will conservatively be checked against the maximum resultant force acting on the extreme bolt in the connection. This check is conservative since the resultant force acts in the direction of an inclined distance that is larger than the clear edge distance. the bearing resistance of the outermost hole in the thinner web at the splice. < 7. Ag = 2( 0.0 = 4 + 4(0.13.6.4b. Since the bearing resistance of the web controls.1. calculated using the clear edge distance.44 in2 2 ( 0.25 ) = 56.25 cos 14 2π 2 360 SPL = Ix cos θ c 2 2 = D74 . the smaller of the clear edge or end distance on the splice plates can be used to compute the bearing resistance of the outermost hole. In cases where the bearing resistance of the web splice plates controls.65 kips OK According to Article 6. Should the bearing resistance be exceeded. The flexural stress is limited to φfFy. Another option would be to calculate the bearing resistance based on the inclined distance. The maximum resultant inplane force on the extreme bolt was computed earlier (page D73) for strength to be: Fresultant = 46.375)75. Fill plates are not required in this case.375) = 5.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.253 cos 14 2π 12 360 = 686. it is recommended that the edge distance be increased slightly in lieu of increasing the number of bolts or thickening the web. thick splice plates. check for flexural yielding on the gross section of the web splice plates at the strength limit state. or else resolve the resultant force in the direction parallel to the edge distance.8 in3 75.
8 Since the thickness of the two splice plates exceeds t w.125 ) ] ( 0. the effective area is equal to the gross area.5 in2 OK 0.13.125 ) ] 0. inner plates Ag = 7. say the shear resistance in the splice plates is adequate.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20. Ae .1.3 Splice Plates (continued) Muv + Muw SPL Huw Ag + 469 56. outer plate Ag = 8.4c.875 + 0.0 in2 Try: 2 .50 in2 As specified in Article 6.8( 65 ) ( 6. Flange Splice Plate Design Top Flange The width of the outside splice plate should be at least as wide as the width of the narrowest flange at the splice.1.625 in. however.0 − 4( 0. In this case.625 = 5 in2 Outer plate: 0.4c2) Outer plate: An = [ 16.95( 50 ) Inner plate: D75 .0 − 2( 0.0) = 5.8( 65 ) ( 5.95( 50 ) 0.875 + 0.0 in2 OK 0.6. Try: 16 x 0.44 = 33. the width of the top flange is the same on either side of the splice. the effective area.0(50) = 50 ksi OK f = + = ( 143 + 1306) ( 12 ) 686. of each splice plate is to be sufficient to prevent yielding of each splice plate under its calculated portion of the minimum flange design force. Therefore.6 x 0.5) = 6 in2 Inner plate: An = 2[ 6.57 < 8.13.6.0) = 6.5 in. For splice plates subjected to compression.47 < 7. The effective areas of the inner and outer splice plates are computed as: Ae = φ u Fu An ≤ Ag φy Fyt Eq (6.63 ksi < φfFy = 1.
1.11 and 6. is taken as the lesser of the values given by Eqs (6. F cfAe . P r. 4. In this case.12) Outer plate Inner plates (controls) > 450 2 = 225 kips OK D76 .6.5 ksi (controls) FcfAe = 37.13. Venant torsional shear and lateral flange bending are not considered in the top flange at the strength limit state.1.2.2.8.0) ( 50 ) = 37.50) = 356 kips or Pr = φu Pnu = φu Fu An U Pr = 0.13. St.0) ( 50 ) 2 = 27.0.3 Splice Plates (continued) As specified in Article C6.8.4c.80( 65 ) ( 5.0) = 312 Pr = 0.8.6. The flange is subjected to tension under this live load bending condition (see page D62). Warping torsion is also ignored.75αφfFyf = 0. If the areas differ by more than 10 percent.2.1.8.4c. the design force in each splice plate and its connection at the strength limit state should be determined by multiplying the flange design force by the ratio of the area of the splice plate under consideration to the total area of the inner and outer splice plates.95( 50 ) ( 7.09 ksi Eq (6. is taken as the lesser of: Pr = φyPny = φyFyAg Pr = 0.0) ( 1.1.2.6.11) Pr = 0.4c1) is generally taken equal to 1. The factored tensile resistance. Compute the minimum resistance.75( 1.14 ) = 493 kips As discussed previously.12). if the combined area of the inner splice plates is within 10 percent of the area of the outside splice plate.95( 50 ) ( 8. the controlling flange is the top flange.4c1) 0. P r.19 Fcf = 1. in the top flange for this load case.0 + 1.0) ( 1.8. For the negative live load bending case. According to Article 6. The factored tensile resistance.80( 65 ) ( 6. then both the inner and outer plates may be designed for onehalf the flange design force (which is the case here).Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.5( 13.6.13.0) ( 1.0) = 380 kips Outer plate Inner plates Eq (6. the capacity of the splice plates to resist tension is computed using the provisions of Article 6.0) = 260 kips kips Eq (6. The factor α in Eq (6.0( 1. Double shear may then be assumed in designing the connections. the shear resistance of the connection would be checked for the maximum calculated splice plate force actings on a single shear plane.13.2.
The centertocenter distance between the bolts in the direction of the force is 3.13.2. F ncfAe . the end distance is assumed to be 1.2LctF u = 1.5 in. outer plate Ag = 28.6 in2 Eq (6. Since the clear end distance is less than 2. Rn = 1. According to Article 6.3 Note: in2 Try: 2 .0) ( 65 ) = 78 k/bolt φbb = 0.5 x 0. the top flange is the noncontrolling flange and is subjected to compression.2( 1. the bearing resistance for the end and interior rows of bolts is computed using Eq (6.5 − 1. is taken as: Rr = φcFyAs (Outer and Inner plates.9( 50 ) ( 7.8 FncfAe = 600 k < φbbRn = 0. R r.0 in. R n .13.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.13.0d.8(12)(78) = 748.50) = 338 kips > Bearing Resistance at Bolt Holes Check bearing of the bolts on the connected material under the minimum design force.9. inner plates Ag = 27. for the top flange. The factored compressive resistance.4c4) Rr = 0.0d to determine the equation to be used to solve for the bearing resistance.0 in.0 − 1.375 in. Therefore. it will conservatively be treated as two separate plates in the subsequent calculations although this is physically not the case. is computed using the provisions of Article 6. The design bearing resistance.13.375 in. respectively) kips 600 2 = 300 kips OK Eq (6. The minimum design force.75 x 0. the clear distance between the edge of the holes and the end of the splice plate is: Clear end distance = 1.8 k OK Bottom Flange Try: 75.92) Since the inner splice plate must be partially split to accommodate the longitudinal flange stiffener (Figure D5).0) = 360 = 0.6. F ncfAe = 600 kips.0d is equal to 1. The value 2.3 Splice Plates (continued) Under the positive live load bending case.92).9( 50 ) ( 8.75 in.2.1.9.13. Therefore: Clear distance between holes = 3.13. for the top flange for this load case was computed earlier (see page D64) to be 600 kips. Calculate the clear distance between holes and the clear end distance and compare to 2. use Eq (6.2.0) ( 1.0 = 2.2. For the four bolts adjacent to the end of the splice plate.13.0 in.2.91 ) or Eq (6.0 2 = 1. D77 .92).36.2.
375 ) = 20.6. Further.5 % Inner: 100 = 27.3).3 Splice Plates (continued) The minimum flange design force.5( 0. the fraction of hole area that must be deducted in determining the net section modulus is: 26.43 D78 .125 ) ( 0.3 in2 OK 0.81 in2 0.5. the application of the 85% maximum effeciency factor for splice plates should be included when using the net section. Venant torsional shear was computed earlier (page D65) to be 475.1.7.875 + 0.646 kips (tension) (page D63).13.5 Outer: = 0. Therefore.8.125 ) ( 0.96 in2 < 27.75 − 10 ( 0.8( 65 ) ( 20. The effective areas of the inner and outer splice plates are computed as: Ae = φ u Fu An ≤ Ag φy Fyt Eq (6.375 ) 10 ( 0.0 26. The factoredup moment for strength due to the St.375 ) = 20. Warping torsion is ignored since it is assumed in this example that the spacing of the internal bracing is sufficient to limit the warping stress to 10 percent of the vertical bending stress at the strength limit state (Article 6.125 ) ] ( 0.875 + 0.5 − 15.375 ) 75.8( 65 ) ( 20.875 + 0.06) = 21.375 ) Outer: 100 = 26. the holes will be considered in computing a net section modulus for the splice plates.75 ( 0.6 in2 OK 0.1.125 ) ] ( 0.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.95( 50 ) Inner: An = 2[ 36.06 in2 0.78 in2 < 28. F cfAe .2 % According to Article 6. The holes remove the following percentage of crosssectional area from each splice plate: 20 ( 0.81) = 22.7 kin. the specifications do not require warping to be considered in the design of bolted box flange splices at the strength limit state.875 + 0. was computed earlier to be 1.4c2) Outer: An = [ 75.375 ) 36.95( 50 ) Since the flange is subjected to a net tension.5 − 20 ( 0.
8 in4 Snet = 1 ( 0.323 2.2 = 0.125 ) ( 0.5 75.5 + 36.875 + 0.125 ) ( 0.Bolted Splice Design Section 22 G2 Node 20.45 ΣAd2 = 2( 0.5 + 21.3 Splice Plates (continued) Calculate ΣAd2 .875 + 5.875 The net section modulus of the inner and outer splice plates together is therefore equal to: ( 2 2 2 2 2 ) = 195.9 ksi < Fn = 50 ksi OK If the combined area of the equivalent inner splice plates had not been within 10 percent of the area of the outside splice plate. D79 . the minimum design force and factoredup moment would be proportioned to the inner and outer plates accordingly.75 + 17.25 + 10 + 13.9 ksi f = 40.25 + 25 + 28. Separate calculations similar to those illustrated previously (page D77 ) show that bearing of the bolts on the bottom flange is not critical.45) ( 0.875 + 0.625 + 9. A = 2( 0.06 ) 475.5 2 2 The combined stress in the bottom flange splice plates is equal to: 1646 ( 20.2 − 15.375 + 13.43) ( 0.06 ( 18.125 + 16.875) 2 12 12 = 765 in3 +2 75.375 ) ( 75.75 ) 3 − 195.81 + 20.5) 3 − 1587 1 ( 0.375 ) = 0.323 in2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ΣAd2 = 0.0 27.75 + 32.375) ( 36.7 765 f= + = 40.8 + 20.25 = 1587 in4 ( ) Inner: 27.5 + 6.375 ) 1.
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Overhang Bracket Loading Figure D2. Internal Diaphragm and Bearing Stiffeners at Pier of Girder 2 Looking Upstation D81 8" .Figure D1.
5" c=8 0.4" . Acting with Transverse Stiffener D82 5. do. Girder 2 Figure D4. Composite Box Cross Section. Effective Width of Web Plate.a = 120" b = 81" Figure D3.
Bolt Patterns for Top and Bottom Flange D83 .3" 3" 3" 3" 3" 3" 3" 6" 3" Web Flange Width = 81" between centers of webs Longitudinal Stiffener 4 ½” 4 ½” 4 ½” 1 ½” 9 Spaces @ 3 ¾” 5" 9 Spaces @ 3 ¾” 1 ½” Figure D5.
875" 9 Spaces @ 3 ¾” . (2) The indicated distances are along the web slope. Bolt Pattern for Web D84 1.80. Figure D6.4" Notes: (1) 1/2” gap assumed between the edges of the field pieces.
98 Positive 2.21 3.67 Table D2. Strength Limit State at 100 feet from Left Abutment Factored Loads Shown Strength I Loading ksi 11.79 5.56 1.87 9.10 1.53 1.28 1.22 24.53 1.89 Positive 15.42 D85 .25 1.6 1.69 SupImp ksi 0.96 FWS ksi 0.10 0.38 1.33 1.72 Negative 12.66 25.73 6.67 3.13 10.35 Deck ksi 6.32 1.45 6.58 9.13 0.Table D1.79 0.08 Cast #1 ksi 7.74 1.97 0.19 1.51 LRFD (LL + IM) ksi Positive 2.51 1.56 6.78 0.16 Location Top Flange Top Web Bottom Flange Bottom Web Steel ksi 1.03 3.48 Negative 14.25 Negative 14.25 x Sum ksi 11.62 7.45 1.70 3.57 5.75 0.63 Positive 15.20 1.74 11. Constructability Limit State at 100 feet from Left Abutment Service Loads Shown Location Top Flange Top Web Bottom Flange Bottom Web Steel ksi 1.87 Negative 12.
Unfactored Actions Load Steel Deck Cast #1 SupImp FWS Moment (kft) 462 1.080 Note: Reported shears are vertical shears and are for bending plus torsion in the critical web.88 Yield (Fy) 50 50 50 Tensile (Fu) 65 65 65 Note: Other section properties for the gross section may be found in Table C5.56 51.Table D3.5625 83 x 0. The cross section is the same on both sides of the splice except for the presence of a bottom flange longitudinal stiffener on one side.16 x 1 2 . Tub Cross Section Component Top Flanges Web Bottom Flange Size (in.00 90.625 Area (in2) 32.78 x 0.221 Neg 3. Table D4.749 326 428 Torque (kft) 36 125 188 58 76 Top Flange Lateral Moment (kft) 1 7 15 1 2 Torque (kft) Pos 346 Neg 517 Shear (kips) 17 69 61 12 16 Shear (kips) Pos 36 Neg 85 Moment (kft) Strength HL93 with DLA Pos 5. D86 .) 2 .941 2.
APPENDIX E Tabulation of Various Stress Checks E1 .
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INTRODUCTION The following tables show various comparative stress checks between the 2003 AASHTO Guide Specifications and the 2004 AASHTOLRFD including the 2005 Interim Specifications. E3 .
99 39.3.68 33. E4 .99 fbu 26.77 Eq (6.10.11) Fcr 32.69 *Applied Stress divided by resistance.61 0.89 fb 31.71 *Applied Stress divided by resistance.65 0.12) φfFnc 44.0 fbu + fl 30.86 ratio * 0.2.32 31.45 ratio 0.13) φfFcrw 39.56 fb 29.63 0.7 fbu + 1/3fl 27.3.0 50.2 43. Box Girder 2 Section/ Node 11 10 Guide Specifications (LFD) Fcr 39.54 ratio 0.78 ratio 0.95 36.2.81 ratio 0. Constructability – Web.3. Constructability – Top Flange Section/ Node 11 9 (G1) 11 10 (G2) Guide Specifications (LFD) Eq (6.12 ratio 0.89 2004 LRFD Specifications Eq (6.69 44.10.78 2004 LRFD Specifications Fcrw 39.Table E1.89 0.99 fcw 27.2.10. Table E2.87 φfRhFyc 50.18 28.
01 3.22 0. E5 . Table E4. Box Girder 2 Section/ Node 55 36 Guide Specifications (LFD) Fcr 49. Maximum Principal Stresses – Bottom Flange.3 6.01 0.54 Guide Specifications (LFD) Fcr 47.99 6.98 2004 LRFD Specifications φfFnc 41.00 *Applied Stress divided by resistance.04 6.57 fbu 41.95 2004 LRFD Specifications Fnc 41. Box Girder 2 Section/ Node 55 36 At Splice (Unstiffened Flange) 22 20.00 *Applied Stress divided by resistance.6 ratio 1. Strength – Bottom Flange.47 ratio 0.5 fb 46.84 ratio 0.6 ratio 1.26 fb 46.Table E3.57 fbu 41.
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