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# EF132 BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Spring 2016
Chapter :1

ELECTRICITY
LEARNING OUTCOMES / OBJECTIVE

##  Describe the basic structure of the atom.

 Define the terms conductor, insulator, and semiconductor and give examples of each.

##  Define the coulomb unit of electric charge.

 Define potential difference and voltage and list the unit of each.

 Define current and list its unit of measure and difference between alternating & direct current

##  Describe the difference between direct and alternating current.

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NEGATIVE & POSITIVE POLARITIES(1)
• We see the effects of electricity in a battery, static charge,
lightning, radio, television, and many other applications.

## • All the materials we know, including solids, liquids, and gases,

contain two basic particles of electric charge: the electron and the
proton

## • An electron is the smallest amount of electric charge having the

characteristic called negative polarity. The proton is a basic
particle with positive polarity

## Note: This electrical characteristics present in all substances, in some cases

it behaves as neutral means equal number of electrons and protons (In that
case, the opposite electrical forces cancel, making the paper electrically
neutral.)

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NEGATIVE & POSITIVE POLARITIES(2)
• To use the electrical forces associated with the
negative and positive charges, work must be
done to separate the electrons and protons.

## • A battery can do electrical work because its

chemical energy separates electric charges to
produce an excess of electrons at its negative
terminal and an excess of protons at its positive
terminal.

## • With separate and opposite charges at the two

terminals, electric energy can be supplied to a
circuit connected to the battery.

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ELECTRON & PROTON IN AN ATOM (1)
• An atom is the smallest particle of
the basic elements which forms the
physical substances we know as
solids, liquids, and gases.

## • The proton in the nucleus

makes it the massive and
stable part of the atom
because a proton is 1840 times
heavier than an electron

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ELECTRON & PROTON IN AN ATOM (2)
• As the electron as spinning around the nucleus, as planets
revolve around the sun

## • The electrical force attracting the electrons in toward the nucleus

is balanced by the mechanical force outward on the rotating
electron. As a result, the electron stays in its orbit around the
nucleus.

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ELECTRON & PROTON IN AN ATOM (3)

## • Distribution of electrons in the orbital rings determines the

atom’s electrical stability, especially important is the number of
electrons in the ring farthest from the nucleus.

## • Outermost ring requires eight electrons for stability, except when

there is only one ring, which has a maximum of two electrons.

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ELECTRON & PROTON IN AN ATOM (4)

• When many atoms are close together in a copper wire, the outermost
orbital electron of each copper atom can easily break free from its home
or parent atom and electrons then can migrate easily from one atom to
another at random.

• Electrons that can move freely from one atom to the next are called free
electrons

## • It is the movement of free electrons that provides electric current in a

conductor

• The net effect in the wire itself without any applied voltage, however, is
zero because of the random motion of the free electrons.

• When voltage is applied, it forces all the free electrons to move in the
same direction to produce electron flow, which is an electric current.

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CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS &SEMICONDUCTORS(1)

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CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS &SEMICONDUCTORS(1)
• When electrons can move easily from atom to atom in a material,
the material is a Conductor

• In general, all metals are good conductors, with silver the best
and copper second.

## • Their atomic structure allows free movement of the outermost

orbital electrons.

## • Copper wire is generally used for practical conductors because it

costs much less than silver.

## • The purpose of using conductors is to allow electric current to

flow with minimum opposition.

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CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS &SEMICONDUCTORS(2)

## • A material with atoms in which the electrons tend to stay in their

own orbits is an insulator because it cannot conduct electricity very
easily

## • Insulators can hold or store electricity better than conductors. An

insulating material, such as glass, plastic, rubber, paper, air, or
mica, is also called a dielectric, meaning it can store electric charge

## • In addition, for applications requiring the storage of electric charge,

as in capacitors, a dielectric material must be used because a good
conductor cannot store any charge.

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CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS &SEMICONDUCTORS(3)

## • Carbon can be considered a semiconductor, conducting less

than metal conductors but more than insulators.

## • In the same group are germanium and silicon, which are

commonly used for transistors and other semiconductor
components.

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EXAMPLE OF ELEMENTS

## • Atom, Molecule & Compound ?

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STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM(1)
• Atomic Number This gives the number of protons or electrons required in the atom for
each element.

• Orbital Rings The planetary electrons are in successive shells called K, L, M, N, O, P, and Q
at increasing distances outward from the nucleus. Each shell has a maximum number of
electrons for stability

Copper Atom

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STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM(2)
Valence Electron The electrons in the outermost shell are the valence electrons.

The electrons on an atom that can be gained or lost in a chemical reaction Copper, for instance,
has a valence of one

Subshells All shells except K are divided into subshells. (K->1s, M-> 2s,2p)

This subdivision accounts for different types of orbits in the same shell. For instance, electrons in
one subshell may have elliptical orbits, and other electrons in the same main shell have circular
orbits

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COULOMB UNIT OF CHARGE

## The charge of many billions of electrons or

protons is necessary for common applications of
electricity. Therefore, it is convenient to define a
practical unit called the coulomb (C) as equal to
the charge of 6.25x10^18 electrons or protons
stored in a dielectric (see Fig. 1–4). The analysis
of static charges and their forces is called
electrostatics .

## The symbol for electric charge is Q or q

standing for quantity. For instance, a charge of
6.25 x10^18 electrons is stated as Q =1 C. This
unit is named after Charles A. Coulomb (1736–
1806), a French physicist, who measured the
force between charges

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NEGATIVE & POSITIVE CHARGES

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ELECTRIC FIELD OF STATIC CHARGE

##  The ability of an electric charge to attract or

repel another charge is a physical force.

##  The lines and the field are imaginary, since

they cannot be seen like the field of the force
of gravity is not visible

##  Each line of force is directed outward to

indicate repulsion of another charge in the
field with the same polarity as Q

##  The lines are shorter farther away from Q to

indicate that the force decreases inversely as
the square of the distance (Coulomb's Law)

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THE UNIT OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
• Potential refers to the possibility of
doing work.

## • Any charge has the potential to do

the work of moving another charge
by either attraction or repulsion.

## • Consider two unlike charges, they

have a difference of potential.
(Potential Difference)

## • When one charge is different from

the other, there must be a difference
of potential between them

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POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CHARGES

## • The charge has a certain amount of

potential, corresponding to the amount
of work this charge can do. The work to
be done is moving some electrons.
• Assume that a charge of +1C can move
three electrons

## • Charge of +3C can attract nine

electrons toward the right. However, the
charge of +1C at the opposite side can
attract three electrons toward the left.

## • The net result, then, is that six

electrons can be moved toward the right
to the more positive charge.

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POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE UNIT VOLT(1)
• Volt is a measure of the amount of work or energy needed to move an electric
charge

## • By definition, when 0.7376 foot-pound (ft.lb) of work is required to move

6.25x10^18 electrons between two points, the potential difference between
those two points is one volt.
Note: 1C= 6.25x10^18 coulomb of charge

• The metric unit of work or energy is the joule (J). One joule is the same
amount of work or energy as 0.7376 ft .lb

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POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE UNIT, VOLTS(2)

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POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE UNIT, VOLTS(3)

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POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE UNIT VOLT(3)

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CHARGE IN MOTION, CURRENT(1)
• Electric current is the rate of charge flow past a given point in an electric circuit,
measured in Coulombs/second which is named Amperes

• When the potential difference between two charges forces a third charge to
move, the charge in motion is an electric current . To produce current,
therefore, charge must be moved by a potential difference

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CHARGE IN MOTION, CURRENT(2)

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OPPOSITION TO CURRENT, RESISTANCE
• The fact that a wire conducting current can become hot is evidence
that the work done by the applied voltage in producing current must
be accomplished against some form of opposition.

## • The opposition, which limits or opposes the amount of current that

can be produced by the applied voltage, is called resistance.

## • Conductors have very little resistance; insulators have a large

amount of resistance.

## • The atoms of a copper wire have a large number of free electrons,

which can be moved easily by a potential difference. Therefore, the
copper wire has little opposition to the flow of free electrons

## • Carbon, however, has fewer free electrons than copper, fewer

electrons will flow when same amount of voltage is applied

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UNIT OF RESISTANCE OHM
• The practical unit of resistance is the ohm (Ω)

## • A conductor is said to have resistance of 1 ohm if it permits 1 A

current to flow through it in when 1 V voltage is applied across its
terminals

## • Carbon, however, has fewer free electrons than copper, fewer

electrons will flow when same amount of voltage is applied

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CONDUCTANCE
• The opposite of resistance is conductance G (reciprocal of resistance )

current

## • Its symbol is G , and the unit is the siemens (S)

• The old unit name for conductance is mho, which is ohm spelled backward

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THE CLOSED CIRCUIT (1)
• The circuit elements should be arranged in closed circuits as a path of
current flow

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THE CLOSED CIRCUIT (2)
Note schematic diagram does not look like the physical layout of the circuit. The
schematic shows only the symbols for the components and their electrical
connections.

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VOLTAGE VS. CURRENT
• It is the current move through the circuit, the potential different
don’t move
 The voltage is the potential difference (PD)
across the two ends of the resistance.

##  If you want to measure the PD, just connect the

two leads of a voltmeter across the resistor.

##  The current is the intensity of the electron flow

past any one point in the circuit.

##  To measure current, one have to Break & open

the path at any point and then insert the current
meter to complete the circuit

Voltage can exist without current, but current cannot exist without voltage.

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VOLTAGE SOURCE MAINTAINS THE CURRENT
• As current flows in a circuit, electrons leave the negative terminal of the cell or battery
in Fig. below, and the same number of free electrons in the conductor are returned to
the positive terminal

• As electrons are lost from the negative charge and gained by the positive charge, the
two charges tend to neutralize each other

• The chemical action inside the battery, however, continuously separates electrons and
protons to maintain the negative and positive charges on the outside terminals that
provide the potential difference

## • Battery keeps the current flowing by maintaining the

potential difference across the circuit.

## • The battery is the voltage source for the circuit.

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CIRCUIT IS A LOAD ON THE VOLTAGE SOURCE(1)
• Circuit is a means whereby the energy of the voltage source is carried by the current
through any load resistance (filament bulb), where the electric energy is used in
producing heat energy.

• On this basis, the battery is the source in the circuit, since its voltage output represents
the potential energy to be used.

• The part of the circuit connected to the voltage source is the load resistance, since it
determines how much work the source will supply (bulb’s filament is the load
resistance on the battery).

• The current that flows through the load resistance is the load current .

• Note : That a lower value of ohms for the load resistance corresponds to a higher load
current.

to a large amount of work supplied by the source.

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CIRCUIT IS A LOAD ON THE VOLTAGE SOURCE(2)
 Conclusions

 A circuit is a closed path that has ‘V’ to produce ‘I’ with ‘R’ to limit
the amount of current.

##  The circuit provides a means of using the energy of the battery as a

voltage source. The battery has its potential difference V with or
without the circuit.

 The battery alone is not doing any work in producing load current.

 The bulb alone has resistance, but without current, the bulb does
not light. With the circuit, the voltage source is used to produce
current to light the bulb.

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OPEN CIRCUIT VS. SHORT CIRCUIT

Open Circuit

## • When any part of the path is open or broken, the circuit is

incomplete because there is no conducting path.

## • The resistance of an open circuit is infinitely high. The result is

no current in an open circuit.

Short Circuit

• The voltage source has a closed path across its terminals, but
the resistance is practically zero. The result is too much
current in a short circuit .

## • Short circuit is a bypass around the load resistance.

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DIRECTION OF CURRENT, CONVENTIONAL AND ELECTRON FLOW

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POSITIVE CHARGE MOVEMENT EXAMPLES

## • An example of positive charges in motion for conventional current is the current of

positive ions in either liquids or gases.

• This type of current is referred to as ionization current. The positive ions in a liquid or
gas flow in the direction of conventional current because they are repelled by the
positive terminal of the voltage source and attracted to the negative terminal.

• Another example of a mobile positive charge are holes. Holes exist in semiconductor
materials such as silicon and germanium (P-type). A hole possesses the same amount of
charge as an electron but instead has positive polarity.

Note protons themselves are not mobile positive charges because they are
tightly bound in the nucleus of the atom and cannot be released except by
nuclear forces

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TYPE OF ELECTRICAL CHARGES FOR CURRENT

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DIRECT CURRENT (DC) VS ALTERNATING CURRENT(AC)-I
• If the current does not change with time, but remains
constant, we call it a direct current (dc).

## • By convention the symbol I is used to represent such a

constant current.

## • A common form of time-varying current is the

sinusoidal current or alternating current (ac).

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DIRECT CURRENT (DC) VS ALTERNATING CURRENT(AC)-II
 The flow of charges in one direction and the fixed polarity of
applied voltage are the characteristics of a dc circuit

##  Pulsating DC can change the amount of its output voltage

but, with the same polarity, direct current still flows only in
one direction

##  An alternating voltage source periodically reverses or

alternates in polarity

##  Frequency means that the voltage polarity and current

direction go through 60 cycles of reversal per second.

##  The unit for 1 cycle per second is 1 hertz (Hz). Therefore 60

cycles per second is a frequency of 60 Hz.

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DIRECT CURRENT (DC) VS ALTERNATING CURRENT(AC)-III

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SOURCE OF ELECTRICITY (1)
1. Static Electricity by Friction

## In this method, electrons in an insulator can be separated by the work of

rubbing to produce opposite charges that remain in the dielectric.

## Examples of how static electricity can be generated include combing your

hair, walking across a carpeted room, or sliding two pieces of plastic across
each other

## 2. Conversion of Chemical Energy

Wet or dry cells and batteries are the applications. Here a chemical reaction
produces opposite charges on two dissimilar metals, which serve as the
negative and positive terminals.

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SOURCE OF ELECTRICITY (2)
3. Electromagnetism

Electricity and magnetism are closely related. Any moving charge has an
associated magnetic field; also, any changing magnetic field can produce
current.

A motor is an example showing how current can react with a magnetic field to
produce motion; a generator produces voltage by means of a conductor
rotating in a magnetic field.

4. Photoelectricity

Some materials are photoelectric, that is, they can emit electrons when light
strikes the surface. The element cesium is often used as a source of
photoelectrons .

photovoltaic cells or solar cells use silicon to generate output voltage from the
light input.
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THE DIGITAL MULTIMETER

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REFERENCE

## Grob’s Basic Electronics Mitchel E. Schultz 11th Edition Chapter # 1

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PRACTICE PROBLEMS (CLASS)-1
1. If 31.25 x10^18 electrons are removed from a neutral dielectric, how much
charge is stored in coulombs?

2. A dielectric with a positive charge of 5 C has 18.75 x10^18 electrons added to it.
What is the net charge of the dielectric in coulombs?

## 3. What is the output voltage of a battery if 10 J of energy is expended in moving

1.25 C of charge?

4. How much is the potential difference between two points if 0.5 J of energy is
required to move 0.4 C of charge between the two points?

## 5. How much energy is expended, in joules, if a voltage of 12 V moves 1.25 C of

charge between two points?

6. How long will it take an insulator that has a charge of 5 C to charge to 30 C if the
charging current is 2 A?

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PRACTICE PROBLEMS (CLASS)-2

1. A charge of 0.1 C moves past a given point every 0.01 s. How much is the
current?

## 2. If a current of 500 mA charges a dielectric for 2 s, how much charge is stored in

the dielectric?

3. Calculate the resistance value in ohms for the following conductance values:
(a) 0.002 S (b) 0.004 S (c) 0.00833 S (d) 0.25 S.

4. Calculate the conductance value in siemens for each of the following resistance
values: (a) 200 (b) 100 (c) 50 (d) 25 .

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