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Process Structure/ Piperack

1) What are loads considered in piperack.

1.1. DEAD LOAD


a. Self weight

b. Piping Empty load

c. Cable Tray Load

1.2. PIPING LOADS

i. Operating Load

ii. Test Load

iii. Thermal and /or Friction Loads (TL)

1.3. WIND LOAD (WL)

1.4. SEISMIC LOAD (EQ)

1.5. SURGE LOAD (SL)

1.6. BURST (RUPTURE LOAD (BL)

1.7. TEMPERATURE LOAD

2) What is difference between Friction Load and Thermal


Load?
Thermal load: The existence of contraction and expansion is lead to thermal load
production. Horizontal reactions of supports in load combinations of pipe operating
conditions as thermal load are calculated in two orthogonal directions and the
mentioned reactions are imposed on pipe rack in corresponding points.

Friction load: 30% of calculated reactions are imposed on pipe rack as friction load
(if we assume that friction factor between pipe and pipe rack is 30%) in two
orthogonal positive directions of coordinate axes in corresponding points.
3) Which type of Frame is economical for Piperack.
4) Whether you will consider expansion joint in rack, if No why?, If yes at what location
generally it is preferable to provided the expansion joint.

The maximum length of a braced section should be limited to 48m to 50m.

The maximum total longitudinal growth or shrinkage of the unrestrained segment does not
exceed 40 mm.

Design calculations and drawings must reflect a break in the beam strut continuity between
adjacent braced sections through the use of slotted connections or by eliminating the beam
struts in the bays designated as free bays.

5)How many anchor bays shall be provided in a rack, which is location more efficient in a
rack.

Select the line with maximum temperature first. Check the allowed maximum movement
outside loop (say 75mm) and place the first anchor at a distance which will be nearer to the
allowed thermal movement (75mm) as mentioned above

If the displacement is within allowed displacement (75mm) then an expansion loop is not
required. But if the calculated displacement is more (>75mm) then expansion loop is
required. From this displacement you can decide how many expansion loops are required
for the straight run allowing a maximum of 250-300mm displacement inside the loop

6) When will u go for Pile foundation?

Deep foundations are necessary where the bearing capacity of the surface soils is
insufficient to support loads imposed and so they are transferred to deeper layers with
higher bearing capacity.

Pile foundations are deep foundations

If the piperack rest on the weak soil then we can go for pile.

7) Which type of foundation is more economical in a piperack.

Shallow foundation

8) What type base support shall be considered in a pipeack column base and why.

Pinned support. : No need to transfer the moment to foundation then we can get optimum
size of the foundation. If moment transfers the foundation, the size of the foundation shall be
increased.

9) How do you calculate the structure thermal load?


30% of the operating loads

10) Which type of rack is economical (Steel, Concrete, And Precast)?

Equipment Foundation

1) What are different type equipment foundation u have carried out in your experience.

Vertical vessel

Horizontal vessel

Heat Exchanger

Thermal Load (T): The thermal load is defined as the load which results from thermal
expansion or contraction of the exchanger/vessel in the longitudinal direction. The
maximum thermal force is equal to the maximum static friction force (frictional resistance)
acting at the equipment sliding support before the saddle begins to move. The frictional
resistance equals the coefficient of friction (see project design criteria) times the vertical
support reaction.

3) Why bundle pull load is considered in foundation design.

Bundle Pull Load (Lb): The bundle pull load is applicable only to foundations supporting
exchangers with a removable tube bundle. It is the longitudinal force which results from the
tube bundle removal operation during maintenance. This force shall be applied at the center
of bundle elevation. In case of stacked exchangers, the more (most) critical load due to
bundle pull, applied at the center of the respective bundle, shall be used. The force due to
bundle pull shall be resisted by the fixed end pier only. Bundle pull load may be omitted if a
bundle pulling extractor is used for removal of the bundle. The method of bundle removal
should be listed in the project design criteria. Unless the project design criteria dictates
otherwise, the bundle pull load is considered to be 100% of the bundle weight. Bundle pull
load should be considered as live load for assigning load factors.

4) Why Octagonal foundation is provided for Vertical Vessel, reason?

Individual pedestals may be circular, square, hexagonal or octagonal. If the vessel has a
circular base, a circular, square, or octagonal pedestal is generally pro-vided. Circular
pedestals may create construction difficulties in forming unless standard prefabricated forms
are available. Square pedestals facilitate ease in forming, but may contain much more
material than is required by analysis. Octagonal pedestals are a compromise between
square and circular; hence, this type of pedestal is widely used in supporting vertical vessels
and stacks with circular bases

5) What are types of loads considered in the Equipment foundation design?


a. Vessel Erection weight (De1): The erection weight is the fabricated weight of the
vessel, plus internals, platforms, etc., that are actually erected with the vessel. Data from
Equipment drawing.

b. Vessel Empty weight (De2): The empty weight is the in-place weight of the
completed vessel, including the fabricated weight of the vessel, plus the weight of
internals, piping, insulation, and platforms, but excluding the weight of fluids or products
which will be contained in the vessel during operation. Data from Equipment drawings.

c. Vessel Operating weight (Do): Vessel Empty weight (De2) + Weight of Fluid
inside the vessel. Data from Equipment drawings.

d. Vessel Hydrotest weight (Dt): Vessel Empty weight (De2) + Weight of test water

e. Pipe supports and Nozzle loads on Equipment (Dp): Please Coordinate with the Pipe
Stress Group for determination of nozzle loads and loads due to pipe supports attached
to the vessel.

f. Wind Shear and Moment: You will find this load data in vendor drawings. However,
you have to calculate this load based on project design basis. During wind load
calculation, you need to consider the pipes and platforms attached with the vessel.
Compare both the data (vendor load data and your calculated data) and apply the critical
one for foundation design.

g. Seismic Shear and Moment (if the Project site is at Seismic zone): You will find this
load data in vendor drawings. However, you have to calculate this load based on project
design basis. During seismic load calculation, you need to consider the pipes and
platforms attached with the vessel. Compare both the data (vendor load data and your
calculated data) and apply critical one for foundation design.

Dynamic Foundation

1) Study in detail regd the dynamic foundation design, Basic Checks you need
to know.

Buildings

1) Control Building, Substation, Other buildings in a plant.

What are the inputs required from other disciplines to design above buildings.

Size of the building 27.5 x 13.65 x 10.15m

GF roof height = 3.8m


FF roof height = 6.0m

Parapet = 1.3m

Column c1 = 600 x 600(corner) and column c2 = 600 x 750(Middle)

All slab = 250mm thick and 300mm thick concrete wall

Loads :

1. Seismic load
2. Dead Load
1. Self weight of slab
2. Floor finish 2.0kN/m2
3. Partition wall 1.0 kN/m2
4. Ceiling and Services 1.2kN/m2
5. Roof water proofing 3.0kN/m2
6. Roof ceiling and services 0.5kN/m2
3. Live load
1. GF , FF and Roof – 7.5kN/m2
4. Wind load
5. Blast load
1. Peak side – on pressure Pso = 12kPa
2. Duration td = 0.0686 seconds
6. Electrical panel load

Tank Foundation

Study in details about tank foundation,

Loads from Vendor Data:

1. Empty weight of tank


2. Operating weight of tank
3. Lateral force due to wind load
4. Overturning moment due to wind
5. Lateral Seismic force for full load on tank
6. Overturning moment due to earthquake
7. Diameter of the tank
8. Height of the tank

Ring footing Dimensions:

To find

Minimum thickness of ring wall required

Assume height of ring wall

Liquid load transferred to ring wall


Liquid load transferred direct to soil

Moment at bottom of ring wall due to wind force

Total wind moment at ring bottom = Overturning moment due to wind + Moment at bottom of
ring wall due to wind force

Moment at bottom of ring wall due to seismic force

Total seismic moment at ring bottom = Overturning moment due to seismic + Moment at
bottom of ring wall due to seismic force

Surcharge load due to finishes below tank bottom

Maximum and minimum forces on foundation

Pmax = Empty weight of tank + wt of wall + Liquid load transferred to ring wall

Pmin = Empty weight of tank + wt of wall

Check for Bearing Pressure

Soil pressure under ring wall

Soil pressure under tank

Check for bearing pressure under the tank

Check for bearing pressure under the wall

% Difference on pressure under ring wall to under tank should be less than 10%

Check for Overturning

Resisting moment = (Operating + Seismic load) x Dia of wall/2

Factor of safety = Resisting moment due to (operating + Seismic load) / Overturning moment by EQ

Resisting moment = (tank empty + wind load) x Dia of wall/2

Factor of safety = Resisting moment due to (Empty tank + wind load) / Overturning moment by wind

Check for Sliding

Seismic load cond:

Sliding force = Lateral seismic force on tank + Soil press. (Ka x unit Wt of soil x height of
wall below ground level)
Resisting force = μ (Coeff. Of friction b/n soil and concrete) x (WE + wt of wall + % load transferred to
ring)
Wind load cond:

Sliding force = Lateral wind force on tank + Soil press. (Ka x unit Wt of soil x height of wall
below ground level)
Resisting force = μ (Coeff. Of friction b/n soil and concrete) x (WE + wt of wall)

Factor of Safety = Resisting force / Sliding force

Design of Reinforcement:

Hoop stress at base = Earth pressure coefficient at rest x Depth of ring wall x(( Density of
soil x Depth of ring wall / 2) +( Unit weight of Tank product x Height of

Hoop tension = Hoop stress at base x Dia. Of tank / 2

Area of steel required for hoop tension = Hoop tension / (0.87 * fyk)

Minimum vertical reinforcement = 0.0015 * b * d

Minimum horizontal reinforcement = 0.0025 * b * d

Design of Industrial Building:

Size of the building = 44 x 14 x 4m

Pitch = Duo pitch

Pitch angle = 10o

Loading:

1. Seismic load as per UBC – 97


2. Self weight of the structure
3. Dead load
a. Weight of insulated metal cladding panel with cold formed purlin and runners =0.15KN/2
b. Suspended ceilings & Service = 30kg/m2
4. Live load
Non accessible minimum maintenance = 60kg/m2
5. Wind load
a. Wind internal pressure
b. Wind internal suction

Blast Resistant

Study in detail

STAAD Parameters used for Design

Other Software knowledge’s light going through about latest version of software which u
used, and the main functions to use it.

Other than above questions concentrate on Technical Bid Evaluation, Man-hour estimation
for quating projects, Technical query solving ability, Leadership skills to lead a big team,
Managing Sub contractors.

American Standard

ACI : American concrete institute

AISC : American institute of steel construction

ASCE : American society of civil Engineer

ACI 318-08 : Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)
and Commentary

AISC + ASD 9th edition : American institute of steel construction, Allowable Stress design
ASCE -07-02 : Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

1.8. ASCE Publication : Blast Loading on Petrochemical Buildings

British Standards :

BS5950 – 1-2000 : Structural use of steelwork in building


BS8110 – 1 – 1997 : Structural use of concrete Code of practice for design and
construction
BS8110 – 3 – 1985 : Design charts for singly reinforced beams, doubly reinforced
beams and rectangular columns
BS 6399: Part 1: 1996 : Loading for buildings Part 1. Code of practice for dead and
imposed loads
BS 6399: Part 2: 1997 : Loading for buildings — Part 2: Code of practice for wind loads

BS 6399: Part 3: 1988 : Loading for buildings — Part 3: Code of practice for imposed roof
loads
European standard :

BS EN 1991-1-1:2002 : General actions — Densities, self-weight, imposed loads for buildings


BS EN 1991-1-4:2005 : General actions — Wind actions
BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 : Design of concrete structures-General rules and rules for buildings
BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 : Design of steel structures-General rules and rules for buildings

1.8.1. Definition

Conceptual Study stands in the oil and gas and petrochemical industry at the very early
stage of a greenfield project to identify all the possibilities and conditions to develop this
project.

1.8.2. Comments

During the conceptual study, the engineers will:

- Investigate the multiple technologies to be used

- Evaluate the costs of each solution, especially during the total life cycle of the project
including capital expenditure for the construction (CAPEX) and operational expenditure
(OPEX) to run the plant

- Estimate construction challenges versus benefits in operations and vice versa

- Measure the impact on the environment (foot print, water and energy consumption,
CO2 emissions, local acceptance, decommissioning and restoration costs)

- Draft planning corresponding to each solution to identify critical items

- Identify potential risks on the project and hazards for personnel

- List all the required offsites and utilities

- Determine all the infrastructures needed to bring in the feedstock and to export the
production

- Include local constraints about regulation, taxations, employment, content

After this technical and budgetary evaluation, all the pros and cons will be considered to
select the optimized process for a specific project in a given environment
Not all the projects have the same complexity and therefore the same need of an extensive
conceptual study.

When completed, and if validated, the conceptual study will be the base for the front-end
engineering and design (FEED) of the project.

If the oil and gas companies perform sometimes their own conceptual studies, they sub-
contract the FEED to engineering companies and later on the engineering, procurement
and construction (EPC) contracts.