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Marketing is a crucial function in all businesses and organizations, and is becoming

increasingly crucial to success in our modern global economy. This course, regardless of your
industry background, will teach you core concepts and tools to help you better understand and
excel in marketing. Key topics include Market Research and its importance to strategy, brand
strategy, pricing, integrated marketing communication, social media strategy and more.


 According to the American Marketing Association (AMA) Board of

Directors, Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating,
communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers,
clients, partners, and society at large.
 Marketing includes research, targeting, communications (advertising and direct
mail) and often public relations. Marketing is to sales as ploughing is to planting for
a farmer—it prepares an audience to receive a direct sales pitch. Mary Ellen Bianco
– Director Marketing & Communications, Getzler Henrich & Associates LLC


Marketing are activities of a company associated with buying and selling a product or
service. It includes advertising, selling and delivering products to people. People who work
in marketing departments of companies try to get the attention of target audiences by using
slogans, packaging design, celebrity endorsements and general media exposure.


Marketing is related to the exchange of goods and services. Through its medium the goods
and services are brought to the place of consumption. This satisfies the needs of the
customers. The following activities are undertaken in respect of the exchange of goods and

1. Gathering and Analysing Market Information:

Gathering and analysing market information is an important function of marketing. Under
it, an effort is made to understand the consumer thoroughly in the following ways:
(a) What do the consumers want?
(b) In what quantity?
(c) At what price?
(d) When do they want (it)?
(e) What kind of advertisement do they like?
(f) Where do they want (it)?
What kind of distribution system do they like? All the relevant information about the
consumer is collected and analysed. On the basis of this analysis an effort is made to find
out as to which product has the best opportunities in the market.
2. Marketing Planning:
In order to achieve the objectives of an organisation with regard to its marketing, the
marketer chalks out his marketing plan. For example, a company has a 25% market share of
a particular product.
The company wants to raise it to 40%. In order to achieve this objective the marketer has to
prepare a plan in respect of the level of production and promotion efforts. It will also be
decided as to who will do what, when and how. To do this is known as marketing planning.
3. Product Designing and Development:
Product designing plays an important role in product selling. The company whose product
is better and attractively designed sells more than the product of a company whose design
happens to be weak and unattractive.
In this way, it can be said that the possession of a special design affords a company to a
competitive advantage. It is important to remember that it is not sufficient to prepare a design
in respect of a product, but it is more important to develop it continuously.
4. Standardisation and Grading:
Standardisation refers to determining of standard regarding size, quality, design, weight,
colour, raw material to be used, etc., in respect of a particular product. By doing so, it is
ascertained that the given product will have some peculiarities.
This way, sale is made possible on the basis of samples. Mostly, it is the practice that the
traders look at the samples and place purchase order for a large quantity of the product
concerned. The basis of it is that goods supplied conform to the same standard as shown in
the sample.
Products having the same characteristics (or standard) are placed in a given category or
grade. This placing is called grading. For example, a company produces commodity – X,
having three grades, namely A’. ‘B’ and ‘C’, representing three levels of quality; best,
medium and ordinary respectively.
Customers who want best quality will be shown ‘A’ grade product. This way, the customer
will have no doubt in his mind that a low grade product has been palmed off to him. Grading,
therefore, makes sale-purchase easy. Grading process is mostly used in case of agricultural
products like food grains, cotton, tobacco, apples, mangoes, etc.
5. Packaging and Labelling:
Packaging aims at avoiding breakage, damage, destruction, etc., of the goods during transit
and storage. Packaging facilitates handling, lifting, conveying of the goods. Many a time,
customers demand goods in different quantities. It necessitates special packaging. Packing
material includes bottles, canister, plastic bags, tin or wooden boxes, jute bags etc.
Label is a slip which is found on the product itself or on the package providing all the
information regarding the product and its producer. This can either be in the form of a cover
or a seal.
For example, the name of the medicine on its bottle along with the manufacturer’s name,
the formula used for making the medicine, date of manufacturing, expiry date, batch no.,
price etc., are printed on the slip thereby giving all the information regarding the medicine
to the consumer. The slip carrying all these is details called Label and the process of
preparing it as Labelling.
6. Branding:
Every producer/seller wants that his product should have special identity in the market. In
order to realise his wish he has to give a name to his product which has to be distinct from
other competitors.
Giving of distinct name to one’s product is called branding. Thus, the objective of branding
is to show that the products of a given company are different from that of the competitors,
so that it has its own identity.
For instance, if a company wants to popularise its commodity – X under the name of “777”
(triple seven) then its brand will be called “777”. It is possible that another company is
selling a similar commodity under AAA (Triple ‘A’) brand name.
Under these circumstances, both the companies will succeed in establishing a distinct
identity of their products in the market. When a brand is not registered under the trade Mark
Act, 1999, it becomes a Trade Mark.
7. Customer Support Service:
Customer is the king of market. Therefore, it is one of the chief functions of marketer to
offer every possible help to the customers. A marketer offers primarily the following
services to the customers:
(i) After-sales-services
(ii) Handling customers’ complaints
(iii) Technical services
(iv) Credit facilities
(v) Maintenance services
Helping the customer in this way offers him satisfaction and in today’s competitive age
customer’s satisfaction happens to be the top-most priority. This encourages a customer’s
attachment to a particular product and he starts buying that product time and again.
8. Pricing of Products:
It is the most important function of a marketing manager to fix price of a product. The price
of a product is affected by its cost, rate of profit, price of competing product, policy of the
government, etc. The price of a product should be fixed in a manner that it should not appear
to be too high and at the same time it should earn enough profit for the organisation.
9. Promotion:
Promotion means informing the consumers about the products of the company and
encouraging them to buy these products. There are four methods of promotion: (i)
Advertising, (ii) Personal selling, (iii) Sales promotion and (iv) Publicity. Every decision
taken by the marketer in this respect affects the sales. These decisions are taken keeping in
view the budget of the company.
10. Physical Distribution:
Under this function of marketing the decision about carrying things from the place of
production to the place of consumption is taken into account. To accomplish this task,
decision about four factors are taken. They are: (i) Transportation, (ii) Inventory, (iii)
Warehousing and (iv) Order Processing. Physical distribution, by taking things, at the right
place and at the right time creates time and place utility.
11. Transportation:
Production, sale and consumption-all the three activities need not be at one place. Had it
been so, transportation of goods for physical distribution would have become irrelevant. But
generally it is not possible. Production is carried out at one place, sale at another place and
consumption at yet another place.
Transport facility is needed for the produced goods to reach the hands of consumers. So the
enterprise must have an easy access to means of transportation.
Mostly we see on the road side’s private vehicles belonging to Pepsi, Coca Cola, LML,
Britannia, etc. These private carriers are the living examples of transportation function of
marketing. Place utility is thus created by transportation activity.
12. Storage or Warehousing:
There is a time-lag between the purchase or production of goods and their sale. It is very
essential to store the goods at a safe place during this time-interval. Godowns are used for
this purpose. Keeping of goods in godowns till the same are sold is called storage.
For the marketing manager storage is an important function. Any negligence on his part may
damage the entire stock. Time utility is thus created by storage activity.


Some of the major objectives of marketing management are as follows: 1. Creation of

Demand 2. Customer Satisfaction 3. Market Share 4. Generation of Profits 5. Creation of
Goodwill and Public Image.
The basic purpose of marketing management is to achieve the objectives of the business. A
business aims at earning reasonable profits by satisfying the needs of customers.

In the light of this statement, we can highlight the objectives of marketing management
as follows:
1. Creation of Demand:
The marketing management’s first objective is to create demand through various means. A
conscious attempt is made to find out the preferences and tastes of the consumers. Goods
and services are produced to satisfy the needs of the customers. Demand is also created by
informing the customers the utility of various goods and services.
2. Customer Satisfaction:
The marketing manager must study the demands of customers before offering them
any goods or services. Selling the goods or services is not that important as the
satisfaction of the customers’ needs. Modern marketing is customer- oriented. It
begins and ends with the customer.
3. Market Share:
Every business aims at increasing its market share, i.e., the ratio of its sales to the
total sales in the economy. For instance, both Pepsi and Coke compete with each
other to increase their market share. For this, they have adopted innovative
advertising, innovative packaging, sales promotion activities, etc.
4. Generation of Profits:
The marketing department is the only department which generates revenue for the
business. Sufficient profits must be earned as a result of sale of want-satisfying
products. If the firm is not earning profits, it will not be able to survive in the market.
Moreover, profits are also needed for the growth and diversification of the firm.
5. Creation of Goodwill and Public Image:
To build up the public image of a firm over a period is another objective of
marketing. The marketing department provides quality products to customers at
reasonable prices and thus creates its impact on the customers.
The marketing manager attempts to raise the goodwill of the business by initiating
image- building activities such a sales promotion, publicity and advertisement, high
quality, reasonable price, convenient distribution outlets, etc..


Some of the most important scope of marketing are as follows: 1. Goods 2. Services 3. Events
4. Experiences 5. Persons 6. Places 7. Properties 8. Organizations 9. Information 10. Idea.

The scope of marketing deals with the question, ‘what is marketed?’ According to Kotler,
marketing people are involved with ten types of entities.

1. Goods:
Physical goods constitute the major part of a country’s production and marketing effort.
Companies market billions of food products, and millions of cars, refrigerators, television and

2. Services:

As economies advance, a large proportion of their activities is focused on the production of

services. Services include the work of airlines, hotels, car rental firms, beauticians, software
programmers, management consultants, and so on. Many market offerings consist of a mix of
goods and services. For example, a restaurant offers both goods and services.

3. Events:

Marketers promote events. Events can be trade shows, company anniversaries, entertainment
award shows, local festivals, health camps, and so on. For example, global sporting events such
as the Olympics or Common Wealth Games are promoted aggressively to both companies and

4. Experiences:

Marketers create experiences by offering a mix of both goods and services. A product is
promoted not only by communicating features but also by giving unique and interesting
experiences to customers. For example, Maruti Sx4 comes with Bluetooth technology to ensure
connectivity while driving, similarly residential townships offer landscaped gardens and
gaming zones.

5. Persons:

Due to a rise in testimonial advertising, celebrity marketing has become a business. All popular
personalities such as film stars, TV artists, and sportspersons have agents and personal
managers. They also tie up with PR agencies for better marketing of oneself

6. Places:

Cities, states, regions, and countries compete to attract tourists. Today, states and countries are
also marketing places to factories, companies, new residents, real estate agents, banks and
business associations. Place marketers are largely real estate agents and builders. They are
using mega events and exhibitions to market places. The tourism ministry is also aggressively
promoting tourist spots locally and globally.
7. Properties:

Properties can be categorized as real properties or financial properties. Real property is the
ownership of real estates, whereas financial property relates to stocks and bonds. Properties are
bought and sold through marketing.

Marketing enhances the need of ownership and creates possession utility. With improving
income levels in the economy, people are seeking better ways of saving money. Financial and
real property marketing need to build trust and confidence at higher levels.

8. Organizations:

Organizations actively work to build image in the minds of their target public. The PR
department plays an active role in marketing an organization’s image. Marketers of the services
need to build the corporate image, as exchange of services does not result in the ownership of
anything. The organization’s goodwill promotes trust and reliability. The organization’s image
also helps the companies in the smooth introduction of new products.

9. Information:

Information can be produced and marketed as a product. Educational institutions,

encyclopedias, non-fiction books, specialized magazines and newspapers market information.
The production, packaging, and distribution of information is a major industry. Media
revolution and increased literacy levels have widened the scope of information marketing.

10. Idea:

Every market offering includes a basic idea. Products and services are used as platforms for
delivering some idea or benefit. Social marketers widely promote ideas. Maruti Udyog Limited
promoted safe driving habits, need to wear seat belts, need to prohibit children from sitting near
the driver’s seat, and so on.


Following are the main limitations of Marketing :

 Marketing is not an exact science though it uses the techniques of science. Thus, the
results and conclusions drawn upon by using marketing research are not very accurate.

 The results of marketing are very vague as it is carried out on consumers, suppliers,
intermediaries, etc. who are humans. Humans have a tendency to behave artificially
when they know that they are being observed. Thus, the consumers and respondents
upon whom the research is carried behave artificially when they are aware that their
attitudes, beliefs, views, etc are being observed.

 Marketing is not a complete solution to any marketing issue as there are many dominant
variables between research conclusions and market response.

 Marketing is not free from bias. The research conclusions cannot be verified. The
reproduction of the same project on the same class of respondents give different
research results.

 Inappropriate training to researchers can lead to misapprehension of questions to be

asked for data collection.

 Many business executives and researchers have ambiguity about the research problem
and it’s objectives. They have limited experience of the notion of the decision-making
process. This leads to carelessness in research and researchers are not able to do
anything real.

 There is less interaction between the Marketing department and the main research
executives. The research department is in segregation. This all makes research

 Marketing faces time constraint. The firms are required to maintain a balance between
the requirement for having a broader perspective of customer needs and the need for
quick decision making so as to have competitive advantage.

 Huge cost is involved in Marketing as collection and processing of data can be costly.
Many firms do not have the proficiency to carry wide surveys for collecting primary
data, and might not also able to hire specialized market experts and research agencies
to collect primary data. Thus, in that case, they go for obtaining secondary data that is
cheaper to obtain.
 Marketing is conducted in open marketplace where numerous variables act on research


A marketing strategy is a business' overall game plan for reaching people and turning them into
customers of the product or service that the business provides. The marketing strategy of a
company contains the company’s value proposition, key marketing messages, information on
the target customer, and other high level elements. Toby Bloomberg – Bloomberg
Marketing/Diva Marketing

A marketing strategy is a process or model to allow a company or organization to focus limited

resources on the best opportunities to increase sales and thereby achieve a sustainable
competitive advantage. Heidi Cohen – President, Riverside Marketing Strategies


An organization's strategy that combines all of its marketing goals into one comprehensive
plan. A good marketing strategy should be drawn from market research and focus on the right
product mix in order to achieve the maximum profit potential and sustain the business. The
marketing strategy is the foundation of a marketing plan.


 Marketing strategy provides an organization an edge over it’s competitors.

 Strategy helps in developing goods and services with best profit making potential.

 Marketing strategy helps in discovering the areas affected by organizational growth and
thereby helps in creating an organizational plan to cater to the customer needs.

 It helps in fixing the right price for organization’s goods and services based on
information collected by market research.
 Strategy ensures effective departmental co-ordination.

 It helps an organization to make optimum utilization of its resources so as to provide a

sales message to it’s target market.

 A marketing strategy helps to fix the advertising budget in advance, and it also develops
a method which determines the scope of the plan, i.e., it determines the revenue
generated by the advertising plan.

In short, a marketing strategy clearly explains how an organization reaches it’s predetermined


Hero Honda is spreading its wings and widening its business horizon to reach and serve
customers at new centers in the year ahead. The company services are backed by a highly
motivated and technology driven team to achieve customers need, product expertise and
geographic reach. The study is oriented towards the concept of different brands offered by Hero
Honda and its competitors to its customers. The company has endeavoured to move fast in
providing market solution, which maximize customer needs and convenience, using multiple
delivery channels in composing the agency network, service centers, lower service cost and
increased efficiency.


1.To study the market strategies followed by Hero Honda.

2.To find out the total market share of Hero Honda.

3.To find out the promotional tools used by Hero Honda.

4.To find out the customer preference towards the product of the company.

5.To study the impact of advertising by Hero Honda.

6.To provide useful information to the company about the product features of various
competiting companies.

7.To study the features of different brands that gives a good idea of various products and
services offered by the company.
8.To study the brands of Hero Honda & consumers perception about the product of hero Honda.

9.To understand the competitive environment in which the company is operating and is desired
to meet customer need and satisfaction


1.Research work was carried out in Chennai only the finding may not be applicable to the other
parts of the country because of social and cultural differences.

2.The sample was collected using connivance-sampling techniques. As such,result may not
give an exact representation of the population.

3.Shortage of time is also reason for incomprehensiveness.

4.The views of the people are biased therefore it doesn’t reflect true picture.


1. Mazzarol (2000) observed that “at the commencement of the new millennium, small
businesses are being heralded as the engine of economic growth, the incubator of
innovation, and the solution to decades of persistent unemployment the fulfilment of
the enormous potential of the sector has been a consistent theme since the
commencement of industrial revolution”
2. Study by Bessom, Richard M and Donald W Jackson Jr (1975) of 400 service
and marketing firms revealed that service firms are less likely to have marketing
departments, to make use of sales planning and training, and to employ marketing
professionals like consultants, advertising firms and market research agencies.'
3. James F Devlin (2000) studied as to how attempts can be made to add value when
offering services exhibiting increased complexity, intangibility and impalpability in
the eyes of most consumers. It was found that the features and quality of the core
service provided are judged by managers to be more important in adding value to
more complex services; as are organizational factors such as image and reputation.
In addition, price is perceived to be significantly more important in adding value to
more simple, rather than complex, offerings.
4. Faria and Wellington, 2005; Kyle, 2004 Empirical support for the relationship
between the marketing strategy and financial performance of a business has been
provided by a number of studies. The majority of these studies have been based on
the Profit Impact of Marketing Strategy and have focused on company performance
in USA
5. According to Chiliya et al., (2009), taking the South African context, Cant and Brink
(1999) studied the marketing perceptions of grocery shop owners whilst Martins
(2000) studied the retail strategies based on the income and expenditure patterns of
6. As suggested by Lages and Montgomery (2004), Pertaining to new strategies
further research could be undertaken with regards to firm’s reactive behaviour which
will help to achieve deeper understanding in firm and customer behaviour which, in
turn, will help to implement marketing strategies to the new age.
7. Salavou and Halikias (2008), in their study, also found that the majority of exporter
companies that obtained higher profitability, was due to their marketing-based
8. Also in the research by Abdul Adis and Md.Sidin,(2010) revealed that there were no
direct or significant relationship between export marketing strategy(concluding
product adaption, promotion adaption, distribution strategy, design strategy, price
competitiveness, support to foreign distributer, target market specification) and
export performance of Malaysian wooden furniture industry.
9. (Cavusgil, Zou 1994; Thirkell, Dau, 1998; Lee, Griffith, 2004;
Brodrechtova,2008; Salavou, Halikias, 2008) Marketing strategy is one of the
major elements of export performance and one of the key factors impacting export
10. (Sousa et al., 2008) Globalization process, global market competition and the
subsequent performance difficulties encouraged by exporters cause the increasing
interest in this subject.
11. According to Levie (2006), the aim of the development of an organization’s
marketing strategy development is to establish, build, defend and maintain its
competitive advantage.
12. Brodrechtova (2008) explains that marketing strategy is a roadmap of how a firm
assigns its resource and relates to its environment and achieves corporate objective
in order to generate economic value and keep the firm ahead of its competitors.
13. (Orville and Walker 2008; Theodosio, Leonidus, 2003; Kotler,Armstrong,
2009) A traditional definition of marketing strategy is a plan for pursuing the firm’s
objectives or how the company is going to obtain its marketing goals with a specific
market segment.
14. (Lages 2000) Marketing strategy formulation is viewed as an antecedent to
performance outcomes.
15. According to Levie (2006), the aim of the development of an organization’s
marketing strategy development is to establish, build, defend and maintain its
competitive advantage.

16. (March and Sutton1997) A thorough analysis of the newest scientific articles on
strategic management and organisational behaviour indicates that 71% of them
analyse company performance as a dependent variable, 12% of them analyse it as an
independent variable while 11% of the studies analyse performance as a dependent
as well as an independent variable.

17. According to Cavusgil and Zou (1994), export marketing strategy can be defined as “
the means by which a firm respond to interplay of internal and external forces to meet
the objective of the export venture.
18. (Sousa et al., 2008) Globalization process, global market competition and the
subsequent performance difficulties encouraged by exporters cause the increasing
interest in this subject.
19. Abdul Adis and Md.Sidin,(2010) revealed that there were no direct or significant
relationship between export marketing strategy(concluding product adaption,
promotion adaption, distribution strategy, design strategy, price competitiveness,
support to foreign distributer, target market specification) and export performance
of Malaysian wooden furniture industry.
20. Ravisankar 'T S (1985) in a study on 'Marketing Strategies and Planning for
Business Growth in Banks' says that the marketing plan for banking services should
be supported by appropriate marketing strategies. He suggests that marketing strategy
for banks must be oriented towards customers-current and potential.


Hero Motocorp Ltd.(formerly known as Hero Honda) is the world’s largest manufacturer
of two-wheelers and is based in India. It produces and sells a range of motorcycles and
scooters and has a market share of 46% among Indian two-wheelers. The company is
promoted by the Munjal brothers and listed on India’s National Stock Exchange(NSE)
and Bombay Stock Exchange(BSE).

Hero Motocorp began its operations in 1984 as a joint venture with Honda Motors, Japan
and the company was incorporated as Hero Honda Motors Ltd. Their first product Hero
Honda CD100, a fuel efficient bike was launched in 1985. In two years time, they
produced 100,000 motorcycles. Very soon they introduced ‘Sleek’, a motorcycle model
and in 1991, they produced their 500,000th bike. In 2000, the Splendor Motorcycle
became the world’s largest selling two wheeler brand.

In 2010, the Director Board of Hero Honda decided to terminate the agreement with
Honda Motors following differences of opinion. The termination process was to be
executed in a phased manner. Hero Group agreed to buy the 26% stake of Honda.
Differences of opinion started a few years before the split due to Honda’s refusal to
provide technology free despite a 10-year tie-up that was to end only by 2014. Honda also
refused to merge the Joint venture firms' spare parts business with Hero Motorcycle and
Scooters India Ltd.

The founder of Hero Group, Dr. Brijmohan Lall Munjal,(1923-2015) was born in Kamalia
(now part of Pakistan). He and his family relocated to Ludhiana and set up their first
venture called Hero Cycles which made bicycles. By 1975, they became the largest bi-
cycle manufacturers in India. They grew by setting up dealer networks through family
members and associates. The joint venture with Honda helped them become the largest
two-wheeler manufacturer in the world.
The company is presently headed by Pawan Munjal, Chairman, Managing Director &
CEO. Vikram Kasbekar, Director and Head of Operations; Dr Markus Braunsperger,
Chief Technology Officer; Mr Ravi Sud, Senior Vice-President & Chief Financial

Hero Motocorp has a wide range of motorcycles and scooters. Among the motorcycle
brands are-Karizma ZMR, Karizma, Xtreme Sports, Xtreme, Hunk, Impulse, Achiever,
Ignitor, Glamour, Super Splendor, Splendor PRO, PASSION PRO i3s, HF Deluxe, HF
Dawn and scooter brands Pleasure, Duet, and Maestro Edge.

Since its inception, the company has maintained its edge in the market, thanks to its
superior technology from Honda and its fuel efficient 4-stroke engines. The popular ad
of Hero Honda in the 1980’s, 1990’s was ‘Fill it, Shut it, Forget it’. The company’s efforts
to launch customized variations of vehicles with reasonable pricing based on market
demand has helped them remain a favorite of consumers.

Hero Group has been active in promoting sports in the country. The company has a 49%
stake in Erik Buell Racing that manufactures street and racing motorcycles based in
Wisconsin, USA. The company filed for bankruptcy in 2015 and Hero Group acquired
some assets for US $2.8 mn.

Hero is active in the promotion of hockey, golf, and cricket among other sports in India
and abroad.

Hero MotoCorp has four world-class manufacturing facilities- two in Gurgaon near New
Delhi, one in Haridwar in Uttarakhand state, and one in Neemrana, Rajasthan.

Hero Motocorp has grown on the strength of its dealers and service networks across the
country. It has 6000 customer touch points comprising of authorized dealerships, service
and spare parts outlets, and dealer appointed outlets.

In the past 25 years, it has won several awards and this year too, its products have shown
an outstanding performance. Maestro Edge won the Overdrive Scooter of the Year Award,
Overdrive Manufacturer of the Year Award, Time India Manufacturing Innovator of the
Year award among others