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You are on page 1of 697

Introduction

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

About Applied Flow Technology

leader in providing high quality software to analyze flows,

pressures and transients in systems with pipes, pumps and

valves

Customers in 70+ countries

Representatives in 32 locations around the world

Intro - 1

AFT Fathom™ 9

– Liquid and low velocity gas systems

Models open and closed systems

Models systems that are pressure, gravity or pump driven

Models heat transfer and system energy balance

Offers broad range of innovative reporting features

– Printed output is of report quality

Offers customizable component and property databases

– Cost calculations

– Rheological data handling to support non-Newtonian fluids

Intro - 2

AFT Fathom™ Add-On Modules

– Simulate dynamic behavior of systems over time

– Models infinite and open and closed finite tanks of constant and

varying cross section

– Supports user defined time and event transients of pumps, valves

and other components

GSC – Goal Seek & Control

– Automatically determines input variables that will yield specified

output values

– Extends Fathom’s control simulation capabilities to include remote

sensing

SSL – Settling Slurry simulation

– Simulates settling slurry behavior

– Simulates pump performance degradation

Intro - 3

AFT Arrow™ 6

– High to low velocity gas systems

– High to low pressures

Models open and closed systems

Accurately models

– Real gases

– Heat transfer

– Highly compressible (sonic and near sonic) systems

Balances flow and energy throughout the system

Offers broad range of innovative reporting features

Offers customizable component and property databases

Includes high accuracy steam/water properties to ASME

Intro - 4

AFT Arrow™ Add-On Module

– Automatically determines input variables that will yield specified

output values

– Extends Arrow’s control simulation capabilities to include remote

sensing

Intro - 5

AFT Impulse™ 6

Models system transients caused by

– Sudden valve closures

– Pump startups and shutdowns including pump inertia effects

– Relief valve cracking

– Events defined within the system (e.g. flow, pressure, etc.)

Includes modeling of

– Control and relief valves, vacuum breaker valves, check valves,

pumps, accumulators, turbines, and surge tanks

Includes a steady-state solver to determine initial conditions

Calculates unbalanced transient forces

– Forces can be graphed or exported as Force/Time data files

Can also import AFT Fathom models

Intro - 6

AFT Impulse™ Add-On Module

– Simulates settling slurry behavior

– Simulates pump performance degradation

Intro - 7

AFT Mercury™ 7

AFT Titan™ 4

Models and designs network pipe systems

Combines a powerful hydraulic solver and flexible graphical

interface with an advanced optimization engine

– Automatically selects best pipe and component sizes to minimize

initial or life cycle cost, size or weight using IntelliFlow®

Ability to apply multiple constraints to pipes and junctions

Cost optimization may include;

– non-recurring costs (materials and installation)

– recurring costs (energy and maintenance) including time varying

cost (energy costs varying with time)

Offers customizable engineering and cost databases

Includes powerful modeling and output capabilities

of AFT Fathom 7 and Arrow 4

Intro - 8

Additional Software Products

– Property database of ~700 fluids

– Ability to define static pre-mixtures

– Dynamic mixing capability in Arrow

Chempak Viewer™ 2.0 & Chempak Add-in™ (for Excel)

– Viewer allows use of Chempak as a stand alone application

– Add-in makes all of the Chempak functions accessible within an

Excel spreadsheet

SteamCalc™ 2.0

– High accuracy ASME steam/water library for Windows and Excel

Intro - 9

Product Applications

of industrial systems:

– Power generation systems

– Chemical and petrochemical systems

– Oil and gas production, transportation, refining and delivery

– Automotive systems

– Aerospace systems

– Air conditioning and refrigeration systems

– Pulp and paper processing

– Fire suppression

– Water and Wastewater treatment plant design

– Mining processing and support systems

– Municipal water distribution

Intro - 10

AFT Flow Expert Package™

requests on the installation, upgrade assistance, and

functionality of AFT software.

Access to a consulting engineer assigned as your primary

point of contact.

Package Options: Blocks of 5 hours, 10 hours and 20 hours

Typical ways to use your hours:

– Receive online training on specific topics of your choice

– Request help on model results interpretation

– Get a second opinion of your assumptions, modeling choices

and reports

Intro - 11

AFT Flow Expert Package™ (2)

– Have an expert double check your modeling input and point out

common modeling mistakes or suggest better ways to model the

desired behavior

– Receive guidance in how to model pumps and pump-system

interaction, relief valves and relief systems, surge suppression

equipment, slurry pipelines, system transients, and anything

having to do with flow in pipe systems

– Discuss with an expert alternative solutions for hydraulic

problems

– Help launch AFT software within your company and reduce your

learning curve

– Help new hires get acquainted with AFT software

Intro - 12

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Nomenclature

a = wavespeed I = inertia

A = cross-sectional area J = Jacobian matrix

B = impedance K = bulk modulus for liquid

BM = parameter as defined in Section 3 K = loss factor

BP = parameter as defined in Section 3 K = constant for Power Law fluid

CD = discharge coefficient K´ = rigidity of tank

CM = parameter as defined in Section 3 Ksprinkler = fire sprinkler loss factor

CP = parameter as defined in Section 3 L = length

CV = valve coefficient m

= mass flowrate

CHW = Hazen-Williams factor n = polytropic constant

D = diameter n = number of pipe sections

E = modulus of elasticity n = constant for Power Law fluid

EGL = energy gradeline N = pump speed in rpm

e = pipe wall thickness Ns = specific speed

f = friction factor P = pressure, static

F = error value in steady-state mass balance P = power

g = gravitational acceleration Po = pressure, stagnation

H = head

HGL = hydraulic gradeline

Nomenclature (2)

Q = volumetric flow rate α = angle (slope of pipe)

r = radius ε = roughness

r = relaxation λ = method of characteristics multiplier

R = resistance µ = Poisson's ratio

Rc = coefficient of rigidity µ, θ = angle

Re = Reynolds number ρ = density

s = pump speed ω = rotational speed

SB = parameter as defined in Section 3

Subscripts

SC = parameter as defined in Section 3

exit = exit point from pipe system or junction

Sy = yield stress

i = computing location in pipe

t = time

j = junction

T = torque

new = current time for computation

V = velocity

old = most recent time for computation

V = volume

x = distance

z = elevation

AFT Impulse General Description

analysis

Drag-and-Drop graphical interface

Simulates steady and transient behavior in liquid pipe

networks

For steady flow uses Newton-Raphson matrix techniques to

solve 2 equations: Continuity (Mass) Equation and

Momentum (Bernoulli) Equation

For transient flow uses explicit Method of Characteristics

technique to solve the 2 equations for each pipe: Continuity

(Mass) Equation and Momentum Equation

I1 - 1

AFT Impulse General Description (2)

– Open or closed systems

– Branching systems

– Looping systems

Can model non-Newtonian fluids using Power Law and

Bingham Plastic

Can model variable fluid properties

English and SI units supported

I1 - 2

Components That Can Be Modeled

– Can model transient flow source or sink

Known pressure or flow boundaries

– Conditions can change with time

Pumps

– Pump speed can change with time

– Pump inertial effects and four-quadrant curves

– Centrifugal pumps and positive displacement pumps

– Pumps with flow controllers

Pressure and flow control valves

Valves

– Valve position can change with time

I1 - 3

Components That Can Be Modeled (2)

Relief valves

– Three different valve types – Internal, Exit, and Inline Exit

– Can model different opening and closing profiles (i.e. time or

pressure)

– Can model overpressure, and blowdown pressure in addition to

opening set pressure

– Rate limits can be applied to opening or closing pressure profiles

Check valves

– Model Cv vs. Time profiles to avoid instantaneous opening and

closing of check valves

Gas accumulators, liquid accumulators, surge tanks and

vacuum breaker valves

Francis hydroelectric turbines

I1 - 4

Engineering Limitations

Flow is liquid, liquid-full and one-dimensional

Wavespeed stays constant during transient

Non-condensable gas (e.g. air) release is negligible

No limit on number of pumps, valves, etc.

No limit on number of custom components, fluids or pipe

materials

I1 - 5

Impulse 6 Startup Window

I1 - 6

Primary Windows

Windows

– Workspace

– Model Data

– Output

– Visual Report

– Graph Results

The Primary Windows offer a mixture and graphical and text-

based features to assist in the modeling process

Tabbed Primary Windows allow for easier navigation

Robust usage of dual monitors is supported

– Can drag the Primary Window tabs into their own

separate window

I1 - 7

Primary Window Process Flow

Model Data

Visual Report

Workspace Output

Graph Results

I1 - 8

Workspace: Toolbox

This tool is used to

draw new pipes

This tool will add

These icons annotation to the

represent workspace

different

components

I1 - 9

Quick Access Panel – Activate Modules

I1 - 10

Workspace - Editing Features

supported

– Only one level of undo is supported

Workspace can be sized to fit the model

You can zoom out to see a larger area

Objects can be selected as a group in several ways

– Selecting the components by dragging the mouse over them

– Using the SHIFT key while clicking on the objects

– Using Select Flow Path on the Edit menu

– Using the Select Special tool on the Edit menu

– Using Groups / Select on the Edit menu

– Using the Select All feature

I1 - 11

Workspace - Editing Features (2)

The selected objects can be renumbered in four ways:

– Manually

– Renumber Automatic

– Renumber Wizard

– Renumber Increment

The Find tool will move the Workspace window to show a pipe

or junction

I1 - 12

Workspace - Platform for Data Entry

All pipe and junction objects placed onto the Workspace are

interactive

To open the Properties window for data entry, just double-click

the graphical object

– Alternatively, you can select the object by clicking on it once and

then press the Enter key

– Or you can select the object by clicking on it once and then click

on the Open Pipe/Jct Window button on the Workspace Toolbar

The Properties windows are the primary manner in which

component data is entered

The Global Pipe Edit and Global Junction Edit windows can

speed up data entry

I1 - 13

Workspace - Reporting

Print Preview allows page customization

– The image can be sized on the page

– A company logo and custom text can be added

I1 - 14

Model Data Window

– General Data

– Pipe Data

– Junction Data

Each section can be re-sized or collapsed allowing the user to

focus on any of the sections

User can select all or portions of the Model Data Window

content for printing

– Print format window allows customizing of content

– User can also select the font

I1 - 15

Model Data Window (2)

printout, the input can be printed in its entirety

Properties windows for data entry can be opened by double-

clicking the far left column

I1 - 16

Output Window

the results of an analysis in text form

Output Window is broken into three sections

– General Results

– Pipe Results

– Junction Results

Each section can be re-sized or collapsed allowing the user to

focus on any of the sections

Each section contains tabs to permit quick viewing of output

by type

Transient event messages are separated into two lists

– Sorted by junction

– Sorted by time

I1 - 17

Output Window (2)

for printing

– Print format window allows customizing of content

– User can also select the font

User can sort output according to any of the columns for quick

review of data extreme maximums and minimums

Output Window content is specified by Output Control

Window

I1 - 18

Visual Report Window

together with pipe system image

I1 - 19

Graph Results Window

Windows graphs

I1 - 20

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution

Methodology

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Introduction

steady-state flow distribution in a pipe network

– The Newton-Raphson Method for pipe networks is a matrix

method

This method gained favor with the introduction of the digital

computer

The technique has been considered standard industry

practice for 40 years

I2 - 1

Pressure Definitions

stagnation pressures

AFT Impulse terminology

1

P + ρV 2 + ρgh = Const

2

}

}

}

Static Hydrostatic

Dynamic

(or Velocity)

Ptotal = Pstagnation = Pstatic + Pdynamic

AFT Impulse uses the term Pstagnation and not Ptotal

Input pressures in Impulse, such as assigned pressure

junction, assume Pstagnation as input

I2 - 2

Basic Laws of Pipe Flow

Mass Conservation

m = ρAV

1 1

P1 + ρV12 + ρgh1 = P2 + ρV22 + ρgh2 + ∆Ploss

2 2

into the stagnation (total) pressure, and the solution is then for

total pressure

– Therefore, the momentum equation becomes

I2 - 3

Law of Friction

Weisbach friction factor, f

L 1 2

∆Ploss = f ρV

D 2

The friction factor is not a constant, but a function of the pipe

wall characteristics and the Reynolds number

AFT Impulse uses the iterative Colebrook-White correlation

for turbulent flow and the traditional laminar flow equation

when laminar −2

ε

f = 1.14 − 2 log +

9.35

D Re f

(Re > 4000)

f =

64 (Re < 2300)

Re

Special friction models available for pulp and

paper stock and crude oil I2 - 4

Modified Form for Law of Friction

Basic law

L 1 2

∆Ploss = f ρV

D 2

Substituting mass flow rate definition

2

L 1 m

∆Ploss = f ρ

D 2 ρA

Defining new term, where R is a pipe resistance

2

∆Ploss = Rm

L 1

R= f

D 2 ρA 2

2

Po,1 + ρ gh1 = Po,2 + ρ gh2 + Rm

I2 - 5

Balancing Mass at Branches

n

∑ m ij = 0

j =1

every branch, i 0.5

n (

P − P + ρg h − h

o, j )

∑ sgn(Po, j − Po,i + ρg (h j − hi ))

o,i j i

=0

Rij

j =1

The objective is to find all of the P values that satisfy the

above equation applied to every branch

We will then have a solution for two unknowns:

– pressure at all junctions

– mass flow rate in all pipes I2 - 6

Solving the Equations

All of the equations are non-linear

AFT Impulse uses the Newton-Raphson Method to solve the

system of equations

– Newton-Raphson is an iterative method used to solve for roots of

equations

Initially the pipe flow rates are not known so an error, F, exists

at each branch 0.5

n (

P − P + ρg h − h

o, j )

∑ sgn(Po, j − Po,i + ρg (h j − hi ))

o,i j i

= Fi

Rij

j =1

The objective is to use the Newton-Raphson Method to drive

all of the F errors to zero (within some tolerance)

I2 - 7

The Newton-Raphson Method

equation is as follows

1. Take a guess at the solution to function F

2. Calculate an improved guess using the following equation:

F (xi )

xi + 1 = xi −

F ′(xi )

equation until the change in x is small

F(x)

F(xi)

-F'(xi)

x

xi xi+1 I2 - 8

Solving the System

unknown, Newton-Raphson looks as follows

Po,new = Po,old − J F −1F

function derivatives - both of a size, n, which is the number of branches

(i.e., equations in the system)

∂ F1 ∂ F1 ∂ F1

∂P ∂P

o,1 o, 2 ∂ Po,n

∂ F2 ∂ F2 ∂ F2

J F = ∂Po,1 ∂ Po,2 ∂Po,n

∂F n ∂F n ∂F n

∂ P

o,1 o,2∂ P ∂ Po,n

I2 - 9

Derivative Terms in Jacobian

calculated analytically

n (

P − P + ρg h − h

o, j ) 0.5

∑ sgn(Po, j − Po,i + ρg (h j − hi ))

o,i j i

Fi =

Rij

j =1

n

∂F i

= ∑ − 0.5 ( −

0.5 Po, j Po,i

(

+ ρg h j − hi )) −0.5

∂Pi R

j =1 ij

∂F i 0.5

= (P − P

∂P j R 0.5 o, j o,i

+ ρg (

h j − hi )

) −0.5

ij

I2 - 10

Solving the Matrix

to solve a linear system of equations as follows

Po,new = Po,old − z

−1

z = JF F

JF z = F

above

Use Gaussian Elimination to solve for z

– By multiple substitutions, we progressively eliminate terms in JF and

eventually obtain the identity matrix, where all terms are zero except the

diagonal, which is unity

– We then have the solution for z, which can be substituted back into the

original equation at the top to improve our guess for all

of the pressures in the pressure vector

I2 - 11

Test Problem #1

1 2

P = 200 psig pipe 1 pipe 2 P = 175 psig

h = 0 feet h = 0 feet

4

h = 0 feet

pipe 3

P = 160 psig

h = 0 feet

3 1 0.0219 100 4 Water @ 70F

2 0.0156 75 4 Water @ 70F

3 0.0180 125 6 Water @ 70F

In this test problem, pipe resistances Jct P (psig) Steel - ANSI pipe, STD schedules

can be calculated based on known 1 200

friction factor (shown in the table) 2 175

3 160

I2 - 12

Test Problem #1 (2)

To start the solution, we need to guess P4, so guess 180 psig

0.5

n P j − Pi

[ (

F = ∑ sgn P j − Pi

j =1

)]

Rij

0.5 0.5 0.5

P −P P − P4 P −P

F = [sgn(P1 − P4 )] 1 4 + [sgn(P2 − P4 )] 2 +[sgn(P 3 − P4 )] 3 4

R1− 4 R2 − 4 R 3− 4

F = -277.1489

F′= P1 − P4 − + P2 − P4 − + P3 − P4 −

R1− 4 0.5 R2 − 4 0.5 R3− 4 0.5

F ′ = -18.6139

F (Pold )

Pnew = Pold −

F ′(Pold )

I2 - 13

Note: All pressures here are stagnation

Test Problem #1 (3)

We then use Newton-Raphson to get an improved value for P4

F (Pold )

Pnew = Pold −

F ′(Pold )

Iteration Pj=4 Mpipe=1 Mpipe=2 Mpipe=3 F F'

1 180.0000 115.3464 -78.9048 -313.5906 -277.1489 -18.6139

2 165.1106 152.3476 110.9691 -158.5207 104.7960 -23.3027

3 169.6078 142.1903 81.9409 -217.3503 6.7810 -21.2485

4 169.9269 141.4418 79.4792 -220.9305 -0.0095 -21.3129

5 169.9265 141.4429 79.4827 -220.9255 0.0000 -21.3128

6 169.9265 141.4429 79.4827 -220.9255 0.0000 -21.3128

7 169.9265 141.4429 79.4827 -220.9255 0.0000 -21.3128

I2 - 14

Note: All pressures here are stagnation

Convergence

some small amount, the calculation is converged

Different criteria can be applied for identifying convergence

– Percentage change in result

– Absolute change in result

We will cover convergence in a later section

I2 - 15

Flow Rate Updates

In practice, after the pressure solution was obtained a new

flow solution would be calculated

The new flows would then be compared against the old flows

If the flows changed too much they would be updated and the

pressure solution repeated

This whole procedure would be repeated until flow and

pressure updates were small

I2 - 16

Steady-State Solver Flow Chart

Update Hydraulic

Start Losses and Pumps

Solve Junction

Pressures

No

No Yes

Converged ? > Max Iterations ? End

Yes

Recalculate Mass

Flow Rates

No No

Converged ? > Max Iterations ?

Yes Yes

Return End

I2 - 17

Known Flow Vs. Known Pressure

Junctions

At all system boundaries AFT Impulse must solve for either

flow or pressure

User cannot specify both flow and pressure at the same point

because there would be nothing for AFT Impulse to solve

Either the flow rate calculation or the pressure calculation

must be available to AFT Impulse

I2 - 18

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Overview of Waterhammer

liquid piping system when some event causes a departure

from steady state

Waterhammer is the process the piping system experiences

as it adjusts to the new conditions

Waterhammer can be caused by many events including

– Valve closure or opening (in full or in part)

– Pump speed change

– Relief valve cracking open

– Tank pressurization

– Periodic pressure or flow conditions

I3 - 1

Terminology

The term “waterhammer” confuses some because it implies a

process only in water systems

Other terms which have been used are

– Fluidhammer

– Hydraulic Transients

– Fluid Transients

– Surge

I3 - 2

Types of Waterhammer

mechanisms

– There is no universal terminology for these mechanisms so the terminology here

is for discussion purposes

1. “Thermodynamic” waterhammer

– Liquid acceleration caused by local phase change

2. “Slug” waterhammer

– Liquid flows into an evacuated pipe system or when there are distinct liquid slugs

and gas pockets

– When liquid contacts equipment or direction changes (elbows) pressure spikes

can occur

3. “Mechanical” waterhammer

– Caused by equipment or component operational changes

• Pump trips, valves closed, etc.

– This is the type of waterhammer that Impulse can model

I3 - 3

Instantaneous Waterhammer

the wavespeed of the liquid

The wavespeed (a) is dependent on the:

– liquid acoustic velocity

– liquid density & liquid modulus of elasticity

– pipe modulus of elasticity (E), wall thickness (t), and material

Poisson Ratio (μ)

– pipe restraints

I3 - 4

US

Instantaneous Waterhammer

is given by the instantaneous waterhammer equation

P aV

second, Initial Velocity is 10 feet per second, Static Pressure is

50 psia.

2 2

lbm ft ft 1 ft lbf s

Pmax 62 3 * 2500 * 10 * 2 * 50 psia

ft s s 144 in 32.2 lbm ‐ ft

Pmax 334 50

I3 - 5

SI

Instantaneous Waterhammer

is given by the instantaneous waterhammer equation

P aV

second, Initial Velocity is 3 meters per second, Static Pressure is

1000 kPa.

kg m m

Pmax = 1000 *1000 *3 + 1000 kPa

m3 s s

Pmax 3000 kPa+1000 kPa

Pmax 4000 kPa

I3 - 6

Communication Time

waterhammer

The communication time is the time it takes for transient

events to communicate their existence to boundaries in the

piping system

The communication time is given by the following

L

t 2

a

communication time is in effect instantaneous

I3 - 7

Waterhammer Sequence

V=Vsteady V= Vsteady

V=0 V=0

a a

a c

b d

V= Vsteady V= Vsteady

V=0 V=0

a a

I3 - 8

Waterhammer Sequence - 0 < t < L/a

Valve closed

instantaneously at t=0

V=Vsteady

V=0

a

P

Pinstantaneous

Psteady

x

V

Vsteady

x

I3 - 9

Waterhammer Sequence - L/a < t < 2L/a

Valve closed

instantaneously at t=0

V=Vsteady

V=0

a

P

Pinstantaneous

Psteady

x

V

x

‐Vsteady

I3 - 10

Waterhammer Sequence - 2L/a < t < 3L/a

Valve closed

instantaneously at t=0

V=Vsteady

V=0

P

Psteady

Pinstantaneous

x

V

x

‐Vsteady

I3 - 11

Waterhammer Sequence - 3L/a < t < 4L/a

Valve closed

instantaneously at t=0

V=Vsteady

V=0

P

Psteady

Pinstantaneous

x

V

Vsteady

x

I3 - 12

Waterhammer Videos

– Waterhammer Sequence.wmv (1:06)

• Video of waterhammer sequence

• Waterhammer Sequence.imp

– waterhammer.wmv (2:03)

• Video of piping system

• online - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZbguheiVs4&NR=1

– Waterhammer 4-0ms-Bruecke.wmv (1:04)

• Video of piping system

• online - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0XfYCKxZks

– CFD Simulation of the Water Hammer.wmv (2:39)

• Computer simulation showing pressure waves with color

• online - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng__hdZ8yD8

I3 - 13

Fundamental Equations

a 2 V P 0

x t

Momentum equation

1P V fV V

g sin( ) 0

x t 2D

Where :

a = wavespeed

V = velocity

x = distance along pipe

P = pressure

t = time

g = gravitational constant

= slope of pipe

f = friction factor

D = diameter of pipe

I3 - 14

Method of Characteristics

t = 5 t

t = 4 t

By combining the mass and

momentum equations linearly and t = 3 t

velocity, V, one obtains P

t = t

a f C+ C‐

dP gdz

dm m

m dx 0

2DA 2 A B

A t = 0

x = 0 x = i‐1 x = i x = i+1 x = L

the positive characteristic

PP

m z x

a P P f P

dP dm g dz 2

m

m dx 0

PA A mA zA

2 DA x A

A 2 DA 2

A similar equation can be written for the

negative characteristic I3 - 15

Method of Characteristics (2)

t = 5 t

parameters

t = 3 t

– Impedance

a Where: t = 2 t

B

A A = cross sectional area

P

t = t

C+ C‐

– Resistance A B

t = 0

f x x = 0 x = i‐1 x = i x = i+1 x = L

R

2 DA 2

resistance have constant property values for each pipe,

except for the friction factor, f

I3 - 16

Moody Chart Showing Friction Variation

I3 - 17

Method of Characteristics (3)

t = 5 t

Pi , new C P B P m

i , new t = 3 t

Pi , new C M B M m i , new

t = 2 t

where: t = t

P

C P Pi 1,old B m C+ C‐

A B

t = 0

i 1,old g zi zi 1

C M Pi 1,old B m x = 0 x = i‐1 x = i x = i+1 x = L

BP B R m

i 1,old

BM B R m

i 1,old

– The subscript i-1, old refers to point A

– The subscript i+1, old refers to point B

I3 - 18

Method of Characteristics (4)

t = 5 t

Pi , new C P B P m

i , new t = 2 t

Pi , new C M B M m i ,new P

t = t

C+ C‐

A B

t = 0

Note that there are two equations x = 0

x = i‐1 x = i x = i+1 x = L

For example, to solve for the pressure at an interior pipe

location, apply the compatibility equations and eliminate flow

rate C P BM C M BP

Pi , new

BP BM

I3 - 19

Method of Characteristics (5)

t = 5 t

These are the AFT Impulse

t = 2 t

junctions

P

t = t

For example, assume that there C+ C‐

is a reservoir at the upstream end, t = 0 A B

x = 0 x = i‐1 x = i x = i+1 x = L

x=0

– In this case, the pressure is known at x = 0 for all times

– The flow rate is obtained by applying the negative compatibility

equation

Pi , new C M B M m

i ,new

Pi , new C M

i , new

m

BM

I3 - 20

Two Methods for Handling Cavitation

DVCM & DGCM

Discrete Vapor Cavity Model

– Has been available in AFT Impulse since 1996

– Works well for short lived, minor, and localized cavitation

– Has the potential to return chaotic/non-real results when

cavitation becomes excessive

Discrete Gas Cavity Model

– Has been available in AFT Impulse since 2013

– Has the potential to returns more stable results than DVCM,

especially in 2nd, 3rd, etc. pressure spikes.

– If cavitation becomes excessive, model has harder time

converging than DVCM

– When cavitation is present, this method has the potential to

significantly increase the transient solver run time

I3 - 21

Discrete Vapor Cavity Model

two compatibility equations

C P BM C M BP

Pi , new

BP BM

pressure, a vapor cavity forms

– This is sometimes referred to as liquid column separation

– The pressure then becomes fixed at the vapor pressure, and

acts as a known pressure boundary (that is, pressure cannot go

below the vapor pressure, but can go above)

I3 - 22

Discrete Vapor Cavity Model (2)

at the computing section

Since the pressure is known (i.e., Psat), the flow rate into and

out of the cavity can be obtained from the two compatibility

equations

vapor cavity

C Psat m'up

up P

m m'down

BP

P CM

down sat

m

BM

I3 - 23

Discrete Vapor Cavity Model (3)

time step

Vvapor , new Vvapor ,old m

up, new m

up, old m

down, new m

down, old t

2

collapses and the normal compatibility equations apply once

again

I3 - 24

Discrete Gas Cavity Model

discrete gas voids concentrated at computing stations

Pipe sections are treated as liquid full between computing

stations, so the wave speed may be held constant

A fixed mass of free gas is assumed within each section

Cavities are considered a mixture of vapor and gas

I3 - 25

Discrete Gas Cavity Model (2)

treat cavity pressure as a variable

Pressure waves do not propagate through Vapor Cavities

because the pressure is held constant, however, Gas Cavities

relate pressure to cavity volume

The model is simplified by assuming the gas

expansion/contraction is isothermal and behaves as an ideal

gas

The vapor pressure may be considered constant because the

expansion/contraction is isothermal

Using Dalton’s Law, the cavity pressure consists of gas and

vapor partial pressures and

I3 - 26

Discrete Gas Cavity Model (3)

With · · constant, the pressure varies only with volume

With constant vapor pressure, the gas pressure is related

· · · ·

directly to cavity volume:

It is generally understood that wave speed depends heavily

on the size and distribution of cavities in the flow

Cavities will expand and contract based on static pressure

and therefore the wave speed is pressure dependent

The gas cavity model is very good at simulating the effects of

wave speed pressure dependence, while being more reliable

and avoiding the complications of truly variable wave speed

I3 - 27

Discrete Gas Cavity Model (4)

reference pressure, which is above the vapor pressure of the

fluid

The cavity size is initially very small

and insignificant

As the static pressure falls, the gas

cavity expands; before reaching the

vapor pressure

The expansion and the collapse of gas cavities are more

progressive than cavities consisting of vapor only

The gas cavity model produces more realistic, less extreme

pressure spikes

I3 - 28

Comparing DVCM & DGCM – Exit Valve

Pressure Profile

120

Published Data

100 Impulse DVCM

Impulse DGCM

80

HGL (meters)

60

40

20

-20

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Time (seconds)

I3 - 29

Comparing DVCM & DGCM – Pipe Interior

Pressure Profile

I3 - 30

Comparing DVCM & DGCM – Simulated

Pump Transient

I3 - 31

Comparing DVCM & DGCM – Simulated

Pump Transient (2)

I3 - 32

Waterhammer Videos - Cavitation

– waterhammer iihr.wmv (1:04)

• Video of rapid, manual valve closure and column separation in a

clear line

• online version -

http://www.iahrmedialibrary.net/db/i1/waterhammer.htm

– GEFA Water Hammer GB.wmv

• High speed movie of a cavitating valve

• online version - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9UbzcanuDk

– check valve.wmv (0:44)

• Video of check valve

• online version – unavailable

I3 - 33

Waterhammer Videos – Cavitation (2)

– Waterhammer 2-0ms.wmv (0:58)

• Video of column separation in a clear line

• online version - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmcOpuzemRU

– How a Bladder Surge Tank can alleviate column

separation1.wmv (1:38)

• Pump trip and column separation

• online version - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6NIA4LxPPw

I3 - 34

Comments

t = 5 t

t = 4 t

Note that the C+ and C-

characteristic lines lie within t = 3 t

t = t

the following therefore is true C+ C‐

A B

t = 0

x

a x = 0 x = i‐1 x = i x = i+1 x = L

t

specified, the solution is entirely explicit

– No iterations are required, unlike the steady-state Solver

– The solution requires marching in time, with each solution

obtainable from the solution at the previous time step

I3 - 35

The Time Step and Pipe Sectioning

– It is determined by the pipe wavespeed and length

The maximum time step is derived from shortest pipe in the

system

L

tmax i

ai

– This assumes that only one section is used to model the pipe

– This also assumes that the time step is short enough to properly

resolve all transient boundary conditions

Once the time step is determined, all other pipes in the

system can be sectioned

Li

ni

ai t

I3 - 36

The Time Step and Pipe Sectioning (2)

whole numbers

– Fractional pipe sections are not possible

It is therefore necessary to round off the number of computing

sections in each pipe to the nearest whole number

– This introduces errors into the model

The traditional approach is to recognize that the wavespeed is

the least certain parameter and to allow an error in

wavespeed to be introduced up to ± 15%

– The wavespeed uncertainty is therefore used as justification to

allow sectioning errors up to ± 15%

AFT Impulse’s Section Pipes window automates the process

of finding optimal sectioning scenarios

I3 - 37

Numbering Convention in AFT Impulse

Computing 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

stations

Pipe sections 1 2 3 4 5 6

P1 J2 P2

I3 - 38

Numbering Convention in AFT Impulse (2)

P2 2,0

1,0 P1 2,1

1,1 J2 2,2

1,2 2,3

2,4

1,3

3,0 P3

3,1

3,2

3,3

3,4

I3 - 39

Steady-State Data in Transient Solver

– Initial steady-state flow rates in all pipes

– Initial pressures at all junctions

– Initial states of all junctions

• Pumps on or off

• Valve open or closed

• Check valves open or closed

• Etc.

– Pipe resistance (friction factors)

I3 - 40

I4. Demo. Problem - Surge at Valve

Closure

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Pipes

Pipes are conduits for liquid, one-dimensional transient fluid

flow

The flow rate through the length of the pipe is not constant

during the transient

– The waterhammer pressure waves cause flow transients in each

pipe

Each pipe must be connected to a junction on each end

A pipe differs from a junction in that it has a reference positive

flow direction

– To say a pipe has a flow rate of 1 ft3/sec is meaningless unless

the flow direction is specified

I4 - 1

Junctions

Junctions are elements at which transient events are initiated

or responded to and where flow balances are made

Some junction types can only connect to one pipe while

others can connect with up to twenty-five

AFT Impulse provides a total of twenty standard junction

types

I4 - 2

Junctions (2)

or pressure behavior of the system

– A reservoir junction applies a pressure head at a location, and

the flow at a reservoir is free to adjust in whatever manner is

consistent with the governing equations

– An assigned flow junction applies a flow rate at its location,

allowing the pressure to adjust to that level dictated by the

governing equations

I4 - 3

Creating Objects

Toolbox

– New pipes and junctions can also be derived from previous ones

by duplication

Pipes are drawn on the Workspace

Junctions are dragged from the Toolbox

Pipe and junctions have default numbers assigned

– Users can reassign numbers

– Pipes numbers are displayed near the pipe center preceded by a

"P"

– Junction numbers are displayed over the junction icons

preceded by a "J"

– Pipes also have a direction arrow displayed to

indicate the positive flow direction I4 - 4

Moving Objects

as groups

To move an object, select it, drag it within the Workspace, and

drop it in the desired location

– When an object is dragged off the existing Workspace area, the

Workspace is expanded accordingly

The pipe object can be stretched by grabbing the handles at

the pipe endpoints and moving an endpoint to a new location

To prevent accidental movement of objects, lock the objects

on the Workspace

– The Lock feature is accessed from the Edit menu or the lock

button on the Toolbar.

I4 - 5

Moving Objects (2)

hold down the SHIFT key when selecting the objects

Objects can also be selected by using the Selection Tool on

the Workspace toolbar

– Click on the Workspace and drag the mouse to draw a box

around the objects

– Holding down the SHIFT key while drawing multiple boxes

permits multiple sets of grouped selections

I4 - 6

Connecting Pipes and Junctions

Workspace

Connectivity ONLY exists between junctions and pipes

– There are no junctions that connect to junctions, and no pipes

that connect to pipes

The model connectivity you establish on the Workspace

remains only as long as you maintain the graphical objects in

their current visual relationship to each other

The most certain way to maintain the connectivity of your

model is to Lock the objects to the Workspace so they cannot

be moved

I4 - 7

Connecting Pipes and Junctions (2)

following three steps are required:

1) Graphically connect the objects on the Workspace (the pipe

endpoint must terminate within the boundaries of a junction

icon)

2) Enter data for the pipes through the Pipe Property window or

globally

3) Enter data for the junctions through the Junction Property

window or globally

I4 - 8

Editing Objects

the editing commands from the Edit menu or the Toolbar

Objects can be cut, copied, pasted, duplicated, and deleted

These operations can be performed on individual objects or

on groups

One level of undo is available for each editing operation

through the Edit menu

I4 - 9

Lay Out the Model

Model looks as below

I4 - 10

Using the Checklist

– Communicates what items must be completed before you can

run the model

First item is always checked off because AFT Impulse assigns

default Steady Solution Control parameters

– The default Steady Solution Control parameters work

satisfactorily in most cases

You can open the Checklist box from the Toolbar, View menu,

or Quick Access Panel

I4 - 11

Checklist – Quick Access Panel

Access Panel

Status Light

I4 - 12

Using the Object Status Feature

data

Until each object has the required input, it is "undefined"

The Show Object Status feature checks the required data for

each object and reports to the user which objects are and are

not defined

– Undefined object numbers change color (to red by default)

– Holding the shift key down while right clicking on an object will

display a listing of undefined items for that object

I4 - 13

Using the Object Status Feature (2)

Toolbar (flood light) or the View Menu

Show Object Status should be used selectively because it

slows down the Workspace graphics if left in the ON state

– For large models, users should turn it ON only when needed

I4 - 14

Using Undefined Objects Window

are displayed in lists

Click on a pipe or junction to see undefined properties

I4 - 15

System Properties Window

This window allows the user to input the fluid properties

– Density

– Viscosity

– Bulk Modulus of Elasticity

– Vapor Pressure (optional, used for transient cavitation)

Fluid properties can be entered directly or selected from the

database of fluids

– Users only need to enter a temperature for fluids in the database

and the physical properties are calculated

– The fluid database is customizable

User can also change the gravity level and atmospheric

pressure, and other System Data

I4 - 16

Entering Pipe and Junction Data

Windows

Properties Windows are opened either by double-clicking or

single-click then pressing enter for the pipe or junction of

interest

– Properties windows may also be opened by double clicking an

object within the Model Data and Output windows

Data can also be entered through Global Edit Windows

I4 - 17

Input Data For Pipes

For the demo problem we will modify the data for each pipe

individually

– The data can also be entered using Global Pipe Edit

All pipes must have data for

– Length

– Diameter

– Roughness

– Wavespeed (for transient models)

In addition, each pipe must have two connecting junctions

I4 - 18

Input Data For Junctions

– Elevation data

• Connecting pipes are assumed to travel linearly between junctions

– Sufficient number of connecting pipes

• Number of connecting pipes is different for each junction type

I4 - 19

Data For Reservoir Junctions

I4 - 20

Data For Branch

Branches are general connectors and can also be used as

boundaries for diameter changes

I4 - 21

Data For Valve

I4 - 22

Inspecting Objects

the inspection feature

Inspecting is done by pressing down the right mouse button

on the graphical pipe or junction

Inspecting is much quicker than opening the Properties

Window

– Using the inspection window also does not clear the output

results as opening a Properties window can

I4 - 23

Inspecting Objects – Quick Access Panel

Access Panel

– Click the “Properties” tab on Quick Access Panel

– Select a pipe or a junction on Workspace

I4 - 24

Model Data Window

The Model Data window is useful for reviewing the text input

for the model

– All data can be printed out for documentation

Model Data can be accessed from the Window menu

Use the Model Data window to do a quick sanity check of the

input

– Incorrect units or a typo become more obvious in Model Data

Double-clicking the far left column of the tables opens the

appropriate Properties Window

I4 - 25

Pipe Sectioning Window

Automates the selection of an optimal sectioning strategy

I4 - 26

Transient Control Window

This window gives user control of time length of simulation

and various calculation and reporting inputs

I4 - 27

Run the Model: Solution Progress

Window

When a model is complete, the Run command is enabled

The model can be run by choosing Run from the Analysis

Menu or clicking the appropriate toolbar icon

When a model is running, the Solution Progress Window

displays

The Solution Progress Window shows the status of the

Steady-State and Transient Solver's progress towards

convergence

The Solution Progress Window allows you to Cancel or Pause

the run

When the solution completes, you are notified

When you select View Results, you are immediately

taken to the Output Window

I4 - 28

Output Window

The Output Window displays text output for your model and is

accessed from the Window menu or toolbar

The Output Control Window allows you to customize the

content of the output

Each section can be re-sized or collapsed allowing the user to

focus on any of the sections

Each section may have multiple tabs to quickly view data by

type

Print Content allows you to select the content of the printed

report

I4 - 29

Output Window (2)

results as the initial conditions

– Transfer Results to Initial Guesses is accessed from the Edit

menu of the Toolbar (push pin)

Warnings are placed into the General Results section

– When warnings exist the text color is changed to red

Sort allows you to sort the Output according to one the

columns

Double-clicking the column header allows you to change the

units for that column

I4 - 30

Output Window Transient Pipe Data

Transient tab in Output Control

The slider bar allows you to look at

numerical data for any time step

I4 - 31

Output Window Transient Max/Min Data

minimum data for each pipe or each pipe station

Here the data is shown for each pipe because in Output

Control the Summary option

was chosen

– This is the default

I4 - 32

Output Window Transient Max/Min Data

(2)

If the Detailed option is selected then max/min data is shown

for each pipe station

I4 - 33

Output Window Transient Junction Data

is of little benefit

– Much of it would be redundant to the available pipe transient

data

– Could result in long delays in displaying the Output window due

to the quantity of data

A wide range of junction transient data is available from the

Graph Results with the numerical data for these graphs easily

exported

I4 - 34

Graph Results

– This window is one of the Primary Window tabs

– Graph Results can also be accessed from the Window menu

Various parameters can be graphed by clicking on the Select

Graph Data button in the Graph Results window

The graph can be printed, copied to the clipboard, or saved to

a file

The graph x-y data can be exported to a file or copied to the

clipboard

I4 - 35

Graph Results (2)

downstream of the valve

I4 - 36

Graph Results (3)

Run an animation

– Use "Animate Using Solver"

– Must be a continuous path

of pipes

– To use "Animate Using Output

File" all pipe station output

needs to be saved in Transient Control

I4 - 37

Visual Report

the Workspace graphic

– This is one of the Primary Windows

– Visual Report can be accessed from the Window menu

The Visual Report Control allows you to select the type of

results you want to see

You can print the image at full size or fit it to a single page

with Print Special

Text locations are automatically saved with the model

I4 - 38

Visual Report (2)

I4 - 39

Pipe Supports and Wavespeed

window affects the calculated wavespeed

– The effect on wavespeed is not typically very significant

The table on the next slide shows the effect of support type on

wavespeed in 10 inch Steel - ANSI, Schedule 40 pipes:

I4 - 40

Pipe Supports and Wavespeed (2)

I4 - 41

US

Input Data for Demo 1

Water at 70F

Pipe depth in Reservoir J5 is 5 feet

All piping Steel-ANSI, sch40, with a calculated wave speed using

‘Thick-Walled Anchored Throughout’ support

I4 - 42

SI

Input Data for Demo 1

Water at 21C

Pipe depth in Reservoir J5 is 1.5 meters

All piping Steel-ANSI, sch40, with a calculated wave speed using

‘Thick-Walled Anchored Throughout’ support

I4 - 43

I5. AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Introduction To Scenario Manager

all with the same model

The types of changes that can be made are very broad

– Junctions can be turned on and off to evaluate different

operating conditions

– Pipe and junction data can be varied to parametrically evaluate

competing designs

– You can build an existing system as your base model then add to

the system to evaluate expansion possibilities on the existing

system

– You can easily evaluate different working fluids by setting them

up as different children scenarios

I5 - 1

Introduction To Scenario Manager (2)

Scenario Manager window

The Scenario Manager can be opened from the Tools menu in

the Workspace window, the Scenario Manager button on the

toolbar, or Quick Access Panel

From Quick

Access Panel

I5 - 2

Notes

I5 - 3

Notes

I5 - 4

US

Single Line Valve Closure

Compare to instantaneous equation results P aV

1 pipe 1

Liquid Height = 500 ft

Depth = 30 feet L = 2000 ft 2

D = 20 inch Elevation = 0 ft

(19.25 in ID) Exit Valve, P = 0 psig

a = 3876 ft/s t Cv

(calculated) 0 530

Water at 65F

10 pipe sections .001 0

0 to 4.5 seconds 1 0

Ignore Cavitation

Pipe is Steel‐ANSI, STD (Schedule 20)

I5 - 5

US

Single Line Valve Closure (2)

P aV

V Q/A

V 17.06 ft3/sec / (2.021 ft2)

V 8.44 ft/sec

2 2

lbm ft ft 1 ft lbf s

Pmax 62.3 3 * 3876 * 8.44 * 2 * 223 psia

ft s s 144 in 32.2 lbm ‐ ft

I5 - 6

US

Single Line Valve Closure (3)

How far negative does the pressure spike go at the valve?

What is the maximum pressure at the valve if the valve is

closed linearly over 0.99 seconds?

What is the maximum pressure at the valve if the valve is

closed linearly over 1.2 seconds?

I5 - 7

US

Single Line Valve Closure (4)

(TEST1.IMP, /With Cavitation scenario)

– Use the “Discrete Vapor Cavity Model”

What is the maximum pressure?

How does it compare to the instantaneous waterhammer

prediction?

– How far above or below the maximum valve pressure is the

instantaneous waterhammer prediction?

– How does this difference compare to the negative pressure in

the original model?

Does the maximum pressure change when the number of

sections is increased to 20 or 40?

I5 - 8

US

Model Ammonia Transfer System

rates (TEST3.IMP)

– All pipe is Steel – ANSI with standard wall thickness, thick-walled

anchored upstream

– Look at valve closing in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 seconds

I5 - 9

US

Model Ammonia Transfer System (2)

P1 P2 P3

L = 100 ft L = 300 ft L = 150 ft

8 inch 10 inch 10 inch

1 2 3 4

Surface Elev. = 20 ft

Surface Elev. = 40 ft Abrupt Expansion Surface Pressure = 250 psig

Surface Pressure = 250 psig Elevation = 0 ft

Pipe Depth = 5 ft

Pipe Depth = 20 ft

Valve

Elevation = 0 ft

Ammonia at 75F

t (sec) Cv

0 to 5 seconds

0 1000

Model Cavitation using the

? 0

“Discrete Vapor Cavity Model”

I5 - 10

US

Answers to Problems

– Instantaneous pressure is:

• Instantaneous Waterhammer Calculation = 663 psia

• Impulse Results = 671.4 psia

» ~1% difference in results

– Communication time is 1.032 seconds (2L/a)

– Pressure goes to 202 psia below zero

– With 0.99 second closure the max pressure at the valve is 668

psia – about the same

– With 1.2 second closure the max pressure at the valve is 602

psia

I5 - 11

US

Answers to Problems (2)

I5 - 12

US

Answers to Problems (3)

– Pressure is higher than “maximum theoretical pressure” (875 vs.

663; 212 psi higher)

– Negative pressure w/o cavitation was 202 psi below zero and

with cavitation it is 212 psi higher than maximum theoretical – a

similar magnitude

– With 20 sections max pressure is 855 psia - with 40 sections

max pressure is 926 psia

I5 - 13

US

Answers to Problems (4)

I5 - 14

US

Answers to Problems (5)

TEST3 results

Closure Max Stag. Pressure*

Time (sec) (psig)

0.5 599

1 576

2 365

– (*) The first two cases yield different pressures when the

sectioning is varied

• This is a result of the cavitation model

– The 2 second closure case does not cavitate

I5 - 15

Notes

I5 - 16

SI

Single Line Valve Closure

Compare to instantaneous equation results P aV

1 pipe 1

Liquid Height = 150 m

Depth = 10 m L = 600 m 2

D = 20 inch

Elevation = 0 m

(48.9 cm ID)

Exit Valve, P = 0 barG

a = 1181 m/s

t Cv

(calculated)

Water at 18C 0 530

10 pipe sections .001 0

0 to 4.5 seconds 1 0

Ignore Cavitation

Pipe is Steel‐ANSI STD (Schedule 20)

I5 - 17

SI

Single Line Valve Closure (2)

P aV

V Q/A

V 0.4794 m3/sec / (0.1878 m2)

V 2.553 m/sec

kg m m

Pmax 998.7 * 1181 * 2.553 1,515,000 Pa

m3 s s

I5 - 18

SI

Single Line Valve Closure (3)

How far negative does the pressure spike go at the valve?

What is the maximum pressure at the valve if the valve is

closed linearly over 0.99 seconds?

What is the maximum pressure at the valve if the valve is

closed linearly over 1.2 seconds?

I5 - 19

SI

Single Line Valve Closure (4)

(TEST1 (SI).IMP, /With Cavitation scenario)

– Use the “Discrete Vapor Cavity Model”

What is the maximum pressure?

How does it compare to the instantaneous waterhammer

prediction?

– How far above or below the maximum valve pressure is the

instantaneous waterhammer prediction?

– How does this difference compare to the negative pressure in

the original model?

Does the maximum pressure change when the number of

sections is increased to 20 or 40?

I5 - 20

SI

Model Ammonia Transfer System

rates (TEST3 (SI).IMP)

– All pipe is Steel - ANSI with standard wall thickness, thin-walled

anchored upstream

– Look at valve closing in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 seconds

I5 - 21

SI

Model Ammonia Transfer System (2)

P1 P2 P3

L = 30 m L = 91 m L = 46 m

8 inch 10 inch 10 inch

(20.3 cm ID) (25.5 cm ID) (25.5 cm ID)

1 2 3 4

Surface Elev. = 12 m Surface Elev. = 6 m

Surface Pressure = 18.2 bar Surface Pressure = 18.2 bar

Pipe Depth = 6 m Pipe Depth = 1.5 m

Abrupt Expansion

Elevation = 0 m

Valve

Ammonia at 24C Elevation = 0 m

0 to 5 seconds t (sec) Cv

Model Cavitation using the 0 1000

“Discrete Vapor Cavity Model” ? 0

I5 - 22

SI

Answers to Problems

– Instantaneous pressure is:

• Instantaneous Waterhammer Calculation = 45.3 bar

• Impulse Results = 45.8 bar

» ~1% difference in results

– Communication time is 1.016 seconds (2L/a)

– Pressure goes to 13.94 bar below zero, at the valve

– With 0.99 second closure the max pressure at the valve is 45.8

bar – about the same

– With 1.2 second closure the max pressure at the valve is 38.2

bar

I5 - 23

SI

Answers to Problems (2)

I5 - 24

SI

Answers to Problems (3)

– Pressure higher than “maximum theoretical pressure” 66.1 vs.

44.3; 20.8 bar higher)

– Negative pressure w/o cavitation was 13.94 bar below zero and

with cavitation it is 21.81 bar higher than maximum theoretical –

a similar magnitude

– With 20 sections max pressure is 58.6 bar - with 40 sections max

is 62.2 bar

I5 - 25

SI

Answers to Problems (4)

I5 - 26

SI

Answers to Problems (5)

Closure Max Stag. Pressure*

Time (sec) (bar)

0.5 41.26

1 38.22

2 25.91

– (*) The first two cases yield different pressures when the

sectioning is varied

• This is a result of the cavitation model

– The 2 second closure case does not cavitate

I5 - 27

What is Line Pack?

previously lost to friction

I5 - 28

US

What is Line Pack? (2)

– Steady-state conditions shown below for a high viscosity oil

pipeline

• 28 miles (45 km) long

– Question: What will the pressure be at J2 after the valve closes

and the fluid has come to rest?

I5 - 29

US

What is Line Pack? (3)

psig after the fluid has come to rest

How much did the pressure rise?

– Originally the J2 pressure was 301 psig and at the end it will be

1499 psig

• 1499 – 301 psig = 1198 psid

This is due to line pack

I5 - 30

SI

What is Line Pack? (2)

– Steady-state conditions shown below for a high viscosity oil

pipeline

• 28 miles (45 km) long

– Question: What will the pressure be at J2 after the valve closes

and the fluid has come to rest?

I5 - 31

SI

What is Line Pack? (3)

barG after the fluid has come to rest

How much did the pressure rise?

– Originally the J2 pressure was 20.8 psig and at the end it will be

103.4 barG

• 103.4 – 20.8 barG = 82.6 bar

This is due to line pack

I5 - 32

Line Pack and Waterhammer

Instant Valve Closure

waterhammer equation for this example?

P aV

2 2

lbm ft ft 1 ft lbf s

Pmax 53 3 * 3,572 * 9.92 * 2 * 301 psig

ft s s 144 in 32.2 lbm‐ ft

US Pmax 405 301

kg m m 1 bar

Pmax 849 *1,089 *3.02 * + 20.8 barG

m3 s s 100,000 Pa

SI Pmax 27.9 + 20.8

Pmax 48.7 barG

I5 - 33

Line Pack and Waterhammer (2)

Instant Valve Closure (First 10 seconds)

I5 - 34

Line Pack and Waterhammer (3)

Instant Valve Closure (All 6 minutes)

I5 - 35

Line Pack and Waterhammer (4)

Maximum Pressure * Peak potential pressure

= 1904 psig

= 131 barG

Line pack pressure rise

= 1198 psi

= 83 bar

Instantaneous water-

hammer pressure rise

= 405 psi

= 28 bar

I5 - 36

Line Pack and Waterhammer (5)

Max/Min Pressure Peak potential pressure

= 1904 psig

= 131 barG

Line pack pressure rise

= 1198 psi

= 83 bar

Instantaneous water-

hammer pressure rise

= 405 psi

= 28 bar

I5 - 37

Line Pack and Waterhammer Video

– Line Pack Example.mp4 (0:32)

• Impulse model file “Line Pack Example.imp”

I5 - 38

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Pipe and Junction Details

The Global Edit windows allow you to change data for several

pipes or junctions at the same time

The required data in each Properties window can be

highlighted

– This allows you to easily see what data is needed or missing

A note can be saved for each pipe and junction

Right clicking on a junction will display an input summary

The Quick Access Panel can also be used to review the input

and output of a pipe or junction

I6 - 1

The Pipe Properties Window

Each pipe must have an ID number, length, diameter,

roughness model, and two connecting junctions

– If modeling transients, a wavespeed is also required

AFT Impulse can model one pipe geometry

– Cylindrical pipe

AFT Impulse provides default pipe material data for eight

types of pipe

AFT Impulse offers eight methods for specifying Newtonian

frictional models

– Four methods rely on the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor method

of calculating pipe pressure drop

– One uses the Hazen-Williams empirical factor

– Two are for hydrocarbons

– One is frictionless

I6 - 2

Pipe Fittings and Losses

Losses are grouped by type

Select the quantity from the list

The losses of this type in the

pipe are listed here

User Favorites allow for much faster

navigation to frequently used fittings

The picture helps All of the losses are listed

describe the loss on the Summary tab I6 - 3

Optional Pipe Information

rate can help the

Steady-State Solver

reach convergence

faster

For each pipe you

can choose to display

the ID number, name,

size and schedule on

the Workspace

Design factors add

safety margin to

calculations

I6 - 4

Optional Pipe Information (2)

is one of a number of

parallel pipes

Change pipe line

thickness and color

Pipes can be

specified as partially

full

Enter intermediate

elevations for pipes

I6 - 5

Design Alerts

Design Alerts allow you to specify maximum or minimum

parameters that, if exceeded, will generate special output

information

– Design Alerts can be specified in the Pipe and Junction

Properties windows or the Design Alert Manager located in the

Tools menu for pipes and junctions

I6 - 6

Design Alert Manager

and global Design Alert allocation to pipes and junctions

List of Existing

Design Alerts

Specify

Pipes/Junctions

Define Design to apply Design

Alert maximum Alert to

or minimum

criteria Create/Edit

Design Alert

I6 - 7

The Junction Properties Window

Each junction must have an elevation

You can choose junctions from a Custom Component

database list (if you create one) to specify the junction

Junctions with two pipes connected may have outlet

elevations specified different than the inlet

Junctions which can connect to more than two pipes will show

the connected pipes in a table in which you can enter loss

factors and individual elevations

I6 - 8

Optional Junction Information

An initial guess pressure can

help the Solver reach

convergence faster

choose to display the ID

number, name, both or

neither on the Workspace

safety margin to

calculations

individual junction icon Some junctions have Special Conditions which can be set to

be changed override the default behavior of the junction. Usually this will

turn off or close the junction to flow. Relief valve will be open

when the Special Conditions are set

I6 - 9

Global Pipe Editing

large scale changes to your model

To globally edit the pipe data

– Select the pipes to change from the list, or use the Select

Special tool

– Click on the Select Pipe Data button to show the Pipe Properties

window

– Enter the data you want to change and click OK

– Choose the parameters to be changed and click the Apply

Selections button

– Confirm that you want to change the selected pipes by clicking

OK or Cancel the change

I6 - 10

Global Pipe Editing (2)

4) Apply the data

1) Choose which

pipes to edit

3) Choose which

parameters to

2) Select the data change

which then displays

at the right

I6 - 11

Global Junction Editing

To globally edit the common junction data

– Select All Junctions in the drop-down list box

– Click Select Common Junction Data

– Enter the new data in the Common Junction Data Edit window

and click OK

– Check the boxes on the right to select the parameters to be

changed

– Click on the Apply Selections button.

I6 - 12

Global Junction Editing (2)

Choose which

junctions to edit

Enter the

new data

Choose which

parameters to

change

I6 - 13

Global Junction Editing (3)

– Select option for Specific Data For… and then the junction type

in the drop-down list box and choose the junctions to change

– Click on the Select Specific Junction Data button to show the

Properties window for the junction type (the button will display

the junction type)

– Enter the data you want to change and click OK

– Choose the parameters to be changed and click the Apply

Selections button

I6 - 14

Global Junction Editing (4)

Choose the

junction type

Choose which

parameters to

change

Choose which

junctions to edit

I6 - 15

Design Factors

fitting losses, and pump curves

– These can be used as safety factors in the design

– They can be set for each pipe/junction or globally

I6 - 16

Communication Times

– Check the frequency content of your results vs. the

communication time

Use Infinite Pipe junctions to eliminate non-interacting parts of

the pipe system

I6 - 17

Dead End Junctions

than in steady flow - do not neglect them too quickly!

Dead ends are areas that can absorb pressure waves and

change the transient behavior of the system

I6 - 18

Be Careful Assigning Flowrates

valve?

buildup in the system

Your initial thinking about a problem should focus on pressure

type boundary conditions

– Use flow boundary conditions judiciously

– Usually they are inappropriate during transients because the flow

rates change during the transient

I6 - 19

Valid Example Using Assigned Flows

for flows and pressures

was recorded

surrounding a pump trip

and valve slamming

event, which caused

excessive pressures in

the system.

Assigned Flow Junctions were used to represent delivery

points at the extents of the model.

I6 - 20

Valid Example Using Assigned Flows (2)

triggers were adjusted

using an iterative

approach which led to

a very good match

between model and test

data.

After developing an

accurately calibrated model of the system, multiple solutions

for the waterhammer issues were evaluated and the best

solution was selected and implemented.

This study has been published on our website:

– http://www.aft.com/about-us/platinum-pipe-award

I6 - 21

US

Hands-on Example: Pressure Transient

pressure cycles between 50 and 100 psia over a 10 second

period. Determine how the flowrates vary to each of the

discharge reservoirs over time. (Pressure Transient

Example.imp)

I6 - 22

US

Pressure Transient Example (2)

Pipe data:

– Use the Global Edit feature to enter the piping data

– Steel – ANSI pipe, all STD (Schedule 40) with lengths of 1000 ft,

and diameters of 10 inches

– Pipe P1 has 3 smooth flanged, 1.5 r/D, 90 deg. bends

• Add them as Fittings & Losses

Branch data:

– Elevation is 0 feet

I6 - 23

US

Pressure Transient Example (3)

Reservoir data:

– J3 surface elevation is 30 feet, pipe depth is 10 feet, surface

pressure is 0 psig

– J4 surface elevation is 10 feet, pipe depth is 10 feet, surface

pressure is 0 psig

Assigned Pressure data:

– Elevation is 0 feet

– Steady-state stagnation pressure is 50 psia

I6 - 24

US

Pressure Transients Example (4)

– The pressure at J1 varies according to the following profile:

0 50

2.5 85

5 100

7.5 85

10 50

Assume 4 pipe sections when sectioning the pipe

Run the simulation for 30 seconds

I6 - 25

US

Pressure Transient Example Results

Graph Set called “Flow Rates at Discharge Reservoirs”

Plot the inlet stagnation pressure in pipe P1

Load the “Flow Rates at Discharge Reservoirs” and show the

graph

I6 - 26

US

Pressure Transient Example Results (2)

I6 - 27

Notes

I6 - 28

Notes

I6 - 29

SI

Hands-on Example: Pressure Transient

pressure cycles between 3.5 bar and 7 bar over a 10 second

period. Determine how the flowrates vary to each of the

discharge reservoirs over time. (Pressure Transient Example

(SI).imp)

I6 - 30

SI

Pressure Transient Example (2)

Pipe data:

– Use the Global Edit feature to enter the piping data

– Steel - ANSI pipe, all STD (Schedule 40) with lengths of 300

meters, and diameters of 10 inches (25.45 cm ID)

– Pipe P1 has 3 smooth flanged, 1.5 r/D, 90 deg. bends

• Add them as Fittings & Losses

Branch data:

– Elevation is 0 meters

I6 - 31

SI

Pressure Transient Example (3)

Reservoir data:

– J3 surface elevation is 10 meters, pipe depth is 3 meters,

surface pressure is 0 barG

– J4 surface elevation is 3 meters, pipe depth is 3 meters, surface

pressure is 0 barG

Assigned Pressure data:

– Elevation is 0 meters

– Steady-state stagnation pressure is 3.5 bar

I6 - 32

SI

Pressure Transients Example (4)

– The pressure at J1 varies according to the following profile:

Time (s) Pressure (bar)

0 3.5

2.5 6.0

5 7.0

7.5 6.0

10 3.5

Assume 4 pipe sections when sectioning the pipe

Run the simulation for 30 seconds

I6 - 33

SI

Pressure Transient Example Results

Graph Set called “Flow Rates at Discharge Reservoirs”

Plot the inlet stagnation pressure in pipe P1

Load the “Flow Rates at Discharge Reservoirs” and show the

graph

I6 - 34

SI

Pressure Transient Example Results (2)

I6 - 35

I7. The Five Primary Windows

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

The Five Primary Windows

Workspace window

– Where you build the model visually and see the model layout

Model Data window

– A text-based complement to the Workspace window

– Shows input data in text form

Output window

– Displays the results of the analysis in text form

– Lets you produce attractive, effectively organized printed output

reports

I7 - 1

The Five Primary Windows (2)

– Merges the output data with the pipe system layout from the

Workspace

– Allows customized layout of the information for documentation

and presentation purposes

Graph Results window

– A full-featured, customizable Windows plotting capability

– Results can be viewed in a variety of ways for evaluating system

performance or identifying important trends

I7 - 2

The Workspace Window - Editing

– By using the Zoom control or clicking on the + or - magnifying

glasses on the toolbar

Objects can be selected as a group in several ways

– Using the mouse to highlight pipes and junctions

– Using the SHIFT key while clicking on the objects

– Using Select Flow Path on the Edit menu

– Using the Select Special tool on the Edit menu

– If a group or groups have been defined, by selecting Groups on

the Edit menu

I7 - 3

The Workspace Window – Editing (2)

The selected objects can be renumbered in three ways

– "Automatic Renumber“, "Renumber Increment" and "Renumber

Wizard"

The Find tool will move the Workspace window to show a pipe

or junction

Notes may be added with Annotation tool

A background may be displayed

– Especially useful in conjunction with Snap

A bitmap file may be displayed as a Workspace background

I7 - 4

The Workspace Window - Arranging

The selected objects can be aligned

I7 - 5

The Workspace Window - Rotating

I7 - 6

The Workspace Window - Selection Tool

Dragging left-to-right selects all objects Dragging right-to-left selects all objects

completely within the selection box completely or partially within the selection box

I7 - 7

The Workspace Window - Zoom to Fit

model is visible

Zoom to Fit

I7 - 8

Quick Access Panel – Overview Map

Overview Map

View Port

Workspace - Annotation Manager

choice

I7 - 10

Using Select Special

objects based on certain criteria

If accessed from the Workspace it will select objects on the

Workspace

If accessed from other windows it will select items in a list box

It can set the list box items based on what is selected on the

Workspace

I7 - 11

Using Select Special (2)

– What is selected on the Workspace

– Objects which are open

– Objects with the Special Conditions set

– Objects within a range of ID numbers

– Junctions of a certain type

– Pipe diameter or length

Invert will select objects not selected and deselect objects

which are selected

You can perform several selection operations at a time

I7 - 12

Select Special Example

1) Select Junction Type, Assigned

Pressure, then click the Select

Junctions button

3) Select all pipes non-Assigned Pressure junctions

I7 - 13

The Model Data Window

The three areas of the Model Data window show all the

information about the model

Detailed information about the Pipe Fittings & Losses can be

displayed in the Pipe data area

Model Data is a valuable tool for identifying modeling errors

Use the Model Data Control to customize what is displayed

You can optionally show just the pipes and junctions in which

you are interested

You can select just the data in which you are interested

I7 - 14

The Model Data Window (2)

Each section can be resized manually

I7 - 15

The Model Data Window (3)

Junction curve fit raw data can be shown

I7 - 16

The Output Window

the results of an analysis in text form

The Output Control, on the Tools Menu, is used to customize

the Output window

– You choose the output parameters and units for the pipes and

junctions

– You set the order of the parameters in the output

– You choose what general information to display in the output

– You enter a title and reference information

– You select the number of digits and numerical display options

I7 - 17

The Output Window (2)

You can optionally show only the pipes and junctions in which

you are interested

Special report tables in the General Output include:

– Summary for Pump, Valve, and Reservoir data in the General

section

– Warnings regarding solution

– Differences in parameters from one junction to another (Junction

Deltas)

Double clicking on an item will open its Properties window in

read-only format

I7 - 18

The Output Window (3)

units for that column

Dragging the column can change the order displayed

Arrow buttons collapse input section

Each section can be resized manually

I7 - 19

Using The Output Control

Set the following Output Control Parameters:

– Volumetric Flow Rate (gal/min)

– Static inlet Pressure (psia)

– Static outlet Pressure (psia)

– Pressure Loss Static Total (psid)

– Show only junctions 21, 22, 31, and 32

– Show only pipes 1, 2, 11, and 12

I7 - 20

Using the Output Control (2)

I7 - 21

The Visual Report Window

with information in text form

The values to be shown may come from the Model Data

values or the Output results

Text can be moved to give the best visual presentation

Notes may be added using the annotation button on the

toolbar

The content is controlled using the Visual Report Control

window

– You choose the parameters to show

– You select to show the title and additional information

– You choose font, symbols and legend options

I7 - 22

Using Visual Report Control

shown on the Visual Report

I7 - 23

Using Show Selected Options

name, number and data

Don’t show name or data for the junctions

pipes (no name or number) I7 - 24

Using The Color Map

parameters by coloring the pipes, for example,

– You can show graphically where maximum or minimum

pressures are located

– You can better visualize the pipe diameters or lengths in a model

I7 - 25

Using the Color Map (2)

automatically generated

to max stagnation pressure

I7 - 26

The Graph Results Window

Four types of graphs can be selected using the Select Data

window

– Transient parameter at a pipe station (time on the x-axis)

– Transient parameter at a junction (time on the x-axis)

– Profile along a flow path (distance on the x-axis)

– Imbalanced forces (visible only when force sets are specified)

Graph x-y data can be copied directly to the clipboard

You can graph multiple parameters on Stacked Graphs with a

common X-axis

You can create dual Y-axis graphs

I7 - 27

Graph Control on the Quick Access Panel

Graph List Manager and quickly regenerated after rerunning

the model or running other scenarios

Animation feature allows user to replay transient data along a

flow path with dynamic graphics

Multiple profile plots can be cross-plotted using Workspace

Groups

Each type of graph is defined on color-differentiated tabs

– Select the tab to view the applicable parameters for that graph

type

Can perform extensive graph formatting from the Formatting

flyover panel

I7 - 28

Graph Control on Quick Access Panel (2)

Quick Access Panel (QAP)

– Allows for easy graph generation

and configuring

I7 - 29

Graph List Manager

Add Graph to List Update Current

Graph in List

Graph Folders

I7 - 30

Graph Tabs

– Graphs Tab can be tiled

I7 - 31

Graph Guide

Bubbles

Graph Guide

I7 - 32

Stacked Graphs

same X-axis for easy comparison

I7 - 33

Dual Y-Axis Graphs- Different Parameters

using a second Y-axis

I7 - 34

Dual Y-Axis Graphs- Same Parameter,

Different Units

Dual Y-axes can be used to show the same parameter with

different units

I7 - 35

Design Alerts on Graphs

maximum operating pressure

– Design alerts are set in the Graph Control next to the parameter

I7 - 36

Cross-Plot Graphs Using Groups

I7 - 37

Zoom and Pan on Graphs

To pan, hold the left mouse key and drag the mouse

To zoom, click on graph and scroll the mouse wheel

To zoom on an axis, place mouse over axis and use scroll

wheel

Can use range finder to zoom in on desired portions of the

graph

I7 - 38

Graph Formatting

on the QAP

Title and axis texts can be

changed

The Size All - and +

buttons are convenient to

change all at once

The axis scales and tick

marks can be set

I7 - 39

Graph Formatting (2)

brings up a menu of additional

functions and formatting options

- Formatting is listed at the

bottom

I7 - 40

Other Graph Functionality

A range finder (shown at the bottom) can be used to zoom

into a portion of the graph

I7 - 41

Other Graph Functionality (2)

– Printing all graphs in the folder

– Generating all graphs in the same tab or separate tabs

– Renaming, moving and deleting

Data points for each series are grouped together and can be

displayed in a list

– Clicking on a point on the graph with the crosshair selected will

highlight the data in the list

– Clicking on data in the list will select the point on the graph

– Can convert points of interest to annotations on the graph

I7 - 42

Create Graphs from the Workspace

graph

I7 - 43

Animating the Results

flow path with dynamic graphics

Must be along a continuous path of pipes

– Multiple paths can be animated using Workspace Groups

Can animate Stacked and Dual Y-Axis graphs simultaneously

Use "Animate Using Solver" to run the animation using the

solver

– Do not have to save data points for all pipe stations, so output

file size can be reduced

I7 - 44

Animating the Results (2)

the data stored in the output

– To use this feature, all pipe station output needs to be saved in

Transient Control, which can dramatically increase the output file

size for some models

– Gives more flexibility to control animation

• Time steps can be skipped

• The animation can be started at any point in the simulation

• Can improve animation performance

I7 - 45

Animating the Results (3)

Can be recorded and Select the pipes

saved to a *.mp4 or in the flow path

*.wmv movie file type

Control the animation

speed

Choose an

The current animation option

simulation time is

shown in the

callout

I7 - 46

Animating the Results (4)

I7 - 47

I8. Time and Event Transients

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Transient Initiation

– Time

– Events

Time transients are specified relative to the simulation time

– Time transients are always initiated

Event transients are specified relative to some criteria being

satisfied

– Event transients will not occur unless the criteria is satisfied

I8 - 1

Time Transients

Time transients are relative to the Start and Stop time in

Transient Control

Time transients always act based on the time specified

Time transients are the default

I8 - 2

Time Transients (2)

– The valve state remains

unchanged for 0.5

seconds

– The valve partially closes

over 1.5 seconds

– The valve remains at the

new state (Cv = 20) from

2 seconds and on

I8 - 3

Event Transients

– Single event

– Cyclic dual events

– Sequential dual event

Event transients do not act unless and until some criteria is

met

I8 - 4

Single Event Transient

area

Specify the event criteria

– Specify the Event Type

• This is some parameter such as pressure, velocity, pump speed or

valve position

• There are over fifteen choices

– Specify the event value and location within the system

• This will be at a particular pipe or junction

Time Zero in the Transient Data is relative to the time when

the criteria is first met

I8 - 5

Single Event Transient (2)

I8 - 6

Cyclic Dual Event Transients

To specify, select

Dual Event Cyclic in

the Initiation of

Transient area

There are two criteria

to specify (First Event

and Second Event)

I8 - 7

Cyclic Dual Event Transients (2)

The first transient will initiate when the first event criteria is

satisfied

Once the first transient is initiated, the second event criteria

becomes active

– The Second Transient will initiate when the Second Event criteria

is met

The junction will cycle between the two transients

I8 - 8

Sequential Dual Event Transients

Event Sequential in the

Initiation of Transient

area

This type of transient

functions the same as

Cyclic Dual Event,

except it never cycles

back to the first transient

I8 - 9

Junctions With Inherent Event Logic

built-in, or inherent, event logic

– Check valve

– Relief valve

– Vacuum breaker valve

The user does not need to specify the nature of the events,

and in fact is not allowed to

The inherent event logic is very similar to the Dual Event

Cyclic logic

I8 - 10

Event Messages

reports in the Output window

– There are two reports: one sorted by junction number, and the

other sorted by time

I8 - 11

Thought Experiment: A Pseudo-Check

Valve

One can make a regular valve with a cyclic dual event behave

just like a check valve

Valve closes on negative flow Valve opens with sufficient pressure difference

I8 - 12

I9. Steady and Transient Special

Conditions

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Why Use Special Conditions?

– Steady-state special conditions are just called "Special

Conditions"

Transient Special Conditions are usually just for convenience

– Avoids having to delete transient data already entered

In two cases, there is a special use of Transient Special

Conditions which simulate an "infinite pipe"

– This is discussed later in this section

I9 - 1

Why Use Special Conditions? (2)

conditions:

– First is for modeling convenience

• When you want to run a simulation with a valve closed, rather than

delete the valve junction and add a Dead End junction, you can just

turn the valve off and leave it in the model

• It will behave just like a Dead End

– Second is for numerical reasons

• Steady-state solution algorithms do not work very well with zero

flows

• Using a Special Condition allows the Impulse Steady-State Solver

to skip the flow solution for certain pipes and junctions and just set it

to zero

• This is very helpful for convergence

I9 - 2

Special Conditions

Common uses are to close valves and turn off pumps

Can be specified on the junction Optional tab, Edit menu or

toolbar

Vacuum breaker valves,

surge tanks, gas accumulators,

relief valves and liquid

accumulators can be ignored

using the Special Condition to

simplify the location of surge

suppression equipment

I9 - 3

Special Conditions with Transients

initial state of the system

Special Conditions must be matched properly with the initial

data of the transient

If a Special Condition is set and there is no transient data,

then the Special Condition remains in effect for the entire

transient

I9 - 4

Special Conditions with Valve Transients

At time zero the Cv value must be zero to be consistent with

the initial closed state

– Impulse checks for

consistency such as this

I9 - 5

Special Conditions with Pump Transients

transients

I9 - 6

Special Conditions with Pump Transients

(2)

The "Pump Off With Through Flow" is usually for centrifugal

pumps with a pump curve entered

The transient has an initial speed of zero

– Here the "Without Inertia"

model is used

I9 - 7

Special Conditions with Pump Transients

(3)

The "Pump Off With Through Flow" is also used for inertia

modeling using four quadrant pump startups

– Here the "Startup - Four Quadrant

Known Speed" model is used

I9 - 8

Special Conditions with Pump Transients

(4)

The "Pump Off With No Flow" is usually for positive

displacement pumps

The transient has an initial flow of zero

I9 - 9

Transient Special Conditions

Transient Data tab

The default Transient Special Condition is None

The most frequent use for a Transient Special Condition is to

"Ignore the Transient Data"

The Assigned Flow and Assigned Pressure junction support a

third type called "No Reflection - Infinite Pipe"

I9 - 10

No Reflection - Infinite Pipe

state and transient calculations

– The transient flow rate can be varied with time

– The Assigned Pressure works identically but with

pressure

When "No Reflection - Infinite Pipe" is chosen,

then the steady-state flowrate or pressure is not

fixed during the transient

– Both the flowrate and pressure vary as the

junction absorbs all transient waves while reflecting none

Proper use of "No Reflection - Infinite Pipe" can significantly

reduce model runtimes that have long pipelines with no

compromise on accuracy

I9 - 11

No Reflection - Infinite Pipe (2)

follows:

– The waves that travel into the pipe will not reflect during the time

frame of the simulation

– The pipe will have no nearby reflecting points such as:

• Valves

• Pumps

• Tees

• Diameter changes

• Material or wall thickness changes, or anything which changes the

wavespeed

A minimum of two pipe sections should be used in the pipe

that is connected to the infinite pipe junction

(i.e., two times the controlling pipe length)

I9 - 12

Other Special Features at Junctions

state

– Surge Tank

– Gas Accumulator

– Assigned Flow

During steady-state, surge tanks and gas accumulators by

default behave exactly like branch junctions

– Mass is balanced at these junctions and thus no net

inflow/outflow exists

I9 - 13

Other Special Features at Junctions (2)

act like a pressure-type junction during steady-state

– A good example is when the user wants to track the liquid level

in a topping tank

One can do this with features on the Optional tab

– For the Surge Tank this has been moved to the main Tank Model

tab

Users can input the surge tank steady-state liquid height

– Mass is no longer balanced during steady-state

For gas accumulators users can input the steady-state

pressure

– This only works for cases where there is no net inflow

I9 - 14

Other Special Features at Junctions (3)

zero (using a Special Condition) then the junction acts like a

dead end

– Impulse solves for the local pressure

The assigned flow junction can also be made to act like an

assigned pressure junction

– This allows a pressure to be input at the location, and then the

flow rate changed during the steady-state

I9 - 15

Notes

I9 - 16

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events

Find the maximum pressure in a water transfer system for the

following three cases:

– Both pumps start

– One pump starts while the other remains off (assume J2 starts)

– One pump starts while the other is already operating at full

speed and valve is open (assume J5 starts)

– The complete solution is saved in the model file "Pump Startup

With Event Transient (complete).imp”

I9 - 17

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (2)

Build the water transfer system or use the pre-built example

and add the transient data

– If building from scratch:

• Use the same pipe and jct numbering scheme

• Use all the pipe and junction data on following pages

– If using pre-built model:

• Open the model file "Pump Startup With Event Transient.imp“

• Skip ahead to the “Transient Data” pages that follows

I9 - 18

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (3)

Pipe and Junction Data:

I9 - 19

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (4)

Pipe and Junction Data (cont.):

Water temperature is 60 F

All pipes are Steel - ANSI with standard wall thickness

J2 and J5 pump curve data are:

Q (gpm) H (ft)

0 150

1000 140

2000 120

Pipe depth at J1 is 20 feet

Pipe depth at J10 and J11 are 10 feet

I9 - 20

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (5)

Transient Data:

Pumps J2 and J5 startup speed transient is linear over two

seconds

– Use the "Without Inertia" model where speed is an input

Time (sec) Speed

0 0

2 100

10 100

I9 - 21

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (6)

Transient Data (cont.):

When pump J2 is off then valve J3 is closed to prevent

backflow

When pump J5 is off then valve J6 is closed to prevent

backflow

When the J2 pump starts, the J3 valve opens over two

seconds with the following transient (the J5 pump and J6

valve behave the same)

Time (sec) Cv

0 0

1 800

2 1000

10 1000

I9 - 22

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (7)

Transient Data (cont.):

The J9 valve is closed until the stagnation pressure at the J7

branch reaches 45 psig or greater, at which point it starts to

open

– Hint: There is no "Junction Pressure" event type, but there is one

for pipes. Use one of the pipes connected to the branch as a

basis for the event

– Full open Cv = 500

– The J9 valve has the following opening profile:

Time (sec) Cv

0 0

2 400

5 500

10 500

I9 - 23

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (8)

Transient Data (cont.):

Use 1 section in the controlling pipe, and run the simulation

for 10 seconds

Ignore cavitation in Transient Control

I9 - 24

US

Results: Pump Startup With Events

Case Max Stag. Pressure (psig)

Two Pumps Start 72.8 (at pump discharge)

One Pump Start 71.6 (at pump discharge)

One Pump Start With One On 73.3 (in pipe P11)

Note: Results differ slightly if you use variable pipe resistance as was done here

I9 - 25

US

Results: Pump Startup With Events

Note that the case with one pump starting while the other is

running causes the maximum transient in pipe P11

Also note that there are sub-atmospheric pressures in this

case

I9 - 26

US

Note the Event Messages

I9 - 27

Notes

I9 - 28

US

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm

tank farm

– The gasoline is flowing

into Desert Petroleum's

tank (J102)

– The transient occurs

when the flow is

redirected to West

Coast Energy's tank

(J202)

– To achieve this, valve

J201 is opened as J101

is closed Model file on disk is: "Tank Farm - Using Infinite Pipes.imp"

I9 - 29

US

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm (2)

How much gasoline flows into Desert Petroleum's tank during

the transient?

– Hint: There are two ways to do this:

• You can use Integration Query

• You can plot integrated values and then save the x-y data to file

I9 - 30

US

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm (3)

The restraint for each pipe should be "Thick-Walled Anchored

Throughout"

Gasoline properties are:

– Specific Gravity = 0.759

– Dynamic Viscosity = 0.000321 lbm/s-ft

– Bulk Modulus = 150,000 psia

– Vapor Pressure = 9 psia

J1 steady-state flowrate is 13,500 barrels/hr

Tank J102 is initially full, with the pipe at a depth of 40 feet

Tank J202 is initially empty, with the pipe at a depth of 0 feet

I9 - 31

US

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm (4)

The J101 valve has a full open Cv = 15,700

J101 closes over 34 seconds with the following profile

time (sec) Cv

0 15700

19 15700

19.2 12400

22 12400

22.2 9400

26 9400

28 200

34 0

profile time (sec) Cv

0 0

10 150

11 800

12 4000

30 4000

US

Results: Gasoline Tank Farm

I9 - 33

US

Results: Gasoline Tank Farm (2)

Total flow through pipe 102, inlet (station 0) yields total flow

into tank

Using Integration Query on Tools menu yields: 86.14 barrels

I9 - 34

US

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm -

Part II

Use an infinite pipe junction at J1 and rerun model and plot

results

The length of pipe P1 should be shortened

– Use two pipe sections so the length is twice the controlling pipe

What was the difference in run time?

I9 - 35

US

Results: Gasoline Tank Farm - Part II

What was the difference in run time?

– Our experience for this model showed a difference of a factor of

over 60

– This could be the difference between a one-minute and one-hour

run

I9 - 36

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events

Find the maximum pressure in a water transfer system for the

following three cases:

– Both pumps start

– One pump starts while the other remains off (assume J2 starts)

– One pump starts while the other is already operating at full

speed and valve is open (assume J5 starts)

– The complete solution is saved in the model file “Pump Startup

With Event Transient (SI) (complete).imp”

I9 - 37

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (2)

Build the water transfer system or use the pre-built example

and add the transient data

– If building from scratch:

• Use the same pipe and jct numbering scheme

• Use all the pipe and junction data on following pages

– If using pre-built model:

• Open the model file "Pump Startup With Event Transient (SI).imp“

• Skip ahead to the “Transient Data” pages that follows

I9 - 38

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (3)

Pipe and Junction Data:

I9 - 39

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (4)

Pipe and Junction Data (cont.):

Water temperature is 16 C

All pipes are Steel - ANSI with standard wall thickness

J2 and J5 pump curve data are:

Q (m3/hr) H (m)

0 46

230 43

450 37

Pipe depth at J1 is 6 meters

Pipe depth at J10 and J11 are 3 meters

I9 - 40

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (5)

Transient Data:

Pumps J2 and J5 startup speed transient is linear over two

seconds

– Use the "Without Inertia" model where speed is an input

Time (sec) Speed

0 0

2 100

10 100

I9 - 41

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (6)

Transient Data (cont.):

When pump J2 is off then valve J3 is closed to prevent

backflow

When pump J5 is off then valve J6 is closed to prevent

backflow

When the J2 pump starts, the J3 valve opens over two

seconds with the following transient (the J5 pump and J6

valve behave the same)

Time (sec) Cv

0 0

1 800

2 1000

10 1000

I9 - 42

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (7)

Transient Data (cont.):

The J9 valve is closed until the stagnation pressure at the J7

branch reaches 310 kPa(g) or greater, at which point it starts

to open

– Hint: There is no "Junction Pressure" event type, but there is one

for pipes. Use one of the pipes connected to the branch as a

basis for the event

– Full open Cv = 500

– The J9 valve has the following opening profile:

Time (sec) Cv

0 0

2 400

5 500

10 500

I9 - 43

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Startup With

Events (8)

Use 1 section in the controlling pipe, and run the simulation

for 10 seconds

Ignore cavitation in Transient Control

I9 - 44

SI

Results: Pump Startup With Events

Case Max Stag. Pressure (kPa(g))

Two Pumps Start 501.0 (at pump discharge)

One Pump Start 492.5 (at pump discharge)

One Pump Start With One On 504.7 (in pipe P11)

Note: Results differ slightly if you use variable pipe resistance as was done here

I9 - 45

SI

Results: Pump Startup With Events (2)

Note that the case with one pump starting while the other is

running causes the maximum transient in pipe P11

Also note that there are sub-atmospheric pressures in this

case

I9 - 46

SI

Note the Event Messages

I9 - 47

Notes

I9 - 48

SI

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm

tank farm

– The gasoline is flowing

into Desert Petroleum's

tank (J102)

– The transient occurs

when the flow is

redirected to West

Coast Energy's tank

(J202)

– To achieve this, valve

J201 is opened as J101

is closed Model file on disk is: "Tank Farm - Using Infinite Pipes (SI).imp"

I9 - 49

SI

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm (2)

How much gasoline flows into Desert Petroleum's tank during

the transient?

– Hint: There are two ways to do this:

• You can use Integration Query

• You can plot integrated values and then save the x-y data to file

I9 - 50

SI

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm (3)

The restraint for each pipe should be "Thick-Walled Anchored

Throughout"

Gasoline properties are:

– Specific Gravity = 0.759

– Dynamic Viscosity = 0.47770 cp

– Bulk Modulus = 10342.1 bar

– Vapor Pressure = 0.6205 bar

J1 steady-state flowrate is 2146.33 m3/hr

Tank J102 is initially full, with the pipe at a depth of 12 meters

Tank J202 is initially empty, with the pipe at a depth of 0

meters

I9 - 51

SI

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm (4)

The J101 valve has a full open Cv = 15,700

J101 closes over 34 seconds with the following profile

time (sec) Cv

0 15700

19 15700

19.2 12400

22 12400

22.2 9400

26 9400

28 200

34 0

profile time (sec) Cv

0 0

10 150

11 800

12 4000

30 4000

SI

Results: Gasoline Tank Farm

I9 - 53

SI

Results: Gasoline Tank Farm (2)

Total flow through pipe 102, inlet (station 0) yields total flow

into tank

Using Integration Query on Tools menu yields: 13.66 meters3

I9 - 54

SI

Hands-On Model: Gasoline Tank Farm -

Part II

Use an infinite pipe junction at J1 and rerun model and plot

results

The length of pipe P1 should be shortened

– Use two pipe sections so the length is twice the controlling pipe

What was the difference in run time?

I9 - 55

SI

Results: Gasoline Tank Farm - Part II

What was the difference in run time?

– Our experience for this model showed a difference of a factor of

over 60

– This could be the difference between a one-minute and one-hour

run

I9 - 56

I10. Pump Transients

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Steady-State Pump Modeling

ways:

– Pump curve

• Useful for centrifugal pumps

• Possibly with a user specified operating speed

– Assigned flow

• Useful for positive displacement pumps

– Pump with variable speed controller

• Used in conjunction with a pump curve

• Useful for centrifugal pumps with VFD's

– If no pump transient is being modeled, the above three steady-

state pump models are still applicable during system transients

– If a pump transient is being modeled, each of

the three steady-state models have

different aspects

I10 - 1

Pump Curves and Speed Changes

the effect of pump speed

changes must be

accounted for

Pump curves can be

adjusted for operation at

different speeds using

affinity laws

– Also called homologous

pump laws

2

Q1 n1 ∆H1 n1

= =

Q2 n2 ∆H 2 n2

I10 - 2

Pump Curves and Speed Changes (2)

the user to input the speed

transient

– No other information about

the pump is needed

– This model is called

"Without Inertia"

The pump speed can

frequently be estimated for

startup cases

For pump trips, it is difficult 2

Q1 n1 ∆H1 n1

to determine the speed = =

Q2 n2 ∆H 2 n2

I10 - 3

Pump Curves and Speed Changes (3)

event based

For pump startups, the initial transient speed will be zero

– This is used in conjunction with the "Pump Off With Through

Flow" Special Condition

– Can be time or event based

For pump trips, the initial transient speed will be the same as

the steady-state

– Can be time or event based

I10 - 4

US

Model Pump Trip

during a pump trip for the following system (TEST2.IMP)

– Water system at 70 degrees F

– Reservoir at 10 feet elevation needs to be pumped up a hill to a

reservoir at 200 feet elevation (assume pipes are at a 10 feet

depth)

– The total pipe length is 1000 feet (assume pump is 10 feet from

supply)

– The pipe is 4 inch Schedule 40 Steel-ANSI

– Pump elevation = 0 feet

– Run the model for 30 seconds

I10 - 5

US

Model Pump Trip (2)

Pump data:

– Use the transient pump model “ Without Inertia” and enter the

pump speed profile given below

– Add a check valve in the Pump Properties that closes when the

forward velocity reaches zero

Q (gpm) Head (ft) Time (s) Speed (%)

0 400 0.0 100

250 390 0.5 40

500 380 2 20

1000 340 5 15

30 5

I10 - 6

US

Answers to Pump Trip Model

TEST2 results

– Max pressure is 163.3 psig at pump discharge

– Min pressure is -2.2 psig somewhere in pump discharge line

(Station 89)

I10 - 7

Notes

I10 - 8

SI

Model Pump Trip

during a pump trip for the following system (TEST2 (SI).IMP)

– Water system at 21 degrees C

– Reservoir at 3 meters elevation needs to be pumped up a hill to

a reservoir at 60 meters elevation (assume pipes are at a 3

meter depth)

– The total pipe length is 305 meters (assume pump is 3 meters

from supply)

– The pipe is 4 inch (10.2 cm ID) Schedule 40 Steel-ANSI

– Pump elevation = 0 meters

– Run the model for 30 seconds

I10 - 9

SI

Model Pump Trip (2)

Pump data:

– Use the transient pump model “ Without Inertia “ and enter the

pump speed profile given below

Q (m3/hr) Head (m) Time (s) Speed (%)

0 122 0.0 100

57 119 0.5 40

114 116 2 20

227 104 5 15

30 5

I10 - 10

SI

Answers to Pump Trip Model

– Max pressure is 1126 kPa(g) at pump discharge

– Min pressure is -14.4 kPa(g) somewhere in pump discharge line

(Station 90)

I10 - 11

Calculated Speed Changes Using Inertia

inertia must be included

– Transient pump speed becomes an output parameter, rather

than an input

– Additional pump data is required to use these models

AFT Impulse offers two transient models for pump trips:

– Pump Trip With Inertia and No Backflow or Reverse Speed

– Pump Trip With Inertia - Four Quadrant

Pumps can be tripped or started based on events

– Pumps can trip and then restart, and vice versa

Pumps have an anti-reverse rotation option

I10 - 12

Calculated Speed Changes Using Inertia

(2)

If there is a check valve to prevent backflow, the best choice

is the first one: "Pump Trip With Inertia and No Backflow"

– This model requires the following:

• Pump curve and power vs. flow data

• Rated pump speed in rpm

• Inertia of pump, entrained water and motor

I10 - 13

Pump Trip With Inertia and No Backflow

Calculation methodology

dω

T = −I T = unbalanced torque

dt

I = inertia

P = Tω ω = rotational speed

1 dω t = time

∫ dt = − ∫

I T P = power

∆t 1

= − ∆ω

I T

∆

ωnew = ωold − Told t

I

Once we know the new speed, we plug this into the same

affinity law routines as we do when the speed is specified by

the user

I10 - 14

Pump Trip With Inertia and No Backflow

(2)

The user enters the power vs. flow, the rated pump speed in

rpm, and the estimated rotating inertia

I10 - 15

Estimating Rotating Inertia

– Pump and entrained water

– Motor

Wylie provides equations to estimate the inertia*

0.9556 1.48

7

𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃

𝐼𝐼𝑝𝑝 = 1.5 10 𝐼𝐼𝑚𝑚 = 118

𝑁𝑁 3 𝑁𝑁

These equations have been incorporated into a window that

may be accessed from the Transient tab on the Pump

Property window

Note Europeans often base inertia on diameter (rather than

radius) and values differ by a factor of four from above value

Prentice Hall, Englewood Hills, New Jersey, 1993. See page 148-149.

I10 - 16

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates

If an inertial Pump Transient model is selected, the “Estimate

Rotating Inertia and Calculate Specific Speed” window may

be used to estimate the pump inertia and specific speed

– Click the “Estimate Inertia and Specific Speed…” button located

on the Inertia Data tab

I10 - 17

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates (2)

Enter pump rated

parameters

Pump rated speed

value is imported

automatically from the

Pump Property

window

The value may also

be entered manually

I10 - 18

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates (3)

The rated head, flow,

and the BEP can be

calculated, if the pump

head curve, and the

efficiency or power

curves have been

entered on the Pump

Properties window

If the pump data is not

available, the values

are entered manually

I10 - 19

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates (4)

By default, the density

is set to the same

density value used in

System Properties

By unchecking the

box, a different

density value may be

entered

I10 - 20

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates (5)

After the rated values

are entered, click the

“Calculate” button

– Calculates the

estimated rotating

inertia values

– Calculates the pump

specific speed

I10 - 21

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates (6)

The Calculated Values

section displays the

results calculated from

Wylie’s equations

– Power

– Pump Rotating

Inertia

– Motor Rotating

Inertia

I10 - 22

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates (7)

The Results section

displays additional

calculated results

– Total Rotating Inertia

• Sum of Pump and

Motor inertia

• Required for inertial

pump transient

calculations

– Specific Speed

• Displayed in three

different units

• Used to select four

quadrant data set

I10 - 23

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates (8)

The results can be

transferred back to the

Pump Properties

window

– Make appropriate

transfer selections

– Click “Transfer and

Close” button

I10 - 24

Pump Inertia and Specific Speed

Estimates (9)

The pump total

rotating inertia value

is transferred directly

to the Pump

Properties window

The pump specific

speed value is used

to select the most

appropriate four

quadrant data set

I10 - 25

Four Quadrant Modeling

quadrant methods are required

The four quadrants are:

– Positive flow, positive speed

– Positive flow, negative speed

– Negative flow, positive speed

– Negative flow, negative speed

Conventional methods use the "Suter Method"

– For a detailed description see Wylie, et al. (*)

Systems, Prentice Hall, Englewood Hills, New Jersey, 1993.

See page 144-151.

I10 - 26

Four Quadrant Modeling (2)

manufacturers

– They only take in the first quadrant

Impulse provides twenty-one four quadrant data sets

Users of these methods rely on data for pumps with similar

specific speed

Four quadrant methods make use of four parameters

– Pump head rise

– Pump flow rate

– Pump torque

– Pump speed

I10 - 27

Four Quadrant Modeling (3)

The head rise and flow rate across the pump are available

from the compatibility equations (we saw these in Section 3)

Pi , new = C P − B P m

i , new

Pi , new = C M + B M m i , new

We need two more pieces of data

Four quadrant data provides correlated/measured data for

pump torque and speed in all four quadrants, and how these

relate to flow rate and head

I10 - 28

Four Quadrant Modeling (4)

dimensionless form by dividing through by the rated value

α= N

NR

β= T

TR

H

h=

HR

Q

v=

QR

Two combined parameters are defined (called WH and WB in

Wylie) h

FH =

α 2 + v2

β

FB =

α 2 + v2

I10 - 29

Four Quadrant Modeling (5)

increments of θ where:

ϑ = π + tan−1 v

α

users define θ as:

α

ϑ = tan−1

v

user to choose which

definition to use

I10 - 30

Four Quadrant Modeling (6)

If the four quadrant data (FH and FB) are available, they can

be entered into the table

– The user would set the

"Four Quadrant Data

Source" as "User Specified"

More typically, one of the

predefined data sources

can be used using the

nearest specific speed (Ns)

I10 - 31

Four Quadrant Modeling (7)

there are four equations and four unknowns

These are solved to obtain the new head, flow rate, torque

and speed at each time step

I10 - 32

Partial Four Quadrant Data

100% Speed:

Standard

Operating

Zone

Rated

Operating

Point

I10 - 33

Four Quadrant Pump Head Curves

power (or efficiency) curves on the Pump Model tab

– Used for steady state calculations

– These curves are no longer used once the transient calculation

begins

I10 - 34

Four Quadrant Pump Head Curves (2)

After the transient begins, AFT Impulse uses the head curve

derived from the four quadrant pump data

I10 - 35

Four Quadrant Pump Head Curves (3)

– This means the pump operates on a different curve during the

transient than it does during the steady state

– If an appropriate four quadrant data set was selected, generally

the curves are very similar

The four quadrant head curves are typically developed based

on the pump’s rated operating point (usually BEP)

Using different curves in steady state and transient

calculations creates some potential difficulties

I10 - 36

Issues When Using Different Curves

– In this case, the curves are very similar

– The curves will always meet exactly at the BEP

I10 - 37

Issues When Using Different Curves (2)

The pump may operate away from BEP during Steady State

– The head predicted by the different curves is different

– When the solution is handed off to the transient solver, an

artificial transient will likely occur

•

I10 - 38

Issues When Using Different Curves (3)

curve based on the steady state solution rather than the pump

BEP

– This eliminated the artificial transient by ensuring the steady

state pump curve and the transient pump curve always produced

the same head at the steady state condition

– This tends to work fairly well if the steady state pump operation

is near BEP

– However, the more the steady state solution varies from the BEP,

this method tends to force bigger deviations between the steady

state pump curve and the four quadrant pump curve

I10 - 39

Issues When Using Different Curves (4)

As the steady state operation moves away from the BEP, the

four quadrant curves are forced to meet the pump curve at the

operating point

– Steady state and transient curves tend to deviate more

I10 - 40

Four Quadrant Pump Curves

during both the steady state and transient solutions

– Eliminates the artificial transients associated with using different

pump curves

– Eliminates the “warping” of the four quadrant curve to meet

steady state operating conditions away from the BEP

The four quadrant pump curve used in the steady state is

developed using the BEP of the user entered pump data

– User must still enter a pump head and power (or efficiency)

curves so the BEP can be determined

– A user defined BEP point can be entered on the Pump

Configuration window

I10 - 41

Four Quadrant Pump Curves (2)

The user may select to use the four quadrant pump curve in

the steady state on the Pump Properties window Transient tab

I10 - 42

Four Quadrant Pump Curves (3)

manufacturer’s curves by clicking the “Compare Curves”

button

I10 - 43

Pump Startups With Four Quadrant Data

The four quadrant data can also be used for pump startups

Impulse offers two four quadrant models for pump startup

1) Four quadrant with known speed

• Here the speed is an input

• The four quadrant data is used to calculate the pump response

2) Four quadrant with inertia and known motor torque/speed

• Motor torque/speed is used to calculate the pump speed

I10 - 44

Pump Startups Using Motor Torque and

Speed

Impulse offers two inertial startup models

– Startup with inertia and no back flow or reverse speed

– Startup with inertia - four quadrant with inertia and known

torque/speed

For these cases the motor torque is entered by the user as a

function of speed

When four quadrant data is not available, the user provided

pump data for head vs. flow and power vs. flow are used in

the calculations, and thus calculation can only be made for

positive or zero flows (i.e. a check valve is present)

The addition of the four quadrant data allows calculations for

back flow or reverse speed

I10 - 45

Pump Startups Using Motor Torque and

Speed (2)

Typical motor

speed/torque data

with inertia models, the user

supplies the speed/torque data

I10 - 46

No Transient – Four Quadrant

backflow due to conditions in the system

– In such cases the second quadrant data will be assumed to have

a head equal to the shutoff head

– This can cause convergence issues and is also not very

accurate

The “No Transient – Four

Quadrant” option can be used

to model this situation

I10 - 47

Modeling Pumps With Control Transients

the control point can be varied with time

– The resulting speed is calculated over time

I10 - 48

Modeling Pumps With Flow Transients

displacement pumps

– The "Repeat Transient" feature is useful in modeling the periodic

flow rate

I10 - 49

Modeling Multiple Pumps

one of a set of parallel or series pumps

This simplifies entering extra piping and dealing with the

impact on run time

This only works when all pumps start, trip or in general

operate together

I10 - 50

Notes

I10 - 51

Notes

I10 - 52

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Trip

pump trip models ("Pump Trip With Multiple Pumps.imp")

– The two models will be identical except for the pump transient

model

I10 - 53

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Trip (2)

The pipes at the inlet reservoirs are 200 feet deep

The pipes at the outlet reservoirs are 140 feet deep

All pipes are 30 inch STD Steel - ANSI

There are four parallel pumps in each system

The data for an individual pump is:

– Rated Speed = 1760 rpm

– Rotational Inertia = 475 lbm-ft2

– Performance curve:

Q (gpm) H (ft) Power (hp)

0 408 165

1000 384 183

2000 351 225

3000 288 261

4000 189 279

5000 72 285 I10 - 54

US

Hands-On Model: Pump Trip (3)

Speed" for the transient model

For J12, choose "Trip With Inertia - Four Quadrant" transient

model

– Choose the Four Quadrant Data Source as Ns = 1270 in gpm

units

– On the Pump Model tab, specify that a Check Valve is at the

discharge which closes when the velocity is zero and reopens at

zero delta pressure/head

Section the pipes with 4 sections in the controlling pipe

Run the models and compare the pump speed decay, pump

discharge pressure transients, pump flow rates transients,

and overall pressure profile

– Run the models for 60 seconds I10 - 55

Notes

I10 - 56

US

Results: Pump Trip

I10 - 57

US

Results: Pump Trip (2)

I10 - 58

Notes

I10 - 59

Notes

I10 - 60

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Trip

pump trip models ("Pump Trip With Multiple Pumps (SI).imp")

– The two models will be identical except for the pump transient

model

I10 - 61

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Trip (2)

The pipes at the inlet reservoirs are 61 meters deep

The pipes at the outlet reservoirs are 43 meters deep

All are 30 inch (74.3 cm ID) STD Steel - ANSI

There are four parallel pumps in each system

The data for an individual pump is:

– Rated Speed = 1760 rpm

– Rotational Inertia = 20.016 kg-m2

– Performance curve:

Q (m3/hr) H (m) Power (kW)

0 124 123

227 117 136

454 107 168

681 88 195

908 58 208

1136 22 212 I10 - 62

SI

Hands-On Model: Pump Trip (2)

Speed" for the transient model

For J12, choose "Trip With Inertia - Four Quadrant" transient

model

– Choose the Four Quadrant Data Source as Ns = 0.46

– On the Pump Model tab, specify that a Check Valve is at the

discharge which closes when the velocity is zero and reopens at

zero delta pressure/head

Section the pipes with 4 sections in the controlling pipe

Run the models and compare the pump speed decay, pump

discharge pressure transients, pump flow rates transients,

and overall pressure profile

– Run the models for 60 seconds

I10 - 63

Notes

I10 - 64

SI

Results: Pump Trip

I10 - 65

SI

Results: Pump Trip (2)

I10 - 66

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient

Control

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Pipe Sectioning Can Impact Runtime

number of computations required

– The number of computations depend on the total number of time

steps (shown on the Transient Control window) and,

– The total number of pipe sections (which can be determined

from the display table in the Section Pipes window)

Run times also depend to a lesser degree on how frequently

data is written to disk and which stations are written (Transient

Control window)

I11 - 1

Pipe Sectioning Can Impact Runtime (2)

number of computations

– This occurs because the time step must also be halved

If the controlling pipe is very short, this requires more sections

in all other pipes in the model

– It may be prudent to either neglect the shortest pipe or identify a

way to combine it into a longer pipe

I11 - 2

Section Pipes Window

window automates

the process of finding

the most suitable pipe

sectioning

A range of values for

the number of

sections in the

controlling pipe can

be evaluated

– By default Impulse

searches up to 5

sections

I11 - 3

Section Pipes Window (2)

range of choices and searching for the option that produces

the least amount of error

– The range is controlled by specifying the “bandwidth” of the

variation percentage. The default bandwidth is 25%.

– The search is repeated for each number of sections in the

controlling pipe specified in the search criteria

The option with the least amount of error for each number of

sections in the controlling pipe is displayed in the Search

Results table

I11 - 4

Section Pipes Window (3)

larger than the

maximum allowable

error, the selection is

colored red, and the

next higher option is

selected by default

– Maximum allowable

error is 10% by

default

– Results with error

above the maximum

allowable error can

still be selected

I11 - 5

Section Pipes Window (4)

Detailed information

for the selected pipe

sectioning is

displayed in the

“Selected Sectioning

for Model” table

– Specific information

for each pipe in the

model is displayed

– The Sectioning

Details can be

hidden

I11 - 6

Section Pipes Window (5)

By clicking “Show

Advanced Settings”

the search criteria

can be modified

– Maximum Allowable

Error

– Search Bandwidth

– Search increment

I11 - 7

Combining Pipes

– Are connected by static elements such as an elbow or a valve

that is always open

– Have the same pipe size

The Combine Pipes feature on the Section Pipes window will

automatically combine pipes that satisfy the criteria

I11 - 8

Example of Ignoring Shortest Pipe

– Run time is over 1 hour

I11 - 9

Example of Ignoring Shortest Pipe (2)

Here pipe P4 has been deleted and run time is less than a

second

– How do you think this will affect the results?

I11 - 10

Transient Output Files

steady-state

– Calculations are performed at numerous time steps

Ongoing access to this data is needed for several reasons

– Creating graphs of results

– Reviewing results of models run previously without having to

rerun them

– Comparing results of different runs

To facilitate these activities, output data is written to a file

external to the *.imp file

I11 - 11

Transient Output Files (2)

– "Input File Name" + # + ".out" where # is a number

• The output file is located in the same folder as the input file

– The number is needed to distinguish among different output files

generated from different scenarios

– Unless you want to move the models files to a different PC or

archive the results, the name of the output file is unimportant

– If you move both input and all output files, you can open the

models on other PC's and have access to all modeling results

I11 - 12

Transient Output File Size Issues

saved

Fortunately, it is usually not necessary to save all of the data

AFT Impulse offers several features for reducing output file

size while retaining important data

I11 - 13

Transient Output File Size Issues (2)

– At all or selected time steps:

• Pressure

• Mass flowrate

• Vapor volume

• Slurry information if the SSL module is used

– The maximum and minimum values for all time steps for all pipe

stations:

• Static pressure

• Stagnation pressure

• Mass flowrate

• Vapor volume

• Slurry information if the SSL module is used

I11 - 14

Transient Output File Size Issues (3)

The approximate output file size and model run time are

shown at the bottom of Transient Control

I11 - 15

Transient Output File Size Issues (4)

– All of this data can be written to file,

or only at

certain intervals

– Saving data at intervals is usually

acceptable

• Here data is written every 10th time

step

• This reduces the output file size by

nearly 90%

• It also can have a noticeable impact on model runtime

– It is recommended that data be saved at least every 25th time step

• In more complicated models where the output file

size is extremely large one may consider

skipping more data points

I11 - 16

Transient Output File Size Issues (5)

stations written to the output file

– For systems with very long pipes, this

can reduce output file sizes by a huge

amount

A good choice is to save only the Inlet

and Outlet stations

– If results indicate you need to save

more stations, you can change Transient Control and rerun

– The choice can be applied on a pipe by pipe basis

When a pipe station is not saved, then it cannot be plotted

Even if a station is not saved, the max/min values are saved

and can be included in profile plots

I11 - 17

Transient Control and Graph Results

If one chooses to save All Stations

to the transient output file...

be created for all stations

I11 - 18

Transient Control and Graph Results (2)

If one chooses to save Inlet and

Outlet to the transient output file...

…then only those two stations are

shown in Select Graph Data

created for only those two stations

I11 - 19

Transient Control and Graph Results (3)

However, if one chooses to save Inlet

and Outlet to the transient output file...

specified in Select Graph Data that

include unsaved stations

…and a profile graph can be created

I11 - 20

Artificial Transients and Transient

Control

Impulse can stop the

run if artificial

transients are present

in the model by

selecting the check

box on the Transient

Control window

If necessary, the

criteria for detecting

artificial transients

can be adjusted

I11 - 21

I12. Special Topics Including

Troubleshooting

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Getting the Right Results

frequently

This section offers numerous strategies and suggestions for

approaching modeling problems

I12 - 1

First Run the Model in Steady-State

before running the transient

I12 - 2

Plot Input Data in Graph Results

that should match input data

– Transient pressure conditions

– Valve Cv

– Pump speed

– Etc.

This can assist with input data verification

I12 - 3

General Input Errors

errors, but data entry errors can be hard to find

Finding input errors in pipe and junctions can be tedious

– Each object needs to be checked individually

The Model Data Window lets you look at all pipes and junction

data in column format

– This is much easier to check than workspace objects

Each column should be scanned down to see if there are any

unit errors or numbers that are wildly different than the others

– Example: all pipe lengths in miles but one is in feet

I12 - 4

Use the Sort Feature

If a big model runs but the results look incorrect, use the Sort

feature in the Output Window to look for extremes in velocity,

pressure drop or other parameters

An input error (like incorrect diameter) may be easier to see

by its effect on the results

I12 - 5

Tee/Wye Junctions Complications

misused

– If tee losses have a small effect on this system, Branch junctions

or simple tee loss models may be preferred

On some models with multiple Tee/Wye junctions the flow split

dependence causes convergence problems with the Relative

Tolerance Method

In such cases the Absolute Tolerance method is better

In some transient calculations, detailed Tee/Wye junctions

have been seen to produce results that appear to be

unrealistic

– In such cases using simple tees may be a

better alternative

I12 - 6

Check Valves

controls opening and closing

Three types of check valve:

– Traditional (Without Inertia)

– Single Closure Based on Fluid Deceleration (Without Inertia)

– Swing Check (With Inertia)

I12 - 7

Without Inertia Check Valve Models

– By default, AFT Impulse assumes the valve closure is

instantaneous

– This can lead to very large pressure surges

– This assumption may not be a realistic representation of the

actual valve closure

– User has the option of entering valve opening and closing

transients

• The actual opening and closing of the valve is controlled by the logic

in the junction itself

• The user can specify the amount of time it

takes for the valve to open and close

I12 - 8

Without Inertia Check Valve Models (2)

– Attempts to predict the maximum reverse velocity at which the

valve will close

– This velocity is based on experimental predictions involving the

fluid deceleration and various check valve types from A R

Thorley’s Fluid Transients in Pipeline Systems (1981)

– The check valve does not reopen once it closes

– Only one check valve at a time in the model can use this option

I12 - 9

With Inertia Check Valve Model

Swing Check

– Uses a torque balance to estimate valve position over time for a

swing check valve

– Requires more detailed input to describe the valve

• Physical properties of the valve, such as disk size and submerged

weight

• Inertia properties of the valve

• Spring data, if applicable

I12 - 10

Check Valve Special Condition

Special Conditions

– They can either stay closed or allowed to open as the transient

progresses

I12 - 11

Check Valve Transients (4)

the upstream, then lowers to below and raises back higher

– The check valve is set closed in steady state

– Then opens when the level drops low enough for forward flow

– Finally recloses as the level rises

I12 - 12

The Weir Junction

to increase upstream water level (HGL)

A weir can act like a seal pit which raises the outlet pressure

of the in-flowing pipe to avoid back flow and air intake

Impulse can model three types of sharp-crested weirs

– Rectangular

– V-notch

– Cipolletti

I12 - 13

The Weir Junction (2)

outlet pipe

There are three basic modeling aspects to define a weir

– An upstream area (bottom elevation and cross sectional area)

– A downstream area (bottom elevation and cross sectional area)

– The weir barrier (type, elevation and width)

For steady-state the flow rates are equal in all three areas

– The flow entering the upstream area equals the flow over the

weir and leaving the downstream area

During the transient the inlet and outlet flow rate can be

different

– The upstream and downstream levels can vary

I12 - 14

The Weir Junction Example

controlled by a valve and a rectangular weir

The valve is closed rapidly over 2 seconds and fully closed

within 3 seconds

Determine the liquid levels in the upstream and downstream

areas over time

I12 - 15

The Weir Junction Example (2)

I12 - 16

The Turbine Junction

hydroelectric turbine, in which hydraulic power is converted to

shaft power, which drives an electric generator

– Models only the reaction-type turbine, specifically, the Francis

turbine

– The turbine four quadrant data relies on having a complete set of

rated turbine performance parameters

– If no transient is defined for the turbine, it will continuously adjust

to changes in supply pressure and/or discharge pressure

I12 - 17

Partial Four Quadrant Pump Data

points for all four quadrants

This can cause convergence issues during the transient pump

calculations

The AFT Impulse help file lists which of the four quadrant data

sets do not include full data sets

If the four quadrant data you have selected is not a complete

data set, and it is causing calculation issues, try using the

next closest data set which contains full four quadrant data

I12 - 18

Specifying a Stagnant Region Pressure

– Between two closed valves, for example

During the steady state calculation this will result in a “No

Solution” shown in the output

A transient run cannot be started with undefined pressures in

the model

To avoid this, a stagnant region pressure can be entered in

one of the pipes

– This will define the pressure in the entire region

– Only one pressure can be entered for the region

I12 - 19

Specifying Stagnant Region Pressure (2)

valves J7, J8 and J9

– There is no defined pressure between these valves and the

region is stagnant

Valves J7 and J9 will be opened during the transient run

I12 - 20

Specifying Stagnant Region Pressure (3)

pipes P5, P6 and P8

of pipe P4 that we can use

I12 - 21

Specifying Stagnant Region Pressure (4)

– That is just downstream of the valve

This provides a pressure for the entire stagnant region

I12 - 22

Specifying Stagnant Region Pressure (5)

transient simulation can be run

Valves J7 and J9 are instantly opened

– Pressures oscillate on either side of valve J7

I12 - 23

Specifying Stagnant Region Pressure (6)

I12 - 24

Artificial Transients

pseudo time step for diagnostic purposes

This calculation is performed with all of the transients ignored

An artificial transient occurs when the steady-state results do

not match the results from this pseudo time step

This situation can introduce false transients into the system

If undetected, this artificial transient will interact with the

physical transient being modeled and corrupt the results

I12 - 25

Artificial Transients (2)

performs a “zero time step computation” [pseudo time step]

and compares the predicted results with the results from the

steady-state solution

– If the difference exceeds the

artificial transient criteria specified

in the Transient Control window

(0.5% by default) a warning

message is displayed

– If the Stop Run if Artificial Transient

Detected option is selected the

simulation will be terminated

immediately

I12 - 26

Artificial Transients (3)

Run the AFT Impulse model

– Do not use any of the transient input (e.g., by setting the

Transient Special Conditions to ‘Ignore Transient Data’)

• This will cause the system to remain at the original steady-state

condition

– Run the model for 10 to 100 time steps

If no artificial transients exist, all pressure and flow solutions

will remain steady with time

If pressures and/or flows change and transients are evident,

then an artificial transient exists

I12 - 27

Artificial Transients Example

Artificial Transients” scenario, and run the simulation

The run is terminated with Critical errors due to Artificial

Transients

– The results displayed in the output are not valid, because the

simulation did not run to a normal convergence

I12 - 28

Artificial Transients Example (2)

Pipes P1, P2, and P11 show warnings that the initial pressure

conditions are not steady

– Checking Solution Control shows that the pressure and flow

tolerances have been set to 1.0E-4, rather than the AFT Impulse

default of 1.0E-5

– The user may have changed this to achieve a faster solution to

the steady-state

– Change the solution control values to the default AFT Impulse

values

I12 - 29

Artificial Transients Example (3)

– This pipe ends at a dead end junction, which causes the zero

flow

– With zero flow, even extremely small tolerances in the solution

are relatively large

– In the Artificial Transient section in the Transient Control window,

set 'Ignore Flows Less Than' to 1 gal/min

– This will cause these minor variations around zero flow to be

ignored

Rerun the model with the above changes

– The artificial transient issues have been resolved

I12 - 30

Vapor Cavitation - Beware!

For the DVCM and DGCM, AFT Impulse assumes:

– the wavespeed is constant

– all vaporization is localized at the computing sections

– the vapor bubbles do not move

These assumptions make cavitation modeling less certain

than all liquid modeling

I12 - 31

Vapor Cavitation - Beware! (2)

When using the “Discrete Vapor Cavity Model”:

– The first one or two pressure spikes after cavity collapse tend to

be the most reliable

– After the first one or two spikes, the non-physical pressure

spikes frequently begin

– Pay attention to the maximum vapor volumes in relation to the

computing volume

– Attention should be focused on the major trends of the pressure

results

• These tend to be where more pressure solutions are grouped

together, rather than isolated spikes

I12 - 32

Cavitation – DVCM and DGCM

result in unrealistic results

– This is a result of limitations in the mathematical model used to

calculate transient cavitation in AFT Impulse

– Cavitation is actually a two-phase flow phenomenon, which can

be approximated by sophisticated mathematical models

• These models do not model true two-phase flow conditions

• In the presence of persistent cavitation, these mathematical models

can break down

I12 - 33

Cavitation – DVCM and DGCM (2)

issues arise in AFT Impulse models

– Cavitation exists in the initial model steady state

• Solution of the initial model steady state results in cavitation in the

system

– Cavitation exists in the final model steady state

• The final state of the system after the transient phenomenon have

subsided results in persistent cavitation in the system

I12 - 34

Cavitation – DVCM and DGCM (3)

– In this case, when AFT Impulse detects the presence of

cavitation in the initial steady state solution, an error message

will be generated, and the transient analysis is aborted

Open the “Cavitation Issues Example.imp” example model file

to the “Cavitation at Initial Steady-State” scenario and run it

– The initial conditions in this simulation result in cavitation during

the initial steady state solution

– Note the resulting error message

I12 - 35

Cavitation – DVCM and DGCM (4)

– In this circumstance, it is sometimes harder to determine the

validity of the cavitation results

– In some cases, the effect on the results is dramatic.

• Continuous creation and collapse of vapor cavities can result in

unrealistic pressure surges due to the creation of excessively large

vapor volumes

– In other cases, the results may be less obvious

I12 - 36

Cavitation – DVCM (5)

to the “Cavitation at Final Steady-State” scenario and run it

– In this scenario, the fixed flow pump flow rate is reduced from

400 gal/min to 200 gal/min

– The final state of the system results in persistent cavitation at the

high point in the system

– Notice the “Critical Warning” message shown below:

I12 - 37

Cavitation – DVCM (6)

about 1.5 seconds, which corresponds to the beginning of the

vapor volume increase

I12 - 38

Cavitation – DVCM (7)

The vapor volume plot shows the growth of the vapor volume

– The total vapor cavitation volume preferably should not exceed

10% of the volume of the computing section (you will get a

warning message if this occurs)

– In this case, the pipe section volume is about 0.5 ft3 , while the

vapor volume is approaching 5 ft3

Note that the vapor volume at the outlet to pipe P3 (at the

high point) continues to grow over time

Vapor cavitation is assumed to occur at computing stations in

the pipes

I12 - 39

Cavitation – DVCM (8)

This model has persistent cavitation in pipes P71-P78

Plot the static pressure and vapor volume vs. time for the

outlet of pipe P73

– P73 begins to cavitate after about 20 seconds, resulting in a

number of pressure spikes due to vapor cavity collapse

– Looking at the vapor volume of the cavities, however, reveals

very large volume in relation to the pipe section volume

• The volume of the sections in P73 is about 0.6 m3

• The volume of the vapor cavities is notably larger than 10% of the

section volume

– The pressure spikes in this system may not be realistic

I12 - 40

Cavitation – DVCM (9)

I12 - 41

DGCM User Input Parameters

parameters: Ψ, α, and Reference Pressure. So what are

they?

First lets deal with Ψ. In simple terms, Ψ is a weighting factor

between previous flow results (known) and current flow

calculations (not known)

Now for the details: the growth or contraction of a cavity

volume depends on the flow deficit (outflow – inflow)

integrated over time. However, the method of characteristics

(MOC) is a finite difference method, so the evolution of flow

and cavity volume between t and ∆t is unknown and the

integral must be approximated using the trapezoid rule

I12 - 42

DGCM User Input Parameters: Ψ

respect to time is essentially linear. To the extent that linear

assumption is invalid, a weighting factor (i.e. Ψ) should be

used to bias the result toward t + ∆t (the new conditions).

Think of it as the trapezoid rule with a partially flat top. Using a

Ψ value of 0.95 implies that the change in volume, from a

previous flow deficit to a new flow deficit (or surplus) is

dominated by the new flow

For the DGCM, a Ψ between 0.5 and 1.0 should be used

Generally, DGCM results are more stable when Ψ is close to

1.0. The default is 0.95 and works well for the vast majority of

cases

I12 - 43

DGCM User Input Parameters: α and Ref

Pressure

The DGCM treats distributed gas bubbles as one aggregate

volume. The mass of air within the volume is assumed

constant, as well as the temperature within the volume

Assuming constant mass and temperature, the ideal gas law

can be used to relate volume to pressure alone

α is the void fraction, or the potion of the overall section

volume that is vacant

With the section volume known ahead of time, a reference

condition can be specified using a reference α and reference

pressure

I12 - 44

DGCM User Input Parameters: α and Ref

Pressure (2)

With known reference parameters, the right hand side of the

ideal gas law can be calculated and will remain constant for

the entire transient simulation

The default values of α and reference pressure are 10-7 and 1

atm, respectively

The default values work well for the majority of cases and

should not be modified without careful analysis

A large initial void fraction would imply slug flow and should

be avoided

A small initial void fraction would tend toward DVCM behavior

because the initial volume would be vanishingly small and

ineffective

I12 - 45

Use Relaxation

pressure updates and is helpful for highly non-linear systems

such as pumped systems

allows flow rate and

pressure relaxation to be

individually specified

I12 - 46

Use Relaxation (2)

relaxation of 0.1 or lower

– We have used 0.001 is some cases

For multiple parallel pump systems, using flow rate relaxation

in addition to a broad brush initial flow rate guess can be

helpful

Keep the flow rate relaxation at least one or two orders of

magnitude larger than the relative tolerances

I12 - 47

Use Relaxation (3)

tolerance is oscillating around a value

– Only pressure relaxation values of 0.5 or 1.0 should be specified

Automatic relaxation is 0.5 for pressure, begins at 1.0 for flow

and decreases based on the solution progress, is sufficient for

most models

I12 - 48

Try Absolute Tolerance

than relative tolerance

What this usually means is that there is at least one element

of the model that is close to the real answer in absolute terms

but does not lock in on a relative (percentage) basis

Absolute Tolerance is the only change required for some

problem models

I12 - 49

More on Absolute Tolerance

– You get the feedback on the Solver activity in the Solution

Progress Window

It is often easier to see where the Solver is going in absolute

terms than it is in relative terms

Some models that are converging slowly do not appear to be

converging on a relative tolerance basis even though they are

I12 - 50

More on Absolute Tolerance (2)

other out of tolerance value is shown on the Solution Progress

window in a gray box

– You can monitor the progress of unused tolerance values even

though the Solver does not use them for convergence (unless

you change the setting in Solution Control)

I12 - 51

Turn Off Parts of the Model

sections of a model so a portion of it can be run

Turning off parts of the model can help isolate the problem

portion of the model

I12 - 52

Turn Off Transient Data

can be disabled

Turning on one transient at a time and running the model may

help you understand what is happening

I12 - 53

Check Event Messages

– Events sorted by junction

– Events sorted by time

Check this to see if system behavior is in accordance with

expectations

– Check valve closures

– Relief valve opening

– Event based transient initiation

I12 - 54

Use Animation

features to understand what is happening

I12 - 55

Send the Model to AFT

We need to run some models in source code to help identify

the problem

We place a great deal of emphasis on quality technical

support

Refer to the AFT User Forum, http://forum.aft.com/

Send model to AFT by INTERNET at support@aft.com

I12 - 56

I13. Surge Suppression

P

A

Orifice

Connector

Q Pipe

A

L

C

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Surge Suppression

and damage equipment

Surge pressures that reduce the local pressure can result in:

– Crushed pipes

• Due to atmospheric pressure exceeding the internal liquid pressure

– Cavitation and liquid column separation

• Can then cause large pressure spikes when the cavity collapses

– Sub-atmospheric pressures that are unacceptable for drinking

water pipelines

Surge pressures can create imbalanced forces that move

pipes, dislodge insulation and ultimately break supports

I13 - 1

Surge Suppression (2)

– Reducing steady-state operating velocity (since surge is directly

related to velocity changes)

– Slowing the change in system operating conditions

– Changing the profile of how equipment operates in transient

mode

– Installing surge suppression equipment

I13 - 2

Velocity Reduction

pipes which thereby reduces velocity

I13 - 3

Slowing System Operation Changes

rate of valve position changes

One way to do this is to use parallel valves with staggered

closure times

Swaffield* discusses how closing the valve more quickly at

first and then more slowly at the end can result in significant

surge reduction

– Examples are given where the first 80% of closure occurs over

the first 20% of closure time, with the final 20% closure occurring

over the remaining 80% of the time

It should be noted that obtaining accurate transient valve data

can be difficult

I13 - 4

Surge Suppression Equipment

state pressure levels and whether one is protecting for high

pressure or low

Common choices include:

– Gas Accumulators

– Surge Tanks

– Relief Valves

– Vacuum Breaker Valves

I13 - 5

Waterhammer Videos - Accumulators

– How a Bladder Surge Tank can alleviate column

separation2.wmv (1:16)

• Gas bladder accumulator upstream of valve which closes

• online version - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6NIA4LxPPw

– accumulator after pump trip.wmv (1:23)

• Gas bladder accumulator close to pump - after pump trip

• online version - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kiTzez0x6aQ

I13 - 6

Gas Accumulators

PA

pre-charged with a common gas such as Orifice

air or nitrogen Connector

QA

When a surge pressure reaches the LC

Pipe

compresses or expands to allow liquid in

or out of the vessel

– This has the tendency to reduce the surge pressure

– It also changes the frequency response of the pipe system

I13 - 7

Gas Accumulators (2)

PA

problems in a pipe system Orifice

– They can help if engineered properly Connector

Q Pipe

– Most accumulators in industrial installations L

A

C

the protection the designer intended

– If you have to specify one, the best approach is to use

waterhammer software and try different options to determine the

best size and location

I13 - 8

Modeling Gas Accumulators

gas volume

You also can model a flow

restrictor (such as an orifice)

or a short connecting pipe

– These change how the

accumulator interacts with

the system

Max and Min Volumes

prevent volumes from

exceeding certain sizes

I13 - 9

Modeling Gas Accumulators (2)

branch junctions

Accumulators can also act as

a reference pressure

– This is entered in the "Initial

Pressure for Zero…" field on

the Optional tab

This allows the accumulator

to act as an Assigned Pressure

junction during the steady-

state only when the net flow

is zero

I13 - 10

Surge Tanks

but are open to the atmosphere

When a surge pressure reaches the surge

tank, the liquid in the tank rises or falls

– This has the tendency to reduce the surge

pressure

– It also changes the frequency response of

the pipe system

I13 - 11

Surge Tanks (2)

low pressure water systems

– If the steady-state pressure is high, the

surge tank will need to be very tall

– Surge Tanks are more commonly in civil

engineering systems such as hydroelectric

facilities

Surge Tanks are similar to Reservoirs in

Impulse

– Reservoirs do not change liquid level

automatically, and are thus more massive

liquid sources

I13 - 12

Modeling Surge Tanks

reality, but Impulse does not

model this

– This allows air into adjacent

pipes

Surge Tanks can spill over the

top when the Tank Height is

entered

Geometries other than pure cylinders can be modeled by

entering the tank accumulated volume as a function of height

Short connector pipes and orifices can be modeled

Surface pressure transients can be modeled to represent

known pressures in an enclosed tank

– These can be time or event based I13 - 13

Modeling Surge Tanks (2)

A hybrid

accumulator/surge tank

can be modeled called

a "Dipping

Tube Vessel" using

features on

Tank Model tab

During steady-state

conditions

accumulators behave

like branch junctions

– Impulse solves for the

liquid height

I13 - 14

Modeling Surge Tanks (3)

steady-state

– It then acts just like a reservoir junction

– The liquid height is input by the user (in the Initial Liquid Height

field)

– The surge tank no longer represents a point

of mass balance

I13 - 15

Relief Valve Modeling

used in Impulse has

numerous changes from

previous versions

– Layout of information

– Opening/closing

profiles

– Constant backpressure

– Set pressures

– Opening/closing rate

limits

I13 - 16

Relief Valve Modeling (2)

– Internal

• Relieves into another pipe which was previously isolated.

• Two connecting pipes

• Acts like a regular valve which is closed until set pressure is

reached

– Exit

• Relieves to an external ambient pressure such as the atmosphere

• One connecting pipe

• Associated back pressure must be specified

I13 - 17

Relief Valve Modeling (3)

– Inline Exit

• Relieves to an external ambient pressure, but is located between

two pipes

• Valve is a lossless connection when closed, and allows flow

between the pipes

I13 - 18

Opening/Closing Profiles

The relief valve offers four types of profiles that define the

behavior of the valve as it is opening and closing

– Instant

• The Instant profile causes the relief valve to open or close fully

instantaneously as the opening or closing conditions are met

I13 - 19

Opening/Closing Profiles (2)

The relief valve offers four types of profiles that define the

behavior of the valve as it is opening and closing

– Time

• The Time profile causes the valve to open or close according to a

Cv vs. Time profile, as the opening or closing conditions are met

• The opening and closing profiles are entered on the Transient tab,

as needed.

I13 - 20

Opening/Closing Profiles (3)

The relief valve offers four types of profiles that define the

behavior of the valve as it is opening and closing

– Pressure

• Causes the valve to passively open or close due to pressure/dP

variations according to a Cv vs. Pressure/dP profile

• The profile is entered on the Loss Model tab

• Maximum rate limits can be applied to Pressure profiles.

I13 - 21

Opening/Closing Profiles (4)

The relief valve offers four types of profiles that define the

behavior of the valve as it is opening and closing

– Never

• Only available as a closing profile

• Easy modeling of a relief valve that opens, but never closes again

(e.g., rupture disk)

I13 - 22

Remote Sensing

(other than the upstream side of the relief valve)

This allows the relief valves to be more responsive to surge

events by opening the valve before a pressure surge arrives

directly at the valve

I13 - 23

Opening/Closing Profile Combinations

combinations

– A relief valve could open instantly, and then close according to a

passive pressure profile

There are a few special considerations regarding some

combinations of profiles

I13 - 24

Opening/Closing Profile Combinations

(2)

Pressure as the opening profile

– If Pressure is selected as the opening profile, then Pressure is

the only option for a closing profile

– Logically, a valve that opens passively according to pressure

must also close passively according to pressure.

Never

– This profile can only be applied as a closing profile, allowing the

valve to open, but never close

– This is useful for modeling rupture disks

I13 - 25

Opening/Closing Profile Combinations

(3)

Time – Pressure

– Valve will begin to open according to the opening time transient

profile, as defined on the Transient tab

– If the valve Cv from the time profile exceeds the valve Cv based

on the passive pressure profile for the given pressure conditions,

the valve will switch to passive pressure control, and proceed to

open or close based on the pressure profile for the duration of

the transient

– This is to prevent the time profile from causing the valve Cv to

“overshoot” the valve Cv predicted by the pressure profile for the

pressure conditions during the transient and introducing

unrealistic transients

I13 - 26

Valve Setpoints

After the opening and closing profile types have been defined,

the valve setpoints must be entered.

The valve setpoints determine when the valve opens and

when it closes.

The setpoints can be entered in terms of either head, or

pressure/dP.

I13 - 27

Valve Setpoints – Exit Pressure

external exit pressure must be entered.

I13 - 28

Valve Setpoints – Constant Backpressure

backpressure), or non-hydraulically balanced

Hydraulically balanced

– Downstream valve mechanism is isolated from the downstream

pipe pressure

– Often by attaching a bellows device to the downstream side of

the valve stem

– Backpressure is constant, the valve setpoints can be specified in

terms of the actual upstream pressure

I13 - 29

Valve Setpoints – Constant Backpressure

(2)

Non-hydraulically balanced

– Downstream mechanism is not isolated from the downstream

pressure

– Pressure acting on downstream valve stem is not necessarily

constant as transients are acting on the system

– The pressure required for the valve to open or close will be

relative to the downstream pressure

– Valve setpoints must be specified as differential pressures

I13 - 30

Valve Setpoints – Pressure Setpoints

Set Pressure

– The pressure at which the valve will open

– All valve profile types must specify the Set Pressure

Blowdown Pressure

– Some relief valves close at a pressure that is lower than the set

pressure

– Blowdown Pressure must be specified for all opening and

closing profiles, unless the Never closing profile is selected

– If the relief valve closes at the same pressure where it opens,

then the Set Pressure and the Blowdown Pressure should be set

to the same value.

I13 - 31

Valve Setpoints – Pressure Setpoints (2)

Overpressure

– When Pressure type profiles (passive relief) are used, then the

Overpressure must be specified.

– Overpressure is the pressure required to cause the relief valve to

open to its fully open position.

I13 - 32

Loss Model

Loss Model tab.

If Instant, or Time profiles are selected, then the user has the

option of entering a constant Cv, Kv, or K factor for the valve.

– This value represents the fully open loss value for the valve.

If a Pressure profile is selected, then the variable Cv or Kv

profile must be entered.

I13 - 33

Loss Model – Variable Data

– Variable loss profile will be based on the valve pressure

setpoints entered on the Valve Model tab

– The valve loss will vary linearly between the Blowdown pressure

and the Overpressure

– Requires that the Full Open loss value be entered.

I13 - 34

Loss Model – Variable Data (2)

Non-linear

– User can enter a more detailed loss profile

– First data point must have a Cv (or Kv) of 0, at a pressure equal

to the Blowdown pressure entered on the Valve Model tab

• This represents the valve in its closed state.

– Final data point must have a loss value equal to the valve’s fully

open loss value, at a pressure equal to the Overpressure

entered on the Valve Model tab

• This represents the valve in its fully open position.

– The data points between the Blowdown pressure and the

Overpressure will vary based on the values entered by the user.

I13 - 35

Opening/Closing Rate Limits

valve opening and closing rates can be specified

– This allows modeling limiting devices which prevent the valve

from opening or closing too quickly

– If, during the transient, the pressures would cause the valve to

open or close faster than the rates specified in the rate limits

table, the valve loss value will be set to the value dictated by the

rate limits.

– Defined on the Loss Model tab

I13 - 36

Opening/Closing Rate Limits (2)

I13 - 37

Vacuum Breaker Valves

primarily used to protect against low pressure conditions

When the liquid pressure drops below some set pressure

(usually atmospheric), air (or any gas you choose) is allowed

in to maintain near atmospheric pressure at that location

Vacuum breakers are typically located at high points in the

system which are most vulnerable to low pressure transients

I13 - 38

Vacuum Breaker Valves (2)

Five conditions can exist:

– Valve closed

• Behaves like a branch junction

– Valve open with subsonic flow in

– Valve open with sonic flow in

– Valve open with subsonic flow out

– Valve open with sonic flow out

I13 - 39

Modeling Vacuum Breaker Valves

outflow CdA values

– These are the air flow areas

The inflow CdA is usually as large

as possible to allow rapid air flow in

The outflow CdA is usually much

smaller than the inflow to let the air

out slowly and prevent rapid collapse of the liquid columns

which can cause pressure surge

Transients can start with air already in the system

– These valves can be modeled as "air eliminators"

Air flow is assumed to be adiabatic

I13 - 40

Three Stage Air Release Valves

air release and vacuum break valves

– This is a particular type of air release valve sold by Vent-O-Mat

valves

Three stage valves work the same as regular valves when

gas is flowing in, but they have two orifice sizes when gas

flows out

Pressure difference or volumetric flowrate criteria specify

which orifice to use

– When the actual value is less than the specified value, the

normal Outflow CdA is used

– When the actual value is greater than the specified value, the

intermediate orifice CdA is used

I13 - 41

Three Stage Air Release Valves (2)

than the normal outflow CdA

– This slows the rate of release of the last amounts of gas in the

system, and results in slower fluid velocities as the valve closes

– This translates into greatly reduced surge pressures than those

caused by rapidly closing air release valves

I13 - 42

Three Stage Air Release Valves (3)

inflow, outflow, and

intermediate CdA values

– These are the air flow areas

The intermediate outflow

CdA is typically very small in

relation to the outflow CdA

– This slows the rate of

discharge as the last of the

air is expelled

I13 - 43

Liquid Accumulators

Some examples are:

– Expansion joints in a pipe which have higher flexibility than the

pipe

– An enclosed, liquid-solid vessel in the pipe system

Liquid accumulators are not, by design, used as surge

suppression devices

– They are just parts of a pipe system that can interact in a certain

way

I13 - 44

Modeling Liquid Accumulators in Impulse

elasticity and initial volume

The elasticity is how much the

vessel changes volume for a

given change in pressure

– This is frequently difficult to

determine and can only be

approximated

The initial volume is the volume of the vessel at the start of

the simulation

– As the pressure changes, Impulse tracks the volume changes

over time

I13 - 45

Modeling Partially Full Pipes

spray discharge or assigned pressure junctions can drain

during the transient, or start the transient partially full

Pipe drainage is limited to the specified pipe - pipes will not

drain from pipe to pipe

The partially full

pipe option is set

on the Pipe

Properties window

Options tab

I13 - 46

Modeling Partially Full Pipes (2)

When the partially

full pipe option has

been selected, data

related to the

partially full pipes

becomes available

when selecting graph

data

I13 - 47

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Calculating Unbalanced Forces

based on the transient system pressures

– In AFT Impulse “forces” is typically used to imply “unbalanced

hydraulic forces”

Both differential and point forces can be calculated

Calculated forces can be plotted in the Graph Results window

Calculated forces can also be exported to Force vs. Time data

files which can then be imported into stress analysis

applications such as CAESAR II and TRIFLEX

cavitation occurs.

I14 - 1

Defining Force Sets

are to be calculated must be defined

– The forces may be defined as differential or point forces

Forces are defined on the Force Output tab in the Transient

Control window

– A force report showing the input details is shown in the Model

Data (ensure that Show Force Sets is enabled in the Other tab of

the Model Data Control window)

– Design Alerts can be applied to Force Sets and shown in the

Force Summary

I14 - 2

Defining Force Sets (2)

For each node the user must specify:

– The pipe where the force is to be calculated

– The distance from the start of the pipe (Station 0) to the location

of the node

– The closest pipe station to the specified distance along the pipe

will be selected automatically

I14 - 3

Defining Force Sets (3)

differential force between the two defined points

– The resulting forces are displayed in the Output and can be

displayed in the Graph Results window or exported to a

Force/Time file

– A typical application of force set data would be to select the pipe

endpoints between a pair of pipe elbows

A Point force can be defined by selecting the Point option in

the Force Set column

– This disables the cells for the end node, as they have no

meaning in this application

– For point forces, the ambient pressure that these forces will act

against can be specified

I14 - 4

Unbalanced Forces Across 3+ Pipes

calculated across three or

more pipes

– Pipes must be connected

sequentially end to end

I14 - 5

Unbalanced Forces Across 3+ Pipes (2)

be added to a named group

I14 - 6

Unbalanced Forces Across 3+ Pipes (3)

– Select “Difference (3+ Pipes)” as the Force Type

– Select the appropriate Group Name under Pipe Group

I14 - 7

Calculating Unbalanced Forces

There are multiple forces that come into play when calculating

unbalanced forces

– Pressure difference between points

– Friction forces

– Fluid momentum changes (including area changes)

Traditionally the force imbalance is based solely on the

difference in pressure between points, with adjustments to

account for the hydrostatic pressure due to elevation

differences

I14 - 8

Calculating Unbalanced Forces (2)

though each will bias the pressure difference and hence the

force calculation

In cases where force sets span across two pipes and the

pipes have a different diameter, the area change itself cannot

create an unbalanced force even though the static pressure

changes

– AFT Impulse automatically accounts for this in the force balance

calculation

I14 - 9

Unbalanced Forces Traditional Method

– There is a pressure difference between nodes 1 and 2 that is

due solely to frictional pressure drop in the pipe and across the

valve – this is not included in the force balance below

– All forces at Node 1 are balanced by forces at Node 2 in steady-

state

– If frictional force is not included in the force balance calculation,

then the steady-state situation will show a force unbalance which

is not correct

I14 - 10

Unbalanced Forces Traditional Method

(2)

I14 - 11

Friction and Unbalanced Forces

Select Graph Data window and in the CAESAR II Export or

TRIFLEX Export window will account for this

– To include friction effects, the option to save the required data

must be selected in the Transient Control window

– Note that selecting this option can have a significant effect on the

output file size

• To include friction effects, AFT Impulse must save data for every

pipe station in pipes that are included in any force sets

I14 - 12

Friction, Momentum and Unbalanced

Forces

Now consider unbalanced friction forces and momentum

changes acting in the same system

– In steady-state these will be in balance - during a transient they

usually will not

– Typically (but not always) the forces caused by momentum

changes are relatively small compared to the other transient

forces in a system

– The “Include Friction” and “Include Momentum” options in the

Force Data graphing and the CAESAR II/TRIFLEX Export

window will account for this

I14 - 13

Friction, Momentum and Unbalanced

Forces (2)

Force = PA x A Force = PB x A

Momentum = mAΔVX,A Momentum = mBΔVX,B

A = πD2/4

mAΔVX,A - mBΔVX,B

I14 - 14

Viewing Force Data

Force data can be graphed from the Transient Force Data tab

in the Select Graph Data window

– Select the force pair data to be graphed

– Select whether to include the momentum and friction effects

I14 - 15

Viewing Force Data (2)

fluid acting on the pipe and supports.

I14 - 16

Exporting Force Data

to the clipboard from the Graph Results window

Alternatively, the “Save Graph Data As…” option on the File

menu in the Graph Results window allows the plotted

force/time data to be saved as a text file

After the force/time data has been exported, the user has the

option of bringing the data into other applications

– Spreadsheets

– Stress analysis

I14 - 17

Exporting Force Data - CAESAR

II/TRIFLEX

Transient force/time data can be exported in a format that can

be loaded directly into the CAESAR II or TRIFLEX pipe stress

application

– Select “Export CAESAR II Force File” (or TRIFLEX) from the File

menu

– This will open the Export CAESAR II Force File window

– This window allows the user to define the content of a force/time

data file and export it

I14 - 18

US

Transient Force Hands-on Example

another through a valve in the connecting pipeline. It is

necessary to determine the transient forces that occur when

the valve is closed in order to analyze pipe stresses and loads

on the pipe supports. Compare results both with and without

friction effects (Model “Valve closure with pipe forces.imp”)

I14 - 19

US

Transient Force Hands-on Example (2)

– The valve in the system is set to close 90% of the way over 2

seconds

Define two force sets:

– Between 480 ft and 520 ft

(Vertical leg)

– Between 520 ft and 1040 ft

(across the valve)

Note: The lengths indicated

in the figure are measured

from the J1 reservoir

I14 - 20

US

Answers to Hands-on Example

– Note that the “Length to End Node” for the force set across the

valve is defined as 40 feet and not 1040 feet

• This is because the End Node is actually located in Pipe 5 and the

length to the nodes is defined from Station 0 of the pipe on which

the node is located

– Also note that the option to save the required data to include

friction effects has been checked

I14 - 21

US

Answers to Hands-on Example (2)

The unbalanced force data for the 480 ft to 520 ft force set

without friction and momentum effects included should appear

as shown

– Note that at time 0, which represents the initial, steady state

results, the force imbalance is approximately -2700 lbf. This

imbalance is due to the presence of friction.

I14 - 22

US

Answers to Hands-on Example (3)

The unbalanced force data for the 480 ft to 520 ft force set

with friction and momentum effects included should appear as

shown

I14 - 23

US

Answers to Hands-on Example (4)

without friction or momentum included should appear as

shown

– There is a steady-state force imbalance of more than -1300 lbf

where in reality there would be no force imbalance.

I14 - 24

US

Answers to Hands-on Example (5)

case of the ‘480 ft to 520 ft’ force

– This is due to the greater frictional pressure loss from the longer

run of piping and the valve between the two locations in this

force set

I14 - 25

US

Answers to Hands-on Example (6)

The unbalanced force set for the 520 ft to 1040 ft section with

friction included should appear as shown

– With friction included there is no force imbalance under steady

state conditions

– The force imbalance is about 30% less than that calculated

without friction, and in the opposite direction

I14 - 26

SI

Transient Force Hands-on Example

another through a valve in the connecting pipeline. It is

necessary to determine the transient forces that occur when

the valve is closed in order to analyze pipe stresses and loads

on the pipe supports. Compare results both with and without

friction effects (Model “Valve closure with pipe forces

(SI).imp”)

I14 - 27

SI

Transient Force Hands-on Example (2)

Open the “Valve closure with pipe forces (SI).imp” model file

– The valve in the system is set to close 90% of the way over 2

seconds

Define two force sets:

– Between 150 m and 160 m

(Vertical leg)

– Between 160 m and 300 m

(across the valve)

Note: The lengths indicated

in the figure are measured

from the J1 reservoir

I14 - 28

SI

Answers to Hands-on Example

– Note that the “Length to End Node” for the force set across the

valve is defined as 15 m and not 315 m

• This is because the End Node is actually located in Pipe 5 and the

length to the nodes is defined from Station 0 of the pipe on which

the node is located

– Also note that the option to save the required data to include

friction effects has been checked

I14 - 29

SI

Answers to Hands-on Example (2)

The unbalanced force data for the 150 m to 160 m force set

without friction effects included should appear as shown

– Note that at time 0, which represents the initial, steady state

results, the force imbalance is about -12 kN. This imbalance is

due to the presence of friction.

I14 - 30

SI

Answers to Hands-on Example (3)

The unbalanced force data for the 150 m to 160 m force set

with friction effects included should appear as shown

I14 - 31

SI

Answers to Hands-on Example (4)

without friction or momentum included should appear as

shown

– There is a steady-state force imbalance of about -5000 N where

in reality there would be no force imbalance.

I14 - 32

SI

Answers to Hands-on Example (5)

case of the ‘150 m to 160 m’ force

– This is due to the greater frictional pressure loss from the longer

run of piping and the valve between the two locations in this

force set

I14 - 33

SI

Answers to Hands-on Example (6)

The unbalanced force set for the 160 m to 300 m section with

friction included should appear as shown

– With friction included there is no force imbalance under steady

state conditions

– The force imbalance is about 35% less than that calculated

without friction and in the opposite direction

I14 - 34

I15. Using Scenario Manager

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Scenario Manager

all with the same model

– When changes are made to the base model, they are

automatically passed downward

– Changes at lower levels do not pass upwards

I15 - 1

Scenario Manager (2)

Current

Workspace

scenario

added for

each Scenario

Rename, delete,

clone, promote

& save

scenarios by

clicking here

Create a new

scenario by

clicking here

I15 - 2

Quick Access Panel

Scenario Manager features.

I15 - 3

Types Of Changes

– Junctions can be turned on and off to evaluate different

operating conditions

– Pipe and junction data can be varied to parametrically evaluate

competing designs

– You can build an existing system as your base model then add to

the system to evaluate expansion possibilities on the existing

system

– You can easily evaluate different working fluids by setting them

up as different children scenarios

– You can compare a newly-built clean system to one that has

been in service for a period of time with worn/corroded pipes,

etc.

I15 - 4

Data Propagation

descendant data has not been modified

Changes to descendants never propagates to ancestors

I15 - 5

Data Propagation (2)

to grasp Scenario Manager Base 3 25

when it is explained how the Child #1 __ __

coding logic is actually Gr. Child #1 __ __

implemented

Blank fields for children,

grandchildren, etc., mean to

look to the parent for the

data

– If the parent is blank, then

look to the grandparent

The Base Scenario never

has blank fields

I15 - 6

Data Propagation (3)

have a blank field, so it’s Base 3 25

Diameter would be 2, not 3 Child #1 2 __

Gr. Child #1 would have a Gr. Child #1 __ __

Diameter of 2

– Both still have Lengths of

25

I15 - 7

Data Propagation (4)

Scenario Diameter from 3 to Base 3 25

6 would not impact Child #1 Child #1 2 __

or any descendants in that Gr. Child #1 __ __

line

Changing the Length from

Diameter Length

25 to 40 would also change

Base 6 40

the length in Child #1, Gr.

Child #1 2 __

Child #1, and any __ __

Gr. Child #1

descendants of Gr. Child #1

I15 - 8

Data Propagation (5) Diameter Length

Base 3 25

Child #1 2 __

Even if the Gr. Child #1 has Gr. Child #1 3 __

Base, it is not linked to the Diameter Length

Base because it and its Base 3 25

parent are not blank Child #1 3 __

Gr. Child #1 3 __

– Any change to the Base

Diameter would not affect

any descendent because

Child #1 is not blank Diameter Length

If the Diameter in Child #1 Base 3 25

is changed to be the same Child #1 __ __

as the Base, it will be Gr. Child #1 __ __

“blanked out” the next time

the scenario is loaded

– So will Gr. Child #1 I15 - 9

Data Propagation (6)

following: Base 3 25

– Diameter = 2 Child #1 2 __

Gr. Child #1 __ 15

– Length = 25

– Changes to Base Diameter

will not affect Diameter

– Changes to Base Length will

affect Length

I15 - 10

Data Propagation (7)

the following: Base 3 25

– Diameter = 2 Child #1 2 __

Gr. Child #1 __ 15

– Length = 15

– Changes to Base Diameter

will not affect Diameter

– Changes to Child #1 Diameter

will affect Diameter

– Changes to Base Length or

Child #1 Length will not affect

Length

I15 - 11

Ancestral Data

junctions in Model Data

colored for easier viewing

are highlighted

I15 - 12

Links to Parent

attribute to the same value as that of its parent

– This can be done manually be entering the value or selecting

Same As Parent from within a pipe or junction properties

window, Solution Control or System Properties.

Links are identified by comparing attribute values on a pipe or

junction number by number basis.

– This means that renumbering a scenario will break all links with

its parent (since numbers must unique)

I15 - 13

Links to Parent (2)

You can make a pipe have the same attribute as its parent by

choosing Same As Pipe: “Parent Pipe Data”

– Junctions function similarly

I15 - 14

Using Batch Runs

sequentially in batch mode

– The Batch Run window is opened by selecting ‘Start Batch

Run…’ from the File menu

There are two types of batch runs

– Multiple scenarios

– Multiple model files

Generate a list of

simulations to run in

batch mode by Once the list of scenarios or

model files to run is created,

selecting either the clicking ‘Start Run’ will load

and run the selections in

‘Add Scenarios’ or order

‘Add Model Files’ button

I15 - 15

Notes

I15 - 16

US

Hands-on Example: LN2 Transfer

A liquid nitrogen transfer system is used to fill two storage

tanks. Only one tank is filled at a time. Model the change-over

from filling Tank A to filling Tank B. Assume the tank levels

stay constant during the time frame of the simulation. The

valves cycle open and closed simultaneously. Determine the

maximum system stagnation pressures for three change-over

scenarios:

– Instantaneous valve cycle

– 5 second valve cycle

– 10 second valve cycle

I15 - 17

US

Hands-on Example: LN2 Transfer (2)

Use the Discrete Vapor Cavity Model for Transient Cavitation

Run the model for 20 seconds

Does cavitation occur for any of the cases?

It is decided that the piping in the system should be 8 inches

instead of 6 inches. What are the new maximum system

pressures?

I15 - 18

US

LN2 Transfer Results

6-inch pipe:

Case Max Stagnation Pressure (psig)

Instantaneous valve cycle 175.6 (cavitation)

5 second valve cycle 109.0 (cavitation)

10 second valve cycle 105.3 (no cavitation)

8-inch pipe:

Case Max Stagnation Pressure (psig)

Instantaneous valve cycle 145.6 (cavitation)

5 second valve cycle 106.9 (cavitation)

10 second valve cycle 104.6 (no cavitation)

I15 - 19

Notes

I15 - 20

SI

Hands-on Example: LN2 Transfer

A liquid nitrogen transfer system is used to fill two storage

tanks. Only one tank is filled at a time. Model the change-over

from filling Tank A to filling Tank B. Assume the tank levels

stay constant during the time frame of the simulation. The

valves cycle open and closed simultaneously. Determine the

maximum system stagnation pressures for three change-over

scenarios:

– Instantaneous valve cycle

– 5 second valve cycle

– 10 second valve cycle

I15 - 21

SI

Hands-on Example: LN2 Transfer (2)

Use the Discrete Vapor Cavity Model for Transient Cavitation

Run the model for 20 seconds

Does cavitation occur for any of the cases?

It is decided that the piping in the system should be 8 inches

instead of 6 inches. What are the new maximum system

pressures?

I15 - 22

SI

LN2 Transfer Results

6-inch pipe:

Case Max Stagnation Pressure (kPa(g))

Instantaneous valve cycle 1233 (cavitation)

5 second valve cycle 754.0 (cavitation)

10 second valve cycle 727.2 (no cavitation)

8-inch pipe:

Case Max Stagnation Pressure (kPa(g))

Instantaneous valve cycle 1017 (cavitation)

5 second valve cycle 738.0 (no cavitation)

10 second valve cycle 722.6 (no cavitation)

I15 - 23

I16. Customizing Impulse & Using

Databases

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Customizing Impulse

The Toolbox tools can be customized

These preferences can be saved to a file

– The file can be shared between colleagues

– The file can be incorporated in to a network database

– You can develop files for different clients, reports and project

phases

I16 - 1

User Options – Unit Preferences

Here you specify the units you generally work with to be the

defaults

system

preferred unit

by selecting

one of the units

and clicking

here

I16 - 2

User Options – Pipes

The pipe thickness on the Workspace can be varied

according to the pipe diameter

The line style used when a pipe is closed can be chosen

I16 - 3

User Options – Pipes (2)

This path is closed

from 2 to 4 pixels according to This is a 10 in. pipe This is an 8 in. pipe

diameter

I16 - 4

User Options – Junctions

specified

I16 - 5

User Options – Labels

Movements

I16 - 6

User Options – Colors and Fonts

Click on

the

category

Then

choose a

color

Click here to

pick a font

I16 - 7

User Options – Other

Scaling

I16 - 8

User Options – Pipes and Junctions

be the defaults

You can still use the other parameters as needed

You can

specify a

default

pipe

material & You can specify

loss model default Design

Factors

You can

specify a

default

elevation

I16 - 9

User Options – Parameter Types

I16 - 10

User Options – Waterhammer Options

I16 - 11

Customizing Graphs

from the Formatting flyout area accessed on the Quick Access

Panel or Graph Results Toolbar, or by right-clicking on the

graph or axis itself

I16 - 12

Database Concept

– Internal Default database - fluid properties, fittings & losses, etc.

• This database is read only

• Impulse5.dat - located in the application folder

– Local User database - customizable file that may contain piping,

components, fluids, formatting, report configurations, etc.

• Imp_user5.dat - located in the \Documents and

Settings\UserName\Application Data folder

– Pipe Material Standards database - pipe materials from ANSI,

etc.

• This database is read only

• Steel - ANSI.dat - located in the Pipe Material Databases

folder below the application folder

I16 - 13

Database Concept (2)

– Customizable files created in Database Manager - located on

any connected drive

– Read only as listed in database.lib - database.lib located in

application folder

Custom databases are data used in the model building

process that can be saved and reused in the future

By reusing previously entered data users can

– Save time by not re-entering data

– Control quality by using previously qualified data

I16 - 14

Custom Data Features

– Components (Junctions)

– Fluid properties (Fluid Database)

– Pipe sizes (Material Database)

– Fittings & losses (Fittings Database)

– Solids properties (Solids Database used in SSL module)

Databases can be both private and shared

– Private and shared data is merged in memory together when

AFT Impulse loads

Multiple shared databases can be created and optionally

connected into a model

I16 - 15

Component Databases

To add to the Component Database

– Enter data for the junction in its Properties Window

– Click on the junction to ensure it is highlighted

– From the Database Menu, select Add Component to Database

– Enter a name for the custom component

I16 - 16

Component Databases (2)

– Add a junction to the model of the same type as the custom

component

– Open the Properties Window for that junction

– Select the custom component name from the Database List

To stop accessing the custom component choose None from

the Database List

To edit the previous list select Component Database from the

Database Menu

I16 - 17

Fluid Databases

temperature) can be added to the Fluid Database

To add to the Fluid Database

– From the Database Menu select Fluid Database

– Choose the Add New Fluid selection

– Enter a name and data for the fluid

• You can use raw data entered by hand or imported from file

• AFT Impulse will be perform a least-squares curve fit to the data

To use the custom fluid

– Open the System Properties Window

– Select the custom fluid name from the Specified Fluid List

– Enter a temperature for the fluid

I16 - 18

Fluid Databases (2)

To edit the previous fluid data use the Fluid Database Window

and select Change Fluid Data

– You can also delete a fluid or change the fluid name

I16 - 19

Pipe Material Databases

added to the Material Database

To add new material to the Material Database

– From the Database Menu select Pipe Material Database

– Click the New Material button

– Enter a name and data for the material entry, including the

friction data set

• You can use raw data entered by hand or imported from file

To use the custom pipe material

– Open the Pipe Properties Window (or Global Pipe Edit)

– Select the custom material name from the Pipe Material List

– Select type and size

I16 - 20

Pipe Material Databases (2)

To edit the previous material data use the Pipe Material

Database Window and select the appropriate buttons

I16 - 21

Friction Data Sets

material

Friction Data Sets can also be associated with a particular

pipe size, or pipe type (e.g., schedule)

– Data Sets associated with Sizes apply to all Type sets within that

size

– Data Sets associated with a Type apply only to that type

You can add Friction Data Sets to the default AFT Impulse

pipe materials

Friction Data Sets are accessed in the Pipe Properties

window

I16 - 22

Local and Shared Network Databases

The custom data you enter is stored in a single text file locally

on the hard drive

– This is called a local user database

– It is possible to copy this file to another user's hard drive so they

can use it too

– If you spend a lot of time entering custom data it is advisable to

back up the file

I16 - 23

Local and Shared Network Databases (2)

software is being run from a network

– All users who run AFT Impulse from the network automatically

access the network database

– The network database is read-only, thus users cannot edit it

– Network databases are of great help in quality control because

data only need to be verified once

– Consult the Help System for detailed information on network

database management

You can use the Database Manager capabilities to build new

databases and connect to selected databases across a local

or wide area network

I16 - 24

Using the Database Manager

insulation materials and program settings (Output Control,

User Options, etc.)

The Database Manager allows you to find, connect to, and

use the information in these databases

I16 - 25

Using the Database Manager (2)

databases are ALWAYS connected!

available add another

databases engineering

are listed database to

here the Available

Databases

list

Currently

connected

databases

are listed

here

I16 - 26

Using the Database Manager (3)

Choose the database

Select the sections you

want to review and

Click on Review Content

items in the selected

database section

I16 - 27

Using the Database Manager (4)

– Create a new database

– Select an existing database to edit

– Delete a database

Data may be copied or moved from one database to another

Select which database will

be used for the source

data

Choose the section and

item(s) within that section

item(s) to the database being edited

I16 - 28

Chempak Fluid Property Database

– Both pure fluids and mixtures of these fluids may be used in the

model

I16 - 29

Chempak Fluid Property Database (2)

The Create New Mixture button

becomes visible when Chempak

Select Chempak Fluid or Mixture is selected

mixture

then select Add to temperature &

Model to use the pressure to

fluid calculate fluid

properties

To remove a

Select fluid

fluid, select it

property

here… then

variation here

select Remove

Fluid

Set accuracy

level here I16 - 30

Chempak Fluid Property Database (3)

assemble a mixture based on mass or mole fraction

Select a fluid

here Portion of the

mixture

Click here to add represented by

the fluid to the a fluid is set

mixture here

specified for a components

mixture may be

removed

Current mixture

components and

their fraction are

listed I16 - 31

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL

Module

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Settling Slurry Module

– Predicts settling velocity to maintain acceptable operation

– Pump de-rating available

– Basic and Advanced slurry definition

– Solids data can be entered directly or from a database

Extends slurry calculations by modifying the wavespeed and

bulk modulus to account for the solid particles

I17 - 1

Adjusting Wavespeed due to Solids

1

𝜌𝜌 1 − 𝐶𝐶𝑉𝑉 + 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝐶𝑉𝑉

𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑤𝑤

1 − 𝐶𝐶𝑉𝑉 𝐶𝐶𝑉𝑉 𝐷𝐷

+ + 𝜑𝜑

𝐾𝐾𝑤𝑤 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸

Where:

𝜌𝜌𝑤𝑤 = liquid density

𝐾𝐾𝑤𝑤 = liquid bulk modulus

𝐷𝐷 = pipe internal diameter

𝐸𝐸 = Young’s modules for pipe wall

𝑡𝑡 = pipe wall thickness

𝜑𝜑 = pipe restraint factor

𝐶𝐶𝑉𝑉 = volumetric concentration of solid particles

𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠 = solid particle bulk modulus (sand ~ 2.32E+6 psi, 16.0 GPa)

𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠 = solid density

I17 - 2

SSL Module Example

to receiving deposits at two different locations

Requirement: The ratio of the mixture velocity (Vm) to the

velocity at which the sand will settle out of the liquid and form

a stationary bed on the bottom of the pipe (Vsm) must be kept

greater than 1.2 for continual operation

Determine: If the selected pipe sizes and velocity ratios are

acceptable during the transient where one valve starts to

close while the other opens further

– Change the pipe sizes to meet the Vm/Vsm requirement if

needed

I17 - 3

SSL Module Example (2)

change P1 and P2 to 10 inch pipe

I17 - 4

SSL Module Example (3)

The Design Alert for Minimum Velocity Ratio was hit for pipe

P4, station 17 at 6.28 seconds

I17 - 5

SSL Module Example (4)

The profile graph of the velocity ratio from the sand pit to

deposit #1 shows the ratio falling below the minimum allowed

I17 - 6

SSL Module Example (5)

– Pipe P4 is slopped upward which increases the settling velocity

• Thus decreasing the velocity ratio

– Pipes P1 and P2 are the same size as the other pipes

• However, these pipes have a much larger flow rate than the other

pipes and therefore have a larger pressure gradient

Increase the diameter of pipes P1 and P2 to 14 inch

– The size cannot be increased too much or the velocity ratio in

these pipes will fall below the 1.2 minimum

Rerun the model

I17 - 7

SSL Module Example (6)

entire length of the pipeline

I17 - 8

SSL Module Example (7)

I17 - 9

SSL Module Example (8)

and P14

I17 - 10

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On

Modeling

Overview of Seminar

INTRODUCTION

I1. Overview of AFT Impulse

I2. Steady-State Hydraulic Solution Methodology

I3. Waterhammer Solution Methodology

I4. Demonstration Problem - Surge at Valve Closure

I5. AFT Impulse Hands - On Modeling

I6. Pipe and Junction Details

I7. The Five Primary Windows

I8. Time and Event Transients

I9. Steady and Transient Special Conditions

I10. Pump Transients

I11. Pipe Sectioning and Transient Control

I12. Special Topics Including Troubleshooting

I13. Surge Suppression

I14. Calculating Unbalanced Forces

I15. Using the Scenario Manager

I16. Customizing AFT Impulse and Using Databases

I17. Introduction to AFT Impulse SSL Module

I18. More AFT Impulse Hands-On Modeling

Platinum Pipe Award

Using AFT Software

Win AFT software for your company and iPad for you

– Use of software features and model creativity

– Correlation to test/field data

– Operational benefits and sustainability

– http://www.aft.com/platinum-pipe-award

PPA - 1

Platinum Pipe Award

AFT FathomTM Instrumental in Chrysler Energy Savings Project:

Plant Saves $194,000 Per Year

2015 Platinum Pipe Award Winner – Operational Benefits and Sustainability

Chrysler used AFT Fathom to model four

large central coolant filter systems in the

Dundee Engine plant located in Dundee,

Michigan, USA.

The existing cooling system was energy

intensive. Chrysler wanted to develop a

model that matched existing conditions,

and then use that model to predict

energy savings for different capital

expenditure scenarios. Thirty operating

scenarios were evaluated over four

systems for the project.

PPA - 2

Platinum Pipe Award

Analysis Using AFT FathomTM Reveals Root Cause for Fire

Pump System Over-Pressurization

2015 Platinum Pipe Award Winner – Correlation to Test/Field Data

pump system, Charles Williamson,

P.E., Senior Engineering Analyst at

CB&I, used AFT Fathom to

determine the root cause of an

over pressurization problem during

pump starts and to make

recommendations for corrective

action.

PPA - 3

Platinum Pipe Award

AFT FathomTM Finds Optimization Opportunities in Hydrocarbon

Separation Process

2015 Platinum Pipe Award Winner – Use of Software Features and Model

Creativity

Mr. Nelius Joubert, Senior

Operations Specialist at Sasol, used

AFT Fathom to model a complicated

hydrocarbon separation plant in

South Africa. The plant utilizes liquid

extractants to separate the

components of a liquid stream into

separate pure components.

The model will be used on a

continuous basis for troubleshooting

and evaluation of the plant’s

hydraulic health.

Liquid Extraction and Distillation Portion of the AFT Fathom Model

PPA - 4

AFT Notifications & Seminar Evaluation

Please complete the AFT Notifications form (if you would like)

and the Technical Seminar Evaluation Form, and hand to

instructor when complete.

US

Hands-on Models

own pace

– Do not open these from disk!

– They are intended to be built from scratch unless otherwise

noted

– All models are included on your seminar disk so you can review

them at a later date

I18 - 1

US

Hands-on Models (2)

Determine time for flow to come up to full flow

2. Pump with flow control transient, "Pump With Flow Controller.imp"

A pump with a flow control device has the control flow rate reduced over 5

seconds. Find the maximum and minimum pressures during the transient.

3. Pump trip with accumulator, TEST2

A pump trips and the pressure in some parts of the discharge pipe falls

below atmospheric. Size and locate a gas accumulator to maintain all

positive pressures.

4. Pump trip with backflow, TEST4

A pump trip where backflow occurs is modeled using four quadrant data.

Determine the maximum and minimum pressures in the system.

5. Cooling system pump trip with backflow, "Pump Trip with Backflow.imp"

A cooling system with two pumps experiences a pump trip. By the time the

valve closes, backflow has already occurred in the pumps. Find the

maximum and minimum pressures and look at the pump speed decay.

I18 - 2

US

Model a Spray System

Find how long it takes for the flowrate to come up to the full

flow of 100 gpm at each spray from the closure state (Model

TEST8.IMP)

Pipe data:

– Steel - ANSI pipe, all schedule 40, standard roughness of

0.00015 feet

Fluid is water at 70 deg. F

Inlet stagnation pressure is 171 psig

Spray nozzle data:

– Sprays discharge to atmosphere and open in 0.1 second

– Flow Area = 0.5 square inches, Discharge coefficient = 0.6

I18 - 3

US

Model a Spray System (2)

Time (sec) CdA (in2)

0 0

0.1 0.3

10 0.3

El=10.0 feet

Typical

I18 - 4

US

Model Pump Flow Controller Transient

pump flow set point is changed ("Pump With Flow

Controller.imp")

System uses water at 100 degrees F

Pipe layout, sizes and elevations shown below

I18 - 5

US

Model Pump Flow Controller Transient (2)

Q (gpm) H (ft)

0 60

2000 55

4000 40

– Flow transient is as follows:

time (sec) Q (gal/min)

0 2000

5 1000

10 1000

Q (gpm) H (ft)

0 0

1000 20

2000 80 I18 - 6

US

Model Pump Flow Controller Transient (3)

Valve at J21 closes as follows:

time (sec) Cv

0 500

0.5 100

1 0

10 0

I18 - 7

US

Add Accumulator to Pump Model

pressure

Start from the model you built in Section 10-5 (TEST2.IMP)

The accumulator will be connected to the system through an

integral short connector pipe with data as shown below

– Assume a polytropic coefficient of 1.2

I18 - 8

US

Model Pump Trip With Backflow

during a pump trip for the following system (TEST4.IMP)

1 2 3

P1 P2

L = 1500 ft L = 1800 ft

Steel - ANSI (STD) Steel - ANSI (Sch 30)

30 inch 30 inch

Surface Elev. = 190 ft

Fluid is water at 40 degrees F Surface Pressure = 1 atm

Use four sections in the controlling pipe Pipe Depth = 30 ft

Run simulation for 15 seconds

I18 - 9

US

Model Pump Trip With Backflow (2)

Pump data:

– Pump is the inlet junction at J1, modeled as submerged with

HGL = 0 feet at suction

– No check valve - pump can flow and spin backwards

– Pump elevation = 0 feet

– Pump curve data is in a comma separated data file "test4 pump

curve data.txt"

• Units of imported data: Q in gal/min, H in feet, efficiency in decimal

• Use an “Interpolated X-Y Data” Curve Fit Type

– Transient model is "Trip With Inertia - Four Quadrant"

– Pump Speed = 1100 rpm

– Rotating Inertia = 400 lbm-ft2

I18 - 10

US

Model Pump Trip With Backflow (3)

– This pump represents 2 parallel pumps - specify on Optional tab

– Number of Data Points for Four Quadrant Data = 72

– Use four quadrant data is in a comma separated data file "test4

four quad data.txt"

α

– Theta is based on

υ

J2 is a branch with elevation = 0 feet

– This represents a change in pipe properties (wavespeed and

diameter)

I18 - 11

US

Model Cooling System With Backflow

has two pumps which

trip ("Pump Trip with

Backflow.imp")

The valves downstream

of the pump close, but

not before backflow

occurs through the

pumps

What are the maximum

and minimum pressures

in the system?

How does the pump

speed decay? I18 - 12

US

Model Cooling System With Backflow (2)

Pipes in cooling basins are four feet below surface

Each cooling tower has an overall flow area of 10 square feet

with a discharge coefficient of 0.6

Pump data is: Q (gpm) H (ft) Power (hp)

0 112 105

2000 108 130

4000 104 160

6000 98 190

8000 90 210

10000 78 220

12000 60 210

– Initial speed is 1790 rpm , Pump Inertia is 140 lbm-ft2

– Transient model is “Trip With Inertia – Four Quadrant”

– Four Quadrant Data Source Ns = 2.78

I18 - 13

US

Model Cooling System With Backflow (3)

Time (sec) Cv

0 10000

5 1000

12 0

30 0

Q (gpm) H (ft)

0 0

20000 22

40000 88

I18 - 14

US

Answers to Hands-On Models

TEST8.IMP

– It takes a little over 0.7 second for the final spray to reach 100

gpm

– After 1 second the flow drops below 100 gpm

Nearest Supply

US

Answers to Hands-On Models (3)

– Maximum pressure in pipe P21, station 1 = 55.2 psig

– Minimum pressure in pipe P23, station 0 = -5.3 psig

I18 - 16

US

Answers to Hands-On Models (4)

– Other output of interest (initial pump speed is 94%)

I18 - 17

US

Answers to Hands-On Models (2)

– There are many solutions to this problem

– We located the accumulator 495 feet downstream from the pump

and made the initial volume 6.0 cubic feet

– With this location and size, the following profile results

I18 - 18

US

Answers to Hands-On Models (5)

TEST4 results

– Max/Min static pressure profile and pump speed decay (pump

spins backwards)

– Max/Min static pressure

120 psig / 4.2 psig

I18 - 19

US

Answers to Hands-On Models (6)

– Flowrate and HGL at pump discharge

I18 - 20

US

Answers to Hands-On Models (7)

I18 - 21

SI

Hands-on Models

own pace

– Do not open these from disk!

– They are intended to be built from scratch unless otherwise

noted

– All models are included on your seminar disk so you can review

them at a later date

I18 - 22

SI

Hands-on Models (2)

Determine time for flow to come up to full flow

2. Pump with flow control transient, "Pump With Flow Controller (SI).imp"

A pump with a flow control device has the control flow rate reduced over 5

seconds. Find the maximum and minimum pressures during the transient.

3. Pump trip with accumulator, TEST2 (SI)

A pump trips and the pressure in some parts of the discharge pipe falls

below atmospheric. Size and locate a gas accumulator to maintain all

positive pressures.

4. Pump trip with backflow, TEST4

A pump trip where backflow occurs is modeled using 4-quadrant data.

Determine the maximum and minimum pressures in the system.

5. Cooling system pump trip with backflow, "Pump Trip with Backflow (SI).imp"

A cooling system with two pumps experiences a pump trip. By the time the

valve close, backflow has already occurred in the pumps. Find the

maximum and minimum pressures and look at the pump speed decay.

I18 - 23

SI

Model a Spray System

Find how long it takes for the flowrate to come up to the full

flow of 22.7 m3/hr at each spray from the closure state (Model

TEST8 (SI).IMP)

Pipe data:

– Steel – ANSI pipe, all schedule 40, standard roughness of

0.004572 cm

Fluid is water at 21 deg. C

Inlet stagnation pressure is 1200 kPa

Spray nozzle data:

– Sprays discharge to atmosphere and open in 0.1 second

– Flow Area = 3.23 square cm, Discharge coefficient = 0.6

I18 - 24

SI

Model a Spray System (2)

Time (sec) CdA (cm2)

0 0

0.1 1.94

10 1.94

El=3 meters

Typical

I18 - 25

SI

Model Pump Flow Controller Transient

pump flow set point is changed ("Pump With Flow Controller

(SI).imp")

System uses water at 38 degrees C

Pipe layout, sizes and elevations shown below

I18 - 26

SI

Model Pump Flow Controller Transient (2)

Q (m3/hr) H (m)

0 18

450 17

900 12

– Flow transient is as follows:

time (sec) Q (m3/hr)

0 450

5 230

10 230

Q (m3/hr) H (m)

0 0

225 6

450 24 I18 - 27

SI

Model Pump Flow Controller Transient (3)

Valve at J21 closes as follows:

time (sec) Cv

0 500

0.5 100

1 0

10 0

I18 - 28

SI

Add Accumulator to Pump Model

pressure

Start from the model you built in Section 10-9 (TEST2 (SI).IMP)

The accumulator will be connected to the system through an

integral short connector pipe with data as shown below

– Assume a polytropic coefficient of 1.2

I18 - 29

SI

Model Pump Trip With Backflow

during a pump trip for the following system (TEST4.IMP)

1 2 3

P1 P2

L = 450 m L = 550 m

Steel-ANSI (STD) Steel-ANSI (Sch 30)

30 inch 30 inch

(74.3 cm ID) (73.0 cm ID)

Surface Elev. = 59 m

Fluid is water at 4 degrees C Surface Pressure = 1 atm

Use four sections in the controlling pipe Pipe Depth = 10 m

Run simulation for 15 seconds

I18 - 30

SI

Model Pump Trip With Backflow (2)

Pump data:

– Pump is the inlet junction at J1, modeled as submerged with

HGL = 0 meters at suction

– No check valve - pump can flow and spin backwards

– Pump elevation = 0 meters

– Pump curve data is in a comma separated data file "test4 pump

curve data (SI).txt"

• Units of imported data: Q in m3/sec, H in meters, efficiency in

decimal

• Use an “Interpolated X-Y Data” Curve Fit Type

– Transient model is "Trip With Inertia - Four Quadrant"

– Pump Speed = 1100 rpm

– Rotating Inertia = 16.85 kg-m2

I18 - 31

SI

Model Pump Trip With Backflow (3)

– This pump represents 2 parallel pumps - specify on Optional tab

– Number of Data Points for Four Quadrant Data = 72

– Use four quadrant data is in a comma separated data file "test4

four quad data.txt"

α

– Theta is based on

υ

– J2 is a branch with elevation = 0 meters

– This represents a change in pipe properties (wavespeed and

diameter)

I18 - 32

SI

Model Cooling System With Backflow

has two pumps which trip

("Pump Trip with

Backflow (SI).imp")

The valves downstream

of the pump close, but

not before backflow

occurs through the

pumps

What are the maximum

and minimum pressures

in the system?

How does the pump

speed decay? I18 - 33

SI

Model Cooling System With Backflow (2)

Pipes in cooling basins are 1.2 meters below surface

Each cooling tower has an overall flow area of 0.9 square

meters with a discharge coefficient of 0.6

3

Pump data is: 0Q (m /hr) H34

(m) Power (kW)

78

450 33 97

900 32 119

1400 30 142

1800 27 157

2300 24 164

2700 18 157

– Initial speed is 1790 rpm, Pump Inertia is 5.9 kg-m2

– Transient model is “Trip With Inertia – Four Quadrant”

– Four Quadrant Data Source Ns = 2.78

I18 - 34

SI

Model Cooling System With Backflow (3)

Time (sec) Cv

0 10000

5 1000

12 0

30 0

Q (m3/hr) H (m)

0 0

4500 7

9000 27

I18 - 35

SI

Answers to Hands-On Models

TEST8 (SI).IMP

– It takes a little over 0.85 seconds for the final spray to reach 22.7

m3/hr

– After slightly less than 1 second the flow drops below 22.7 m3/hr

Nearest Supply

SI

Answers to Hands-On Models (3)

– Maximum pressure in pipe P2, station 76 = 375.9 kPa(g)

– Minimum pressure in pipe P23, station 0 = -34.5 kPa(g)

I18 - 37

SI

Answers to Hands-On Models (4)

– Other output of interest (initial pump speed is 93%)

I18 - 38

SI

Answers to Hands-On Models (2)

– There are many solutions to this problem

– We located the accumulator 151 meters downstream from the

pump and made the initial volume 0.17 cubic meters

– With this location and size, the following profile results

I18 - 39

SI

Answers to Hands-On Models (5)

– Max/min static pressure profile and pump speed decay (pump

spins backwards)

– Max/Min static pressure

9.43 / 1.323 bar

I18 - 40

SI

Answers to Hands-On Models (6)

– Flowrate and HGL at pump discharge

I18 - 41

SI

Answers to Hands-On Models (7)

I18 - 42

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