Collection and Development
Statement of Policy
The objective of collection development is to make available to library media center patrons a collection of materials that will enrich and support the curriculum and meet the needs of the students, staff, and parents being served. The library media center will provide a wide range of materials on all levels of difficulty and in a variety of formats, with diversity of appeal, allowing for the presentation of many different points of view.
Selection of Materials Introduction
For the purposes of this statement of policy, the term “materials” will refer to any resource with instructional content or function that is used for formal or informal teaching/learning purposes. Materials may include books, periodicals, sound recordings, videocassettes, DVDs, CD-ROMs, databases, software, maps, and supplementary reading and informational resources.
Responsibility for Selection of Library Media Center Materials
Primary responsibility for coordinating and recommending the selection and purchase of library media materials will rest with the library media specialist. In addition, selection procedures may involve representatives of the professional staff directly affected by the selections, and persons qualified by preparation to aid in wise selection. Suggestions for materials selection from faculty, parents, and students of our system will be given due regard. To this end, it is the responsibility of the library media specialist: • To provide materials that will enrich and support the curriculum, taking into consideration the varied interests, abilities, learning styles, and maturity levels of the students served; • To provide materials that will stimulate growth in factual knowledge, literary appreciation, aesthetic values, and societal standards; • To provide materials on various sides of controversial issues so that young citizens may have an opportunity to develop under guidance the practice of critical analysis and to make informed judgments in their daily lives; • To provide materials representative of the many religious, ethnic, and cultural groups that contribute to our national heritage and the world community; • To place principle above personal opinion and reason above prejudice in the selection of materials of the highest quality in order to assure a comprehensive collection appropriate to the school community.
Criteria for Selection of Library Media Center Materials
The following criteria will be used to guide selection: • educational significance • contribution the subject matter makes to the curriculum and to the interests of the students • favorable reviews found in standard selection sources • favorable recommendations based on preview and examination of materials by professional personnel • reputation and significance of the author, producer, and publisher
validity, currency, and appropriateness of material contribution the material makes to breadth of representative viewpoints on controversial issues • high degree of potential user appeal • high artistic quality and/or literary style • quality and variety of format • value commensurate with cost and/or need • timeliness or permanence • integrity
Criteria for 21st Century Resources
Includes Internet sites, online subscription sites, teacher or school-developed electronic materials, Blogs, Nings, and other Web 2.0 resources. Purpose: • using the technology is an appropriate way to access this information • adds value to the overall resource collection Educational Soundness: • is relevant in terms of the Curriculum Framework • supports the process of learning Authority: • authority information easy to locate and verify • experience of intellectual content providers, qualifications and expertise (of design and content) • other titles published Appropriateness: • supports the content and enhances the understanding of the user • appropriate to the level of the intended user/s • long term value of information • encourages students to use more than once to gain new experiences Accuracy and recency of information: • Site updated regularly • bibliographies of further reading included, plus affiliated titles and support services • accuracy of information • be aware of short/long term value of Internet sites Scope: • depth of coverage (as appropriate) • uses a variety of forms so students of different levels have access to appropriate information • offers students an overview plus a more detailed analysis of subject material • provides information not readily available through other media Accessibility and Useability: • easy to load or to access • navigation offers flexibility of access to information
easy cross referencing with hyperlinks to more specific information menus clear, of a suitable number, and easy to use interpretation of icons appropriate to the intended users variable search options eg. keyword, topic, picture, alphabetical listing, freetext search, multimedia items Presentation: • level of interaction: multimedia includes text, graphics, animated graphics, sound, video clips, facility to enable student participation. ie. offers alternative media to those found in other resources. • high quality of production. o text is clear and easy to read o graphics clear, relevant and attractive o background color design does not interfere with texts o hyperlinks easy to identify o depth/pace/clarity of sound recording • provides ancillary applications eg. records student participation, print facility, notes/word processing facility. Accompanying material: • Printed course material/teacher’s notes/synopsis o easy to interpret o contain enough detail to facilitate easy access to content o enable easy loading of software o appropriate to intended users o clearly set out o relevant to the curriculum Cost: Is not prohibitive Adapted from Links: http://www.neighborhoodcharter.com/Media%20Center%20Policies.pdf and http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/cmis/eval/library/selection/sel23.htm#electronic
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What is Intellectual Freedom? "Intellectual freedom is the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored." ~American Library Association
Position on Intellectual Freedom
The Board of Education subscribes in principle to the statements of policy on library philosophy as expressed in the Library Bill of Rights of the American Library Association (Appendix A ) and the School Library Bill of Rights of the American Association of School Librarians (Appendix B). The principles of intellectual freedom expressed in the Library Bill of Rights are inherent in the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States. In the event library materials are questioned, the principles of intellectual freedom shall be defended. The Library also supports the ideas expressed in The Freedom to Read Statement of the American Library Association (ALA's Freedom to Read Statement).
Statement on Internet Filtering
The use of Internet filters to prevent Internet access poses many problems for libraries. Filters can block valuable information, thus preventing the library from fulfilling one of its prime missions. In addition, filters may prove unconstitutional in public institutions, since some of the information they block is constitutionally protected speech. The Board of Education supports the American Library Association's Resolution on the Use of Internet Filters (Appendix C) and does not recommend the use of Internet filters in libraries and emphatically opposes attempts by federal and state governments to mandate their use. We believe that decisions regarding use of Internet filters must remain with local boards. Adapted Version of the following policy: http://skyways.lib.ks.us/kasl/ifmanual.htm#material
Role of the Media Committee
The School Library Media Committee plays an important role in integrating the use of the library into the instructional process and in implementing sound educational use of learning resources in instruction. The committee members consists of the principal, the curriculum director, the media specialist, the technology director, a middle school teacher, a high school teacher, an elementary school teacher, the student council president, and one parent. The committee members help to maintain a system that is efficient for easy access to learning and provides encouragement for the school library program. The School Library Media Committee also helps to communicate the mission and the vision of the media center to the students and the community. Link: https://www.roundrockisd.org/home/index.asp?page=383#Director and http://www.sldirectory.com/libsf/resf/manage.html
Media Specialist's Role in Teaching Students
Schools should be provided with the resources to provide up-to-date print and nonprint materials in all school library/media centers. • Schools should be staffed with highly qualified library media specialists. • School libraries can play an important role in student achievement and school improvement. • Library media specialists can have a positive impact on student learning when they collaborate with classroom teachers to teach and integrate literature and information skills into the curriculum. • Library media specialists enrich the teaching and learning process when they teach skills and strategies students need to learn and achieve, are partners in educating children, teach students how to become effective users of ideas and information, and instruct students on how to seek, select, evaluate, and utilize electronic resources and tools. • Certified school library media specialists should collaborate with teachers regularly to provide resources and activities for course, unit, and lesson integration and to meet the intellectual needs of students. Blog Resource: http://www.allthingsplc.info/wordpress/?p=64
Media Specialist’s Role in Teaching Reading
Library media centers provide students, staff, and families with open, nonrestricted access to a varied high quality collection of reading materials in multiple formats that reflect academic needs and personal interests. • Library media specialists practice responsive collection development and support print-rich environments that reflect the curriculum and the diverse learning needs of the school community. • Library media specialists take a leadership role in organizing and promoting literacy projects and events that engage learners and motivate them to become lifelong readers. • Classroom teachers, reading specialists, and library media specialists select materials, promote the curricular and independent use of resources, including traditional and alternative materials, and plan learning experiences that offer whole classes, small groups, and individual learners an interdisciplinary approach to literacy learning. • Classroom and library collaborative instruction is evidence-based, using research in librarianship, reading, English-language arts, and educational technology in order to maximize student learning. Library media specialists partner with classroom teachers, specialists and other literacy colleagues to make decisions about reading initiatives and reading comprehension instruction, and to develop all learners’ curiosity in, and intellectual access to, appropriate resources in all formats and media. • When learners follow an inquiry process they assess and use reading comprehension strategies. The skills identified in the Standards for the 21st-Century Learner align with the reading process. • Opportunities for planned and spontaneous library use best serve learners as they identify, analyze, and synthesize ideas and information by using a wide range of materials in a variety of formats and media. Availability of library resources and professional staff at point of need develops intellectual behaviors that transfer to future academic pursuits and lifelong academic and public library use. • Along with classroom and reading specialist colleagues, library media specialists provide and participate in continual professional development in reading that reflects current research in the area of reading instruction and promotion. Blog Resource: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/aaslissues/positionstatements/roleinreading.cfm
Evaluation Methodology and Policy
Evaluation is a vital step in school library collection maintenance and is necessary to begin the weeding process. In order to assess our media center’s value to the community we must continuously review the way in which we service our patrons and the ways in which we are adhering to the tenets of intellectual freedom. A collection evaluation is to be performed by the Media Center staff and supervised by the Media Specialist and corroborated and reviewed by the Media Committee. The evaluation is to be performed objectively and with common sense using both statistical analysis and firsthand knowledge of the Media Center. The primary tools that will be used in collection evaluation are software and services purchased from Follett Library Resources. At the beginning and end of each school year an inventory is to be performed by Media Center staff. All items with a barcode are to be scanned electronically and accounted for. Items lacking a barcode are to receive a barcode and are to be cataloged with full MAchine Readable
Cataloging records when possible or brief records when no existing MARC record is available.
The most accepted source for accurate MARC records is the Library of Congress, followed by the vendors supplied cataloging files. The purpose of the inventory is to produce an inventory file that can be inputted into collection analysis software. The inventory files must also be backed up electronically on the network, hard disk and on a CD-R copy for the principal. Our district’s library resource vendor, Follett, provides analysis software through their website http://www.titlewave.com. The complete inventory file is to be uploaded onto the website for analysis. As a district, parameters have been decided upon by which the online analysis is to be restricted. These restrictions are designed to prevent the analysis from inflating the resources available and making a collection seem larger or stronger than it actually is. Items in the collection are assigned call numbers in concordance with school and district policy. For example, textbooks are assigned TB, while test preparation materials not purchased by the Media Center are assigned PREP. Prior to analysis the following items are to be precluded from the collection: textbooks, high stakes test preparation materials, class novel sets, temporary items, teacher instructional guides, and equipment. These materials are to be evaluated separately and in corroboration with district curriculum specialists. Following a completed analysis electronic or print copies will be distributed to the members of the media committee for review. From this point the media committee, including the Media Specialist and the district Media Liaison will be responsible for a formal review of the resources offered by the school’s Media Center. The final products of this evaluation will be both a short term improvement plan and a long term plan. Upon administrative approval these documents will be housed in the library and following through with these plans will be part of merit based tenure standards for media staff. Print resources are only part of what a media center has to offer to its students. Technology equipment and online resources play a vital role in the 21st century Media Center. These resources must be continually reviewed and evaluated just like all other resources in the collection. Since these technology resources are not always purchased at the building level it is up to the media committee to establish guidelines for evaluation. The district level media/instructional technology liaison will be responsible for collaborating with the district media specialists to evaluate these resources. New purchases and the updating of aging technology will also fall under the responsibility of the district level technology department. However, it will remain the responsibility of the Media Specialist to monitor the technology housed in their Media Center for maintenance and access purposes.
Acquisition or New Materials Procedures for Selection of Library Media Center Materials
In selecting library media center materials, the library media specialist will evaluate available resources and curriculum needs and will consult reputable, professionally prepared aids to selection and other appropriate sources. Sources to be consulted may include the following items. Bibliographies and indices such as: • A to Zoo: Subject Access to Children’s Picture Books • Best Books for Children: Preschool through Grade 6 • Elementary School Library Collection • Reference Books for School Libraries
Current reviewing media including: • Booklist • School Library Journal • Horn Book • Kirkus Reviews • Bulletin of the Center for Children’s Books • others Other sources will be consulted as appropriate. Whenever possible, the actual resource will be examined.
Gifts and Donations
The library media center welcomes gift and donated materials. These materials will be subject to the same criteria as those obtained through the regular selection process. Materials not chosen for inclusion in the collection may be discarded or sold for funds to purchase additional library media center materials. Link: http://www.neighborhoodcharter.com/sites/default/files/u4/Media%20Center %20Policies.pdf
Weeding is the systematic and deliberate process of reevaluating library and media center resources to insure their accuracy, currency, and relevancy. It is also an ongoing part of collection development, a planned and thoughtful action that will ensure library materials are current and enticing for the teachers and students. It is important to remember that weeding is intended only to remove items from the media center that are no longer of use to the media center and its users. Informal weeding is the ongoing process where torn, tattered and defaced materials are deselected as they are returned to the library by a student or teacher. Formal weeding is a planned process when the media specialist rotates and targets a section of the library to weed. Books should be weeded out for one of the following reasons: poor physical condition, useless duplication, lack of circulation, and lack of support for the state curriculum. When determining if a source qualifies for de-selection, be sure to consider the following indicators: 1. Is the material in such worn, damaged or marred condition that it is beyond repair? 2. Is the material deteriorating, discolored, scratched, or incomplete? 3. Is the material so soiled that it is beyond cleaning? 4. Are more current titles, editions, or updates of the materials available? 5. Are there superfluous duplications of the materials taking up shelf space? 6. Is the material so out of touch or oblivious to major changes in the school’s demographics that it becomes irrelevant? 7. Does the material not conform to the reading levels of the school’s student body? 8. Is the format of the material too obsolete for current usage or technology? 9. Has the content become so out of date that it is no longer accurate? 10. Has the material been out of circulation in the last five years? 11. Does the material include inaccurate content or stereotypical fallacies and attitudes? 12. Does the material support the current curriculum of the school? The weeding process should include the following steps:
Develop a timeline with a definite goal for evaluating the entire collection Inform staff and administration of your plan and criteria used. Invite staff members to discuss your weeding plan; invite their input relative to their content area expertise • Schedule weeding during an uninterrupted time. • The library may be closed with Principal’s approval during the initial weeding process (1 to 2 days) • Have carts, recycling bins, boxes, dusters, hand wipes and post-it notes available • Each book should be evaluated individually • Delete barcodes from the system Link: https://eboard.eboardsolutions.com/ePolicy/policy.aspx? PC=IFBD&Sch=4094&S=4094&RevNo=1.11&C=I&Z=P Definitions: http://courseweb.lis.uiuc.edu/lis/2007fa/lis590sml/kerbyweeding.pdf and http://www.pld.fcps.net/lms/weed.htm
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Appendix A The Library Bill of Rights of the American Library Association
Link: http://www.ala.org/ala/aboutala/offices/oif/statementspols/statementspolicies.cfm Adopted June 18, 1948, by the American Library Association Council. Amended February 2, 1961; June 27, 1967; and January 23, 1980. The history of this statement with interpretative documents appears in Intellectual Freedom Manual (4th edition, American Library Association, 1992). Reprinted with permission of the American Library Association and the Office for Intellectual Freedom (50 E. Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611) from Intellectual Freedom Manual, 4th edition, c1992. The American Library Association affirms that all libraries are forums for information and ideas and that the following basic policies should guide their services. 1. Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Material should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation. 2. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues. Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval. 3. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibilities to provide information and enlightenment. 4. Libraries should cooperate with all persons and groups concerned with resisting abridgment of free expression and free access to ideas. 5. A person's right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age, background, or views. 6. Libraries which make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms available to the public they serve should make such facilities available on an equitable basis, regardless of the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use.
Appendix B Access to Resources and Services in the School Library Media Program An Interpretation of the LIBRARY BILL OF RIGHTS
Link: http://www.ala.org/ala/aboutala/offices/oif/statementspols/statementsif/ interpretations/accessresources.cfm Adopted July 2, 1986; amended January 10, 1990, by the ALA Council. The school library program plays a unique role in promoting intellectual freedom. It serves as a point of voluntary access to information and ideas and as a learning laboratory for students as they acquire critical thinking and problem solving skills needed in a pluralistic society. Although the educational level and program of the school necessarily shape the resources and services of a school library program, the principles of the “Library Bill of Rights” apply equally to all libraries, including school library programs. School library professionals assume a leadership role in promoting the principles of intellectual freedom within the school by providing resources and services that create and sustain an atmosphere of free inquiry. School library professionals work closely with teachers to integrate instructional activities in classroom units designed to equip students to locate, evaluate, and use a broad range of ideas effectively. Through resources, programming and educational processes, students and teachers experience the free and robust debate characteristic of a democratic society. School library professionals cooperate with other individuals in building collections of resources appropriate to the developmental and maturity levels of students. These collections provide resources which support curriculum and are consistent with the philosophy, goals, and objectives of the school. Resources in school library collections represent diverse points of view on current as well as historical issues. While English is, by history and tradition, the customary language of the United Sates, the languages in use in any given community may vary. Schools serving communities in which other languages are used make efforts to accommodate the needs of students for whom English is a second language. To support these efforts, and to ensure equal access to resources and services, the school library program provides resources which reflect the linguistic pluralism of the community. Members of the school community involved in the collection development process employ educational criteria to select resources unfettered by their personal, political, social, or religious views. Students and educators served by the school library program have access to resources and services free of constraints resulting from personal, partisan or doctrinal disapproval. School library professionals resist efforts by individuals to define what is appropriate for all students or teachers to read, view, or hear. Major barriers between students and resources include: imposing age or grade level restrictions on the use of resources, limiting the use of interlibrary loan and access to electronic information, charging fees for information in specific formats, requiring permission from parents or teachers, establishing restricted shelves or closed collections,
and labeling. Policies, procedures, and rules related to the use of resources and services support free and open access to information. The school board adopts policies that guarantee students access to a broad range of ideas. These include policies on collection development and procedures for the review of resources about which concerns have been raised. Such policies, developed by the persons in the school community, provide for a timely and fair hearing and assure that procedures are applied equitably to all expressions of concern. School library professionals implement policies and procedures in the school.
Appendix C American Library Association Resolution on the Use of Internet Filters
Link: http://www.ala.org/ala/aboutala/offices/oif/statementspols/ifresolutions/ resolutionopposition.cfm Adopted by the ALA Council, July 2, 1997. WHEREAS, On June 26, 1997, the United States Supreme Court issued a sweeping reaffirmation of core First Amendment principles and held that communications over the Internet deserve the highest level of Constitutional protection; andWHEREAS, The Court's most fundamental holding is that communications on the Internet deserve the same level of Constitutional protection as books, magazines, newspapers, and speakers on a street corner soapbox. The Court found that the Internet "constitutes a vast platform from which to address and hear from a world-wide audience of millions of readers, viewers, researchers, and buyers," and that "any person with a phone line can become a town crier with a voice that resonates farther than it could from any soapbox"; and WHEREAS, For libraries, the most critical holding of the Supreme Court is that libraries that make content available on the Internet can continue to do so with the same Constitutional protections that apply to the books on libraries' shelves; and • WHEREAS, The Court's conclusion that "the vast democratic fora of the Internet" merit full Constitutional protection will also serve to protect libraries that provide their patrons with access to the Internet; and • WHEREAS, The Court recognized the importance of enabling individuals to receive speech from the entire world and to speak to the entire world. Libraries provide those opportunities to many who would not otherwise have them; and • WHEREAS, The Supreme Court's decision will protect that access; and • WHEREAS, The use in libraries of software filters which block Constitutionally protected speech is inconsistent with the United States Constitution and federal law and may lead to legal exposure for the library and its governing authorities; now, therefore, be it • RESOLVED, That the American Library Association affirms that the use of filtering software by libraries to block access to constitutionally protected speech violates the Library Bill of Rights.