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Tugas 3

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111

- Steam pressure, superheater outlet = 875 psig

- Steam temperature, superheater outlet = 955 F

- Steam flows :

Superheated = 185520 lb/hr

Desuperheated = 16870 lb/hr

Total = 202390 lb/hr

- Feedwater temperature = 284 F

- Efficiency (based on 1 ½ % radiation and = 88.8 %

unaccounted for losses and 15 % excess air)

- Fuel total heating value (standard bunker = 19264 Btu/lb

Bunker C + added heat air)

- Fuel Required = 14349 lb/hr

- Air temperature, leaving steam air heater = 278 F

- Air Flow (16.07 lb/lb oil at 15% excess air) = 230600

- Flue gas flow = 245000 lb/hr

a. Boiler Layout

Total Oil Flow at rated power = 14349 lb/hr

Each at overload = 8000 lb/hr

b. Furnace Calculation

Determining by the methods of Section 2 of Chapter 2 or T & R Bulletin 3-4 [10] to be :

Furnace volume = 2655 ft³

Projected surface = 1200 ft²

RHAS = 1175 ft²

the furnace rating at rated power are :

Release Rate = 14349 x 18500

2655

= 99983.62 Btu/lb³

1175

= 12.21 lb/ft³

As this saticfactory, the furnace exit gas temperature and heat absorption can be calculated

(see Section 2 of Chapter 2), based on the following furnace surface areas:

SURFACE

PROJECTED ARED EFFECTIVESS FACTOR RHAS

(see fig. 8 of Chapter 2

Rear waterwall 190 1.00 190

Front waterwall (2-in 175 0.858 150

tubes with 2 1/2-in

avg spacing)

Screen and floor 435 1.00 435

Side waterwall and roof 400 1.00 400

1200 ft² 1175 ft²

Fuel sensible heat = 46 Btu/lb (100°F rise at 0.46 specific heat)

R+1

= 17500 + 46 +( 278 - 80 )( 0.2445 ) ( 13.98

13.98 + 1

= 1216.4744 Btu/lb

from the fig. 2 of chapter 2 the adiabatic flame temperature, TA', is found to be 3990 F of 4450 R

qTA' = LHV + qp + (ta - t0) Cp R

R+1

= 17500 + 46 + ( 278 - 80 ) ( 0.2445 ) ( 16.07

16.07 + 1

= 1073.4602 Btu/lb

To determine the shape emissivity factor, FEFA, the following data are required :

VF = 2655 ft³

ST = 1200 ft²

Sc = 1175 ft²

PF = 1 atm

Firing density is :

WF = 14349

PF VF 1x 2655

= 5.40

Mean radiating length L = 0.6 (VF)^1/3

= 0.6 ( 2655 )^1/3

= 8.3 ft

ϵF = ϵ∞ (1 - e - K PF L)

= 0.353

Where :

ϵ∞ = Emissifity of a cloud of infinite thickness assumed to be

= 0.95

PF = Furnace pressure, atm

L = mean radiating path legth; for ordinary marine furnace

VF = Furnace volume, cu ft

and for an Sc/ST value of 0.98, FEFA is determined to be 0.34 from Fig. 6 Chapter 2.

In order for the calculation to proceed, it is necessary to assume several value of the furnace exit temperature.

Making this assumption :

Assumed TE, R 2660 2760 2860

TA, R 4450 4450 4450

(QC/SC)1; equation (35) of Chapter 2; 81800 88100 94700

Btu/ft²-hr

qTA; see above ; Btu/lb 1073 1073 1073

qTE; Fig. 2 of Chapter 2; Btu/lb 617 651 683

(QC/SC)2; equation (36) of Chapter 2; 95100 88000 81300

Btu/ft²-hr

By ploting the value of (QC/SC)1 and (QC/SC)2 for the assesment furnace exit temperatures, as illustrated

by Fig. 45, the uncorrected furnace exit temperature is determined to be TE = 2298 F and the furnace

absorption is found to be 88100 Btu/ft²-hr

The furnace consists of 2-in.-OD, 0.165-in.-thick, ASME SA 178 A, electric resistance welded tubes. The project

area of the rear wall is 190 ft², and the front wall surface, Sw = 284 ft².

From subsection 1.2(d) of Chapter 2, the tube surface termperature in the furnace is:

Ts = ts + (QC/SC) (Xe/k)

= 1058 F

Where :

ts = 541 F at drum saturation pressure of 975 psia

QC/SC = 88100 Btu/ft²-hr

= 1/2 Do loge Do/Di

= 2 log e 2

2 1.670

= 0.182

Next, by estimating the corrected furnace exit temperature, Te, to be = 2200 F the tube film temperature

can be approximated as

TE + TE'

Tf' = 2 + TS

2

2298 + 2200

= 2 + 1058

2

= 1653.5 F

fT = 0.00003875 Tf' + 0.1035

= 0.168

With flue gas flow Wg of 245000 lb/hr and 2 burner having 2-ft throat diameters, the flue gas

weight flow rate G is 39000 lb/ft-hr. Since the furnace depth D = 14 ft, the surface

heat-transfer coefficient hRW can be computed from equation (39) of Chapter 2 as

hRW = G^0.53 fT

D^0.47

= 13.146 Btu/hr-ft²-F

From Fig. 3 of Chapter 2 the specific heat Cp of the flue gas at Tf' is 0.314 Btu/lb-F; therefore, the

corrected furnace exit temperature TE' can be determined

TE' = TE - T S + TS

hRW SW

eW0 CP

= 2298 - 1058 + 1058

13.146 x 284

e ^( 245000 x 0.314 )

= 2239 F

The estimated TE' value 2200 F was sulficienty accurate to result in a negligible error

c. Heating Surface

From the approximate boiler layout, Fig. 44, the following data are determined (all tube banks are arranged

in-line rather than staggered for ease of cleaning) :

Gas Heatin

Tube Tranver Back

Flow g

Diameter se Pitch Pitch

Area Surface

Screen (2 Rows) 2 3.5 2.5 100 850

Superheater (10 Rows) 1.25 1.875 1.75 70 4065

Generaating Bank (24 Rows) 1.25 1.875 2.37 75 11800

The sreen, superheater, and generating bank performance calculations may be conducted as follows :

Genera

Super

Screen ting

Heater

Bank

Temperature Data

Inlet gas temp. (TE, for screen) T1 F 2239 2084 1339

Estimated outlet temp. T2 F 2090 1340 635

Mean Temp. = 1/2 (T1-T2) TAV F 2165 1712 987

Specific heat at TAV (Fig.3 - Chap. 2) Cp Btu/lb-F 0.327 0.316 0.29

Surface temp. (sat. temp) TS F 541 - 541

Surface temp. ~ superheater

TS = ((t1-t2)/2) + Δtw TS F - 848 -

Where :

saturation temp. t1 F - 541 -

desired steam temp. t2 F - 955 -

assumed wall drop Δtw F - 100 -

Avg. Steam temp. = 1/2 + (t1+t2) ts F - 748 -

Film temp. = 1/2 (TAV + ts + Δtw) Tf F - 1280 -

= 1/2 (TAV + Ts) Tf F 1353 - 764

Convention :

Flue gas flow Wg lb/hr 245000 245000 245000

Gas flow area Ag ft² 100 70 75

Gas flow rate = Wg / Ag G lb/ft²-hr 2450 3500 3270

Tube OD D ft² 0.167 0.104 0.104

Gas viscosity at Tf (Fig. 4 - Chapter 2) μ lb/ft-hr 0.092 0.087 0.07

Reynold no. = G D/μ Re - 4450 4180 4860

Tube transverse spasing/dia ratio a1 - 1.75 1.5 1.5

Tube bank spacing dia/ratio a2 - 1.25 1.4 1

Tube Arrangement factor (Fig. 10 - Chapter 2) FA - 0.83 0.96 1.01

Tube bank depth factor (Table 1 - Chapter 2) FD - 0.765 1 1

Temp. Factor (Fig. 13 - Chapter 2) fE - 0.159 0.1565 0.133

Convection heat-transfer coefficient

0.292 FA FD fE ((G^0.6)/(D^0.4)) hf Btu/hr-ft²-F 6.52 14.56 12.5

(equation 46 - Chapter 2)

Radiation :

Mean radiating length (eqn. (47) - Chapter 2) L ft 0.253 0.148 0.233

Partial pressure of radiating constituents PR atm/atm 0.239 0.239 0.239

(Subsection 2.4 - Chapter 2)

PR L - atm-ft/atm 0.0605 0.0354 0.557

Gas emissivity (Fig. 14 - Chapter 2 at TAV) ϵg - 0.051 0.048 0.051

Radiation conductance factor (Fig. 14-Chap 2) hr/Єg Btu/hr-ft²-F 48 37 13

Radiation heat-transfer coeff. Hr = ϵG (hr/ϵG) hr Btu/hr-ft²-F 2.45 1.78 0.66

Steam film conductance (ref. [6]) hs Btu/hr-ft²-F - 570 -

Metal conductance (1 1/4 Cr-Mo tubes) hm Btu/hr-ft²-F - 1260 -

Total heat-transfer coeff.

(1/U) = (1/(hf+hr))+(1/hs)+(1/hm) U Btu/hr-ft²-F 8.97 15.69 13.16

Heating surface S ft² 850 4065 11800

(T1-Ts)/(T2-Ts) = e^(US/(Wg Cp)) r - 1.1 - 8.9

T2-Ts = 1/r (T1-Ts) - - 1543 - 90

Outlet temp. = (T2-Ts)+Ts) T2 F 2084 - 631

of a parallel-flow and a counterflow condition.

Steam flow Ws lb/hr - 202390 -

Steam average specific heat Cps Btu/lb-F - 0.702 -

v = Wg Cp / Ws Cps v - - 0.545 -

For parallel flow ;

T1 - T2P = 1 - e^-(US/Wg Cp) (1+v) T2p F - 1365 -

T1 - t1 1+v

For counter flow ;

T1 - T2P = 1 - e^-(US/Wg Cp) (1-v) T2c F - 1313 -

T1 - t1 1 - ve^-(US/Wg Cp) (1-v)

Superheater outlet temp. = 1/2 (T2p + T2c) T2 F - 1339 -

superheater by direct radiation from the

furnace is : QSHR = AF LQE / Se

Where :

A = screen projected area =

= 12.9 x 14

= 180.6 ft²

FL = screen leakage factor for a tube pitch/diameter ratio of

1.75 (Fig. 8-Chap. 2)

= 1 - FAdirect to first row - FAdirect to second row

= 1- 0.73 - 0.18

= 0.09

Therefore

QSHR =( 180.6 )( 0.09 )( 88100 )

= 1431977.4

the flue gas as it flows through is

QSHc = Wg Cp (T1 - T2)

=( 245000 )( 0.316 )( 2084 - 1339 )

= 57677900 Btu/hr

d. Economizer

The economizer calculations may proceed as follows :

Gas Temp. Entering, T1 631 F

Gas Temp. leaving, T2 316 F

Change in gas temp., ΔTg 315 F

Gas sensible heat entering (Fig. 2-Chap.2), Qg1 149 Btu/lb

Gas sensible heat leaving, Qg2 65 Btu/lb

Change in gas sensible heat, ΔQg 84 Btu/lb

Gas flow, Wg 2450000 lb/hr

Feed temp. Entering, t1 284 F

Feed enthalpy entering, h1 255.3 Btu/lb

Feedwater flow, Ww 202390 lb/hr

Feedwater elthalpy rise (ΔQg x Wg/Ww), Δh 101.7 Btu/lb

Feed enthalphy leaving (h1+Δh), h2 357 Btu/lb

Feed pump discharge pressure, p 1200 psig

Feedwater temp. leaving (at h2 and p), t2 382 F

LMTD = ((T1-t2)-(T2-t1))/ log e ((T1-t2)/(T2-t1) 105.6 F

Economizer heat-transfer coeff., U 15 Btu/hr-ft²-F

Economizer surface required

(ΔQg x Wg/U x LMTD), S 12990 ft²

Economizer heated length, L 14 ft

No. Tube row wide, Nw 18

Area per ft of tube, A 1.75 ft²/ft

Required no. Tube rows high (S/LNw A) 29.5

No. Tube row high (an even number must be 30

used as the inlet and outlet are on the same end)

N GAS

ugas 3

TION

745000018

Perkapalan

baya 60111

)

)

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