This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Introduction to Computer Systems (ICS)
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
What is a Computer System?
A computer system includes a computer, peripheral
devices, and software
Computer system is a device that accepts input,
processes data, stores data, and produces output
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
What is a Computer System? (Cont’d) INPUT COMPUTER SYSTEM OUTPUT ELTP-CAMPUS 4 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a computer? Computer refers to a Programmable electronic device used to Store Retrieve and. Process data. Input means to feed information into a computer Words and symbols in a document Numbers for a calculation Pictures ELTP-CAMPUS 5 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
events. raw facts or figures that represent people. Information Data is defined as the symbols. Each 1 or 0 is called a bit Eight bits is called a byte ELTP-CAMPUS 6 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . things and ideas Information is data that is presented in a format people can understand and use Computers store data in digital format as a series of 1s and 0s.Data.
Data Versus Information DATA IN INFORMATION OUT (Processed Data) (Known Facts) ELTP-CAMPUS 7 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a computer? (Cont’d) Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data performing calculations sorting lists and numbers drawing graphs A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU) ELTP-CAMPUS 8 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a computer? (Cont’d) A computer stores data so that it will be available for processing Memory is an area of a computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed Volatile memory Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis ELTP-CAMPUS 9 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a computer? (Cont’d) Computer output is the results produced by the computer Reports Documents Music Graphs Pictures ELTP-CAMPUS 10 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a peripheral device? A peripheral device designates equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality ELTP-CAMPUS 11 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a computer? (Cont’d) ELTP-CAMPUS 12 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
History of Computer ELTP-CAMPUS 13 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Objective: After completing this Topic.Evolution of Computer Introduction: This Topic gives an overview on computer evolution and and its history. 1. you will be able to understand. Types of Computer 2.
size.Types of Computer Before: Computers are categorized into three main categories from least to most powerful: microcomputers minicomputers mainframe computers Supercomputer Today: A computer is categorized based on its technology. function. and cost ELTP-CAMPUS 14 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . performance.
Computer Categories Today’s Computer Categories Personal computers Handheld computers Workstations Videogame Consoles Mainframes Supercomputers Servers ELTP-CAMPUS 15 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a Personal Computer? A personal computer is a type of microcomputer designed to meet the computing needs of an individual Desktop computers Notebook computers ELTP-CAMPUS 16 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a tablet computer? A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad ELTP-CAMPUS 17 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
etc. run on batteries.What is a handheld? A handheld computer is one that is designed to fit into a pocket. contacts. memos. and be used while you are holding it Also called a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) Send and receive e-mail Use maps and global positioning Maintain expense account. to-do lists. Make voice calls using cellular service ELTP-CAMPUS 18 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a handheld? ELTP-CAMPUS 19 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
engineering simulation . processing power. memory capacity and multitasking ability. especially with respect to graphics.animation of images and mathematical plots.What types of computers can be classified as workstations? Powerful desktop models designed for specialized tasks is a high-end microcomputer designed for technical applications Workstations necessarily offer higher performance than is normally seen on a contemporary personal computer. Workstations are often optimized for displaying and manipulating complex data such as 3D mechanical design. ELTP-CAMPUS 20 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
but typically it has not been considered a computer category because of its history as a dedicated game device that connects to a TV set and provides only a pair of joysticks for input Today’s videogame systems contain microprocessors that are equivalent to those found in a fast personal computer.Is a PlayStation a computer? A videogame system (i. Sony’s Playstation) is a computer. as they are equipped to produce graphics that rival those on sophisticated workstations ELTP-CAMPUS 21 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .e.
What is so special about a mainframe computer? A mainframe computer is a large and expensive computer that is capable of processing data simultaneously to many users Used by governments and large corporations to provide centralized storage and processing ELTP-CAMPUS 22 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
How powerful is a supercomputer? A supercomputer is one of the fastest computers in the world Breaking codes Modeling weather systems Simulating nuclear explosions ELTP-CAMPUS 23 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What makes a computer a server? A server serves the computers on a network by supplying them with data A client receives data from a server Any computer can be a server or a client High performance servers are needed when there is a need for lots of users and rapid response ELTP-CAMPUS 24 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What’s a personal computer system? A personal computer system consists of the following: System unit Display device Keyboard Mouse Floppy disk drive Hard disk drive CD and DVD drives Sound card and speakers Modem Printer ELTP-CAMPUS 25 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
ELTP-CAMPUS 26 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Input Devices Mouse – pointing device Keyboard Microphone – speech-recognition Digital Cameras ELTP-CAMPUS 27 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Output Devices Printer Monitor Speakers ELTP-CAMPUS 28 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
CD/DVD Drive Floppy Disk Drive Storage Devices Hard Drive Zip Drive Micro Drive Jaz Drive Tape Drive ELTP-CAMPUS 29 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
History of Computers? �The First Generation (1945-55): Vacuum Tubes � The Second Generation (1955-65): Transistors � The Third Generation (1965-75): Integrated Circuits � The Fourth Generation (1975 .): VLSIs � Beyond the Fourth Generation ELTP-CAMPUS 30 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
processing and output ELTP-CAMPUS 31 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .History of Computer First Generation Vacuum Tube Technology for performing basic processing Punched cards for input and output Slow input.
Hardware dependent: Could be performed by only one type of computer with a particular CPU. Machine language : Required experts to program program Low-level symbolic languages for programming ELTP-CAMPUS 32 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .History of Computer First Generation Machine language programs were made up of instructions written in binary code. This is the “native” language of the computer.
History of Computer Second Generation Transistor replaced vacuum tubes Magnetic core memories and magnetic storage devices were more widely used Separate I/O processors were developed along with CPU IBM became major manufacturer ELTP-CAMPUS 33 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
and abstract symbols to num1 represent operands. num1 – Mnemonics: Uses convenient alphabetic abbreviations num2 to represent operation codes. num2 – Hardware dependent. sum – Assemblers translate “English-like” instructions into machine sum code READ READ LOAD ADD STORE PRINT STOP – Still dependent on microprocessor(CPU) architecture and thus on the hardware level (not portable) ELTP-CAMPUS 34 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .History of Computer Second Generation Assembly language programs are made up of instructions written in mnemonics.
faster processors and memory elements IC memories replaced magnetic core memories ELTP-CAMPUS 35 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .History of Computer Third Generation Many transistors on a single chip (IC) enabled lower cost .
and comfort of development environments Translator programs called compilers convert HLL (C. Java.History of Computer Third Generation Instructions in these languages are called statements. Transportable: NOT-Hardware dependent. Abstract away CPU operations (portable) Improved readability / understanding. C++. Visual Basic) 36 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . High-level languages: Use statements that resemble English phrases combined with mathematical terms needed to express the problem or task being programmed.
History of Computer Fourth Generation Still advancement in IC technology (VLSI) that is Very Large Scale Integration Microprocessor concept . Cache evolved to produce high performance Computing systems of today ELTP-CAMPUS 37 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Intel were the major companies Parallelism. Pipelining .
Programming language for “non-programmers” Very High Level (VHL) languages for specific problem domains Many are associated with specific application packages.History of Computer Fourth Generation : “Problem-oriented” languages Non-Procedural Languages :A computer language that does not require writing traditional programming logic. – Query Languages: – Report Writers: – Application Generators: ELTP-CAMPUS 38 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
and describe the desired results. usable output.History of Computer Fourth Generation Query Languages: Enables a person to specify exactly what information they require from the database. Included with many micro-computer programs (macros). Usually embedded within database management programs. 39 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Report Writers: Takes information retrieved from databases and formats into attractive. Application Generators: A person can specify a problem.
etc.) – Natural-Language Processing: Languages that use ordinary conversation in one’s own language. etc. 40 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . artificial intelligence.History of Computer Fifth Generation – New user interfaces (voice activation. optical processing. neural network.) – New computational paradigm (parallel processing.gigabit networks. – Intelligent compilers are now being developed to translate natural language (spoken) programs into structured machine-coded instructions that can be executed by computers.
Structure of Computer System ELTP-CAMPUS 41 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What are the main high level components in a computer?
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit CPU M Main Memory
� Interconnections (Bus)
� Main Memory (MM)
� Input/Output devices
ICN System Bus (Inter Connected Network) D2
IO Devices Basic Computer Structure
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
A set of parallel conductors, which allow devices attached to it to communicate with the CPU.
Parallel wires that carry several bits at a time
Carries instructions, data, addresses or commands
Unidirectional or bi-directional
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
These allow the CPU to control which operations the devices
attached should perform, read or write
Address lines (Uni-Directional)
Allows the CPU to reference certain (Memory) locations within the
Data lines (Bi-Directional)
The meaningful data which is to be sent or retrieved from a device
is placed on to these lines
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
Architecture of a simple computer ELTP-CAMPUS 45 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Structure of Computer System ELTP-CAMPUS 46 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Components in a Computer ELTP-CAMPUS 47 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
ELTP-CAMPUS 48 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
CPU (Processor) What is it? Brain of the computer ELTP-CAMPUS 49 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Components of the CPU Register set Control Arithmetic logic Unit (ALU) ELTP-CAMPUS 50 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
� Registers – Temporarily store the currently used instructions and data. � Arithmetic-logic unit – Performs arithmetic or logical operations. ELTP-CAMPUS 51 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Components of the CPU � Control unit – Coordinates and controls all parts of the computer system.
Control Unit �Very high speed memory units in the CPU- ALU Registers ELTP-CAMPUS 52 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .CPU – Functional Units CPU � Fetches Instructions from memory � Interprets the instructions �Performs arithmetic operations �Performs Logical operations for storing very small amount of data.
What Function perform by CPU? Fetch instructions from memory Examine (Decode) Execute ELTP-CAMPUS 53 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
54 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .The instructions retrieved from the memory.Execution of the Instructions (Fetch-decode-execute cycle ) The execution process of the instruction stored in the memory happens in three phases. � Decode Phase: Retrieved instructions are decoded by the CU. � Fetch Phase. � Execute Phase: Decoded instructions are executed by the ALU.
Popular CPUs Intel Pentium III Pentium IV Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Pentium MMX Cyrix Motorola (Apple) ELTP-CAMPUS 55 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
) Motorola Processors 68000 68020 68030 Examples Intel Processors 8085 8086 80286 80386 80486 Pentium I Pentium II Pentium III Pentium IV ELTP-CAMPUS 56 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .CPU (Contd.
How to Measures speed of Processor ? ELTP-CAMPUS 57 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
is a measure of the speed of the processor.Measures of CPU performance Million of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) . ELTP-CAMPUS 58 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Clock speed– is another metric used to measure performance. Floating Point Operations Per Second (FLOPS) - is a measure of the speed of the Floating Point Unit (FPU) which is a co-processor unit.
The Memory What is it? �Place to store programs and data � Ideally. Large. the Memory would be Fast. & Inexpensive � The maximum size of memory depends on Addressing Scheme � 16-bit computer generates 16 bit addresses and is capable of addressing up to 2 16 = 64 K memory locations � Number of locations = Address space ELTP-CAMPUS 59 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Memory Type of Memory Internal Memory Primary Memory Secondary Memory ELTP-CAMPUS 60 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Memory MEMORY Registers Memory Memory Main Cache Secondary Memory RAM ROM Internal Cache External Cache ELTP-CAMPUS 61 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Internal memory Implemented in very high-speed devices located within CPU Holds currently execution instructions and few data related items Volatile Memory Examples Registers Cache ELTP-GROUP 62 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS .
Different types of registers General Purpose Registers are those which are used by the programmer to store data and Address. Flags Registers ELTP-CAMPUS 63 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . All CPUs will have one register called Accumulator(Special Purpose Registers).: IR . PC. Ex. Control Registers The special purpose registers are used by the CPU for programs control and other purposes.
ELTP-CAMPUS 64 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Accumulator (A) is a general purpose register used for arithmetic and logical operations.Registers Program Counter (PC) holds the address of the next instruction to be executed Instruction Register (IR) holds the instruction that is currently being executed. Memory Address Register (MAR) holds the address of the next memory location to be used for the data and instruction Memory Buffer Register (MBR) holds the currently written and read data.
CPU and the memory CPU Special and control Registers Program Counter MAR Instruction Register MBR Flags Register Main Memory Control Unit (Generates the signals) Arithmetic and Logic Unit General Purpose registers ELTP-CAMPUS 65 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Registers.
Fetch-decode-execute cycle B memory unit memory buffer register (MBR) memory address register (MAR) D R instruction register (IR) A prpgram counter (PC) instruction decoder PC contains address of next instruction to be executed which is moved to MAR E circuits for generating control signals control unit clock Block diagram with essential interconnections ELTP-CAMPUS 66 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Fetch phase Contents of PC are transferred to MAR Main memory is accessed and current instruction is fetched into MBR (Since MBR have to store the data) Instruction is transferred from MBR to IR(Since MBR have to store the data) ELTP-CAMPUS 67 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Decode phase Opcode of the instruction is decoded Contents of PC are incremented by 1(in case of 1 byte instruction or equal to the no. of bytes of the instruction currently being executed.) Execution phase follows ( specific to the given instruction ) ELTP-CAMPUS 68 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Execute phase Execute the instruction Store the results in the memory or register (go to the fetch phase to begin executing the next instruction) ELTP-CAMPUS 69 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Memory .Primary or main Memory Main Memory ly On y ad or R e em M ss e cc A om ory d an em R M ELTP-CAMPUS 70 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Primary memory Implemented in high speed devices located outside CPU Costly and volatile Holds program contents currently being executed & small amount of data Example ROM RAM ELTP-CAMPUS 71 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
ROM (Read Only Memory) Contents can not be changed online – if they can be altered at all Widely used to store control programs Well suited for storing fixed programs and data ELTP-CAMPUS 72 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Primary Memory ROM (Read Only Memory) MROM PROM EPROM EEPROM ELTP-CAMPUS 73 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
For reprogramming and erasing the contents of EPROM chip it should be physically removed 74 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . memory changes and updates can be easily made � Drawback .Programmable ROM(PROM) � User can load data into PROM � PROMs are more flexible & convenient � PROMs are less expensive and fast Erasable Programmable ROM (EPROM) � Here data can be erased and new data can be loaded � EPROMs are capable of storing information for longer time � While using EPROMs.
Different voltage is needed for READ. ERASE ELTP-CAMPUS 75 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . WRITE.Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM (EEPROM) � These ROMs can be electrically erased and programmed � These chips need not have to be removed for Erasure � The specific cells of EEPROM can also be erased � Drawback .
RAM (Random Access Memory) RAM is now used to designate read/write memory (ROM is also random access) If any memory location can be accessed for READ or WRITE operation in some fixed amount of time that is independent of location’s address then that memory unit is RAM Main memory is mostly of this type Semiconductor Memories are available in a wide range of speeds ELTP-CAMPUS 76 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Static Memories Memories that are capable of retaining their state as long as power is applied are known as Static Memories Continuous power is needed for retaining state of cell SRAM is volatile memory SRAM consumes very less power as the current flows only when cell is accessed SRAMs can be accessed very quickly Access time is around 10 ns ELTP-CAMPUS 77 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Dynamic Memories Static RAM is very fast but very costly as their cell require several transistors DRAM cells are simple and hence less expensive The state of the cell can not be retained permanently and hence called DRAM In DRAM. the information is stored in the form of charge on capacitor DRAM is capable of storing information for only a few milliseconds The contents of the cell should be retained for a much longer time Periodic refreshment by restoring the capacitor charge to its full value is the way to overcome above problem ELTP-CAMPUS 78 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Dynamic Memories DRAM cell consists of a capacitor and a transistor Information stored in cell can be retrieved correctly only if it is READ before the charge on capacitor drops below THRESHOLD VALUE DRAM are widely used in MAIN Memory because of its � Low cost � High Density ELTP-CAMPUS 79 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Cache Memory can be built with SRAM technology SRAM chips are Costly as their basic cell consists of 6 Transistors The basic cells of DRAM are simple and less expensive but DRAM are slower Main Memory can be built with DRAM technology ELTP-CAMPUS 80 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Size & Cost Fast Memory can be achieved if SRAM chips are used.Speed.
erasable/nonerasable ELTP-CAMPUS 81 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Internal (main). Magnetic surface � Physical Char:Volatile/non-volatile. Xfer rate � Physical Type: Semiconductor.Characteristics of Memory System � Location: CPU. External (secondary) � Capacity: Word size. Number of words � Unit of Xfer: Word.Associative � Performance: Access time. Random. Block � Access Methods: Sequential. Cycle time.
Cache Memory A memory placed between CPU and main memory Contains a copy of the portion of main memory Processor when needs some information first checks cache If not found in cache.Memory . the block of memory containing the needed information is moved to the cache CPU Cache Main Memory ELTP-CAMPUS 82 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Why Cache? Repeatedly executed instructions and frequently accessed data are stored �Concept: To exploit the locality of reference ELTP-CAMPUS 83 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Virtual Memory In most modern computer. The main memory is not sufficient to accommodate voluminous programs and data When program is not getting accommodated completely in Main Memory then part of the program which is not under execution is stored in Secondary storage devices Operating systems moves data and program between Main Memory & Secondary device Techniques that automatically move the data & programs into Main Memory are called as Virtual Memory techniques The binary addresses that the processor issues for either instructions or data are called VIRTUAL Addresses These addresses are converted into actual (physical) addresses by the combination of hardware & software ELTP-CAMPUS 84 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Cache Memory vs. Virtual Memory The Cache bridges the speed gap between Processor & Main Memory The Cache is implemented in Hardware Virtual Memory bridges the Size gap & Speed gap between Main Memory & Secondary Storage Devices Virtual Memory concepts are implemented by Software Techniques ELTP-CAMPUS 85 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Memory Organization Processor Data MMU Physical address Cache Data Main Memory Block transfer Disk Storage Virtual memory Organization Physical address Virtual address ELTP-CAMPUS 86 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Secondary memory Low speed Non-volatile Holds program not currently being executed Holds large data ELTP-CAMPUS 87 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Secondary memory devices Description Read able Writabl Typic e al size Type Hard disk Yes Placed along with the computer Usually not portable.44 MB Floppy disk Portable devices. Read only devices Yes Portable. ELTP-CAMPUS 88 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Smaller sizes compared to Hard Disk. Yes Yes Yes 160 GB 1. CD ROM No 650 MB Yes Yes 650 MB CD Read/ Write •Similar to CD ROMs except that it is also used to write the information on to the special CD ROM • Read Write type.Memory .
Comparison of different types of memory Implementation Features Holds instructions under execution and few data related items Entire(almost) program contents being executed. Huge in size. and Volatile. Internal Cache memory Contents Example Internal Memory Very high speed devices. Hard Disk. Compact Disks(CD). ROM (Non volatile). Floppy disks ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Less costly compared to internal memory. Expensive. Low cost. located within CPU. Usually larger in size RAM (volatile). Primary Memory High speed devices (but slower than the internal CPU registers) located outside CPU. cost. Very costly. holds small volume of data Programs not currently being executed. Non-volatile. volatile/nonvolatile) Storage type Registers. External Cache Memory Secondary Memory Low speed. hence limited in size. location. holds large volume of data 89 ( speed.
Memory Hierarchy �Overall goal : to obtain the highest possible average access speed while minimizing the total cost of the entire memory system • Registers • Cache • Main Memory • Magnetic Disk (Disk Cache) •Characteristics of the hierarchy • Decreasing cost / bit • Increasing capacity • Increasing access time • Decreasing frequency of access of memory by CPU ELTP-CAMPUS 90 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Memory hierarchy ELTP-CAMPUS 91 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Memory hierarchy in a computer system Magnetic tapes I/O processor DMA Main memory Magnetic disks Registers CPU Cache memory ELTP-CAMPUS 92 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Buffers Why Buffers? A memory area used to bridge the speed mismatch between the CPU and I/O devices What devices have buffers? Keyboard. Printers ELTP-CAMPUS 93 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a file? A file is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium A data file contains data such as the text for a document An executable file contains the programs or instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task A filename extension indicates a file’s contents EXE DOC ELTP-CAMPUS 94 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a Program ? � Sequence of statements/instructions stating how to perform a task What are these statements written in ? Programming ways Machine Language Assembly Language High Level Language(HLL) ELTP-CAMPUS 95 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is a Software ? Set of programs to perform a task Type of software ? Application software System software ELTP-CAMPUS 96 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Banking. and print documents Manage money accounts Create and edit home movies Create and edit graphics Application software is typically used by people Ex. ELTP-GROUP 97 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS .What is application software? Application software is a set of one or more computer programs that helps a person to carry out a task Create. edit. Payroll etc.
Application Software Two types of application programs: Horizontal applications Vertical applications ELTP-CAMPUS 98 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Horizontal Applications Horizontal applications are used across divisions of a company Internet Web Browsers E-Mail and are popular with consumers. Personal Productivity Word Processing Spreadsheets Address Books Home/Education Personal Finance Tax Preparation Reference Games Multimedia/Graphics Desktop Publishing Photo Editing 3D Rendering ELTP-CAMPUS 99 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Types of vertical applications: Billing programs Inventory tracking programs Point of Sale software Custom software ELTP-CAMPUS 100 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Vertical Applications: Tailor Made Programs Vertical applications are used for specialized fields.
Assemblers.What is System software? System software is a set of one or more computer programs that helps a system to carry out a task Ex. Operating System. Utilities ELTP-CAMPUS 101 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Loaders. Compilers. Linkers.
What is operating system? A program which acts as an interface between the user and the computer and provides an environment in which a user can execute programs ELTP-CAMPUS 102 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
What is operating system?
The three different perspective of the operating system are
� User View : An interface between the hardware and the
� Programmer View : It is a collection of system calls
� System’s View : Collection of system programs, which
controls the way in which the computer system functions. It
can also be termed as a resource manager.
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
Operating System: Functions
Operating System performs two major functions:
1. Resource Manager
2. Virtual Machine
OS as Resource Manager:
A computer system consists of many hardware and software
resources. OS acts as a manager of these resources among
one or many users.
OS as Virtual Machine:
OS provides a virtual image of the computing system to the
user. Users think that Computer is a machine that understands
English like commands. But actual hardware only understands
0s and 1s.
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
The Operating System (OS): The Computer’s Traffic Cop
The functions of the operating system are:
Starting the computer
Handling messages from input and output devices
Enabling user interaction with the computer
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
RESOURCE EXAMPLES MANAGERS Memory Primary.Printer.data File management Information ELTP-CAMPUS 106 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .I/O processors Process management Peripherals Tape. Secondary Memory management Processors CPU.Termi Device management nal Files.
Operating System Objective Two main Objectives of OS � Convenience � Efficiency ELTP-CAMPUS 107 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Starting the Computer Booting – The process of loading or reloading the operating system into the computer’s memory. The booting processes are: Cold boot – Loads the OS when the power is turned on. Warm boot – Reloads the OS when the computer is already on. ELTP-CAMPUS 108 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
System utilities loads VI. The BIOS (basic input/output system) and setup program II.Starting the Computer The step-by-step booting process: I. Users Authenticated ELTP-CAMPUS 109 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . System configuration V. The power-on-self-test (POST) III. The operating system loads IV.
Step 1: The BIOS and Setup Program ROM (read only memory) – Permanent and unchanging memory BIOS (basic input/output system) – The part of the system software that includes the instructions that the computer uses to accept input and output ROM loads BIOS into the computer’s memory. ELTP-CAMPUS 110 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
input/output devices. disk drives.Step 2: The Power-On-Self-Test (POST) POST (power-on-self-test) – A series of tests conducted on the computer’s main memory (random access memory or RAM). and the hard disk. The computer will produce a beeping sound and an error message will appear on the monitor if any problems are encountered. ELTP-CAMPUS 111 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . BIOS conducts a Power-On-Self-Test (POST) to check the input/output system for operability.
ELTP-CAMPUS 112 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . � The operating system’s kernel is loaded into the computer’s memory. Settings in the CMOS�complementary metal-oxide semiconductor�determine where to look for the OS. � The OS takes control of the computer and begins loading system configuration information.Step 3: The Operating System (OS) Loads BIOS searches for the OS.
Step 4: System Configuration Registry – A database that stores information about peripherals and software Driver – A utility program that makes peripheral devices function properly The system is configured from the operating system’s registry. ELTP-CAMPUS 113 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Drivers are loaded into memory.
Step 5: System Utilities Loads System utilities are loaded into memory. Volume control Antivirus software PC card unplugging utility ELTP-CAMPUS 114 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
User name Password The user interface starts.Step 6: Users Authentication Authentication or user login occurs. ELTP-CAMPUS 115 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . enabling user interaction with computer programs.
As a job arrives it is processed completely before picking up the next one. ELTP-CAMPUS 116 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Evolution Serial processing Here each job is processed one after another serially.Operating Systems (Type of os) .
ELTP-CAMPUS 117 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Thus a batch operating system reads a stream of separate jobs.each with its own control cards that predefine what the job does.feed the batches one after another and send the output of each job to the appropriate destination.Operating Systems (Type of os) .Evolution Batch processing Here jobs with similar requirements are batched together and run through the computer as a group.
ELTP-CAMPUS 118 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .the CPU is switched to another job and the process continues till the first job finishes waiting and get back the CPU.Thus CPU utilization is maximized in this case.When a job is waiting for an I/O operation in its course of execution.Operating Systems (Type of os) .Evolution Multiprogramming Here the OS keeps several jobs in memory at a time.
Evolution . ELTP-CAMPUS 119 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Operating Systems (Type of os) .Multitasking : Multitasking or Time sharing is a logical extension of multiprogramming.Multiple jobs are executed by the CPU switching between them.
ELTP-CAMPUS 120 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Evolution Multiprocessing system In this a computer hardware configuration that includes more than one independent processing unit.Operating Systems (Type of os) . The term multiprocessing is generally used to refer to large computer hardware complexes found in major scientific or commercial applications.
Operating Systems (Type of os) .Evolution � Networked computing system (Network Operating System) In this a collection of physical interconnected computers. provisions for handing communication and transfer of program and data among the other computers with which it is connected. in addition to its own stand- alone functionality. ELTP-CAMPUS 121 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . The operating system of each of the interconnected computers must contain.
simultaneously.Operating Systems . called threads.Examples Windows CE GUI � Windows 98 UNIX Windows 2000 UNIX Windows 2000 Windows 2000 � Multi-user � Linux � Multiprocessing � Linux • Multitasking � UNIX • Multithreading is the ability of an operating system to execute the UNIX Windows 2000 different parts of the program. � Linux • Network OS � Windows 2000 Novell Netware 122 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Exploring Popular Operating Systems: A Guided Tour MAC OS WINDOWS XP MS-DOS UNIX LINUX ELTP-CAMPUS 123 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Developed for IBM PCs in 1981
Uses command-line interface
Use is diminishing
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
Click to view each Windows version (1985-2001)
Windows 3.xNT (1995) Windows 2000(2001) Windows ME(1998) Windows XP (1993) Windows 2.0 (1987) Windows95 (2000) 98 (1985) (1990-1992) 1.0 (2000)
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
Released in 2001 by Microsoft
XP is short for “experience”
Uses the same underlying code for
Replaces all previous versions of
Windows XP Home Edition
Windows XP Professional
Windows XP Server
EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS
and a Web server 127 ELTP-CAMPUS EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .Windows NT Released in 1993 by Microsoft Designed for client/server systems Two components: Windows NT Workstation Windows NT Server Oriented to business needs Offers security. directory services. remote administration.
Windows CE Released in 1996 by Microsoft System used in PDAs or palmtops Runs simplified versions of Windows programs Data can be transferred to PCs Includes handwriting and voice recognition ELTP-CAMPUS 128 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
MAC OS Created in 1984 First OS to use graphical user interface Easiest operating system for beginners A new version. was released in 2000 ELTP-CAMPUS 129 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP . Mac OS X.
UNIX Developed by AT&T in 1970s Included first preemptive multitasking system Developed concepts of file management and path names Facilitates client/server networking Widely used by corporations ELTP-CAMPUS 130 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Linux Developed in 1991 by UNIX Open-source code – Available for all to see and use Competes with Windows and MAC-OS Powerful and free Growing acceptance ELTP-CAMPUS 131 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
System Utilities: Tools for Housekeeping System utilities are programs that help the operating system manage the computer system’s resources. Types of utilities: Backup software Antivirus software Disk scanning Disk defragmentation File management File-searching software File compression ELTP-CAMPUS 132 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Firmware Firmware Software embedded in hardware during manufacture Examples Home appliances Intelligent printers ELTP-CAMPUS 133 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
Thank You! ELTP-CAMPUS 134 EXCELLENT CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ELTP-GROUP .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.