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An individual who, rather than working as an employee, runs a small business and assumes all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea, or good or service offered for sale. The entrepreneur is commonly seen as a business leader and innovator of new ideas and business processes.
Fig 1.0 Jam Work location
Jam and Jelly
Jams and jellies are spreads typically made from fruit, sugar, and pectin. Jelly is made with the juice of the fruit; jam uses the meat of the fruit as well. Some vegetable jellies are also produced.
It is difficult to pinpoint when people first made a fruit spread. Ancient civilizations were known to set a variety of foods in the sun to dry in order to pre serve them for later use. One of the first recorded mentions of jam making dates to the Crusades whose soldiers brought the process back from their journeys in the Middle East. Preserving foods was a home-based operation until the nineteenth century. Even today, millions of people make fruit preserves in their own kitchens. Whether in the home kitchen or in a modern food processing plants, the procedure is essentially the same. Fruits are chopped and cooked with sugar and pectin until a gel is formed. The j am or jelly is then packed into sterilized jars.
Smucker blended the apple butter in a copper kettle over a wood stove. Heinz. His rich-tasting Concord grape became enormously popular. An important innovation in food preservation occurred in 1810. Amstar CPC International. the country was experiencing a surge westward. determined that by filling jars to the brim with food so that all air is expressed out and then placing the jars in boiling water would prevent spoilage. For sensitive foods such as fruits. and raspberries gel best if picked slightly underripe. Nicolas Appert. food scientists developed the process of aseptic canning: heating the food and the jar or can separately.J. Most of the fruits are harvested in the fall. When. Fifty years earlier in Concord. including Archer Daniels Midland. One of those pioneers was Jerome Smucker of Ohio who used Chapman's apples to open a cider mill in 1897. the United States Army bought the entire inventory. When sugar prices soared in the early 1970s. His purpose was to provide crops for the coming pioneers. Raw Materials Jams and jellies are made from a variety of fruits. H. Pears. Most jam and jelly producers develop close relationships with their growers in order to ensure . After World War II. Welch's company made its first jam product. In 1869. high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) became a popular substitute. and Anheuser Busch opened HCFS plants. In the early 1800s in the United States. Dr. He and his wife ladled the apple butter into stoneware crocks.Spoilage prevention is a major concern for both the home and the commercial jam producer. The level of ripeness varies. Within a few years. She then sold it to other housewives near their home in Wayne County. apricots. Grapelade. The fruit is purchased from farmers. Ephraim Wales Bull finally achieved his goal of cultivating the perfect grape. Cargill. peaches. Ohio. either singly or in combination. The company's trademark Concord grape jelly debuted in 1923. A nursery-man from western Pennsylvania. this allowed for high-temperature flash cooking that preserved taste and nutritional value. Massachusetts. strawberries. he was also making apple butter. in 1918. Chapman walked through the Midwest planting apple orchards. a French confectioner. Of the many legendary characters to emerge during this period was John Chapman. Plums and cherries are best if picked when just ripe. better known as Johnny Appleseed. Several major food processing companies. Thomas Branwell Welch used the Concord grape to launch his grape juice company.
These flavorings are purchased from outside suppliers. alcoholic beverages such as rum or Kirsch. too much sugar will make it too sticky. Citric acid can also be obtained by the fermentation of sugars. Sugar is purchased from an outside supplier. Cane sugar chips are the ideal type of sugar used for preserving fruit.1. citrus fruits. Citric acid is added to obtain the correct balance needed to produce the j am or jelly. Depending on whether the finished product is to be jam or jelly. and cranberries have the best natural gelling properties. It is purchased from outside suppliers. The production plants are built close to the fruit farms so that the time elapsed between harvest and preparation is between 12-24 hours. mint. and taste as guides. Other flavorings. The Manufacturing Process The ingredients must be added in carefully measured amounts. cherries. or extra sugar is added to the mixture. they should be combined in the following manner: 1% pectin. using color. Strawberries and apricots are low in pectin. paddles push the fruit and or just its juice through small holes. Cleaning. Sometimes pectin is extracted industrially from dried apples. grapes. or a combination of the two are added to the fruit to sweeten it. cinnamon. It is purchased from an outside supplier The element that allows fruit to gel. Fruit that passes inspection is loaded into a funnel shaped hopper that carries the fruit into pipes for cleaning and crushing. leaving stems and any y y . Inspection 1 When the fruit arrives at the plant. and an acid concentration of pH 3. Jams made from such fruits are either blended with fruits high in pectin. such as vanilla. High fructose corn syrup is processed by fermenting cornstarch. crushing. pectin is present in varying degrees in all fruit. and chopping 2 As the fruit travels through the pipes. quinces.quality. Too much pectin will make the spread too hard. blackberries. Apples. Lime and lemon juice are high in citric acid. therefore they are the most prevalent source used. can be added to the jam or jelly. 65% sugar. ripeness. it is inspected for quality. Sugar or high fructose corn syrup. Granulated and beet sugar tend to crystallize. Ideally. a gent le water spray clears away surface dirt.
The mixtures are usually cooked and cooled three times. it is pumped to filling machines. Labeling and packaging y 7 The sealed jars are conveyed to a machine that affix preprinted labels. Depending on the size of the producer's operation. food processing regulations require than jams and jellies are made with 45 parts fruit or juice to 55 parts sugar. The jars are then packed into cartons for shipment. The federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that all heat-processed canned foods must be free of live . sliced and diced. y Quality Control In the United States. sugar.other excess debris behind. it is heated to just below the boiling point (212° F [100° C]) and then immediately chilled to just below freezing (32° F [0° C]). the pulp is forced through another set of small openings that holds back seeds and skin. these labels must list truthful and specific informatio n about the contents. This process. cored. For jelly. If additional flavorings are to be included. Pasteurizing the fruit y 3 The fruit and/or juice continues through another set of pipes to cooking vats. The process of filling the jars and vacuum packing them forces all of the air out of the jars further insuring the sterility of the product. Some fruits. such as citrus and apples may be manually peeled. Filling the jars y 6 Presterilized jars move along a conveyer belt as spouts positioned above pour premeasured amounts of jam or jelly into them. According to law. Metal caps are then vacuumed sealed on top. It will often then be passed through a dejuicer or filter. pasteurization. Here. The juice or fruit is transferred to large refrigerated tanks and then pumped to cooking kettles as needed. Cooking the jam and jelly 5 Premeasured amounts of fruit and/or juice. Cherries may be soaked and then pitted before being crushed. and pectin are ble nded in industrial cooking kettles. they are added at this point. labeling and packaging is either achieved mechanically or manually. When the mixture reaches the predetermined thickness and sweetness. prevents spoilage.
microorganisms. color and consistency. Therefore. Certain vegetable jellies such as pepper and tomato have been marketed successfully. the production of jams and jellies is not expected to change dramatically. Other. processing plants keep detailed lists of cooking times and temperatures. more exotic types including garlic jelly are also appearing on grocery shelves. Producers install numerous quality control checks at all points in the preparation process. which are checked periodically by the FDA. testing for taste. . The Future Because it is a relatively simple process. What is apparent is that new flavors will be introduced. Requirements also exist for the cleanliness of the workplace and workers.
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