13 views

Uploaded by Kaleab Tekle

- Image Transforms
- Course File MM
- FEM_Validation.PDF
- 29142779 Face Recognition
- TI89
- Dynamic2.pdf
- ordinary differential equation-II
- Stability Analysis for VAR systems.doc
- Unstable&VeryUnstable
- Spring 2005 Solutions
- pg625-26
- 3q
- 12723-42653-1-PB (1).pdf
- WCEE2012_4803
- Mt2assign(1205)
- Markov Chain
- ahlswede-winter
- Mathematical Formula Handbook[1]
- Opencv Intro
- hinfnorm.pdf

You are on page 1of 71

scales in an ecosystem?

Pierre Legendre

Département de sciences biologiques

Université de Montréal

Pierre.Legendre@umontreal.ca

http://www.bio.umontreal.ca/legendre/

Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve, April 19, 2012

Outline of the talk

1. Motivation

2. Variation partitioning

3. Multi-scale analysis

• The dbMEM method

• Simulation study (summary)

4. Several applications to real ecological and data

5. Recent developments: MEM (general forms), AEM

Setting the stage

Ecologists want to understand and model spatial [or temporal]

community structures through the analysis of species assemblages.

• Species assemblages are the best response variable available to

estimate the impact of [anthropogenic] changes in ecosystems.

• Difficulty: species assemblages form multivariate data tables

(sites x species).

Setting the stage

Beta diversity is the variation in species composition among sites.

Beta diversity is organized in communities. It displays spatial

structures.

Ile Callot, Finistère.

Photo P. Legendre

Stonehenge, Wiltshire,

southern England.

Photo P. Legendre

Setting the stage

Spatial structures in communities indicate that some process has

been at work to create them. Two families of mechanisms can

generate spatial structures in communities.

Google Maps

Setting the stage

Spatial structures in communities indicate that some process has

been at work to create them. Two families of mechanisms can

generate spatial structures in communities:

• Induced spatial dependence: forcing (explanatory) variables are

responsible for the spatial structures found in the species assemblage.

They represent environmental or biotic control of the species

assemblages, or historical dynamics. Generally broad-scaled.

• Community dynamics: the spatial structures are generated by the

species assemblage themselves, creating autocorrelation1 in the

response variables (species). Mechanisms: neutral processes such as

ecological drift and limited dispersal, interactions among species.

Spatial structures are generally fine-scaled.

proximity, present in the residuals of a [regression-type] model of a response variable y which

takes into account all deterministic effects due to forcing variables. Model: yi = f(Xi) + SAi + εi .

Multivariate variation partitioning

Borcard & Legendre 1992 [1722 citations]

Borcard & Legendre 1994

and many published application papers

Environmental data Spatial data

matrix X matrix W

Community

composition = [a] [b] [c]

data table Y

[d] = Residuals

response matrix Y (e.g., community composition data) between

environmental (matrix X) and spatial (matrix W) explanatory

variables. The rectangle represents 100% of the variation of Y.

Borcard, Legendre & Drapeau, 1992; Borcard & Legendre, 1994; Legendre & Legendre, 2012.

How to combine environmental and spatial variables in modeling

community composition data?

• A single response variable: partial multiple regression.

1. Compute the residuals Xres of the regression of X on W: Xres = X – [W [W'W]–1 W' X]

2. Regress y on Xres

How to combine environmental and spatial variables in modelling

community composition data?

• Multivariate data: partial canonical analysis (RDA or CCA).

Y X W

Community Environmental Spatial

composition variables base functions

data

1. Compute the residuals Xres of the regression of X on W: Xres = X – [W [W'W]–1 W' X]

2. Regress Y on Xres to obtain Yfit . Compute PCA of Yfit .

Geographic base functions

First (simple) representation: Polynomial function of geographic

coordinates (polynomial trend-surface analysis).

Example 1: 20 sampling sites in the Thau lagoon, southern France.

z^ = f(X,Y) = b0 + b1X + b2Y + b3X2 + b4XY + b5Y2 + b6X3 + b7X2Y + b8XY2 + b9Y3

Small textbook example:

20 sampling sites in the Thau lagoon, southern France.

Response (Y): 2 types of aquatic heterotrophic bacteria (log-transf.)

Environmental (X): NH4, phaeopigments, bacterial production

Spatial (W): selected geographic monomials X2, X3, X2Y, XY2, Y3

In real-life studies, partitioning is carried out on larger data sets.

Spatial eigenfunctions

Second representation:

Distance-based Moran’s eigenvector maps

(dbMEM)

(formerly called Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrices, PCNM)

leading to multiscale analysis in variation partitioning

Borcard & Legendre 2002, 2004

Dray, Legendre & Peres-Neto 2006

Figure – Graphs of ten of the 49 dbMEM eigenfunctions that represent the spatial

variation along a transect with 50 equally-spaced points. Abscissa, from left to right:

sites 1 to 50. Ordinates: values along the dbMEM eigenfunctions.

Truncated matrix of Euclidean

Data Euclidean distances distances = neighbor matrix

Observed 1 2 3 4 5 ... ... n–1 1...max

variable 1 2 3 4 5 ... 1...max

1...max

y 1 2 3 4 5 ...

1...max Max x 4

1 2 3 4 5 ... 1...max

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

1 2 3 4 5 ... 1...max

x 1 2 3 4 5 1...max

(spatial coordinates) 1 2 3 4 1...max

1...max

1 2 3

1...max

1 2

1

1

or canonical analysis analysis

Y X (+) + 0 –

positive eigenvalues

= PCNM variables

relationships (dbMEM eigenfunctions) are obtained by principal coordinate analysis

of a truncated matrix of Euclidean (geographic) distances among the sampling sites.

MEM eigenfunctions display spatial autocorrelation

MEM. The eigenvalues are actually proportional to Moran’s I.

Example: 50-point transect, 49 MEMs.

How to find the truncation distance in 2-dimensional problems?

Compute a minimum spanning tree

Truncation distance ≥ length of the longest link. Longest link here: D(7, 8) = 3.0414

Technical notes on MEM eigenfunctions

relationships among the study sites. They can be computed for

regular or irregular sets of points in space or time.

regular, they look like sine waves. This is a property of the eigen-

decomposition of the centred form of a distance matrix.

• 1 between connected points

• 0 between unconnected points and on the diagonal

Double-centre the matrix to have the sums of rows and columns equal

to 0. The eigenvectors of that matrix, plotted on a map of the

geographic coordinates of the points, are sine-shaped.

Simulation study

Type I error study

Simulations showed that the procedure is honest. It does not generate

more significant results that it should for a given significance level α.

Power study

Simulations showed that dbMEM (PCNM) analysis is capable of

detecting spatial structures of many kinds:

• random autocorrelated data,

• bumps and sine waves of various sizes, without or with random

noise, representing deterministic structures,

as long as the structures are larger than the truncation value used to

create the dbMEM (PCNM) eigenfunctions.

Detailed results are found in Borcard & Legendre 2002.

A difficult test case

A difficult test case

A difficult test case

12

Dependent variable

10 g) Data (100%)

8

6

4 Simulated

2

data

.

0

−2

−4

−6

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

8 h) Detrended data

4 Step 1:

0

−4

detrending

−8

4 (R2 = 0.433) PCNM analysis

2

0

of detrended

−2 data

−4

1,5 4

j) Broad-scale submodel (R2 = 0.058) k) Intermediate-scale submodel (R2 = 0.246)

3

1,0 PCNM #2 PCNM #6, 8, 14

2

0,5

1

0,0 0

−0,5 −1

−1,0 −2

2 PCNM #28, 33, 35, 41

1

0

−1

−2

−3

A difficult test case

Selection of explanatory variables?

Significance of the adjustment of a MEM model can be tested using

the full set of MEM variables modelling positive spatial correlation,

without selection of any kind.

the MEM by correcting for the number of explanatory variables in the

model.1

done by combining two criteria during model selection: the alpha

significance level and the adjusted R2 of the model containing all

MEM eigenfunctions2.

1Peres-Neto, P. R., P. Legendre, S. Dray and D. Borcard. 2006. Variation partitioning of species data

matrices: estimation and comparison of fractions. Ecology 87: 2614-2625.

2 Blanchet F. G., P. Legendre and D. Borcard. 2008. Forward selection of explanatory variables.

Ecology 89: 2623-2632.

Example 1

Regular one-dimensional transect in upper Amazonia1

Data: abundance of the fern Adiantum tomentosum in quadrats.

Sampling design: 260 adjacent, square (5 m x 5 m) subplots forming a

transect in the region of Nauta, Peru.

Questions

• At what spatial scales is the abundance of this species structured?

• Are these scales related to those of the environmental variables?

Pre-treatment

• The abundances were square-root transformed

• and detrended (significant linear trend: R2 = 0.102, p = 0.001)

1Data from Tuomisto & Poulsen 2000, reanalysed in Borcard, Legendre, Avois-Jacquet &

Tuomisto 2004.

3

(a) Data R2 = 0.815

2

Forward selection 1

50 dbMEM eigenfunctions –1

(PCNM) were selected 1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181 201 221 241 260

2

(permutation test, 999 1,5

(b) Very-broad-scale submodel, 10 PCNMs, R2 = 0.333

1

permutations). 0,5

0

-0,5

The dbMEM were arbitrarily -1

-1,5

Broad-scale submodel, 8 PCNMs, R2 = 0.239

divided into 4 submodels. -2

1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181 201 221 241 260

1

(c) Medium-scale submodel, 12 PCNMs, R2 = 0.126

(periodogram analysis): -1

-1,5

1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181 201 221 241 260

1

(d) Fine-scale submodel, 20 PCNMs, R2 = 0.117

0

Medium-scale: 90 m -0,5

-1

Fine-scale: 50, 65 m -1,5

-2

1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181 201 221 241 260

Interpretation: regression on the environmental variables

Use dbMEM in variation partitioning: Adiantum tomentosum at Nauta,

Peru (R2a).

Scalogram of the fern Adiantum tomentosum multiscale structure

along another transect called Huanta (Peru). Abscissa: the 129

dbMEM eigenfunctions with positive Moran’s I. Ordinate: absolute

values of the t-statistics. The 26 eigenfunctions selected by forward

selection (p ≤ 0.05) are identified by black squares.

Example 2

Regular two-dimensional sampling grid

Chlorophyll a in a brackish lagoon1

Data: Chlorophyll a concentrations at 63 sites on a geographic surface.

Sampling design: 63 sites forming a regular grid (1-km mesh) in the

Thau marine lagoon (19 km x 5 km).

Questions

• At what spatial scales is chlorophyll a structured?

• Are these scales related to the environmental variables?

Pre-treatment

• None.

Forward selection

• 12 dbMEM (PCNM) eigenfunctions were selected out of 45.

1Data first analyzed by Legendre & Troussellier 1988; reanalyzed in Borcard et al. 1992 and

Borcard, Legendre, Avois-Jacquet & Tuomisto 2004.

Example 3

Gutianshan forest plot in China1

• Evergreen forest in Gutianshan Forest Reserve, Zhejiang Province.

• Fully-surveyed 24-ha forest plot in subtropical forest, 29º15'N.

• Plot divided into 600 cells of 20 m × 20 m.

• 159 tree species. Richness: 19 to 54 species per cell.

• Data collection: 2005

Legendre, P., X. Mi, H. Ren, K. Ma, M. Yu, I. F. Sun, and F. He. 2009. Partitioning beta

diversity in a subtropical broad-leaved forest of China. Ecology 90: 663-674.

1The Gutianshan forest plot is a member of the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS).

Details on the plot available at http://www.ctfs.si.edu/site/Gutianshan/.

Example 3

Gutianshan forest plot in China

Questions

• How much of the variation in species composition among sites (beta

diversity) is spatially structured?

• Of that, how much is related to the environmental variables?

Altitude: altitude, altitude2, altitude3

Convexity: convexity, convexity2, convexity3

Slope: slope, slope2, slope3

Aspect (circular variable): sin(aspect), cos(aspect)

(Soil cores collected in 2007. Soil chemistry data not available yet.)

⇒ Nearly all of them are significant: spatial variation at all scales.

Example of a regular

grid with 8 × 12 = 96

points.

Maps showing ten of

the 48 dbMEM

eigenfunctions that

display positive spatial

correlation.

Shades of grey: values

in each eigenvector,

from white (largest

negative value) to black

(largest positive value).

Variation Variation

explained by explained

Environment by PCNM

= 0.307 = 0.626

Variation in

species data Y = [a] = [b] = [c] =

(beta diversity) 0.029 0.278 0.348

(159 species) is spatially structured and explained by the 339 PCNM.

• Nearly half of that 63% is also explained by the four environmental

variables. Soil chemistry to be added to the model when available.

• Scales of spatial variation: the dominant structure is broad-scaled.

⇒ Balance between neutral processes and environmental control.

Applications of dbMEM eigenfunctions

a) We proceeded as follows in the first three examples:

• dbMEM analysis of the response table Y;

• Division of the significant dbMEM eigenfunctions into submodels;

• Interpretation of the submodels using explanatory variables.

The objective was to divide the variation of Y into submodels and

relate those to explanatory environmental variables.

variation partitioning, as in Example #4. The variation of Y is then

partitioned with respect to a table of explanatory variables X and (for

example) several tables W1, W2, W3, containing dbMEM submodels.

Applications of dbMEM eigenfunctions

c) dbMEM can be used to model spatial and temporal variation in the

study of spatio-temporal data, and test for the space-time interaction.

Refer to the space-time interaction talk, Wednesday.

d) dbMEM can efficiently model spatial structures in data. They can

be used to control for spatial autocorrelation in tests of significance of

the species-environment relationship (fraction [a]).1

1 Peres-Neto, P. R. and P. Legendre. 2010. Estimating and controlling for spatial structure in

the study of ecological communities. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 174-184.

Stéphane Dray: MEM analysis

generalization of dbMEM (PCNM) to different

types of spatial weights. The result is a set of spatial

eigenfunctions, as in dbMEM analysis.

Eigen-decomposition

of a spatial weighting matrix W

B = 0/1 Hadamard

product A = edge

W= connectivity weighting

matrix * matrix

among sites

Dray, Legendre and Peres-Neto (2006); Legendre and Legendre (2012, Chapter 14).

Difference between classical PCNM and dbMEM

A site is connected

to itself (D = 0)

A site is not

connected to itself

(D = 4 × threshold)

(i.e. the spatial eigenfunctions) are the same.

Other forms of Moran’s Eigenvector Maps (generalized

MEM) can be constructed (Dray et al. 2006):

• Binary MEM: double-centre matrix B, then compute its eigenvalues

and eigenvectors.

• Replace matrix A by some function of the distances.

• Replace A by some other weights, e.g. resistance of the landscape.

W=

B = 0/1

connectivity

matrix

among sites

Hadamard

product

*

A = edge

weighting

matrix

Guillaume Blanchet: AEM analysis

eigenfunction method developed to model species

spatial distributions generated by an asymmetric,

directional physical process.1

Borcard. 2008. Modelling

directional spatial processes in

ecological data. Ecological

Modelling 215: 325-336.

by F. G. Blanchet from his talk:

Modelling directional spatial

processes in ecological data. Spatial

Ecological Data Analysis with R

(SEDAR) Workshop, Université

Lyon I, May 26, 2008.

Constructing asymmetric eigenvector maps

(AEM eigenfunctions)

Link

Spatial asymmetry

1 = presence of a link

0 = absence of a link

# Link number

# Site number

Constructing asymmetric eigenvector maps

(AEM eigenfunctions)

Link

Spatial asymmetry

1 = presence of a link

0 = absence of a link

# Link number

# Site number

Constructing asymmetric eigenvector maps

(AEM eigenfunctions)

Link

Spatial asymmetry

1 = presence of a link

0 = absence of a link

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 … 57

Site 8
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0

# Link number

# Site number

Matrix of edges E

Matrix of edges E

Compute the AEM eigenfunctions

from PCA of matrix E centred by columns

Eigenfunctions (explanatory spatial variables)

Maps of some of the AEM eigenfunctions

AEM 1 AEM 2 AEM 3

[...]

Negative values

Positive values

Three applications of AEM analysis in the following paper –

2011. Modelling the effect of directional spatial ecological processes

at different scales. Oecologia 166: 357-368.

Example 1 – Roxane Maranger, U. de Montréal

Bacterial production in Lake St. Pierre

morning of August 18th 2005

t d ir ecti on

Cu r r e n

AEM model: R2adj = 51.4% using 4 selected AEMs

Example 2 – Dominique Monti, UAG

Atya innocous

Current direction

Atya innocous

38 measured positive autocorrelation. 12 were selected.

AEM model: R2adj = 59.8% using 12 selected AEMs

Example 3: 6 larval stages of Calanus finmarchicus on

the Newfoundland and Labrador oceanic shelf

– Pierre Pepin, DFO, St. John’s, NL

AEM model: R2adj = 38.4% using 2 selected AEMs

Computer programs

in the R statistical language

On R-Forge: http://r-forge.r-project.org/R/?group_id=195

PCNM package (P. Legendre)

AEM package (F. G. Blanchet)

SPACEMAKER: an R package to compute PCNM and MEM (D. Dray)

PACKFOR: R package for selection of explanatory variables (S. Dray)

On the CRAN page: http://cran.r-project.org

VEGAN package (Oksanen et al. 2011):

function varpart() for multivariate variation partitioning

function ordistep() for selection of explanatory variables

A new package, ADESPATIAL, is in preparation, that will contain all functions for

spatial eigenfunction analysis presently found on the R-Forge page, and more.

To appear

in 2012

(August

or before)

References

Available in PDF at http://numericalecology.com/reprints/

Blanchet, F. G., P. Legendre, and D. Borcard. 2008a. Modelling directional spatial

processes in ecological data. Ecological Modelling 215: 325-336.

Blanchet, F. G., P. Legendre, R. Maranger, D. Monti, and P. Pepin. 2011. Modelling

the effect of directional spatial ecological processes at different scales. Oecologia

166: 357-368.

Borcard, D., P. Legendre & P. Drapeau. 1992. Partialling out the spatial component

of ecological variation. Ecology 73: 1045-1055.

Borcard, D. & P. Legendre. 1994. Environmental control and spatial structure in

ecological communities: an example using Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatei).

Environmental and Ecological Statistics 1: 37-61.

Borcard, D. & P. Legendre. 2002. All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by

means of principal coordinates of neighbour matrices. Ecological Modelling 153:

51-68.

Borcard, D., P. Legendre, C. Avois-Jacquet & H. Tuomisto. 2004. Dissecting the

spatial structure of ecological data at multiple scales. Ecology 85: 1826-1832.

References (continued)

Available in PDF at http://numericalecology.com/reprints/

Dray, S., P. Legendre & P. Peres-Neto. 2006. Spatial modelling: a comprehensive

framework for principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices (PCNM).

Ecological Modelling 196: 483-493.

Guénard, G., P. Legendre, D. Boisclair, and M. Bilodeau. 2010. Multiscale

codependence analysis: an integrated approach to analyze relationships across

scales. Ecology 91: 2952-2964.

Oksanen, J., G. Blanchet, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, P. R. Minchin, R. B. O’Hara, G. L.

Simpson, P. Solymos, M. H. H. Stevens, and H. Wagner. 2011. vegan: Community

Ecology Package. R package version 2.0-0. http://cran.r-project.org/package=vegan.

Peres-Neto, P. R., P. Legendre, S. Dray and D. Borcard. 2006. Variation partitioning

of species data matrices: estimation and comparison of fractions. Ecology 87:

2614-2625.

Peres-Neto, P. R. and P. Legendre. 2010. Estimating and controlling for spatial

structure in the study of ecological communities. Global Ecology and Biogeography

19: 174-184.

The End

- Image TransformsUploaded byb_amey
- Course File MMUploaded byshantan02
- FEM_Validation.PDFUploaded byantonellodelre
- 29142779 Face RecognitionUploaded byaryakushal
- TI89Uploaded byManuel Coquet
- Dynamic2.pdfUploaded byAngga Fajar Setiawan
- ordinary differential equation-IIUploaded byparveshnain19
- Stability Analysis for VAR systems.docUploaded bycosmin
- Unstable&VeryUnstableUploaded bydomeleu
- Spring 2005 SolutionsUploaded byÖzge Tüncel
- pg625-26Uploaded byLeonard Gonzalo Saavedra Astopilco
- 3qUploaded byJiten Thakur
- 12723-42653-1-PB (1).pdfUploaded byAdan Figueroa
- WCEE2012_4803Uploaded byAnonymous 16PTCReTJN
- Mt2assign(1205)Uploaded byanon_186934672
- Markov ChainUploaded byAmitava Manna
- ahlswede-winterUploaded byylo82
- Mathematical Formula Handbook[1]Uploaded bypkpnitian_152297088
- Opencv IntroUploaded byRajasekhar Karawalla
- hinfnorm.pdfUploaded byarviandy
- AHP Farkas.pdfUploaded byChristinaTriAstutiPau
- 7Engineering MathematicsUploaded bykhyatichavda
- test1aUploaded byBob
- Homo Logy of Social NetworksUploaded byRachel Levanger
- Solution Session3 Exercise2Uploaded byapi-3737025
- Texto de algebra lineal u de harvard.pdfUploaded byJohn J Gomes Esquivel
- M.SC Report on Application of GIS SoftwaresUploaded bydikshabose
- Hodder SpatialAnalysisUploaded byjack
- Matrix ReviseUploaded byFatmah El Wardagy
- eigen values eigen vectors vector spaces operatorsUploaded bySaddy Khan

- ASTER Classification for Lithological Mapping Using Random ForestUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- esci386-lesson11-1DplotsUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Numpy ArraysUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Module-3.pptxUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Authenticating U.S. Document Flyer 1Uploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Installing NCOUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Income StatmentUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Trace ResultUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- LEARN PYTHON Ad.pdfUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- 35829701_gis10kwo_GISN22_2000-11Uploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Learn Python AdUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Project 3Uploaded byaishas11
- GML_GML1 (1)Uploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Invalid Keyword Argument Python_December 25 2017Uploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Automated Job Performing Queue System Using Python-Mukul Taneja_LinkedInUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Strange JavaScript Errors and How to Fix ThemUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Graphene Processing Excellent Article 2016Uploaded byKaleab Tekle
- ATA Application LetterUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Survey and Data Processing Division ProfileUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Django-Allauth Installation and ConfigurationUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- How to Fix WinError 10013Uploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Adding Navigation Bar to React App Using react-bootstrapUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Postgresql-solving Configuration Issue Pgadmin4Uploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Applications of Machine Learning-Mohammad JouhariUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- 40 Interview Questions on Machine Learning_AnalyticsVidhyaUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Lab 3 ClassificationUploaded byKaleab Tekle
- Cladistics DefinitionsUploaded byKaleab Tekle

- Mu Analysis and Synthesis ToolboxUploaded byArun Joseph
- Report 212Uploaded byjoaosevan
- SOLUTION_ find the minors and cofactors of all the elements in the following matrix {{{A = (matrix(3,3,12,7,0,5,8,3,6,7,0))}}} and hence, write down the cofactor matrix of AUploaded byJunior Marques
- ENEE627 Problem set1Uploaded byYuQin Xu
- 07Uploaded bydodda12345
- LA204BADUploaded byshahirmohamad
- Matrix Analysis homeworkUploaded byJuan Pablo Madrigal Cianci
- Eie SyllabusUploaded bykavaliebooks
- Design optimization and dynamic analysis of a tensegrity-based footbridge.pdfUploaded byfarhan danish
- Response Method TheoryUploaded byerpixaa
- Reddy 3e Chapter 6Uploaded byAnonymous ya6gBBwHJF
- hw2(6)Uploaded byConnieWu
- Dae Food Processing _ Preservation TechnologyUploaded bylolyyyoop
- Camera calibration from vanishing points in images of architectural scenesUploaded byAl
- Analysis of Stiffened Penstock External Pressure StabilityUploaded bymarcospj
- mathsUploaded byPallavi Swaroop
- GATE QuestionUploaded byAyaan Mitra
- laboratorio-matlab-01.pdfUploaded byJhon Jesús
- Apendice1-Resumen de comandos.pdfUploaded byRoberto
- Income Inequality and Monetary Policy Karen Davtyan 15.11.15Uploaded byJoseph
- GAUSS SEIDALUploaded bypassword86
- intze tank - seismic behaviour -SAP2000.pdfUploaded byAnonymous fQLEF2tQpq
- Nucl.Phys.B v.577Uploaded bybuddy72
- NET Past Papers MathsUploaded byerum shomail
- Basic Simulation LAB ManualUploaded bypriyanka236
- Math at GoogleUploaded byimmetrix
- Predicting Population using Least SquaresUploaded byech1enwan
- Dr Aceves Quesada Et Al., Vulnerabvility Assessment Volcanic Risk GISUploaded byclarklipman
- Multilevel Factor Analytic ModelsUploaded byDr-Ahmad Adeeb Mousa
- Image Processing With MatlabUploaded byRavi Kiran