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ENERGY STAR Monthly Partner Web Conference August 19, 2009
About The Web Conferences
• Monthly • Topics are structured on a strategic approach to energy management • Help you continually improve energy performance • Opportunity to share ideas with others • Slides are a starting point for discussion • Open & interactive
Today’s Web Conference
Lighting Strategies: New technology & new approaches
• Dan Frering – Lighting Research Center • Dan Chamberlain – Raytheon • Discussion • Announcements
LED Lighting Lighting Lighting Research Center Center Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Institute August 2009 2009 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. . All rights reserved.
. All rights reserved.New light source technologies Now solid-state light sources. are evolving to displace some of the traditional light sources in some applications. LEDs and OLEDs. Light-emitting diode (LED) LumiLeds LumiLeds OSRAM Opto Cree Light-emitting polymer (LEP) Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) Universal-display 2 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Motivation for solid-state lighting . energy use in the U. .S. DOE Lighting 22% 3 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. About 22% of the total Demand for energy keeps increasing Industrial 14% Outdoor Stationary 8% Other 78% Commercial 51% Residential 27% Source: U. All rights reserved.S.
. All rights reserved.S.Solid-state lighting roadmap roadmap U. Efficacy Target for LEDs 250 200 Performance (lm/W) 150 R&D Efficacy 120 lm/W Cree XLamp® LED 100 90 lm/W 60 lm/W 15 lm/W 50 0 2000 2004 2008 2012 Year 4 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Advantages of LEDs LEDs Potential for energy savings Potential for lower replacement cost Rugged and durable Unique lighting solutions (intensity and color modulation) Potential for low ultraviolet (UV) and infrared radiation (IR) No mercury 5 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. .
All rights reserved. .LED Basics © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
. N material: Has excess electrons leftover from the crystal bonding process. All rights reserved.Light + - - - - - - Radiative recombination Band gap + + Valence band + + + + + + 7 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Photons (light): Generated when the positive and negative charges recombine. - - - .Light-emitting diode: P-N Junction Light P-type + + + Junction (depletion region) + +- n-type Electrons + + + Holes + + + + Light + + - - P material: Has a slight “deficiency” of electrons for molecular bonding when forming a crystal. which can move and carry current.- Electrons Conduction band .
green.Creating white light with LEDs Mixing different colored LEDs (red.5 0.6 0.3 0. . and blue) in the right proportions produces white light.1 0 380 RGB High 1.9 0. Phosphor-converted White (PC-white) 8 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. nm Combining blue LEDs with yellow phosphors produces white light. All rights reserved.4 0.8 0.7 Relative output 0.0 Relative Output 0.2 0.5 0.0 400 500 600 700 Wavelength (nm ) 800 430 480 530 580 630 680 730 Wavelength. RGB White White LED 0.
All rights reserved. .Luminous efficacy (lumens per watt) watt) Luminous efficacy of a light source is the total luminous flux emitted by the lamp divided by the total lamp power (electrical) input › Expressed in lumens per electric watt LED Efficacy = Flux out of LED Package (Vf × If) LED Luminaire Efficacy = Flux out of LED Luminaire Luminaire Input Power 9 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
. All rights reserved.Commercial power devices devices Higher flux per device Higher efficiency Better color properties for white LEDs › › › Good color rendering Much lower color variation between lamps More stable color over time Longer life 10 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
. 11 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.Commercial products – August 2009 180 Cool White CREE (Laboratory) 100 Warm White Luxeon Rebel (Neutral White) 160 Luminous efficacy (lm/W) 90 Luminous efficacy (lm/W) Cool White 110 100 90 80 Luminous efficacy (lm/W) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Warm White 110 100 90 140 Osram (Laboratory) Luminous efficacy (lm/W) CREE XP-E (Neutral White) CREE XP-E CREE MC-E (Neutral White) 120 CREE XP-G (Press released) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 100 CREE XP-E Nichia Rigel Nichia Helios CREE XR-E Luxeon Rebel Nichia Gaia 0 CREE MC-E 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 CREE XR-E Nichia (Neutral White) Helios Luxeon Rebel CREE XR-E (Neutral White) Nichia Rigel Nichia Helios Nichia Rigel 70 Nichia Luxeon K2 Helios Nichia Gaia (Neutral White) Luxeon K2 80 CREE MC-E Luminous flux (lm) Luminous flux (lm) 60 80 60 Luxeon K2 SHARP Luxeon Rebel 50 Luxeon Rebel 40 0 100 200 300 400 500 Luminous flux (lm) 40 0 100 200 300 Luminous flux (lm) 400 All data as published by the respective manufacturers. All rights reserved.
co. All rights reserved.kr/_homepage/home_eng/produ ct/product. .asp?topCODE=1&midCODE=25 Cree 12 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.High-flux LEDs Lamina Lumileds Seoul http://seoulsemicon.
. All rights reserved.LED Life 13 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
. All rights reserved.What is lamp life? life? Traditional light sources Test methods › Lamp life = Time at which 50% of the test samples › have burned out › Incandescent lamps: Operated continuously at a constant voltage until 50% failure (may be tested at rated voltage or at over voltage conditions) › Fluorescent lamps: 3-hr-on/20-min-off cycle until 50% › -min-off failure › HID lamps: 11-hr-on/1-hr-off cycle until 50% failure 14 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
2000. All rights reserved. (Lighting Answers: LED Lighting Systems..) 15 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. . 2003.Lumen maintenance maintenance All light sources undergo lumen depreciation over time › Even though they may be functional. long-life light sources may not provide sufficient light for the intended application after a certain amount of time Lumen maintenance curves for common light sources out to 20.000 hours. IES Lighting Handbook 9th ed.
40 Time (hrs) 4 step MacAdam Ellipse 0.32 0.36 • Lumen depreciation • Color shift 16 y 0. but instead their light output slowly decreases with operating time.28 LRC Data 0.What is lamp life for LEDs? LEDs? Generally. All rights reserved. .32 0. › Useful life: The period in which a light source provides acceptable light level and color for a given application application (Narendran etal. LEDs do not fail catastrophically.36 0. JIES Light Output CIE 1931 0.40 12 step MacAdam Ellipse x © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. JI ES 2001) al.28 0.
. end-of-life lumen maintenance values of: • 70% for general lighting (L70) – L70 = 30% reduction in light output 100% 70% 50% • 50% for decorative lighting (L50) – L50 = 50% reduction in light output Light Output Color-shift during this time must be within a 4-step MacAdam ellipse 0% Time 17 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.LED life definition LM80 › Initially proposed by ASSIST recommends.
.All products are not created equal equal Significant variation between products products 18 18 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. .Heat & current affect lumen depreciation Thermocouple 19 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
All rights reserved. .White LED Color Issues 20 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
.White light light General illumination › CCT: 2800 K to 5500 K › CIE x.y values close to the blackbody locus › Good color-rendering properties 21 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.
22 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.Lamp-to-lamp color variation Similar light sources could have perceivable color differences between them Large color variations between similar light sources is an undesirable feature. .
.LED Systems 23 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.
.LED lighting system heat sink fixture housing circuit board LED array optics (lens) optics (diffuser) Controls electrical grid ballast (driver) 24 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.
. All rights reserved.LED system system Optimized system › › › › LED Electrical Optical Mechanical (heat sink / housing) Luxeon 25 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
LED efficacy growth 26 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. .
All rights reserved.LED lighting system System efficiency ~ 58% LED Optical Thermal Lighting Research Center System efficacy ~ 55% of LED efficacy Electrical Commercial white LED systems in 2007 • Typical 15 – 60 lm/W 27 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. .
.Lighting systems performance To the end user. All rights reserved. system performance matters …not source performance 28 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
ca/sagelighting .System reliability Reduced replacement cost is one of the promises of LEDs It is the final system performance that matters to the end user http://members.sh aw.
Market spoilers Over-promised. . All rights reserved. under-delivered products Taipei Not good for the LED lighting industry 30 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Impact of heat on LEDs LEDs Heat affects LED performance performance › › › Light output Color Life 31 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. .
All rights reserved. .Application issues LED products mimicking traditional PAR / MR16 halogen/incandescent lamps are continuously appearing on the market They are marketed as one-to-one replacements of traditional light sources 32 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
com/linear-system.com http://www.Application issues www.lightingservicesinc.ylighting. All rights reserved. Halogen .html Will both of these lamps perform similarly in the above fixtures? LED 33 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Application issues Even a properly designed LED fixture can perform badly if installed incorrectly 34 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. .
driver. All rights reserved. optics. and heat sink) sink) › Interactions between components components For any LED system to perform well over a long period of time. the pin (or board) temperature must remain low 35 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.Summary: LED system system Creating a good LED system requires careful analysis of: › Each individual component (LED. .
All rights reserved. .LED Applications Trends © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
com/ www. . All rights reserved.lumileds.ledeffects.LED applications Mid-2000 Early 2000 to mid-2000 www.com/gallery/ Late 1990s to early 2000 37 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
LEDs have the potential to provide light fixtures of different luminous flux. Street LightsPhilips Lighting Netherlands – Ede. . Street Lights – Ede. All rights reserved. and shape to serve the needs of different lighting applications.Promising new technology Like traditional light sources. Netherlands Philips Lighting LED fixtures © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. size.
. All rights reserved.Present trend Replacement lamps 10W to 15W 3W .10W 40W – 60W 39 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
All rights reserved. .Present trend Replacement light engines Figures from: Progress Lighting Figures from Prescolite 40 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
.Present trend Freezer case lighting Sainsbury’s Installs LED Luminaires for Freezer Cabinets October 16. 2008. All rights reserved.do?catg=445&contId=5637 Global trend…… 41 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. produce less heat. LED lights have a longer life span than fluorescent lights. http://walmartstores. Sainsbury’s..com/GlobalWMStoresWeb/navigate. . a UK-based supermarket chain. The LED luminaires from Philips light the interiors of its freezer cabinets across 350 stores… LED Lights in Grocery Cases LED lighting is used inside the grocery cases in place of fluorescent strip fixtures. has selected an LED lighting solution for freezer cabinets from Royal Philips Electronics (Philips). and use significantly less energy than typical grocery case lighting.
Global trend…… 42 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. .Present trend Downlighting Lightolier's ColorWash Sharp Corporation will introduce into the Japanese market six new LED Downlight Lightings. including three that deliver a light intensity equivalent to a 150-watt incandescent lamp. All rights reserved. an industry first for downlight models.
. many technologies can cater to the same application. Incandescent Halogen CFL LED © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.Downlighting Now.
Commercial LED Downlight System efficacy = 54 lm/W © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. . All rights reserved.
.Commercial CFL Downlight System efficacy = 33 lm/W © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.
Downlights: › Incandescent 75W › CFL › LEDs (PC) ~$50 ~$90 to $140 ~$300 to $500 • (*LLF LED fixture under $100) © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. . most LED lighting fixtures have a higher initial purchase cost than incandescent or fluorescent fixtures (approximately 3 to 6 times higher).Initial cost At the present time.
when considering lifecycle cost. the cost of using LED systems is approaching the cost of using traditional lighting systems (especially in hospitality applications). If a system like LLF ‘s LR6 is used. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. . All rights reserved. LED systems are more expensive than traditional systems (in most cases) › However. then the LED system will be the most cost-effective.Summary: Downlighting Presently.
such as a standard 400watt quartz metal halide system www.Present trend Outdoor Street and Area Lighting LED streetlights to take over downtown Ann Arbor 17 Oct.php http://ecoworldly. and significantly improved light-level uniformity compared with traditional HID lamp sources and optical systems. The 180W prototype LED streetlights were installed by Jiangsu Hua Jing Photoelectronics for replacing traditional 250W HID lamps.com/files/2008/0 7/led-streetlights-anchoragealaska-16000.ledjournal.com/2008/10/17/intelligent-flowerystreet-lights-that-smell-humans-unveiled/ GE Lumination’s outdoor LED area light According to the article. longer life. it saves up to 60 percent energy.com/.000 LED fixtures.ledjournal. OSRAM Opto Semiconductors today announced that its Golden DRAGON LEDs are lighting up a major thoroughfare of Jing Jiang City in the Jiangsu province of China./jun e/GE_outdoor%20LED.. with the installation ofmore t han 1.treehugger. www. ..S..2007 – Ann Arbor plans to become the first U./jun www. cityt oconvert 100 percent of itsd owntown streetlights to LED technology. All rights reserved.com/.jpg 48 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute..
© 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.LED fixture performance 150-W HPS semi-cutoff cobra head Lumens per lamp Lumens per fixture Fixture power 16000-lm (150-W) 12960-lm (150-W) 189-W (150-W) 160 1-W white LEDs Lumens per fixture Fixture power 10.400-lm 189-W Mounting height = 20-ft Mounting height = 20-ft This LED system has performance similar to a traditional HPS fixture. . All rights reserved.
› Many of them do not meet the lighting requirements. a few products are starting to meet the requirements and compete with traditional light sources for area and street lighting applications. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. .Summary A rising number of LED street lighting products are in the marketplace. However. All rights reserved.
Testing commissioned by the U. (Credit: Cree) 51 After: The same room at the Pentagon after Cree's LED lights were installed (Credit: Cree) © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. . Department of Defense to supply over 4.” Before: A Pentagon room before Cree's LED lights were installed.S.S.General illumination From the press: › “LED manufacturer Cree has been awarded a contract from the U.200 recessed LED lights for the Pentagon. government determined that Cree's LR24 recessed LED lights would offer a 22 percent energy reduction compared with fluorescent lights. All rights reserved. and save the Pentagon 140 tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year.
.Promising near-term applications ASSIST recommends Outdoor Lighting Luminaires ASSIST recommends Directional Luminaires ASSIST recommends LED Light Engines ASSIST recommends Freezer Case Lighting ASSIST recommends Under-cabinet Lighting Luminaires © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved.
. All rights reserved.ASSIST recommends Recommendations to the LED and lighting communities about issues important for the reliable performance of LED lighting Best practice guides for different lighting applications Recommendations for selecting LED lighting © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
• Only a few products can meet the requirements of the . higher initial cost compared to traditional sources • However. All rights reserved. prices are coming down › Energy savings only in certain niche applications › All products are not created the same applications and be cost effective • Reliability is unknown and is a concern 54 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. LED applications have been advancing from signs/displays to colored light environments to now white light illumination White light applications are just starting › In most cases.LED applications Since late 1990s.
.Summary Technology trends › Rapid advances • Higher efficacy and flux per device • Improved useful life • Better color properties › Performance varies significantly among different products › LED system performance is not the same as bare LED performance Application issues › LED is not the solution for all lighting applications (clear value proposition) • Consider applications that can benefit from the LED technology › Consider application efficacy. All rights reserved. not source efficacy › Installations must be done correctly for successful application 55 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
. All rights reserved.Acknowledgments Program Sponsors 56 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
LRC. All rights reserved.RPI. More information: WWW. .Thank you.EDU 57 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
2009 07/01/03 .Workspace Specific Intelligent Lighting David R. Chamberlain Principal Energy Engineer Raytheon Company. Integrated Defense Systems (IDS) ENERGY STAR Web Conference August 19.
Recently changed those to T5 High Output fixtures – Other typical projects: • T-8 retrofits (bulbs and ballasts only) • LED exit signs • Occupancy sensors in conference rooms. etc. including Lightolier Agili-T . Lesson learned – Minimal light quality improvement for employees Researched indirect lighting options – Design Lights Consortium (NEEP) – Light Right Consortium (Battelle) – MA Electric (National Grid) Tried pilot project with workspace specific lighting technology (Ergolights) Evaluated other similar technologies. Later replaced those with workspace specific lighting (Ergolights) • Replaced high bay fixtures with Pulse Start Metal Halides.Raytheon IDS Lighting Experience • • • • • Lots of lighting retrofits during past two decades – Have taken advantage of technology improvements over time – Examples: • Replaced 2x4 acrylic lensed fixtures with deep-cell parabolics. rest rooms.
Initial Ergolight Experience • Technology was introduced to us by our Massachusetts Electric (National Grid) account representative during 2000 • Installation of the Ergolights were expected to: – Reduce energy consumption – Improve the financial success of the facility – Improve employee productivity through improved lighting • Experimented for 3 months with pilot of 20 fixtures at two sites • Initial large scale installation completed in 2001 – Approximately 1.300 installed in three selected sites – Approximately 2.115 employees effected .225 standard efficiency fixtures removed – 1.
Onboard occupancy sensor and daylight sensor. occupancy sensor and management system.What are Ergolights? • Manufactured by Ledalite • Direct/Indirect fixture • 1 lamp indirect/uplight • 2 lamps direct / task lights • Uplight is controlled by • • lighting management system. Task lights are controlled by occupant. .
How Are Ergolights Controlled?
• Daisy Chain installation. • Fixtures are individually
addressable and controlled through computer network.
• Fixture database and system •
software resides on interface computer. Individual control software resides on occupants computer.
How Do Ergolights Save Energy?
80 60 40 20 Actual Ergolight Energy Use (20-40%) Time of Day
Existing energy use (100%) Savings from fixture quantity reduction Motion Sensor Savings
Initial Savings Analyses
• Initial installation results:
– – – – Ergolight energy savings tracking surpassed the projected 80% Feedback from employees was overall positive Fixtures performed mostly as expected Manager software did not meet expectations
Ergolights Fixtures Employees Installed Removed Impacted 498 697 428 608 1124 426 137 300 206 61 103 55 1304 2224 1114 Ergolights Annual KWH 80,287 111,098 30,409 9,373 231,168 Previous Annual KWH 414,715 685,440 181,718 23,339 1,305,211 Annual KWH Saved % Savings 334,428 80.6% 574,342 83.8% 151,308 83.3% 13,965 59.8% 1,074,044 82.3% Annual Savings $31,773 $66,038 $14,363 $1,309 $113,483
Facility Location Building Area Tewksbury Building 200 Bedford Phases 3 & 4 Andover Fab. Offices Andover Purchasing Total
Projected Annual KWH Savings per Fixture = Projected Annual Savings per Fixture =
1) Ergolight KWH data from Main Computer; Daily rate calculated to compare with previous fixtures
2) Previous KWH/Day = # fixtures removed x Watts per fixture x run-hours per year/1000 Watts/kW x 365 days per year
3) 2001 electricity rates approximately 9-10 cents per KWH (2009 rates 12-14 cents per KWH)
2001 Ergolight Installation Pictures Note: Picture distorts actual light pattern on ceiling and walls (i. no bright spots as shown here) .e.
Edapt Ergolight Fixtures .
• Worked with Ledalite on system improvements: – Repeaters (signal boosters) found to not be sufficient. – Software installation is now web based with online instructions. . – Made changes to the username and passwords standards. • Improvements in the roll-out of personal control to the employees: – Did all at once after area installation complete. – Modified time delay of occupancy sensor.Lessons Learned • Modification in installation process: – Better procedures implemented to improve assemble time. • Control Improvements: – Worked on standardizing lighting schedules. – Installed t-connector onto fixture to easier power connections. – Added the churn feature to deal with moving of people and new computers.
• Employees that do not yet have the fixtures request them.000 fixtures installed in MA. • Addressing hallway lighting in conjunction with Ergolights. . – Typical hallway fixture is Lithonia RT5 (low glare). • Have established better standards for number of Ergolights per office based on size and number of occupants.Current Ergolight Status • Current installation status – Over 10. – Hallway fixtures not needed in some applications. – Central management makes demand response possible. – Ledalite has cooperated in making requested improvements. RI and AL – Standard office fixture for renovated areas in IDS locations. – Personal control feature is extremely popular.
AL facility.Project Recognition • • • • • • • • Raytheon EH&S Innovation Award. Included 355 Ergolights 2005 Best Practices in Lighting Award from Energy Planning Network (EPN) 2006 LEED Certification for Huntsville. 2003 LEED Certification for Marlboro SATCOM Facility. Boston Chapter International Facilities Management Association (IFMA) Award for Excellence in Facilities Management. 2002 Energy Project of the Year Award from Association of Energy Engineers . 2002. Included hundreds of Ergolights Considered by Light Right Consortium for study – Measure impact of quality lighting on worker productivity. Article in April 2002 issue of Facilities Design and Management. 2001.New England Chapter. .
Facilities Design & Management Article .
Questions? David R. MA 01821 David_R_Chamberlain@raytheon.com 978-436-8128 . Integrated Defense Systems 880 Technology Park Drive Billerica. Chamberlain Principal Energy Engineer Raytheon Company.
Discussion • Use * 6 to un-mute phone • # 6 to re-mute phone 4 .
dsireusa.Incentives www.org Database of: • Federal • State • Utility Incentives 5 .
Announcements • August 25 – Supply Chain Working Group Meeting: Electronic Industry Citizen Coalition's Supply Chain Carbon Reporting System.webex.com/meeting 6 . • Register at: energystar.
No web conference 7 .2009 Web Conferences • September .Energy Management Financing Strategies • December .Our Top Energy Projects • October .Energy and GHG Management • November .
• Thank you 8 .
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