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Siemens

Training Center
for Communication
Networks

Fundamentals of Radio Network Planning

1 Objectives
The participant is able to
0 explain the basic steps during radio network planning

2 Contents

1 Mobile Radio Network Planning Tasks


1.1 Collection of Basic Planning Data
1.2 Terrain Data Acquisition
1.3 Coarse Coverage Prediction
1.4 Network Configuration
1.5 Site Selection
1.6 Field Measurements
1.7 Tool Tuning
1.8 Network Design
1.9 Data Base Engineering
1.10 Performance Evaluation and Optimization

2 Repetition

3 Radio Wave Propagation


3.1 Path Loss
3.2 Shadowing - Long Term Fading
3.3 Multi Path Propagation - Short Term Fading
3.4 Maximum Path Loss and Link Budget

4 Cellular Networks and Frequency Allocation

5 Traffic Models

6 Exercises

A30181-X1789-X004-01-7635 1-1
Siemens
Training Center
for Communication
Networks

Boundary conditions
Physics: frequency spectrum, radio propagation coverage & frequency planning
System: receiver characteristics, transmit power

channel configuration
algorithms and parameter setting cell design & network structure
link quality improvement

focal point of this course !

Fig. 1
Objectives of Radio Network Planning
To provide service

to many subscribers with high service quality at low costs

Capacity for a traffic model Quality of service Efficiency


0 service types 3 low blocking 7 low number of BS sites
1 call rate 4 low wait time 8 high frequency re-use
2 mobility 5 high speech quality
6 low call drop rate

As shown in the figure below, the main topic of this course is adjustment of system
parameters for the Siemens Base Station System (SBS) as part of the radio network
planning process.
Before going into the details of the system features and control parameters, this
introduction chapter summarizes some basics on radio network planning:
In the first and second section of this chapter the steps within the radio network planning
process are explained. In sections 3 - 5 simple models concerning radio propagation,
frequency re-use and teletraffic are presented.
As each model they are only an approximation of reality. Nevertheless
 they reflect the main physical effects,
 they help to understand the meaning of parameters and the way of working the
algorithms,
 they allow to estimate parameter values.

1-2 A30181-X1789-X004-01-7635
3 4
5 Mobile Radio Network Planning Tasks

The mobile radio network is the connecting element between the mobile telephone users
and the fixed network.
In this network the base transceiver station equipment (BTSE) is the direct interface
to the subscriber. It has to make radio communication channels available to the users
and to care for a satisfactory signal quality within a certain area around the base station.
This area may be split into different sectors (cells) which belong to one BTSE.
Planning a mobile radio network is a complex task, because radio propagation along the
earth surface is submitted to many influences due to the local environment. Furthermore
the performance requirements to a radio network cover a wide field of applications which
depend on the operators potentialities and goals. To respond to all these subjects, it is
necessary to observe a certain sequence of tasks.
The first step is to get knowledge about the customers/operators objectives and
resources (basic planning data). On this basis it is possible to estimate the size of the
project and to establish a coarse nominal cell plan.
Then it is necessary to install a digital terrain data base into a planning tool which
contains topo-graphical and morphological information about the planning region. This
digital map permits to make more accurate predictions about the radio signal
propagation as compared to the first rough estimation, and to create a more realistic cell
structure, including the recommendable geographical positions of the base stations
equipment(coarse coverage prediction).
The network elements defined up to this moment have been found on a more or less
theoretical basis. Now it has to be checked if the envisaged radio site locations may
really be kept. A site survey campaign in accordance with the customer, who is
responsible for the site acquisition, must clarify all problems concerning the
infrastructure and technical as well as financial issues of the BTSE implementation. Inside
a tolerable search area the optimum site meeting all these issues has to be selected.
This site selection should also take into account particular properties of the area, e.g.
big obstacles which are not recognizable in the digital maps.
Field measurements, to be carried out in typical and in complex areas must give
detailed informations about the radio characteristics of the planning region. The
measurement results will then help to align the radio prediction tool for the actual type of
land usage (tool tuning).
Now, fixed site positions and an area-adapted tool being available, it is possible to start
the detailed radio planning. The final network design has to care for both sufficient
coverage and proper radio frequency assignment in respecting the traffic load and the
interference requirements.
The last planning step is the generation of a set of control parameters, necessary to
maintain a communication while a subscriber is moving around. These parameters have
to comply with the existing cell structure and the needs to handle the traffic load
expected in each cell.
After commissioning of the network, the performance must be checked by the network
operator by evaluation of statistical data collected in the operation and maintenance
center. Situations of congestion or frequent call rejections may be treated by modification
of the pertinent control parameters and lead to an optimized network.

The individual planning steps are considered more closely in the following sections.
5.1Collection of Basic Planning Data
The requirements of the network operator concerning traffic load and service area extension
are basic data for the design of a mobile network . A coarse network structure complying
with these requirements can be created on this basis.
Two fundamental cell types are possible; their properties may be determined
a) by the maximum radio range of the involved transceiver stations and mobile terminals;
the range is limited by the available transmit power and the noise figure of the receivers.
This type is called a noise limited cell; it is typical for rural regions.
b) or it may be determined by the limited traffic capacity of a cell in the case of high
subscriber concentration. This leads to the implementation of small cells, mainly in urban
areas where interference will become the major problem.
The result of this first planning step is a rough estimate of the network structure, called a
nominal cell plan, which gives knowledge about the number of radio stations, their required
technical equipment and their approximate geographical positions. Thus allowing to assess
the monetary volume of the project.

5.2Terrain Data Acquisition


Mobile communication occurs in a natural environment. The radio signal propagation is
highly affected by the existing terrain properties like hills, forests, towns etc. Therefore the
real mapping data must be taken into account by the planning tool.
The signal level encountered by a subscriber in the street is influenced by absorbing,
screening, reflecting and diffracting effects of the surrounding objects and along the radio
path.
To make realistic signal level predictions, the propagation models implemented in the
prediction tool must be fed with the relevant terrain data.
A very important factor for correct modeling is the morphographic classification of an area :
 building heights and density of built up areas (metropolitan, urban, suburban, village,
industrial, residential) or forest, parks, open areas, water etc.

The screening by hills which may affect the coverage of a service area must be made
evident by consideration of the terrain profile (height contour lines).
The procurement of digital maps with these informations may be rather expensive. The
prediction accuracy is directly related to the size of area elements (resolution) and to the
reliability of these information (obsolescence of maps!)
1.1
1.2 Coarse Coverage Prediction
On the basis of the digital terrain data base and by using standard propagation models,
which have been preselected to fit for special terrain types, it is possible to make field
strength predictions without having a very detailed knowledge of the particular local
conditions.
By variation and modification of the site positions and antenna orientations, coverage
predictions of rather good quality may be attained.
Yet, the definitive site locations are subject to a later scheduled site selection process in
accordance and by cooperation with the customer.
The particular local characteristics must be introduced later by comprehensive survey
measurements. These measurements will be used to upgrade the propagation models.

1.3 Network Configuration


The results of the “coarse prediction“ steps will allow to define the radio network
configuration and the layout of individual base stations.
A first frequency allocation plan may also be derived from these predictions. The result
might already be a well functioning network. But it is still based on assumptions. The
actual impact of the natural environment must be considered in the following steps.
Nevertheless, the “coarse planning“ results will help to better assess the special details
brought in by the real situation.

In designing the radio network one has to keep in mind the requirements emerging from
an increasing subscriber number. A multiple phase implementation plan has to govern the
network configuration concepts.
In the initial phase a relatively low number of users has to be carried. On the other hand
complete coverage of the service area has to be provided from the beginning. Existing
sites of the first implementation phase must be useable in later phases. Increasing
subscriber numbers (synonymous with increasing interference tendency!) should be
responded by completion of the existing TRX-equipment and by addition of new sites.
This means reconfiguration of the existing cell patterns and frequency reassignment. The
planner should anticipate the future subscriber repartitions and concentrations from the
beginning, in creating cell structures capable to respond to future needs. Increasing
interference problems arising with higher site density may be overcome by downtilting of
directional antennas initially mounted for maximum signal range, as now the radio cell
areas will be smaller.
6 5.3
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become a permanent maintenance procedure.
Network design
The final radio planning is performed by means of the area - adapted models
Planning goals:
 Sufficient signal level throughout the planning region
 Sufficient traffic capacity according to subscriber distribution
 Assignment of radio carriers to all cells
 Low interference level for co-channels and adjacent channels
 Definition of neighbor cells

Data base engineering


Control and maintenance of the radio network requires parameters for
 Identification of serving cell and neighbor cells , i.e.:
1 cell identity
2 location area
3 color code
 Cell - allocated control- and traffic carriers
 Maximum transmit power level
 Minimum receive signal level
 Power margin for handover to each neighbor cell

Performance evaluation and optimization


 By analyzing statistical data from maintenance center
 Measurements performed by a test mobile station roaming about the operating radio
network
2
3 Radio Wave Propagation
There are three main components of radio propagation which are discussed in the next
section:
 mean path loss (loss due to the distance between MS-BS),
 shadowing (long term fading),
 multi path propagation short term (Rayleigh) fading.

3.1 Path Loss


Standard path loss models are of the form:
Lm[dB]= A + B log d [km]
where Lm is the mean propagation path loss between the base station (BS) and the mobile
station (MS) at a distance d.
A: unit loss at 1 km,
B: propagation index or loss per decade.
The propagation coefficients A and B depend upon:
 the transmit frequency,
Frequency: f [Mhz] 150...1000 -Mhz
BS antenna height: Hb [m] 30...200 m
MS antenna height: Hm [m] a(Hm) = 0 for Hm = 1.5 m
 the MS and BS antenna heights,
 the topography and morphology of the propagation area.

Examples are:
1. Free space loss:
L0 = 32.4 + 20 log f [MHz] + 20 log d [km]
or more important propagation in real environment - the famous Hata model:
2. Hata model
The Hata model describes the mean propagation effects for large cells and distances d >
1 Km. For urban environment one has:
A = 69.55 + 26.16 log f - 13.82 log Hb - a(Hm)
B = 44.9 - 6.55 log Hb

Example: Hm = 1.5 m Hb = 50 m f=900 Mhz

A = 123.3 B = 33.8
For other environments (suburban, rural-quasi-open) the path loss per decade remains
the same, but the unit loss is reduced by a certain amount. The free space loss and the
Hata model are illustrated in the figure above.
Models of this type are adequate for estimating the received level for large cells. However
for a real network planning, refinements of the model and adaptations of parameters to
morphological and topographical data and to measurement values are necessary (refer to
section 1).
The smaller the cells, the more important are the details of e.g. the building structure
within the cell.

3.2 Shadowing - Long Term Fading


In larger cells where the BS antenna is installed above the roof top level, details of the
environment near the MS are responsible for a variation of the received level around the
mean level calculated by the models discussed above.
Usually this variation of level - caused by obstacles near the MS (e.g. buildings or trees) -
is described by the statistical model, i.e. the total path loss L tot is given by the mean
„distance“ path loss plus a random shadowing
Ltot [dB] = Lm + S
S<0: free line of sight,
S>0: strong shadowing by e.g. a high building near the MS.
S has a Gaussian distribution (see figure below) with mean value 0 and a standard
deviation s which typically lies in the range s = 4...10 dB.

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Shadowing S/s [dB]

Fig. 2 Gaussian distribution of Shadowing S


The length scale for variation of the long term fading is in the range 5 ... 100 m, i.e. the
typical size of shadowing obstacles.
3.3 Multi Path Propagation - Short Term Fading
The superposition of several reflected waves arriving at the receiver on different paths
and therefore with different amplitudes and phases causes peaks (constructive
superposition) and deep fading dips ( destructive superposition) of the received level.
The length scale for variation (e.g. peak to peak) is given by the half of the transmission
wave length, i.e. about 15 cm for GSM900 or 7.5 cm for DCS1800. An example for the
variation of the received level due to short term fading is shown in the figure below.
A comparison with the length scale for shadowing explains the names for these fading
types.
The statistics of the Rayleigh fading is described in the following way:
Consider the received level due the path loss and long term fading which is called local
mean: LLOC[dBm]. The received local mean power is then given by
Ploc[mW] = 10LlOC/10
Changing the transmission frequency and therefore the wave length, changes the
position of Rayleigh peaks and dips. This means that at a given position, the
received level affected by Rayleigh fading in general differs for different
transmission frequencies. The higher the frequency difference the lower is the
correlation for the receive signal for the different frequencies. The coherence
bandwidth Bcoh is defined as the frequency difference at which this correlation has
decreased to 0.5. The coherence bandwidth depends upon the spread of arrival
times of the different multi path components of the received signal. This spread is
called delay spread T:
Using this formula the probability density function for the received power P is given by:
f(P) = 1/Ploc* exp(-P/Ploc)
which means that the probability function for the signal amplitude P = A 2 is given by a
Rayleigh distribution.
Using these formulas and some mathematics, one can calculate the probability that the
received level L (affected by Rayleigh fading) is x dB below the local mean level L loc:
Prob (L - Lloc< x dB) = 1 - exp ( - 10 x/10
)
Example:

x = 3 dB Prob = 86,5 %
x = 0 dB Prob = 63,0 %
x = -3 dB Prob = 39,5 %
x = -6 dB Prob = 22,0 %
x = -10 dB Prob = 9,5 %
x = -20 dB Prob = 1,0 %

Coherence Bandwidth and Delay Spread


1
Bcoh 
2T
i.e. the higher the delay spread the lower is the coherence bandwidth.
The delay spread depends upon the propagation environment. Typical values are:
 10 µs for hilly terrain (corresponding to path length between difference of 3 km).
 0.1 ... 1 µs for urban area (corresponding to path length between difference of 30 ...
300 m).
Keeping in mind that a Rayleigh fading dip of more than 10 dB occurs with a probability of
10 %, measures should be provided to combat Rayleigh fading:

Means to combat Rayleigh fading:


 Averaging of Rayleigh fading over speech frames (interleaving of 8 bursts)
- Frequency Hopping
spacing between frequencies in hopping sequence >> coherence bandwidth
- Motion (speed v)
Example: v=50 km/h, distance between bursts = TDMA frame length T = 4.6 ms
distance between MS positions at subsequent bursts D = 6.4 cm
distance for 8 bursts_ 8 * D 50 cm > 3 * wavelength
 Combining of signals received at positions of mutually uncorrelated fading
- Antenna Diversity
spacing between RX antennas >> half wavelength
Fig. 3
Short Term Fading

Fig. 4
7.1
7.2Maximum Path Loss and Link Budget
The maximum radius of a cell depends on the maximum possible path loss between
transmitter and receiver, i.e. upon the difference between the maximum output power
level EIRP (emitted isotropic radiation power) at the transmitter antenna and the
required input power level (RIPL) at the receiver antenna.
Output BTS:
EIRPBTS = Power Amplifier Output - Combiner Loss - Downlink Cable Loss + Antenna Gain
Power Amplifier Output: 25 Watt = 44 dBm (GSM900)
(higher power amplifier output power in further BTS versions)
Combiner Loss

Combiner Type 1:1 2:1 4:1

Duplexer 2.7 dB 2.7 dB 5.9 dB

Hybrid Combiner 2.0 dB 5.2 dB 8.4 dB

Output MS:
For the MS there is no need combining different carriers; and the cable loss and antenna
gain reduce to zero. The EIRP depends upon the power class of the MS specified in GSM
Rec 05.05:

Power Class (GSM 05.05) Max. Output Power Max. Output Power
(GSM900) (DCS1800)

1 -- 1 Watt = 30 dBm

2 8 Watt = 39 dBm 0.25W = 24 dBm

3 5 Watt = 37 dBm 4 Watt = 36 dBm

4 2 Watt = 33 dBm

5 0.8 Watt= 29 dBm


Input MS:
Fig. 5
For the MS there is neither antenna gain nor antenna diversity gain. Cable losses can be
Reducing the BTS output power has the advantage that less downlink interference is
neglected. Therefore the required input power level at the MS antenna is given by the MS
caused by this cell.
receiver limit sensitivity as specified by GSM 05.05:
If there are also some mobiles of Power Class 2 and 3 within the cell designed for mobiles
 104 dBm for class 2 and 3 (GSM900),
of Power Class 4, their maximum transmit power has to be limited for a link budget
 102This
balance. dBmis the
for reason
class 4 behind
and 5 (GSM900),
the following parameters:
 100 dBm for class 1 and 2 (DCS1800)

Maximum allowed path loss (Link Budget)


downlink Ld[dB] = EIRPBTS - RIPLMS
uplink Lu[dB] = EIRPMS - RIPLBTS

Example:
Duplexers 2:1: no RXAMOD, uplink cable loss = 3 dB
MS of Power Class 3: EIRPMS= 37 dBm
Antenna Diversity Gain: 4 dB
Lu[dB] = 37 dBm - (- 104 dBm - 16 dBi + 3 dB - 4 dB) = 158 dB
Ld[dB] = 44 dBm - 3 dB - 3 dB + 16 dBi - (- 104 dBm) = 158 dB
i.e. there is a symmetric link budget for uplink and downlink.
9 Requirement: Area Coverage Probability: 90 % Coverage Probability at Cell Border:
75 %
10 Standard Deviation of Shadowing: s= 6 dB 75 % value of Shadowing: S75%= 4 dB
11 allowed loss L - S75% = 154 dB
Lm = L - S75% = 154 dB
Path loss model (Hata): Lm [dB] = 123.3 + 33.7 log d [km]
Cell Radius: dmax =10 (154-123.3)/33.7
= 8.15 km

Example 2:
Designing a radio cell for mainly MS of Power Class 4 (instead of power class 3), the
following values for link budget are obtained:
Lu[dB] = 154 dB
Ld [dB] = 156 dB
To obtain a symmetric link budget, the power amplifier output power of the BTS has to be
reduced by 2 dB. This is done using the O&M parameter BS_TXPWR_RED:

Object DB Name Range Meaning

TRX PWRRED 0, 1, ...6 * 2dB Reduction of BTS power amplifier


output

Specification Name DB Name/ Object Range Meaning

MS_TXPWR_MAX MSTXPMAX / BTS-B 2...15 Maximum TXPWR a MS is


GSM allowed to use on a
0...15 DCS dedicated channel (TCH or
* 2 dB SDCCH) in the serving cell
GSM: 2 = 39 dBm, 15 = 13
dBm
DCS: 0 = 30 dBm, 15 = 0
dBm
PCS: 0 = 30 dBm, 15 = 0
dBm
30 = 33 dBm, 31 = 32
dBm

MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH MSTXPMAXCH / BTS-C 0...31 Maximum TXPWR a MS is


* 2 dB allowed to use on the uplink
common control channel
(Random Access Channel,
RACH) in the serving cell:
GSM: 0 = 43 dBm,19 = 5
dBm
DCS: 0 = 30 dBm, 15 = 0
dBm
Fig. 86
Another
9 Cellular
effect illustrated
Networks byand
thisFrequency
example is the
Allocation
following:
Since there is a balanced link budget Lu[dB] = Ld[dB], but a difference of the receiver
sensitivity level for the MS and BTS of 2 dB, there is difference between the mean
One important characteristic of cellular networks is the re-use of frequencies in different
downlink and uplink received level RXLEV of about 2 dB:
cells. By re-using frequencies, a high capacity can be achieved. However, the re-use
distance has to be high enough, RXLEV_DL
so that the
- RXLEV_UL
interference
2 dB.
caused by subscribers using the
same frequency (or an adjacent frequency) in another cell is sufficiently low.
The consequence is that level threshold for e.g. the handover algorithm have to be set 2
dB higher for the downlink than for the uplink.

Co-channel
Re-use
Cells
MS
Interferer
Carrier

Re-use
Ditance D

Cell Radius R

Fig. 7
To guarantee an appropriate speech quality, the carrier-to-interference-power-ratio CIR
has to exceed a certain threshold CIRmin which is 9 dB for the GSM System (GSM Rec.
05.05).
taking the situation of the example above and a path loss model L = A + B log d, one has
C/Itot[Watt] = C / (I1 + ... + INI) C / (NI * I1) NI: number of interferes
or in dB
C/Itot [dB] = C[dB] - Itot[dB] B log D - B log R - 10 log NI
= B log D/R - 10 log NI > CIRmin + LTFM (x%)
By introducing the long term fading margin LTFM (x%) for a required coverage probability
of x%, the effect of shadowing is taken into account.
For homogeneous hexagonal networks frequencies can be allocated to cells in a
symmetric way. Defining the cluster size K as group of cells in which each frequency is
used exactly once, the following relations between Cluster Size, Cell Radius and Re-use
Distance are obtained.
4
Frequency Re-use and Cluster Size

D
n

R
r

Fig. 8

Outer Cell Radius -


R
Inner Cell Radius -
r = 0.5 x 3 x R
Re-use Distance -
D = R x 3 x (n 2 m2 nm)
D
= 3xK
R

Cluster Size: Group of cells in which each frequency is used


exatly once

K = (n 2 + m2 + nm)

n, m = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

K = 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 16, 19, ...


An example
Inserting thefor formula
a traffic
formodel
the cluster
is given
sizeininto
the the
table
formula
below:for the minimum CIR one
obtains:
10 Traffic Models
0.5 * B log 3 K > CIR + LTFM (x%) + 10 log NI
A traffic model reflects the behavior of themin subscribers, as their mobility, the mean call
3-Sector Cloverleaf - Cluster 3 x 3
which
rate orgives
call duration.
a lower bound
It is needed
for thee.g.
cluster
for calculating
size which the
can required
be used.total number of
Omnicells - Cluster 7
channels within a cell and how to split them between traffic and control channels.
For a given cluster size K and total number of frequencies N tot, the number of frequencies
per celltraffic
These Ncell ismodel
given information
by: is always a mixture between field observations in similiar
networks and arbitrary assumptions.
Ncell = Ntot/K
Traffic data are variable in time, therefore statistical characterization is used.
i.e. the capacity of a cell can be increased by reducing the cluster size.
The goal of planning is to2a manage traffic even 2a in busy hour.
2
In mobile networks2 we have to7evaluate 3 two main factors:
A reduction of cluster
1a size can be achieved
1a by
2c 2b 2c 2b
7
 user mobility 3 1
 reducing the number of interferers Sectorisation.
 communications 11b 3a 61c
1c the interference 1b
4 3a
 reducing from co-channel cells Power Control, Discontinued
6 ...
Transmission, 4 5 2
User mobility:
2a 5 3c 2
3b 2a 7
3c 3b 32a
2 7 3 1
The user
Examples
1a moves
7 for2creduction
interference
sectorized
with
32ba are
velocity
network
1a
12cv.structure
discussed
are shown
2b 6 1a
in chapter 6. 4
2c
in 2b
the figures below. Methods for
For example the handover and location update rates depend on this velocity.
Obviously
1 network6does not 3a
a real3a
4 such a5regular
have 1c 3a hexagonal structure and frequency
1c 1b 1c 1b 1b
allocation is performed by planning tools2using complex algorithms for optimizing the CIR
6 4 5
in each cell. 5
Communications: 22a 7 2a 3
3c 3b 3c 3b 3c 3b
The objective 7
number ofissubscriber
to achieve 3cell,mean
ina ahigh 1 per
value
the traffic of frequencies per to
subscriber has cell
be<N cell>. The ratio
considered.
1a 2c 1 2b 6
1a 4tot2b/Ncell
2c = N
<K>
can viewed asonetheneeds
6
mean information
cluster
4
size the
in such
5
Furthermore, 3a mean3aancall
inhomogeneous
duration, the environment.
mean call cell rate (or
1c attempt
busy hour call 5
1b BHCA). 1c 1b
separately for mobile originating calls (MOC) and mobile
The capacity of the radio network depends upon the available number N of radio channels
terminating calls (MTC). 2
per area F (e.g. F = 1 km ). 3c 3b
3c 3b
N N N 1 N 1
 Ncell x BTS  CPF x tot x  CPF x tot x
F for homogeneous
Fig. 9 Example F K allocation
frequency F / NBTS K CA
NBTS: number of BTS
Fig.
CA: 10cell
Example
area for homogeneous frequency allocation
CPF: channel per frequencies

number of call attempts (MOC+MTC) per subscriber per hour 1,1

percentage of MOC 58 %

percentage of ‘engaged’ in the case of an MOC 19,8 %

duration of TCH occupation in the engaged case 3s

no answer from a person called by MOC 14,4 %

mean TCH occupation for this case 30 s


percentage of successful MOC 65,8 %

mean time for ringing (MOC) 15 s

percentage of MTC 42 %

no paging response 32,5 %

duration of TCH occupation in this case 0s

no answer from a mobile subscriber 13,5%

means TCH occupation fir this case 30 s

successful MTC 54,0 %

mean time for ringing (MTC) 5s

mean call duration (MOC/MTC) 115 s

mean TCH occupation call attempt 83 s

TCH load per subscriber 0,025 Erl

time for MOC/MTC setup signaling on SDCCH (authentications, ...) 3s

time for a location update 5s

number of location update per subscriber per hour 2,2

resulting SDDCCH load per subscriber (no TCH queuing applied) 0,004 Erl

Load on Dedicated Channels


SDCCH load [Erl]: SUBSCR * ((MTC_PR_ph + MOC_ph) * T_SETUP + LU_ph * T_LU
+ IMSI_ph * T_IMSI + SMS_ph * T_SMS)
TCH load [Erl]: SUBSCR * (MTC_PR_ph + MOC_ph) * T_CALL

SUBSCR: number of subscribers within the cell

MTC_PR_ph: mobile terminating calls per subscriber per hour with paging response

MOC_ph: mobile terminating calls per subscriber per hour

LU_ph: location updates per subscriber per hour

IMSI_ph: IMSI attach/detach per subscriber per hour

SMS_ph short message service per hour

T_SETUP: mean time [sec] for call setup signaling on SDCCH

T_LU: mean time [sec] for location update signaling

T_IMSI: mean time [sec] for IMSI attach/detach signaling on SDCCH

T_SMS: mean time [sec] for short message service


Fig. 11 Erlang B formula

T_Call: mean TCH occupation time per call

n p=1% p=3% p=5% p=7% n p=1% p=3% p=5% p=7%

1 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.08 51 38.80 42.89 45.53 47.72


2 0.15 0.28 0.38 0.47 52 39.70 43.85 46.53 48.76
3 0.46 0.72 0.90 1.06 53 40.60 44.81 47.53 49.79
4 0.87 1.26 1.53 1.75 54 41.50 45.78 48.54 50.83
5 1.36 1.88 2.22 2.50 55 42.41 46.74 46.54 51.86
6 1.91 2.54 2.96 3.30 56 43.31 47.70 50.54 52.90
7 2.50 3.25 3.74 4.14 57 44.22 48.67 51.55 53.94
8 3.13 3.99 4.54 5.00 58 45.13 49.63 52.55 54.98
9 3.78 4.75 5.37 5.88 59 46.04 50.60 53.56 56.02
10 4.46 5.53 6.22 6.78 60 46.95 51.57 54.57 57.06
11 5.16 6.33 7.08 7.69 61 47.86 52.54 55.57 58.10
12 5.88 7.14 7.95 8.61 62 48.77 53.51 56.58 59.14
13 6.61 7.97 8.84 9.54 63 49.69 54.48 57.59 60.18
14 7.35 8.80 9.37 10.48 64 50.60 55.45 58.60 61.22
15 8.11 9.65 10.63 11.43 65 51.52 56.42 59.61 62.27
16 8.88 10.51 11.54 12.39 66 52.44 57.39 60.62 63.31
17 9.65 11.37 12.46 13.35 67 53.35 58.37 61.63 64.35
18 10.44 12.24 13.39 14.32 68 54.27 59.34 62.64 65.40
19 11.23 13.11 14.31 15.29 69 55.19 60.32 63.65 66.44
20 12.03 14.00 15.25 16.27 70 56.11 61.29 64.67 67.49
21 12.84 14.89 16.19 17.25 71 57.03 62.27 65.68 68.53
22 13.65 15.78 17.13 18.24 72 57.96 63.24 66.69 69.58
23 14.47 16.68 18.08 19.23 73 58.88 64.22 67.71 70.62
24 15.29 17.58 19.03 20.22 74 59.80 65.20 68.72 71.67
25 16.13 18.48 19.99 21.21 75 60.73 66.18 69.74 72.72
26 16.96 19.39 20.94 22.21 76 61.65 67.16 70.75 73.77
27 17.80 20.31 21.90 23.21 77 62.58 68.14 71.77 74.81
28 18.64 21.22 22.87 24.22 78 63.51 69.12 72.79 75.86
29 19.49 22.14 23.83 25.22 79 64.43 70.10 73.80 76.91
30 20.34 23.06 24.80 26.23 80 65.36 71.08 74.82 77.96
31 21.19 23.99 25.77 27.24 81 66.29 72.06 75.84 79.01
32 22.05 24.91 26.75 28.25 82 67.22 73.04 76.86 80.06
33 22.91 25.84 27.72 29.26 83 68.15 74.02 77.87 81.11
34 23.77 26.78 28.70 30.28 84 69.08 75.01 78.89 82.16
35 24.64 27.71 29.68 31.29 85 70.02 75.99 79.91 83.21
36 25.51 28.65 30.66 32.31 86 70.95 76.97 80.93 84.26
37 26.38 29.59 31.64 33.33 87 71.88 77.96 81.95 85.31
38 27.25 30.53 32.62 34.35 88 72.81 78.94 82.97 86.36
39 28.13 31.47 33.61 35.37 89 73.75 79.93 83.99 87.41
40 29.01 32.41 34.60 36.40 90 74.68 80.91 85.01 88.46
41 29.89 33.36 35.58 37.42 91 75.62 81.90 86.04 89.52
42 30.77 34.30 36.57 38.45 92 76.56 82.89 87.06 90.57
43 31.66 35.25 37.57 39.47 93 77.49 83.87 88.08 91.62
44 32.54 36.20 38.56 40.50 94 78.43 84.86 89.10 92.67
45 33.43 37.17 39.55 41.53 95 79.37 85.85 90.12 93.73
46 34.32 38.11 40.54 42.56 96 80.31 86.84 91.15 94.78
47 35.22 39.06 41.54 43.59 97 81.24 87.83 92.17 95.83
48 36.11 40.02 42.54 44.62 98 82.18 88.82 93.19 9689
49 37.00 40.98 43.53 45.65 99 83.12 89.80 94.22 97.94
50 37.90 41.93 44.53 46.69 100 84.06 90.79 95.24 98.99
11
Appendix
12 Exercises
Exercise 1
Power classes for MS/BTS
Exercise 1: Calculation Loss / Gain

reference P = 1 mW
 P 
LP  10 log  -3  dBm
 10 

reference U = 1 µV
 U 
LU  20 log  -6  dBV
 10 

 P 
Loss A  10 log  in  dB
 Pout 

P 
Gain G  10 log  out  dB
 Pin 

reference = 775 mV, 600


U2  U 
P LU  20 log   dBU
R  0,775

 U 
A  20 log  in 
 Uout 

U 
G  20 log  out 
 Uin 

1. Amplifier: 100 mVin, 1 Vout. Calculate the gain

1. Amplifier: 2 mWin, 5 Wout. Calculate the gain

1. Amplifier: 20 dBmin, two steps amplification with 7 dB, 3 dB gain. Calculate the gain.

Class Watt dBm

1 20 43 

2 8 39  MS
3 5 37 

4 2 33
5 0,8 29

1 320 55 

2 160 52 
3 80 49  BTS
4 40 46 
5 20 43 

6 10 40
Conversion
Maximum
Handy
Typical
Solutions
sensitivity:
lossRange
dBm
values:Watt
-102 dBm
possible loss: 153 dBm
Exercise 1

1.
 1
G = 10 log   = 20 dB
 0,1

1.
 5 
G = 10 log   = 34 dB
 0,002

1. Power out = 20 + 7 + 3 = 30 dBm

30 dBm ^ 1 Watt

7 5 37
8 2,5 34

Watt dBm

4 10 -14
-104
10 -5
-20
10 -4
-10
10 -3
0
10 -2
10
10 -1
20
1 30
2 33
25 44
50 47
100 50

Example: SBS, GSM

Power Amplifier 25 Watt ^ 44 dBm


Combiner 2:1 -8 dB
Cable -3 dB
Antenna gain + 18 dB

Sending power 51 dBm ^ 125 Watt

153 dBm ^ 8 km free area


3 km urban area
1 km downtown

Fading: 6 dB
Glass: 5 dB
Wall: 12 dB
Shopping Mall: 25 dB
House 15 dB