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# BOILER, TURBIN UAP, DAN TURBIN GAS

Tugas 3

## Jurusan Teknik Sistem Perkapalan

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111

## from the table, so stem pressure is = 900 psig

- Steam pressure, superheater outlet = 875 psig
- Steam temperature, superheater outlet = 955 F
- Steam flows :
Superheated = 185520 lb/hr
Desuperheated = 16870 lb/hr
Total = 202390 lb/hr
- Feedwater temperature = 284 F
- Efficiency (based on 1 ½ % radiation and = 88.8 %
unaccounted for losses and 15 % excess air)
- Fuel total heating value (standard bunker = 19264 Btu/lb
Bunker C + added heat air)
- Fuel Required = 14349 lb/hr
- Air temperature, leaving steam air heater = 278 F
- Air Flow (16.07 lb/lb oil at 15% excess air) = 230600
- Flue gas flow = 245000 lb/hr

a. Boiler Layout
Total Oil Flow at rated power = 14349 lb/hr
Each at overload = 8000 lb/hr

b. Furnace Calculation
Determining by the methods of Section 2 of Chapter 2 or T & R Bulletin 3-4 [10] to be :
Furnace volume = 2655 ft³
Projected surface = 1200 ft²
RHAS = 1175 ft²

## With a fuel higher rating value of = 18500 Btu/lb

the furnace rating at rated power are :
Release Rate = 14349 x 18500
2655
= 99983.62 Btu/lb³

## Oil Rate/RHAS = 14349

1175
= 12.21 lb/ft³

As this saticfactory, the furnace exit gas temperature and heat absorption can be calculated
(see Section 2 of Chapter 2), based on the following furnace surface areas:

SURFACE
PROJECTED ARED EFFECTIVESS FACTOR RHAS
(see fig. 8 of Chapter 2
Rear waterwall 190 1.00 190
Front waterwall (2-in 175 0.858 150
tubes with 2 1/2-in
avg spacing)
Screen and floor 435 1.00 435
Side waterwall and roof 400 1.00 400
1200 ft² 1175 ft²

## With a fuel lower heating value (LHV) = 17500 Btu/lb

Fuel sensible heat = 46 Btu/lb (100°F rise at 0.46 specific heat)

## qTA' = LHV + qp + (ta - t0) Cp R

R+1
= 17500 + 46 +( 278 - 80 )( 0.2445 ) ( 13.98
13.98 + 1
= 1216.4744 Btu/lb
from the fig. 2 of chapter 2 the adiabatic flame temperature, TA', is found to be 3990 F of 4450 R

## With 15% excess air

qTA' = LHV + qp + (ta - t0) Cp R
R+1
= 17500 + 46 + ( 278 - 80 ) ( 0.2445 ) ( 16.07
16.07 + 1
= 1073.4602 Btu/lb

To determine the shape emissivity factor, FEFA, the following data are required :
VF = 2655 ft³
ST = 1200 ft²
Sc = 1175 ft²
PF = 1 atm

Firing density is :
WF = 14349
PF VF 1x 2655
= 5.40

## From Fig. 7 of Chapter 2 the concentration factor K = 0.0056

Mean radiating length L = 0.6 (VF)^1/3
= 0.6 ( 2655 )^1/3
= 8.3 ft
ϵF = ϵ∞ (1 - e - K PF L)
= 0.353
Where :
ϵ∞ = Emissifity of a cloud of infinite thickness assumed to be
= 0.95
PF = Furnace pressure, atm
L = mean radiating path legth; for ordinary marine furnace
VF = Furnace volume, cu ft

and for an Sc/ST value of 0.98, FEFA is determined to be 0.34 from Fig. 6 Chapter 2.
In order for the calculation to proceed, it is necessary to assume several value of the furnace exit temperature.
Making this assumption :

## Assumed TE, F 2200 2300 2400

Assumed TE, R 2660 2760 2860
TA, R 4450 4450 4450
(QC/SC)1; equation (35) of Chapter 2; 81800 88100 94700
Btu/ft²-hr
qTA; see above ; Btu/lb 1073 1073 1073
qTE; Fig. 2 of Chapter 2; Btu/lb 617 651 683
(QC/SC)2; equation (36) of Chapter 2; 95100 88000 81300
Btu/ft²-hr

By ploting the value of (QC/SC)1 and (QC/SC)2 for the assesment furnace exit temperatures, as illustrated
by Fig. 45, the uncorrected furnace exit temperature is determined to be TE = 2298 F and the furnace
absorption is found to be 88100 Btu/ft²-hr

The furnace consists of 2-in.-OD, 0.165-in.-thick, ASME SA 178 A, electric resistance welded tubes. The project
area of the rear wall is 190 ft², and the front wall surface, Sw = 284 ft².

From subsection 1.2(d) of Chapter 2, the tube surface termperature in the furnace is:

Ts = ts + (QC/SC) (Xe/k)
= 1058 F

Where :
ts = 541 F at drum saturation pressure of 975 psia
QC/SC = 88100 Btu/ft²-hr

## Xe = tube equivalent thickness

= 1/2 Do loge Do/Di
= 2 log e 2
2 1.670
= 0.182

## k = tube conductivity = 310 Btu/hr-ft-F

Next, by estimating the corrected furnace exit temperature, Te, to be = 2200 F the tube film temperature
can be approximated as
TE + TE'
Tf' = 2 + TS
2
2298 + 2200
= 2 + 1058
2
= 1653.5 F

## The temperature coefficient fT [equation (40) of Chapter 2] then becomes

fT = 0.00003875 Tf' + 0.1035
= 0.168

With flue gas flow Wg of 245000 lb/hr and 2 burner having 2-ft throat diameters, the flue gas
weight flow rate G is 39000 lb/ft-hr. Since the furnace depth D = 14 ft, the surface
heat-transfer coefficient hRW can be computed from equation (39) of Chapter 2 as

hRW = G^0.53 fT
D^0.47
= 13.146 Btu/hr-ft²-F

From Fig. 3 of Chapter 2 the specific heat Cp of the flue gas at Tf' is 0.314 Btu/lb-F; therefore, the
corrected furnace exit temperature TE' can be determined

TE' = TE - T S + TS
hRW SW
eW0 CP
= 2298 - 1058 + 1058
13.146 x 284
e ^( 245000 x 0.314 )
= 2239 F

The estimated TE' value 2200 F was sulficienty accurate to result in a negligible error

c. Heating Surface

From the approximate boiler layout, Fig. 44, the following data are determined (all tube banks are arranged
in-line rather than staggered for ease of cleaning) :

Gas Heatin
Tube Tranver Back
Flow g
Diameter se Pitch Pitch
Area Surface

## in. in. in. ft²

Screen (2 Rows) 2 3.5 2.5 100 850
Superheater (10 Rows) 1.25 1.875 1.75 70 4065
Generaating Bank (24 Rows) 1.25 1.875 2.37 75 11800

The sreen, superheater, and generating bank performance calculations may be conducted as follows :

Genera
Super
Screen ting
Heater
Bank
Temperature Data
Inlet gas temp. (TE, for screen) T1 F 2239 2084 1339
Estimated outlet temp. T2 F 2090 1340 635
Mean Temp. = 1/2 (T1-T2) TAV F 2165 1712 987
Specific heat at TAV (Fig.3 - Chap. 2) Cp Btu/lb-F 0.327 0.316 0.29
Surface temp. (sat. temp) TS F 541 - 541
Surface temp. ~ superheater
TS = ((t1-t2)/2) + Δtw TS F - 848 -
Where :
saturation temp. t1 F - 541 -
desired steam temp. t2 F - 955 -
assumed wall drop Δtw F - 100 -
Avg. Steam temp. = 1/2 + (t1+t2) ts F - 748 -
Film temp. = 1/2 (TAV + ts + Δtw) Tf F - 1280 -
= 1/2 (TAV + Ts) Tf F 1353 - 764

## Heat Transfer Data

Convention :
Flue gas flow Wg lb/hr 245000 245000 245000
Gas flow area Ag ft² 100 70 75
Gas flow rate = Wg / Ag G lb/ft²-hr 2450 3500 3270
Tube OD D ft² 0.167 0.104 0.104
Gas viscosity at Tf (Fig. 4 - Chapter 2) μ lb/ft-hr 0.092 0.087 0.07
Reynold no. = G D/μ Re - 4450 4180 4860
Tube transverse spasing/dia ratio a1 - 1.75 1.5 1.5
Tube bank spacing dia/ratio a2 - 1.25 1.4 1
Tube Arrangement factor (Fig. 10 - Chapter 2) FA - 0.83 0.96 1.01
Tube bank depth factor (Table 1 - Chapter 2) FD - 0.765 1 1
Temp. Factor (Fig. 13 - Chapter 2) fE - 0.159 0.1565 0.133
Convection heat-transfer coefficient
0.292 FA FD fE ((G^0.6)/(D^0.4)) hf Btu/hr-ft²-F 6.52 14.56 12.5
(equation 46 - Chapter 2)

Mean radiating length (eqn. (47) - Chapter 2) L ft 0.253 0.148 0.233
Partial pressure of radiating constituents PR atm/atm 0.239 0.239 0.239
(Subsection 2.4 - Chapter 2)
PR L - atm-ft/atm 0.0605 0.0354 0.557
Gas emissivity (Fig. 14 - Chapter 2 at TAV) ϵg - 0.051 0.048 0.051
Radiation conductance factor (Fig. 14-Chap 2) hr/Єg Btu/hr-ft²-F 48 37 13
Radiation heat-transfer coeff. Hr = ϵG (hr/ϵG) hr Btu/hr-ft²-F 2.45 1.78 0.66

## Total Heat Transfer:

Steam film conductance (ref. [6]) hs Btu/hr-ft²-F - 570 -
Metal conductance (1 1/4 Cr-Mo tubes) hm Btu/hr-ft²-F - 1260 -
Total heat-transfer coeff.
(1/U) = (1/(hf+hr))+(1/hs)+(1/hm) U Btu/hr-ft²-F 8.97 15.69 13.16

## Evaluation of Outlet Temperature

Heating surface S ft² 850 4065 11800
(T1-Ts)/(T2-Ts) = e^(US/(Wg Cp)) r - 1.1 - 8.9
T2-Ts = 1/r (T1-Ts) - - 1543 - 90
Outlet temp. = (T2-Ts)+Ts) T2 F 2084 - 631

## The superheater is considered to be an average

of a parallel-flow and a counterflow condition.
Steam flow Ws lb/hr - 202390 -
Steam average specific heat Cps Btu/lb-F - 0.702 -
v = Wg Cp / Ws Cps v - - 0.545 -
For parallel flow ;
T1 - T2P = 1 - e^-(US/Wg Cp) (1+v) T2p F - 1365 -
T1 - t1 1+v
For counter flow ;
T1 - T2P = 1 - e^-(US/Wg Cp) (1-v) T2c F - 1313 -
T1 - t1 1 - ve^-(US/Wg Cp) (1-v)
Superheater outlet temp. = 1/2 (T2p + T2c) T2 F - 1339 -

## The heat absorbed by the steam in the

superheater by direct radiation from the
furnace is : QSHR = AF LQE / Se
Where :
A = screen projected area =
= 12.9 x 14
= 180.6 ft²
FL = screen leakage factor for a tube pitch/diameter ratio of
1.75 (Fig. 8-Chap. 2)
= 1 - FAdirect to first row - FAdirect to second row
= 1- 0.73 - 0.18
= 0.09

## QC/SC = 88100 Btu/ft²-hr

Therefore
QSHR =( 180.6 )( 0.09 )( 88100 )
= 1431977.4

## The heat absorbed in the superheater from

the flue gas as it flows through is
QSHc = Wg Cp (T1 - T2)
=( 245000 )( 0.316 )( 2084 - 1339 )
= 57677900 Btu/hr

d. Economizer
The economizer calculations may proceed as follows :
Gas Temp. Entering, T1 631 F
Gas Temp. leaving, T2 316 F
Change in gas temp., ΔTg 315 F
Gas sensible heat entering (Fig. 2-Chap.2), Qg1 149 Btu/lb
Gas sensible heat leaving, Qg2 65 Btu/lb
Change in gas sensible heat, ΔQg 84 Btu/lb
Gas flow, Wg 2450000 lb/hr
Feed temp. Entering, t1 284 F
Feed enthalpy entering, h1 255.3 Btu/lb
Feedwater flow, Ww 202390 lb/hr
Feedwater elthalpy rise (ΔQg x Wg/Ww), Δh 101.7 Btu/lb
Feed enthalphy leaving (h1+Δh), h2 357 Btu/lb
Feed pump discharge pressure, p 1200 psig
Feedwater temp. leaving (at h2 and p), t2 382 F
LMTD = ((T1-t2)-(T2-t1))/ log e ((T1-t2)/(T2-t1) 105.6 F
Economizer heat-transfer coeff., U 15 Btu/hr-ft²-F
Economizer surface required
(ΔQg x Wg/U x LMTD), S 12990 ft²
Economizer heated length, L 14 ft
No. Tube row wide, Nw 18
Area per ft of tube, A 1.75 ft²/ft
Required no. Tube rows high (S/LNw A) 29.5
No. Tube row high (an even number must be 30
used as the inlet and outlet are on the same end)
N GAS
ugas 3

TION

745000018

Perkapalan
baya 60111
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