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DEBRE MARKOS UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF TECNOLLOGY

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

AUTOMATIC FARM IRRIGATION SYSTEM

A Final Year Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award
of the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical engineering

ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING

By

Name ID.No.

1. Ketemaw Adugna TER/324/02

2. Takele Ferede TER/404/02

3. Yayehyirad Ayalew TER/422/02

Advisor: Doctor Ruvel Cuasito June 2014

Debre Markos, Ethiopia


CERTIFICATE/DECLARATION
This is to certify that the project report “automatic farm irrigation system” being
submitted by

Name ID.No.

1. Ketemaw Adogna TER/324/02

2. Takele Ferede TER/404/02

3. Yayehyirad Ayalew TER/422/02

in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical
Engineering to Debre Markos University is a record of bona fide work carried out under
my guidance and supervision.

The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other
University or Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Guide Name

Signature Head of the Department

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Primarily, we would like to give glory to God and the Virgin Mary without which the
completion of this thesis would have been unthinkable.
Next, we would like to express our deepest gratitude to our advisor, Ruvel Cuasito
(PhD) and Getye T/Tsadik for their expert guidance, constructive comments,
suggestions and encouragement without which this work could have not been
completed. They have been a constant source of inspiration throughout our study period.
We are also grateful to Electrical and Computer Engineering, Agriculture and Water
engineering departments Of Debre Markos University for their kind full help on giving
related information.
We would like to extend our thanks to those who helped us with different ideas and
motivation which inspire us for the successful completion of this thesis.

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ABSTRACT
New irrigation electrical control technologies could improve irrigation efficiency,
promoting water conservation and reducing the environmental impacts. The objectives
of this project was to avoid wastage of water and increase irrigation efficiency by using
op-amp based irrigation system with the help of soil moisture sensor, rain sensor, wind
speed sensor and light intensity sensor. The project presented here will water plants
regularly in accordance with the state of soil moisture, light intensity, wind strength and
presence of rain fall. The circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp IC
LM7171A.Op-amp is configured as a comparator. Water mark moisture sensor is
inserted in the soil to sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The comparator monitors the
sensors and when moisture sensor senses the dry condition then the circuit will switch
on the motor at which the factors light intensity, rain fall and wind speed are in normal
conditions and it will switch off the motor when the moisture sensor senses the wetness
or dryness of the soil at which one or two or three of the factors are in abnormal
conditions. The comparator does the above job when it receives the signal from the
sensors.

A transistor is used to derive the relay during at all conditions that can be monitored by
op-amps based on the signals fed by sensors from those different factors that affects
irrigation. Single pole double through relay is used to control the water pump.

It also improves the traditional irrigation system in Ethiopia enabling the irrigation
system to have high efficiency and low water usage. The existing irrigation system is
tedious, time consuming and very wasteful in water usage. The op-amp based sprinkler
irrigation system gives the best feature than the traditional one.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE/DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................. i
AKNOWLEDGEMENT ....................................................................................................................................... ii
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................................................... iii
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................................ vii
LIST OF TABLE ................................................................................................................................................. ix
LISTS OF ABBRIVATIONS .................................................................................................................................. x
CHAPTER ONE ..................................................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT ...........................................................................................................1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM .............................................................................................................2
1.3 MOTIVATION .........................................................................................................................................3
1.4 OBJECTIVES ...........................................................................................................................................3
1.5 SCOPE OF PROJECT ...............................................................................................................................4
1.6 LIMITATIONS .........................................................................................................................................4
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ...............................................................................................................5
1.8 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK ................................................................................................................5
CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................................6
LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................................................6
2.1 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ........................................................................................................6
2.2 AUTOMATIC FARM IRRIGATION REVIEW ..............................................................................................6
2.2.1 HIGH-TECH PRINCIPLES ..................................................................................................................6
2.2.2 LOW-TECH PRINCIPLES ..................................................................................................................8
2.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY FOR THE CONTROLLING SYSTEM ..............................................9
2.4 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMECHANICAL COMPONENTS ....................................................................13
2.4.1 SENSOR ........................................................................................................................................13
2.4.2 VARIABLE RESISTOR .....................................................................................................................16
2.4.3 RESISTOR......................................................................................................................................17
2.4.4 OP-AMP .......................................................................................................................................17
2.4.5 TRANSISTOR .................................................................................................................................18
2.4.6 RELAY ...........................................................................................................................................19
2.4.7 AC MOTOR ...................................................................................................................................20
2.4.8 SOLENOID VALVE .........................................................................................................................22
2.4.9 LIMIT SWITCH ..............................................................................................................................23
2.5 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS ..............................................................................................................23

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2.5.1 WATER TANK/RESERVOIR ............................................................................................................23
2.5.2 WATER SPRINKLER .......................................................................................................................24
2.5.3 WATER PIPE .................................................................................................................................24
2.5.4 INTAKE WATER SCREENING SYSTEM ...........................................................................................25
2.6 SOIL WATER MEASUREMENT ..............................................................................................................25
2.7 TYPES OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS ...........................................................................................................26
CHAPTER THREE ............................................................................................................................................28
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................28
3.1 MATERIALS ..........................................................................................................................................28
3.2 METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................28
3.3 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM ............................................................................................29
3.4 HARD WARE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYSTEM ...............................................................31
3.4.1 LIGHT INTENSITY DETECTION SENSOR USING LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR) ....................31
3.4.2 MOISTURE LEVEL DETECTION USING MOISTURE SENSOR (WATER MARK) ................................33
3.4.3 WIND SPEED DETECTION USING GENERATOR COUPLED ANEMOMETER ...................................34
3.4.4 RAIN FALL DETECTION USING RAIN SENSOR ...............................................................................36
3.4.5 DEVELOPMENT OF OVERALL CONTROL CIRCUIT OF THE SYSTEM ...............................................37
3.4.6 WATER LEVEL CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR WATER RESERVOIR .........................................................38
3.4.7 POWER CIRCUIT FOR WATER PUMPING MOTOR ........................................................................38
3.4.8 BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM AND THEIR SPECIFICATIONS ...........................................39
3.5 PLACEMENT OF SENSORS ...................................................................................................................43
CHAPTER FOUR ..............................................................................................................................................45
RESULT AND DISCUSSION ..............................................................................................................................45
4.1 SIMULATION RESULT...........................................................................................................................47
4.1.1 FOR IRRIGATING THE FARM .........................................................................................................48
4.1.2 FOR STOP IRRIGATING THE FARM ...............................................................................................49
4.1.3 FOR FILLING THE WATER RESERVOIR /TANKER ...........................................................................50
4.1.4 FOR STOP FILLING THE TANK/WATER RESERVOIR .......................................................................50
4.2 COST ANALYSIS....................................................................................................................................51
CHAPTER FIVE ................................................................................................................................................53
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .......................................................................................................53
5.1 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................................53
5.2 RECOMMENDATION ...........................................................................................................................53
5.3 FUTURE WORK ....................................................................................................................................54
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................................55

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APPENDIX A ...................................................................................................................................................57
APPENDIX B ...................................................................................................................................................58
APPENDIX C ...................................................................................................................................................59

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LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.2.1 schematic diagram of power supply for control circuit ...................................... 9

Fig.2.2 Step down transformer ...................................................................................... 10

Fig.2.3 Bridge Rectifier Circuit ..................................................................................... 10

Fig.2.4 Bridge rectifier output voltage/current waveforms ........................................... 11

Fig.2.5 Power Supply with Simple Capacitor Filter ..................................................... 12

Fig.2.6 Voltage regulator............................................................................................... 13

Fig.2.7 The signal conversion of sensors ...................................................................... 13

Fig.2.8 Water mark moisture sensor ............................................................................. 14

Fig.2.9 Light dependent resistor .................................................................................... 15

Fig.2.10 Rain sensor ...................................................................................................... 15

Fig.2.11 Dynamo coupled anemometer ........................................................................ 16

Fig.2.12 Variable resistor .............................................................................................. 16

Fig.2.13 Resistor ........................................................................................................... 17

Fig.2.14 OP-Amp .......................................................................................................... 18

Fig.2.15 Transistors ....................................................................................................... 18

Fig.2.16 NPN transistor ................................................................................................. 19

Fig.2.17 Relay ............................................................................................................... 20

Fig.2.18 AC motor ........................................................................................................ 21

Fig.2.19 Solenoid valve ................................................................................................ 22

FIg.2.20 Limit switch .................................................................................................... 23

Fig.2.21 Water reservoir ................................................................................................ 24

Fig.2.22 Water sprinklers .............................................................................................. 24

Fig.2.23 PVC water pipes ............................................................................................. 25

Fig.2.24 Intake water screening system ........................................................................ 25

Fig.3.1 methodology followed in the project ................................................................ 29

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Fig.3.2 the automatic irrigation system block diagram ................................................. 30

Fig.3.3 light intensity detection circuit .......................................................................... 31

Fig.3.4 moisture level detection circuit ......................................................................... 33

Fig.3.5 wind speed detection circuit .............................................................................. 34

Fig.3.6 rain fall detection circuit ................................................................................... 36

Fig.3.7 overall controlling circuit of automatic irrigation system ................................. 37

Fig.3.8 water level control circuit ................................................................................. 38

Fig.3.9 power circuit of the irrigating pump ................................................................. 38

Fig.4.1 irrigating system result when irrigation is carried on ....................................... 48

FIg.4.2 simulation result when the system stops irrigation ........................................... 49

Fig.4.3 simulation result for water filling of the reservoir ............................................ 50

Fig.4.4 simulation result for stop filling of the reservoir .............................................. 50

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LIST OF TABLE
Table.1.1 Theoretical framework .................................................................................... 5

Table.4.1 Different results of the system ...................................................................... 46

Table 4.2 Cost analysis ................................................................................................. 52

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LISTS OF ABBRIVATIONS
AC Alternating current

B Base

BJT Bipolar transistor

C Collector

DC Direct current

E Emitter

High-Tech High-Technology

IC Integrated circuit

LD R Light dependant resistor

LED Light emitting diode

NC Normally close

NO Normally open

OP –AMP Operational amplifier

Q Transistor

R Resistor

RL Relay

RSS Rain sensor switch

SCIM Squirrel cage induction motor

SW Switch

V Volt/Voltage

VR Variable resistor

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the project

Ethiopia covers12 river basins with an annual run off volume of 122 billion cubic meter
of water with an estimated 2.6 billion cubic meter of ground water potential. This
amounts to1743 cubic meter of water per person per year: a relatively large volume. But
due to lack of water storage capacity and large spatial and temporal variations in
rainfall, there is no enough water for most farmers to produce more than one crop per
year with frequent crop failures due to dry spells and droughts. Moreover, there is
significant erosion, reducing the productivity of farmland. In that sense, Ethiopian
farmlands do not have scientific method of effective irrigation system and rely only on
the seasonal rainfalls. [Awulachew]

The Ethiopian government has recognized Ethiopia’s irrigation potential and has
identified the important role of irrigation development for reducing vulnerability to
inconsistent rain fall distribution and at the same time addressing poverty reduction of
the people. Traditional irrigation is very old in Ethiopia. The traditional small-scale
schemes are, in general, simple river diversions. The diversion structures are elementary
and subject to frequent damage by flood. ‘Modern' irrigation was started at the
beginning of the 1960s by private investors in the middle awash valley where big sugar
estates, fruit and cotton farms are found. With the1975 rural land proclamation, the large
irrigated farms were placed under the responsibility of the Ministry of State Farms.
Almost all small-scale irrigation schemes built after 1975 were made into Producers'
Cooperatives (fao.org, ). [www.fao.org]

Ethiopia has an estimated irrigation potential of 3.5 up to 4 million hectares


(Awulachew et al. 2007). During 2005/2006 the total estimated area of irrigated
agriculture in the country was 625,819 hectares, which, in total, constitutes about18% of
the potential (MoWR 2006); of which traditional irrigation accounts for 479,049
hectares while 124,569 hectares of land was developed through medium and large scale
irrigation schemes ( MoFED, 2007).[1]

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In Ethiopia, Agriculture plays an important role in the development of the country’s
economy. Since scorching summers threatens our planet every year, our farmers are
unable to cultivate our traditional crops at their suitable seasons. On other hand farmers
are wasting water abundantly without proper management. This leads to the scarcity of
water at the time of requirement. Irrigation is the key to a successful agricultural
investment.

The aforementioned arguments presented play a very important role in the pursuit to
improve the irrigation system of Ethiopian farmlands. The relevant facts about the
irrigation status of the country and the impact of its efficiency to the economy and the
environment may have tremendous effect to the country’s stability. Thus, the
compelling evidence of the challenges posed by this current phenomenon motivated the
conduct of the study on design and simulation of a low-cost electronic-based automatic
irrigation system. The project concept provides benchmark design to local farmers to
venture into irrigated farming by using an irrigation system that is anchored on compact
electronic circuit that controls a simple and affordable control concept.

Since proper use of water resources and environmental preservation has become key
factors to optimize farm productivity, the need to examine key factors on resource
optimization are required. The key factors relative to soil moisture, rainfall, wind, and
sunlight intensity availability compels the conduct of this study where water availability
to irrigate the farmlands have to be discretely operated with utmost efficiency without
compromising cost. Hence, the conduct of this study provides better way to address cost
effectiveness and environmental balance.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Irrigation system has lasted years in Ethiopia which is traditional .Farmers traditionally
accustomed to directing flood/surface/ water for supplementing their crops/spate
irrigation. These irrigation systems have many drawback like wastage of water ,high
labor cost, timing problem ,uniformity of water supply ,so that each plant will not get
the amount of water it needs either too much or too little . Since the system is
uncontrolled the soil is soaked too much.

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Therefore, the moisture of the soil that determines the amount of water in soil must be
checked regularly to prevent the plant from wilting or in the worst case it might die.
Besides, each species of the plant have its own characteristic. So, the consumption of
water is different following their type.

These systems have low requirement for infrastructure and technical equipment but
need high labor input, so our project comes up with a remedy to solve the above
problem with high efficiency and low water wastage.

In order to maintain the condition and overcome the problem, Automatic Plant Irrigation
System is used. This system is created to reduce the time by using automatic system
rather than manual way of watering. An automatic farm irrigation system will provide
proper and moderate irrigation system for farmers in low cost and almost no man power
for farm irrigation and it will increase also productivity in agriculture.

1.3 Motivation

The motivation for this project came from the country where economy is based on
agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains & scarcity of water .The
main aim of this paper is to provide automatic irrigation to the plants which helps in
saving money and water. The farmers working in the farm lands are solely dependent on
the rains and bore wells for irrigation of the land. Even if the farm land has a water-
pump, manual intervention by farmers is required to turn the pump on/off whenever
needed.

1.4 Objectives

The general objective of the study is to design and develop an automated farm
irrigation system through electronic circuit with simulation. The pilot automated
irrigation system will be demonstrated according to its established parameters.

The specific objectives are:

 To design an automated farm irrigation system that utilizes electronic,


electromechanical equipments and sensors.
 To develop the pre-established design parameters and integrate circuit
components according to its technical purposes.

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 To solve the problems on manual irrigation system.
 To increase agricultural production by providing this technology to stake
holders.
 To reduce water wastage and human power.

1.5 Scope of project

The study outlines the design and development of an automated farm irrigation system
that employs electronic switching through electronic simulation. The circuit design and
implementation are conducted via pure electronic simulation using the Proteus software
which is preferred due to materials and financial constraints. The project inhibits the
conduct of the following in the entire scope of the study:

 Implementation of a physical control design in simulation.


 Implementation of the project to real farming application.
 Determination of sunlight availability index in the region.
 Determination of rainfall index.
 Determination of wind speed index.
 Determining the moisture level of the soil in relation with resistance
value.
 Developing and designing of controlling and regulator circuits
 Interconnecting circuits together for a single task.

1.6 Limitations

As we have seen throughout the development of this study, the system must be suffered
from the following limitations/challenges.

 After the farm is irrigated, there may be a rainfall on the farm.


 The higher speed of the wind will be exercised for a long period of time even
when the soil is dry and the system cannot irrigate the farm.
 The sprinkler irrigation cannot irrigate the farm uniformly due to the difficulty of
sprinkler spacing and there will be wrong information to be fetched by
watermark moisture sensor.
 During cultivation, harvesting and weeding time the system may irrigate the
farm and this leads to human intervention to the system.

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 There may be high evaporation when there is high light intensity/high solar
radiation after the farm is irrigated.
 The irrigated farm will not be irrigated uniformly due to the structure of the
irrigated area.

1.7 Significance of the study

The proposed study will offer farming irrigation solution to the local farmers providing
improvement to conventional irrigation using an electronic-based control intervention.
The application of automation technology to farm irrigation paves the way for an
efficient and productive farming across Ethiopia thereby provides significant economic
impact. Moreover, the technology adopted also provides potent technology transfer to
various academic and technical institutions in the country through which training and
livelihood of local farmers may be enhanced.

1.8 Theoretical frame works

The theoretical framework of the study as shown in Table 1 is anchored on the input,
process, and output paradigm that outline the relationship of the input baseline
information and devices, the process of relevant baseline information synthesis and the
control framework, and finally the expected output of the project as well as its outcome.

Table.1.1Theoretical Framework

Input Process Output


 Technical  Synthesize  Project
information information simulation
 Input devices  Op-amp  Learning
outcome

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Review of related literature

The importance of the foregoing is crucial to the content of the research project. The
related literatures and similar studies mentioned in this study substantiate the arguments
that support the theories and assumptions therein. The information gathered in this
chapter helps provide compelling motivation to pursue the conduct of the study due to
the benchmark information and baseline research that reflect meritorious works and
scholarly studies conducted by experts that are relevant to farm irrigation.

2.2 Automatic farm irrigation review

An automated irrigation system refers to the operation of the system with no or just a
minimum manual intervention apart from field surveillance which requires human
critical thinking. Almost every system (drip, sprinkler, surface) can be automated with
the help of electronic timers, sensors, controllers, and some electro-mechanical devices.
It makes the irrigation process more efficient and workers can concentrate on other
important farming tasks. On the other hand, such a system can be expensive and very
complex in its design and may needs experts to plan and implement it. There are two
classes of automatic irrigation systems. They are high technology automatic irrigation
system and low technology automatic irrigation system.

2.2.1High-tech principles

1) Time-based system

Irrigation time clock controllers, or timers, are an integral part of an automated


irrigation system. A timer is an essential tool to apply water in the necessary quantity at
the right time. Timers can lead to an under- or over-irrigation if they are not correctly
programmed or the water quantity is calculated incorrectly (Cardenas and Lailhacar,
2006). Time of operation (irrigation time – hrs per day) is calculated according to
volume of water (water requirement – liters per day) required and the average flow
rate of water (application rate – liters per hours).

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2) Volume-based system

The pre-set amount of water can be applied in the field segments by using automatic
volume controlled metering valves (Rajakumar, 2008).

3) Open-loop systems

In an open loop system, the operator makes the decision on the amount of water to be
applied and the timing of the irrigation event. The controller is programmed
correspondingly and the water is applied according to the desired schedule. Open loop
control systems use either the irrigation duration or a specified applied volume for
control purposes. Open loop controllers normally come with a clock that is used to
start irrigation. Termination of the irrigation can be based on a pre-set time or may be
based on a specified volume of water passing through a flow meter (Boman, 2006).

4) Closed-loop systems

Boman (2006) describes that in closed loop systems, the operator develops a general
control strategy. Once the general strategy is defined, the control system takes over and
makes detailed decisions on when to apply water and how much water to apply. This
type of system requires feedback from one or more sensors. Irrigation decisions are
made and actions are carried out based on data from sensors. In this type of system, the
feedback and control of the system are done continuously. Closed loop controllers
require data acquisition of environmental parameters (such as soil
moisture, temperature, radiation, wind-speed, etc) as well as system parameters
(pressure, flow, etc.).

5) Real time feedback system

With this application irrigation is based on actual dynamic demands of the plant itself;
the plant root zone is effectively reflecting all environmental factors acting on the plant.
Operating within controlled parameters, the plant itself determines the degree
of irrigation required. Various sensors, tensiometers, relative humidity sensors, rain
sensors, temperature sensors etc. control the irrigation scheduling. These sensors
provide feedback to the controller to control its operation (Rajakumar et al. 2008).

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6) Computer-based irrigation control systems

A computer-based control system consists of a combination of hardware and


software that acts as a supervisor with the purpose of managing irrigation and other
related practices such as fertigation and maintenance.

2.2.2Low-tech principles

1) Clay pot and porous capsule irrigation network

This old system has been modernized and reapplied in water scarce areas. The
technology consists of using clay pots and porous capsules to improve irrigation
practices by increasing storage and improving the distribution of water in the soil. This
low-volume irrigation technology is based on storing and distributing water to the soil,
using clay pots and porous capsules interconnected by plastic piping. A constant-level
reservoir is used to maintain a steady hydrostatic pressure (UNEP, 1998).

2) Automatic surge flow and gravitational tank irrigation system

This is an intermittent gravity-flow irrigation system. It has been used almost


exclusively for small-scale agriculture and domestic gardening. Prior to the
development of this technology, electronically controlled valves were used to produce
intermittent water flows for irrigation. These valves are expensive and require some
technical training to operate (sswm.info, 1998) [2].

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2.3 Block Diagram of Power Supply for the Controlling System

Fig.2.1 schematic diagram of power supply for control circuit

a) Power Supply

The input to the controlling circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. The ac
input i.e., 230v from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12v and is fed
to a rectifier. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating dc voltage. So in order
to get a pure dc voltage, the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove
any ac components present even after rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a
voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.

b) Transformer

Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these
voltages are 5v, 9v or 12v. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the ac
input available at the mains supply i.e., 230 is to be brought down to the required
voltage level. This is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down transformer is employed
to decrease the voltage to a required level as shown in the figure 2.2 below.

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Fig.2.2 Step down transformer

c) Rectifier

The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts AC into pulsating DC.
The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier
is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification.

Fig.2.3 Bridge rectifier circuit

The bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts an AC voltage to DC voltage using both
half cycles of the input AC voltage. The bridge rectifier circuit is shown in the figure.
The circuit has four diodes connected to form a bridge. The AC input voltage is applied
to the diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. The load resistance is connected between
the other two ends of the bridge. For the positive half cycle of the input AC voltage,
diodes D1 and D3 conduct, whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. The
conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance R L and hence the load
current flows through RL. For negative half cycle the input AC voltage of the AC
voltage, diode D2 and D4 conduct whereas, D1 and D3 remain OFF. The conducting

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diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the current
flows through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. Thus a bi-
directional wave is the converted into unidirectional wave.

Fig.2.4 Bridge rectifier output voltage/current waveforms

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d) Filter

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier
and smoothens the DC output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage
and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, DC voltage
received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage. [3]

Fig.2.5 Power supply with simple capacitor filter

e) Voltage Regulator

Voltage regulator is an electrical or electronic device that maintains the voltage of a


power source within acceptable limits. The voltage regulator is needed to keep voltages
within the prescribed range that can be tolerated by the electrical equipment using that
voltage. Voltage regulators are used in electronic equipment in which excessive
variations in voltage would be detrimental.

Electronic voltage regulators utilize solid-state semiconductor devices to smooth out


variations in the flow of current. In most cases, they operate as variable resistances; that
is, resistance decreases when the electrical load is heavy and increases when the load is
lighter. [4]

As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an
electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this
project, power supply of 12v is required. In order to obtain this voltage level, 7812
voltage regulator is to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the
number 12 represents the required output voltage levels. [3]

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Fig.2.6 Voltage regulator

2.4 Electrical and Electromechanical Components

2.4.1 Sensor

A Sensor is a device, which responds to an input quantity by generating a functionally


related output usually in the form of an electrical or optical signal. A Sensor converts
the physical parameter (temperature, pressure, humidity, speed, flow, level, etc.) into a
signal which can be measured electrically.[5]. Figure 2.7 shows the sensing process in
terms of energy conversion. The form of the output signal will often be a voltage
analogous to the input signal, though sometimes it may be a wave form whose
frequency is proportional to the input or a pulse train containing the information in some
other form. [6].

Fig.2.7The signal conversion of sensors

A) Moisture Sensor

Soil moisture sensors measure the water content in soil. A soil moisture probe is made
up of multiple soil moisture sensors. A patented watermark sensor showed in Figure
2.8is a solid-state electrical resistance sensing device that is used to measure soil water

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tension. As the tension changes with water content the resistance changes as well. That
resistance can be measured using the watermark sensor. The sensor consists of a pair of
highly corrosion resistant electrodes that are imbedded within a granular matrix. A
current is applied to the watermark sensor to obtain a resistance value. The watermark
sensor meter or monitor correlates the resistance to centibars (cb) or kilopascals (kPa) of
soil water tension. The watermark sensor is designed to be a permanent sensor, placed in
the soil to be monitored and “read” as often as necessary with a portable or stationary
device. Internally installed gypsum provides some buffering for the effect of salinity
levels normally found in irrigated agricultural crops and landscapes (irrometer.com,
2009)[7].

Fig.2.8Water mark moisture sensor

B) LDR (light dependent resistor) Sensor

Photo resistors as shown in Figure 2.9 also known as light dependent resistors (LDR)
are light sensitive devices most often used to indicate the presence or absence of light,
or to measure the light intensity. In the dark, their resistance is very high, sometimes up
to 1MΩ, but when the LDR sensor is exposed to light, the resistance drops dramatically,
even down to a few ohms, depending on the light intensity. LDRs have a sensitivity that
varies with the wavelength of the light applied and are nonlinear devices. They are used
in many applications but are sometimes made obsolete by other devices such as
photodiodes and phototransistors. Some countries have banned LDRs made of lead or
cadmium over environmental safety concerns (resistorguide.com, 2009)[8].

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Fig.2.9 Light dependent resistor

C)Rain Sensor

A rain sensor or rain switch as shown in Figure 2.10is a switching device activated by
rainfall. There are two main applications for rain sensors. The first is a water
conservation device connected to an automatic irrigation system that causes the system
to shut down in the event of rainfall. The second is a device used to protect the interior
of an automobile from rain and to support the automatic mode of wipers. Rain sensor
works on the principle of conductivity. Two electrodes are positioned a certain distance
from the bottom of the basin. When the water level reaches the electrodes a circuit is
completed and the switch is tripped. The weight of debris will not trip the switch, but it
still displaces water causing the switch to trip prematurely during a brief shower
(sprinklerwarehouse.com, 2010)[9].

Fig.2.10 Rain sensor

D) Wind Sensor

By using dynamo coupled with anemometer or other turbine, the speed of the wind can
be measured in terms of voltage. The wind speed sensor as shown in Figure 2.11
depicts an anemometer which also serves as a wind power generator. By measuring the
voltage from the dynamo we can determine the speed of local air. Generator-type Cup
Anemometers can be used. This type has a small DC generator coupled to its axis. The

15
wind turns the cups and the generator to generate a voltage proportional to the
instantaneous wind speed. This type of anemometer is located in an exposed position on
a tower and is connected to control circuit through cables, and controlling mechanism
from remote locations is possible. The greatest distance between the anemometer and
the control circuit depends on the electrical resistance of the cable and the design. This
type of anemometer does not require a power supply for the main unit (Japan
Meteorological Agency, 2011)[10].

Fig.2.11Dynamo coupled anemometer

2.4.2 Variable Resistor

A variable resistor shown in Figure 2.12 is a device that is used to change the resistance
according to our needs in an electronic circuit. It can be used as a three terminal as well
as a two terminal device. Mostly they are used as a three terminal device. Variable
resistors are mostly used for device calibration (circuitstoday.com, 2013)[11].

Fig.2.12 Variable resistor

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2.4.3 Resistor

A resistor as shown in Figure 2.13 is a two-terminal electric circuit component that


offers opposition to an electric current. Resistors are available in several common
forms: wire wound resistors are formed from windings of fine wire; film resistors,
commonly found in consumer electronic devices, use lengths of carbon or metal film
deposited on a resistive base; and carbon-composition resistors use a bonded mass of
carbon powder with a phenolic binder. Resistors absorb power from a circuit and
convert it into heat; they are normally rated for the maximum amount of power that they
can safely handle. Special resistors are also produced for the integrated circuit.

Fig.2.13 Resistor

Resistor values in ohms are usually shown as an adjacent number, and if several
resistors are present in a circuit, they will be labeled with a unique identifier number
such as R1, R2, R3 (allaboutcircuits.com, 2013) [12].

2.4.4 Op-Amp

Operational amplifiers are linear devices that have all the properties required for
nearly ideal DC amplification and are therefore used extensively in signal conditioning,
filtering or to perform mathematical operations such as add, subtract, integration and
differentiation. Operational amplifiers are available in IC packages of single, dual or
quad op-amps within one single device (allaboutcircuits.com, 2013) [13].Figure 2.14
shows an OP-Amp symbol.

17
Fig.2.14 OP-Amp

2.4.5 Transistor

Transistors as shown in Figure 2.15 are semiconductor devices used


to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed
of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external
circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the
current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be
higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some
transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated
circuits (allaboutcircuits.com, 2013)[14].

Fig.2.15 Transistors

Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)

A bipolar junction transistor consists of a thin piece of one type of semiconductor


material between two thicker layers of the opposite type. If the middle layer is p-type,
the outside layers must be n-type and such a transistor is an NPN transistor as shown in
Figure 2.16. One of the outside layers is called the emitter, and the other is known as

18
the collector. The middle layer is the base. The places where the emitter joins the base
and the base joins the collector are called junctions. The voltage of the base must be
more positive than that of the emitter for NPN transistor. The voltage of the collector, in
turn, must be more positive than that of the base. The voltages are supplied by a battery
or some other source of direct current [15].

Fig.2.16 NPN transistor

2.4.6 Relay

A relay as shown in Figure 2.17 is a switch that open and close circuits
electromechanically or electronically. Relays control one electrical circuit by opening
and closing contacts in another circuit. The relay allows the isolation of two separate
sections of the system with two different voltage sources i.e., a small amount of
voltage/current on one side can handle a large amount of voltage/current on the other
side but there is no chance that these two voltages are mix up. This is in the range of a
few volts to hundreds of volts, while the current can be from a few amps to 40A or
more, depends on the relay. As relay diagrams show, when a relay contact is normally
open (NO), there is an open contact when the relay is not energized. When a relay
contact is Normally Closed (NC), there is a closed contact when the relay is not
energized. In either case, applying electrical current to the contacts will change their
state. Relays are generally used to switch smaller currents in a control circuit and do not
usually control power consuming devices except for small motors and Solenoids that
draw low amps (galco.com, 2013)[16].

19
Fig.2.17 Relay

2.4.7 AC motor

An AC motor as shown in Figure 2.18 is an electric motor driven by an alternating


current (AC). AC motors come in two types which are synchronous motors and
induction motors. The AC motors are used differently based on what type of AC motor
it is. There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used.
The first is the synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply
frequency or a sub multiple of the supply frequency. The magnetic field on
the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by a
permanent magnet. The second type is the induction motor, which runs slightly slower
than the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an
induced current. The amount of power given off by an AC motor is determined by the
amount of power needed to operate the system. An AC motor has two parts. A
Stationary stator having coils supplied within current to produce a rotating magnetic
field, and rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field.

INDUCTION MOTORS

The AC induction motor is a common form of asynchronous motor whose operation


depends on three electromagnetic phenomena:

 Motor Action - When an iron rod (or other magnetic material) is suspended in a
magnetic field so that it is free to rotate, it will align itself with the field. If the
magnetic field is moving or rotating, the iron rod will move with the moving
field so as to maintain alignment.

20
 Rotating Field - A rotating magnetic field can be created from fixed stator poles
by driving each pole-pair from a different phase of the alternating current
supply.
 Transformer Action - The current in the rotor windings is induced from the
current in the stator windings, avoiding the need for a direct connection from the
power source to the rotating windings.

Induction motors have either wound rotors or squirrel cage rotors.

 Wound Rotor:-Wound rotors are constructed using the same principle as


stator construction.
 Squirrel Cage Rotor: - The SCIM rotor has conducting bars embedded in
grooves that are etched in the surface of the rotor along the direction of the rotor
axis. Th e conducting bars are placed around an iron core. To allow current flow
in the bars, the bars are shorted at either end of the rotor by large shorting
rings. Squirrel cage rotor construction is shown figure below. The rigid
construction of this type of rotor contributes significantly to the robustness
of the SCIM.

Generally, one of the major advantages of the induction motor is that it does
not need a commutation. Induction motors are therefore simple, robust, reliable,
maintenance free and relatively low cost. They are normally constant speed
devices whose speed is proportional to the mains frequency. [17].

Fig.2.18 AC motor

21
2.4.8 Solenoid Valve

A solenoid valve is an electromechanical device used for controlling liquid or gas flow.
The solenoid valve is controlled by electrical current, which is run through a coil. When
the coil is energized, a magnetic field is created; causing a plunger inside the coil to
move. The solenoid valve uses an electric current which moves the solenoid. This pulls
a piston preventing it from stopping the flow of air and fluid. The valve will need a
constant flow of electrical current to remain open because when there is no current flow,
the electromagnetic field scatters and the valve returns to its original position.
Depending on the design of the valve, the plunger will either open or close the valve.
When electrical current is removed from the coil, the valve will return to its de-
energized state. The valve shown in Figure 2.19 is a normally-closed (NC), direct-
acting valve. This type of solenoid valve has the most simple and easy to understand
principle of operation [18].

Fig.2.19 solenoid valve

 Working principle Solenoid Valve

The media controlled by the solenoid valve enters the valve through the inlet port (Part
2 in the illustration above). The media must flow through the orifice (9) before
continuing into the outlet port (3). The orifice is closed and opened by the plunger (7).

22
The valve pictured above is a normally-closed solenoid valve. Normally-closed valves
use a spring (8) which presses the plunger tip against the opening of the orifice. The
sealing material at the tip of the plunger keeps the media from entering the orifice, until
the plunger is lifted up by an electromagnetic field created by the coil.

2.4.9 Limit Switch

Limit Switches are electro-mechanical devices that consist of an actuator mechanically


linked to a set of contacts. When an object comes into contact with the actuator, the
device operates the contacts to make or break an electrical connection. Limit switches
work in a variety of applications and environments because of their ruggedness, simple
visible operation, easy installation and reliable operation.[19]

FIg.2.20 Limit switch

2.5 Mechanical Components

2.5.1 Water Tank/Reservoir

A water tank/reservoir shown in Figure 2.21 is a container for storing water. The need
for a water tank is providing storage of water for drinking
water,agricultural irrigation, firesuppression, agricultural farming,bothforplantsandlivest
ock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other
applications. Various materials are used for making a water tank: plastics, fiber glass,
concrete, stone, steel and earthen ponds function as water storage. [20].

23
Fig.2.21 Water Tanker/Reservoir

2.5.2 Water Sprinkler

In the sprinkler method of irrigation, water is sprayed into the air and allowed to fall on
the ground surface somewhat resembling rainfall. The spray is developed by the flow of
water under pressure through small orifices or nozzles. The pressure is usually obtained
by pumping. With careful selection of nozzle sizes, operating pressures and sprinkler
spacing, the amount of irrigation water required to refill the crop root zone can be
applied nearly uniformly at a rate suit to the infiltration rate of the soil, thereby
obtaining efficient irrigation. Figure 2.22.shows a water sprinkler [21].

Fig.2.22Water sprinklers

2.5.3 Water Pipe

Water pipes are pipes or tubes, frequently made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC/up), ductile
iron, steel, cast iron, polypropylene, polyethylene, copper, or (formerly) lead, that
carry pressurized and treated fresh water to buildings (as part of a municipal water
system), as well as inside the building. Figure 2.23depicts a PVC pipe used in low-cost
irrigation system [22].

24
Fig.2.23 PVC Water Pipes

2.5.4 Intake Water Screening System

Intake screens are designed to remove floating or suspended debris in a channel of


flowing water. They protect pumps and other downstream equipment from debris in
surface water intakes and other applications.

Initially wood chips, leaves, aquatic plants and floating impurities are removed by the
screening process. After the screening, a more compact suspended material will be
removed to allow water to flow through the chamber in which it will settle to the
bottom. Restrict the entry of suspended solids such as garbage in the water treatment
plant. Prevent pump, pipe and equipment from clogging or damage. It launched a water
course for the next process. [23].

Fig.2.24Intake water screening system

2.6 Soil Water Measurement

Soil water can be measured or estimated in a variety of ways ranging from the simple,
low cost hand-feel method to more accurate and expensive neutron probe units. For
most irrigation water management applications, even a low cost, economical method is
better than entirely foregoing soil water measurement.

25
Electrical resistance blocks

A meter is used to read the electrical resistance blocks installed in the ground. The
blocks come in a variety of configurations with two electrodes imbedded in a porous
material. Water moves in and out of the block in equilibrium with the soil water content.
Meter resistance readings change as water in the block changes which, in turn, is an
indication of changes in the amount of water in the soil. Resistance methods are suitable
for most soils, and the readings cover most of the soil water ranges of concern to
irrigation management (electricityforum.com, 2012) [24].

2.7 Types Of Sprinkler Systems

1. Rotating head system: Nozzles placed on riser pipes and fixed at uniform interval.
The most common device to rotate the sprinkler heads is with a small hammer activated
by the thrust of water striking against the vane.

2. Perforated pipe system: Consists of holes perforated in the lateral irrigation pipes in
a specially designed pattern to distribute water fairly uniform.

 Classification of sprinkler irrigation systems

1. Permanent systems: Are those having the pipes permanently located. Usually they
are built and not interfere with tillage operations. Installation costs are much higher, but
labor and maintenance costs are less.

2. Semi-permanent: Usually have the main lines buried and the laterals portable. The
water supply is from fixed point. Installation costs are somewhat less than the
permanent system, but lab our and maintenance costs are more.

3. Portable system: Have both main lines and laterals portable Installation costs are
less, but lab our and maintenance costs are higher. These systems are designed to be
moved around the farm from field or even from farm to farm.

26
 Components of sprinkler system

A. Pumping unit

The pumping unit is required to lift the water from the water source drawn from either
open wells or bore wells and distribute the water through the network of pipe line.

B. Main pipe line

Main pipe line may be permanent or portable. Permanent pipeline are used on the farms
where boundaries are fixed and crops require full-season irrigation.

C. Lateral pipe lines

The lateral pipe lines are usually portable. A quick coupled aluminum pipe is the Best
for most portable laterals. The lateral pipes are available in lengths of5, 6 0r 12 m.

D. Risers

Risers are small GI pipes fixed to the lateral pipes at sprinkler spacing. On top of the
riser, the sprinkler heads are fixed. The size and length of riser will be decided based on
pressure consideration and discharge.

E. Sprinkler head

Sprinkler head is the critical component of a sprinkler irrigation system. The suitability
and efficiency of sprinkler system depends on the operating characteristics of sprinkler
head. The operating characteristics of sprinkler head are affected by varying pressure
and wind velocities [25].

27
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Materials

The materials we have used in our project are websites; which we go through different
books, journals, and thesis and ongoing projects in automatic farm irrigation system.
From this we are going to select appropriate rating of op amp, transistor, solenoid valve,
dynamo, resistors, relays, sensors and limit switch based on their application in
automatic farm irrigation system and analyzed values.

The other material we have been using for our simulation is proteus software.

3.2 Methodology

Data Collection: In this part data used for this project are discussed .The
moisture level versus equivalent resistance measurement, lux levels versus the
light intensity, specification of component, resources taken from website, etc, are
collected and discussed.
Literature review: In this section we have discussed, automatic irrigation
review, methods of automatic farm irrigation, explanation of component
commonly used in automatic farm irrigation system.
Data Analysis: the data collected in data collection are carefully analyzed and
discussed
Design work: in this section design works for automatic farm irrigation system
are discussed i.e. calculating setting value. Also simulations works of the
calculated setting values, cost and loses in the system are discussed.

28
Methodology we have followed in this project is summarized in the following flow
chart.

Fig.3.1Methodology followed in the project

3.3 Basic Block Diagram of the System

The hard ware development described in this section depicts the electronic control
circuit necessary for the automatic farm irrigation system to function in accordance to
some important parameters. As shown in Figure3.2 below, the automatic irrigation
system follows the stipulated block diagram which has closed similarity to the
benchmarked system.

29
Fig.3.2The Automatic Irrigation System Block Diagram

In the above block diagram, there are four input devices/sensors that plays very
significant role in the systems’ operation. The most is the soil moisture sensor that
measures resistance through a watermark moisture sensor and subject the signal
conversion through an OP-Amp for proper processing and switching. The second input
device is the light sensor (light dependent resistor) where the switching of the irrigation
system depends upon the intensity of light. This is represented by the photo sensor
which sends signal through proper conditioning prior to passing the OP-amp for
switching and processing. The third input device utilizes the wind sensor which
measures the appropriate wind speed that is used to trigger the relay via the OP-Amp.

30
The last but not the least is the rain sensor provides appropriate switching via the OP-
Amp.

3.4 Hard Ware Design and Development of the System

3.4.1 Light Intensity Detection Sensor Using LDR (light dependent resistor)

Fig.3.3 Light Intensity Detection Circuit

The resistance of the Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) varies according to the amount of
light that falls on it. The aim of using this circuit is to stop irrigation in day time or to
reduce water wastage if irrigation is in day time since there is high water evaporation
and it is not recommended to irrigate in day time for plants. Using LDR to sense the
existence of light which implies that when there is light in the irrigation farm, the
resistance of the LDR gets decreased in accordance with the light intensity (lux).So, the
variable resistor (VR1) with 2000 ohm capacity is used to set the light intensity on
which irrigation must stop.

31
By using voltage divider formula, the value of VR1 is set to stop irrigation by taking R1
and R2 any values arbitrarily and 1000 ohm resistance is taken for this project. This
project uses 2000 Ohm potentiometer to set the light intensity and setting it at 1.47k
ohm in order to stop irrigation in day time above 400 lux. Our typical light sensor has
the resistance value of 2.263 k ohm at 400 lux as stated in appendix B and the input
voltage of non-inverting terminal of the op-amp can be calculated as:

This implies that when V+>V-, the comparator bias the transistor to be closed switch
mode to energize the relay (RL1) to start irrigation since its NO contact point is
connected in series with RL5 that makes the motor ON for the value of intensity starting
from 400 lux to the lower values as shown in fig.3.3a.This is done if there is no rainfall,
high wind and the dryness of the soil gets increased.

When the intensity of light become increased the resistance of the LDR become
decreased and this leads the non-inverting input voltage of the op-amp become lowered
which is less than the inverting input voltage .Therefore, the relay retain ideal and there
is no any irrigation at all and it can be calculated as follow at a light intensity of 4000
lux as shown in fig.3.3.b)

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3.4.2 Moisture Level Detection Using Moisture Sensor (water mark)

Fig.3.4 Moisture level detection circuit

In the comparator circuit as shown above, we use the voltage divider (R4 & R5) on the
inverting input to set the threshold voltage of the specified soil moisture. The soil
moisture sensor and the variable resistor are connected to the non-inverting input to the
circuit, of the Op-Amp. If the voltage value of the inverting terminal is high, the output
of the Op-Amp is low, and vice versa.

As stated in appendix A, the recommended moisture level of different types of soils is


taken in to account when irrigation takes place. For this project, the recommended
moisture level of loam soil is 50 to 80 centibars and it has an average resistance value of
1.1675 ohm measured by watermark soil moisture sensor and it can be denoted by Rs.
For this specific soil resistance the system irrigate the farm. To set the irrigation
moisture level, potentiometer with 2000 ohm capacity is used to set the non-inverting
input voltage of the comparator for biasing the transistor in forward mode in order to
energize the relay (RL2) and it is set at 1ohm.The values of R4and R5 in the voltage

33
divider circuit can be any arbitrary values and for this project the values of R4 and R5 is
1000 ohm to divide the source voltage equally.

By using voltage divider formula, the non-inverting input terminal voltage can be
calculated and set to start irrigation as:

Since V+>V-, the transistor become forward biased and the relay gets energized at the
same time to start irrigation since its NO contact point is connected in series with RL5
that makes the motor ON for the value of moisture resistance 1.2 ohm and higher values
as shown in fig.3.4a.This is occurred if only if there is a value of rainfall, wind speed
and light intensity are in the range of the normal value.
When the moisture level of the soil gets increased the respective resistance value
becomes decreased as result irrigation can be stopped and it can be calculated as follow
by taking the resistance of 0.4 ohm to stop irrigation as shown in fig.3.4b.

3.4.3 Wind Speed Detection Using Generator Coupled Anemometer

Fig.3.5 wind speed detection circuit

34
ASSUMPTION: V2 is the voltage generated from the dynamo which is connected with
the anemometer that indicates the existence of wind which affects the sprinkler
irrigation state. The voltage generated from the dynamo is 6.5V at the wind speed of
13Km/Hr at which sprinkler irrigation can be affected and at this voltage value and
above the system needed to stop irrigation. The dynamo which is used in our controlling
circuit can generates the voltage up to 7.23v.Which means that when the dynamo
generates the voltage from 6.5v up to the maximum generation (7.23v) the irrigation
system must be stopped, because high wind speed affects the sprinkler irrigation system.

For this project ,wind speed detector anemometer coupled with small a dynamo to
generate DC voltage used to detremine the speed of the wind.The generator can generate
different voltages in magnitude according to the speed of the local wind and we choose
the speed that affect the sprinklers operation and we use it to set wind speed for stopping
irrigation.

By using voltage divider formula and by using the values of R7 and R8 the wind speed
is set.

For 13Km/Hr speed of the wind, the system can stop irrigation, i.e. V+>V- since the
assumed voltage at 13Km/Hr speed of the wind and it implies that when this is so the
relay (RL3) can open or de energize relay (RL5) which is connected in series with
irrigation motor or pumping motor.

35
3.4.4 Rain Fall Detection Using Rain Sensor

Fig.3.6Rain Fall Detection Circuit

If there is rain, the rain sensor gets contacted since the water conducts electricity and it
is used as a switch. In this circuit when the rain sensor is energized at rainy time, the
transistor switched ON and the relay (RL4) open or break the irrigation system
automatically as shown in fig.3.6b. But when the rain stops raining, this sensor gets
opened and the system can irrigate the farm if the light intensity and wind speed are in
the normal ranges and the dryness of the soil increased as shown in fig.3.6a.

36
3.4.5 Development of Overall Control Circuit of the System

Fig.3.7 Overall Controlling Circuit of Automatic Irrigation System

This controlling circuit integrates all the factors stated and described above for effective
irrigation system. This system controls all the factors which influence the irrigation and
it can provide proper irrigation. The system is designed to block or stop irrigation if one
or two or three of the factors (rain, wind and light) are present in the set forms or
magnitudes. This system can irrigate the farm when there is no wind, rain and light
based on the set values and if the dryness of the soil gets increased until the
recommended moisture level is reached. The motor used in the above control circuit is
only for simulation purpose.

37
3.4.6 Water Level Control Circuit for Water Reservoir

Fig.3.8 Water Level Control Circuit

This circuit controls the level of the water in the water reservoir (water tanker) by
placing the NC limit switch only on the above part of the tank since the water comes in
to the reservoir through open channel with the help of gravitational force. The LED
represents the solenoid valve in this circuit.

3.4.7 Power Circuit for Water Pumping Motor

Fig.3.9 Power Circuit of the Irrigating Pump

The irrigation system is driven by an AC motor-based centrifugal pump which pumps


water from the water reservoir to pressurize the water sprinklers distributed in the

38
farmland irrigated areas. The irrigation system does not use gravitational force to
irrigate the farmland, instead utilizes the pump to provide pressure into the water
sprinklers. Each water sprinklers are properly spaced so as to cover consistent irrigated
areas.

Figure 3.9.Shows the power circuit of the motor-driven pump connected with proper
safety measures to protect the prime movers from untoward situation. The contactor
relay RL5 serves as the external relay that switches once desired according to the
systems operation requirements.

3.4.8 Basic Components of the System and Their Specifications

1. Comparator

The LM7171A operational amplifier is used as a comparator for this study. This
comparator is used to compare the moisture level of the soil, the presence of rainfall, the
presence of light intensity and the speed of local wind to the set voltages based on the
set value of the electrical variables from field sensors by which information are
gathered.

Properties of Comparator:

If the non-inverting input is greater than the inverting input (V+ >V-), then VO=Vcc
and the output is high (Digital High 1output).

On the other hand If the inverting input is greater than the non-inverting input (V+ <V-),
then VO=0 and the output is low (Digital Low 0 output).

 A comparator compares two ANALOGUE input voltages.


 These are usually a reference voltage and a signal from a sensor.
 A comparator is a one bit Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC).

2. Transistor

The 2N1711 transistor is intended for use in high performance amplifier, oscillator and
switching circuits. This model of transistor is used as a switch to integrate the factors
that affect the irrigation system directly or indirectly such as wind, light intensity, rain

39
fall and moisture level of the soil to determine the irrigation by triggering the pumping
motor. The whole specification is stated in appendix C.

3. Relay

Electromechanical relay of modelG3PB is used for this study to connect and disconnect
the pumping motor according to the signals received from sensors and it is used to
integrate the sensors used in this study. It is energized when it receives voltage signal
and it de energized when the voltage signal is not reached to it.

Specifications

 Rated operating voltage………… …….12 to 24 VDC


 Operating voltage range…………. ……9.6 to 30 VDC
 Rated input current (Impedance)………10 mA max. (At 24 VDC)
 Must operate voltage…………………...9.6 VDC max.
 Reset voltage …………………………….1 VDC min.
 Main circuit voltage…………………….200 to 480 V AC

4. Solenoid Valve

Solenoid valve L177 V07V08Normally closed direct acting solenoid valve is Suitable to
shut OFF/ON water from/to the water reservoir/water tank to the irrigating sprinklers for
this project.

Technical features

 Maximum allowable pressure …………...30bar


 Opening time ………………………from 10ms to 20ms.
 Closing time ……………………….from 10ms to 20ms.
 Fluid temperature ……………………….10°C +90°C (NBR0°C +130°C
(FPM)-10°C +140°C (EPDM)
 Max viscosity ………………………….5°E (37 cStokes or mm2/s)
 Voltages DC…………………………… 12-24V (+10% -5%)

40
5. Water Mark Moisture Sensor

Watermark sensor is a resistive device that responds to changes in soil moisture. It is


planted in the soil and it exchanges water with the surrounding soil and hence the Soil
water is an electrical conductor thereby providing a relative indication of the soil
moisture status. As the soil dries, water is removed from the sensor and the resistance
measurement increases. Conversely, when the soil is rewetted, the resistance lowers.

The relationship of ohm of resistance to centibars (cb) or kilopascals (kPa) of soil water
tension is constant and built into the reading devices that are used to interrogate the
sensor.

Features:

 Proven stable calibration


 Range of measurement from 0 to 239 cb (kPa)
 Fully solid-state
 Will not dissolve in soil
 Not affected by freezing temperatures
 Internally compensated for commonly found salinity levels
 Inexpensive, easy to install and use
 Compatible with AC or DC reading devices (specialized circuit required)
 NO maintenance required

Specifications

 Materials: ABS plastic caps with stainless steel body over a hydrophilic
fabric covered granular matrix.
 Dimensions – diameter: .875 in. (22 mm)
 Length: 3.25 in. (83 mm)
 Weight: .147 lb. (.067 kg) – with 5 ft. lead
 Wire leads: AWG 20, 2 leads

41
6. LDR (Light Dependant Resistor)

This sensor is used to detect the intensity of light of the irrigated farm that is if the
intensity of light is greater than 400lux it disconnect the irrigating pump motor since its
resistance gets decreased when the intensity of light is increased.

The Resource Data Management light level sensor consists of a light dependant resistor
(LDR) housed in a clear water resistant enclosure with two spring loaded connections
on the underside.

Features

 Robust Water Resistant Housing


 No Power Supply Required
 Simple 2 Wire Connection
 Reliable and Secure Push Terminals
 Low Cost
 Single Mounting Point

Specification

 Resistance Range: 36 Ohm (very bright light) to 350kOhm (darkness)


 Measurement Range: 0.8 lux to 60,000 lux
 Storage Temperature: -40ºC to + 75ºC
 Operating Temperature: -40ºC to + 75ºC
 Protection Rating: IP64
 Dimensions: 56mm (H) x 24mm (D) x21mm (W)
 Mounting Hole: 4mm diameter
 Maximum Cable Size: 2.5mm (14awg)

7. Dynamo

Dynamo with model POW31944M is used for this project as wind sensor by feeding
the output voltage to the control circuit as a feed back by producing different output
voltage according to the respective wind speed by the principle of generators. In this
study the dynamo generated 6.5 V at the wind speed of 13 Km/Hr and this leads to the
disconnection of the pumping motor to stop irrigation.

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8. Rain Sensor

Rain detector – SW120R (surface wetness range) is used to detect the presence or
absence of rain for this project. To detect rain the sensor should be mounted at an angle
of 30 - 40 degrees to encourage surplus water to run from the surface to assist in rapid
drying of the sensor when the rain has stopped. These probes are essentially ‘ON’ or
‘OFF’ the transistor to reform the desired task that is if there is a rain the system stop
irrigating the farm and vice versa.

Technical Specifications

 Length / Diameter: 150mm / 20mm


 Sensing area: 15 * 30mm
 Weight: 150g
 Cable length: 2.0metres
 Temperature range: -25 to +55oC.
 Power requirements: 8-24V DC @ 5mA

9. Limit Switch

The 5586 model of limit switch is used for this project to control the level of the
reservoir/water tanker and it is placed on the top of the reservoir or water tanker.

Specifications

 Circuitry …………………………….SPDT
 Voltage rating ………………………..6-36V
 Electrical rating ……………………...25A at 12V DC
 Contacts ………………………………Silver
 Housing ………………………………plastic with plated steel cap
 Up position …………………………..ON
 Down position ……………………… OFF
 Terminals …………………………….2 Screw

3.5 Placement of Sensors

Sensors should be placed at the right place for efficient data transfer to the controlling
circuit. Therefore,

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 The moisture sensor is placed in the depth of the soil at the 3/4 length of root of
the plant according to the length of the plant root and the life time of crop
plantation for suitable and adequate distribution of water throughout the irrigated
area or farm.
 The LDR is placed on a clear place on the ground or on top of water tanker or
water reservoir for easy exposure to sun light at any time without any obstacle.
This is important to irrigate the farm at the right time that is if there is light
intensity beyond the pre set value the farm should not be irrigated and the
evaporation of water can be reduced.
 The wind sensor is placed on top of the water tanker or water reservoir to be
exposed to the local wind easily and to facilitate the right voltage can be
transmitted to the control circuit by wire or cable and the decision of irrigation
can be made by the control circuit based on the voltage generated by the dynamo
which coupled with the wind sensor or anemometer.
 The rain sensor can be placed on the water tanker /water reservoir or on other
places in which irrigation sprinklers are not placed or out of the irrigated land to
be exposed to natural rainfall only for proper function in this automatic irrigation
system and the data about rain can be transmitted to the control circuit by wires
or cables.

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CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The objective of an automatic farm irrigation system is to irrigate the farm on its given
recommended moisture level which is obtained from experimental data and by sensing
the presence of light intensity, wind speed and rainfall in normal range of values. The
three variables which are moisture level of the soil, rainfall, local wind speed and the
surrounding light intensity are controlled by an overall controlling circuit of automatic
irrigation system controlling circuit. The watermark moisture sensor senses the moisture
level of the soil, the LDR senses the local light intensity, the rain sensor senses the
existence of rainfall and wind blade/shaft coupled dynamo senses the speed of local
wind. These sensing variables are interconnected to one common output device of
which the functional truth table shown below.

45
Table.4.1 Different Results of the System

Sensors Output of the


Watermark Rain LDR (light Wind blade coupled pumping motor
moisture sensor Sensor) dynamo (wind and solenoid
sensor Sensor) valve
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 0
 0 for moisture level sensor less moisture level (greater resistance of the
soil)
 1 for moisture level sensor greater moisture level (less resistance of the
soil)
 0 for other sensors absence of rain, high wind and high light
intensity
 1 for other sensors presence of rain, high wind and high light
intensity
 0 for motor and solenoid valve The motor is in OFF state and the solenoid
valve is in Closed state

46
 1 for motor and solenoid valve The motor is in ON state and the solenoid
valve is in Open state

The truth table above described the relationships between the input devices (sensors)
and the output devices (Motor-driven pump & solenoid valve) with respect to the status
of the sensing devices mentioned. Based on the truth table, the motor-driven pump and
solenoid valve shall be operated (On state) only when all of the sensing devices
(sensors) are in (0) state which means that if any of the sensors used makes a detection,
the output device should not operate. The actual simulation results shall be explained in
the next sections in this chapter.

4.1 Simulation Result

The aforementioned control design illustrated by the system’s truth table was simulated
using the design parameters described in the previous Chapter (The Methodology). The
control parameters were integrated into one common electronic circuit design to
function as one whole controlling circuit for the entire control parameter.

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4.1.1 For Irrigating the Farm

Fig.4.1Irrigating System Result When Irrigation is Carried ON

As we observed from the above circuit diagram when the watermark moisture sensor,
the rain sensor, the light sensor and the wind speed sensor sensed the dryness of the soil,
the absence of rainfall, the minimum intensity of light and low wind speed in the
recommended set values respectively, the system start to irrigate the farm by opening
the solenoid valve and by turning ON the pumping motor. The Green LED indicates the
pumping motor and the yellow LED indicates the opened solenoid valve when the
system is irrigating the farm as shown above.

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4.1.2 For Stop Irrigating the Farm

Fig.4.2 Simulation Result When the System Stops Irrigation

The system stopped irrigating the farm when there is a rainfall on the irrigated farm as it
is show above in the simulation result. We have observed that the system cannot irrigate
the farm if one or two or three of the factors which are the rainfall, light intensity and
local wind speed are beyond the recommended set values even if the dryness of the soil
gets increased. We observed that the LEDs are not giving light when the values of factor
or factors are out of the recommended values. The black diodes/LEDs represented the
OFF state of the pumping motor and the solenoid valve.

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4.1.3 For Filling the Water Tanker /Reservoir

Fig.4.3 Simulation Result for Water Filling of the Reservoir/Tanker

The water reservoir filling was also simulated using the Proteus software in which the
researchers observed that when the reservoir is not full this system opened the solenoid
valve to be filled with the water from the river through open channel by gravitational
force. The greenness of the LED is representing the energizing of the solenoid valve and
it is in open state due to its working principle to allow the water to pass through to fill
the reservoir. It must be emphasized that this solenoid valve is not the valve described in
the irrigation system circuit. This valve is exclusively used only in filling the reservoir
tank.

4.1.4 For Stop Filling the Water Tank/ Reservoir

Fig.4.4 Simulation Result for Stop Filling of the Reservoir

50
As we observed on the above simulation result, when the water reached at the top of the
reservoir the floating material opened the NC limit switch to close the solenoid valve to
stop filling the reservoir. The black LED represented the phenomenon of stop filling the
reservoir. However, as soon as the water level disengaged the NC limit switch, which
means that the water level is below the maximum level then the valve status has to be
On to allow water from the river streams to fill-up the reservoir so as to maintain full-
tank status.

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4.2 Cost Analysis

Table 4.2 Cost Analysis

NO. Materials Model Quantity Price($)


1 Transformer Atmel 89c51 1 2.1
2 Rectifier L293D 1 15.15
3 Filter crystal 1 0.15
4 Resistor ASIMMDLS and 13 7.8
POT
5 Voltage regulator LM020L 1 10.52
6 Relay G3PB 5 6
7 LED Diode -LED 2 1.8
8 Quad Operational amplifier LM7171A 3 8.64

9 Transistor 2N1711 3 1.5


10 Solenoid valve L177 V07V08 2 0.33

11 Switches Active 2 2.8

12 Watermark sensor 6440 1 39

13 Dynamo POW31944M 1 6.9

14 LDR sensor Active 1 10

15 Rain sensor SW120R 1 9.05

16 Limit Switch 5586 1 8.25

Total 104.79
This cost estimation can be for the controlling circuit of the automatic farm irrigation
only. The cost of the pumping motor, sprinklers, water pipes and the cost to build the
tanker can be estimated according to the size of the irrigated area in the interest of the
customer.

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CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion

We conclude that in this project we have studied and simulated an automatic farm
irrigation system using electronic circuit. The integration of different factors for
efficient irrigation has been mastered during the design and simulation. The objective is
to use sensors such as watermark moisture sensor, Light dependent resistor sensor, rain
sensor and wind speed sensor as signal receivers in farm for automatic farm irrigation
system. Based on our project, op-amp is reliable to use as a voltage comparator because
the cost and operation is better compared to PLC and Microcontroller. The results show
that the sensors are able to receive the required signals from the irrigated farm and it can
operate its operation as it is required.

The results show that the system can detect moisture level of the soil, presence of rain
fall, light intensity and wind speed very well in different electrical values.

This project can have many uses in practical fields, from saving time to saving money
and in increasing of crop production. It can be further improved to have more decision
taking capabilities by employing varied types of sensors and thus could be used in
industries for different applications such as in prevention of fire.

5.2 Recommendation

The automatic farm irrigation system still can be improved for future development.
Some modification and renovation on the system have to be made in order to acquire
powerful system of automatic farm irrigation. Therefore a list of recommendations is
given as below:

1. The system should be tested to be practical in agricultural sectors to assist the


economic activities of the country and therefore stakeholders such as our university and
ministry of agriculture must cooperate to see the fruit of this project.

2. The system can be used to spray the fertilizers on the farm in scientific way for proper
growth of the plants to increase agricultural production as a whole and the system can
be improved by PLC systems and Microcontrollers.

53
3. The system should be installed by skillful and knowledgeable persons in the field
which have different types of soil to set the system at the recommended values of
moisture level of the soil, local light intensity and local wind speed and it should be also
repaired by these persons when problems occurred on the system.

5.3 Future Work

We announce to the interested researchers who will work on this project to do their best
on the following concepts.

 The sprinkler spacing on the irrigated farm and the type of the sprinklers and the
rating and type of pumping motor, the capacity of the water pipes and the
capacity of solenoid valves can be specified and determined based on the need of
the farmers who will use this technology/system.
 The wind controlling circuit of the system should be improved a lot because
there will be high voltage output from the dynamo when the wind speed of the
local air gets increased extremely in a sudden way.

54
REFERENCES
[1].Awulachew, Merrey, Kamara, VanKoppen, Penning deVriesand Boelee (2005),
Experiences and Opportunities for Promoting Small-Scale/Micro Irrigation and
Rainwater Harvesting for food Security in Ethiopia, IWMI.

www.scribd.com/doc/61589102/thesis-project

[2].ZELLA, L.; KETTAB, A.; CHASSERIAUX, G. (2006): Design of a Micro-


Irrigation System Based on the Control Volume Method. In: Biotechnology, Agronomy,
Society and Environment 10, 163 – 171. [ Accessed: 17.10.2011]. PDF

http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water-
use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-agriculture/automatic-irriga

[3].INSTITUTE OF ENGEENIRRING AND TECHNOLOGY DR.RAM MANOHAR


LOHIYA AVADH UNIVERSITY, FAIZABAD Batch- 2009-2013 Project

http://www.sideshare.net/sushantshankar/automatic-plant-irrigator

[4]. http://www.ehow.com/about_4964098_types-voltage-regulators.html

[5]. http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/sensors?page=1

[6]. http://www.mfg.mtu.edu/cyberman/machtool/machtool/sensors/intro.html

[7]. Optimizing Irrigation . . . Maximizing Conservation . . . Worldwide Since


1951http://www.irrometer.com/pdf/sensors/403%20Sensor%20%20Web5.pdf

[8].Adriano ldr, cadmium sulfide photo resistor, LDR, ldr circuit, ldr sensor, ldr
datasheet since 2013.

http://www.resistorguide.com/photoresistor/

[9]. http://www.sprinklerwarehouse.com/rain-sensor-types-s/8309.htm

[10]. Japan Meteorological Agency, Measurement of Surface Wind Speed,

http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/jma-eng/jma-center/ric/material/1_Lecture_Notes/CP4-
Wind.pdf

55
[11]. http://www.circuitstoday.com/variable-resistors-working-and-applications

[12]. http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_2/5.html

[13]. http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/opamp/opamp_1.html

[14]. http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Transistor.html

[15]. http://www.physlink.com/education/askexperts/ae430.cfm

[16].How Relays Work - relay diagrams and relay definitions.


http://www.galco.com/comp/prod/relay.htm

[17].J.G. Ciezki and R.W. Ashton, “A Survey of AC Drive Propulsion Options,”


presented at the 3rdNaval Symposium on Electric Machines, December 4-7, 2000

http://www.scribd.com/doc/52403034/AC-and-DC-motor

[18]. http://www.solenoid-valve-info.com/solenoid-valve-basics.html

[19].http://ab.rockwellautomation.com/sensors -switches/limit-switches

[20].http://www.scribd.com/doc/213067786/CD-15-Water-Tank-Depth-Sensor-
Documentation

[21]. http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agricultural_engineering/spring_irrigation.pdf

[22]. http://www.pvcpipedetector.com/archives/pvc-vs-pp-pipe/#.U5EYFXJdXhI

[23]. http://www.slideshare.net/ZairulZaiky/water-treatment-process-15747231

[24].http://www.unl.edu/synergycurriculum/Documents/FarmAnalyst/Irrigation%20En
ergy%20Audit%20Manual%20V1.1.pdf

[25]. http://www.angrau.ac.in/media/10970/ageng151theory.pdf

56
APPENDIX A
Hypothetical Data for Moisture level Of Each Soil Type and their equivalent resistance
measurement.

The following table shows the experimental result of Electrical resistance meter
readings as related to soil water tension for different soil type and available water
inch/ft.

Watermark Soil Sands Sandy Loams Silt and Clay


sensor Tension(centibars) Loams Loams
10 10 1.0 1.7 2.2 2.4
20 20 0.8 1.5 1.85 2
30 30 0.7 1.2 1.6 1.8
40 40 0.6 1.05 1.4 1.6
50 50 0.5 0.9 1.2 1.4
60 60 0.45 0.8 1.1 1.2
70 70 0.4 0.7 1.02 1.05
80 80 0.36 0.65 0.95 0.95
90 90 0.33 0.6 0.87 0.87
100 100 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.83
199 200 0.22 0.4 0.6 0.7
-- 500 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-- 1500* 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
*Permanent wilting point

Readings above the shaded area indicate optimum soil water range for typical soils.
Begin irrigation when readings are within the shaded area, depending on the soil texture,
crop, and irrigation system capacity.

Source: http://lubbock.tamu.edu/files/2011/10/l901.pdf

57
APPENDIX B
Hypothetical Data forLux Levels with their equivalent resistances

The table shown below can show the resistance measure for a typical resistor at different
light intensity.

Resistance Illuminance (lux) Typical Conditions

350kΩ 0.8 lux Nightime with a clear sky and full


moon

300kΩ 1 lux Nightime with minimal street


lighting

114kΩ 3.4 lux Twilight with a clear sky

7105Ω 100 lux Daytime, cloudy and in a shaded


area

2263Ω 400 lux Daytime, sunset on a clear day

338Ω 4000 lux Daytime, Indoors well lit room

158.8Ω 10,000 lux Daytime, midday scattered cloud

50.5Ω 40,000 lux Direct sunlight

Note: due to the nature of LDR technology, resistance values from one sensor to another
can vary, including sensors from the same manufacturing batch, even when exposed to
similar lighting conditions. For this reason calibration may be required during the
commissioning process on a site by site basis.

Source:http://www.resourcedm.com/docs/Wall%20Mountable%20LDR%20Light%20S
ensor%20V1.1.pdf

58
APPENDIX C

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ( TCASE = 25 OC UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED) OF


2N7111
Symbol Parameter Test Conditions Min Ty Ma Unit
Test . p. x.
ICBO Collector Cut-off VCB = 60 V 10 nA
Current (IE = 0) VCB = 60 V TC = 150 oC 10 mA

IEBO Emitter Cut-off VEB = 5 V 5 nA


Current
(IC = 0)
V(BR)C Collector-Base IC = 100 mA 75 V
BO Breakdown Voltage
(IE = 0)

V(BR)C Collector-Emitter IC = 10 mA 50 V
ER* Breakdown Voltage
(RBE £ 10W)

V(BR)E Emitter-Base IE = 100 mA 7 V


BO Breakdown Voltage
(IC = 0)

VCE(sat Collector-Emitter IC = 150 mA IB = 15 0.5 1.5 V


)* Saturation Voltage mA

VBE(sat Base-Emitter IC = 150 mA IB = 15 mA 0.9 1.3 v


)* Saturation Voltage 5

59
hFE* DC Current Gain IC = 10 mA VCE = 10 V 20 60 300
IC = 0.1 mA VCE = 10 V 35 80
IC = 10 mA VCE = 10 V 75 13
IC = 150 mA VCE = 10 V 100 0
IC = 500 mA VCE = 10 V 40 13
IC = 10 mA VCE = 10 V 35 0
TC = -55 oC 75
65

hfe Small Signal IC = 1 mA VCE = 10 V f 70 13 300


Current = 1 KHz 5
Gain

fT Transition IC = 50 mA VCE = 10 V f 70 10 MHz


Frequency = 20 MHz 0
CEBO Emitter-Base IC = 0 VEB = 0.5 V f = 1 50 80 pF
Capacitance MHz

CCBO Collector-Base IE = 0 VCB = 10 V f = 1 18 25 pF


Capacitance MHz

NF Noise Figure IC = 0.3 mA VCE = 10 V 3.5 8 dB


Rg = 510 W f = 1 KHz

hie Input Impedance IC = 1 mA VCE = 5 V f = 4.4 KW


1 KHz
hre Reverse Voltage IC = 1 mA VCE = 5 V f = 7.3
Ratio 1 KHz x
10-
4
hoe Output Admittance IC = 1 mA VCE = 5 V f = 23. mS
1 KHz 8

60
* Pulsed: Pulse duration = 300 ms, duty cycle £ 1 %

Source:http://pdf1.alldatasheet.com/datasheetpdf/view/210721/STMICROELECTRONI
CS/2N1711.html

61