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ACI Convention Spring 2016 Milwaukee

ACI 562 Concrete Repair Code, Applicability & Use

External Post-tensioned
Reinforcement Repair
a Design Example Using ACI 562

Village Lofts Condominiums

Steel Corbel Added to (E) Concrete Column
for External Post-tensioned Reinforcement

Gene R. Stevens, Principal, P.E., S.E., M. ASCE

J. R. Harris & Company
Project: 4 condominium buildings
Designed circa 2002 & Constructed circa 2004
3 Stories


Condominiums - 3 Stories of Wood Framed Construction atop

a Concrete Podium Slab over the Garage
Litigation on Faulty Construction – 2010 found
Design Error in Podium Slab Beams
$damages: lesser
of the demand-
capacity ratio of
the original or the Slab
building Code

Drafting Error - Transposed Bar Sizes in the Beam Schedule Garage Entry
#9 to #6 for the bottom bars in the center span of some podium slab beams
ACI 562 “Standard” using Mandatory Language

ACI 562-13 – Code Requirements for

Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of
Concrete Buildings
ACI 562-16 - Code Requirements for
Assessment, Repair, and Rehabilitation of
Existing Concrete Structures to be printed in
May or June 2016
Using lesser of the demand-capacity ratio of the
original or current Code: Commentary in 562-13
(1.3C) but Code in 562-16 (1.3.2)
ACI 562-16 Defines Assessment etc.

1 Assessment 3

Investigate the structure 2 Report: Findings,

Conclusions, and
Evaluate Data Recommendations

Systematically collect
Structural data:
deterioration, damage, Process of determining and judging
geometry, material structural adequacy of the structure
strengths, and history for its intended use – tests, analysis,
determining demands and capacities
Investigation: Systematic collection of Structural
Data - Concrete Strength & Buildings
562-13 & 16, Sect.
1.Ballast on roof
2.Drifting snow on
3.Mechanical Eq. &
Conc. pads
4.12 in. thick not
14 in. center slab
5.Surveyed slab
elevations show
FND movement
Evaluate data to judge structural adequacy
Computer Analysis – SAP & SAFE - CSI
28-4 36-4

Podium Beam Flr. & Roof Trusses

Ctr. of Corr.

Plan of Podium Slab

3D View from SCI, Safe Model – Bldg. B

Podium Beam Ctr. of Corr.

Int. Col.

Ext. Wall

Roof Frames @ this end

Our 2010 assessment reports findings, conclusions, and
recommendations same as if based on ACI 562-16

ASCE 7-10: U = 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S

2012 - Litigation Case settles leaving the HOA
(not our client) with $4 M to resolve their issues.
Base estimate was about $10 to $12 M to return the
buildings to the original building Code.

Podium Beam

Ext. Wall

Int. Col.
We propose to the HOA using ACI 562-13 as our
criteria for the repairs, but need Bldg. Dept.’s approval

Asked building Podium Beam

officials if we
could use the Plumbing Issues
new ACI 562-13
criteria for
design of the
Int. Col.
What is a Generally Accepted Standard?
Harp Points. (5) ½ φ P.T. Cables E.S.

Podium Beam

Plan of Village Lofts P.T. Repairs of Podium slab beam

1. Recognition by National Groups – ACI/ANSI compliant

2. Acceptance by Professional Organizations – ACI/TAC
3. Acceptance by Local Jurisdictional Authorities
4. Validation through successful use on projects
Section of Podium slab beam w/ external P. T.

Podium Beam Corridor Loads ≈ harp points

High point at col.

Int. Col.

Six beams with 10 years in service prior to repairs

NOT necessarily a demonstration of statically acceptable past
performance - previous loads are not well established - 562-16, section
4.1.6C & 4.5.1C. Rcn > D + 0.5RLL or 1.1D + 0.6RLL (nonlinear analysis)
Rcn < 1.1D + 0.75RLL + 0.2S with nonlinear analysis
Repair design using the current building Code
562-13, Sect. 5.2 & 6.2.5: U = 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S
 S – snow loads with drifting per ASCE 7-10 & IBC 09

562-13, Sect. 6.3 Concrete strength per original concrete tests

562-13, Section 5.5 & 7.9 - external reinforcement systems

Podium slab

High point of P.T. at cols. Podium Beam

ACI 562-13, Section 5.5 for repairs with
unprotected external reinforcement Eq. 5.5.1

Uex ≥ 1.2D + 0.5L + Ak + 0.2S (5.5.1) - strength without P.T.

Used Ak = 0.0
Check unprotected external P.T. reinforcement
ACI 562-16 sections on repairs with external reinforcement in
Chap. 5 have just been completed – FRP not P. T.
Evaluation of extraordinary
• analytical procedures
typically examine collapse
• Unified Facilities Criteria
(UFC 4-023-03), Design of
Buildings to Resist
Progressive Collapse
• simple progressive collapse
• nonlinear models

No fireproofing required – Sect. 5.5.3. w/ φ = 1.0 (bending).

Eq. 5.5.3 – 1.2D + 0.5L + 0.2S during a fire
We added fireproofing wrap at one beam based on judgment.
ACI 562-13, Section 5.2.4 – 1.2 load factor at
P.T. anchorage zone
P.T. End Anchorage And Sealants
Basic ACI 562-16 sections:

1. 4.5.2 – assessment
criteria for faulty
construction & repair
using the current code
2. 5.2.5 – anchor load
factor of 1.2
3. 5.5 – load combos for
external reinforcement
4. 6.2 & 6.3 –
investigation &
5. 7.9 – Performance
under fire.
Savings on Repairs to the wood framing and
concrete was about $ 9 M using the provisions of
ACI 562-16 ≡ lesser of original or current code

Corridor Loads ≈ harp points

“Precedent” defined as something done or said that
may serve as an example or rule to authorize or justify
a subsequent act of the same kind (Webster).
Award in Litigations
Pikes Peak Regional
Building Department

considered ACI 562-13

(two cases).

Sets precedent.
Harp Points for P.T. cables

Project basis Building Department approval(3) to use ACI 562-13:

1. Greenwood Village [for the Village Lofts Condominiums]
2. Pikes Peak Regional Building Department [2 litigation cases – 250 units]
Design of Repairs for Faulty Construction –
ACI 562 Applicable for the design of External P.T.
ACI 562 - Consensus
• approved using
procedures of
American National
Standards Institute
• complies with ACI(2)
requirements to
safeguard the public Profile of P.T. cables
Legal Issue – Is ACI 562 Applicable to Determine
Monetary Damages ($) for Faulty Construction?
• ACI 562-16 - source
document for assessment &
repair of existing concrete
• Section 4.5 of ACI 562-16
addresses faulty construction
• Precedent to use ACI 562
to determine monetary
• Approval to use ACI 562
by Building Official helps
Tensioning External Reinforcement
P. T. End Anchorage
Thank You


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