You are on page 1of 36

th

A Journal of Student-Generated Ideas from
Across the Roosevelt Network

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 1
Network Staff
NEH EMIA H ROLLE, NAT IONAL D IRE CTOR
MA LIK A LIM ANNA MACHALSKI
A MA N BA NERJ I JAD E WILE NCHIK
KATIE KIRC H NER

Policy Coordinators
WA LTER H A NLEY M ANON ST E E L
BRIA N MCDERMOTT VICTOR TAVARE Z
CH RISTOP H ER OLSON OWE N URE CH

Roosevelt Staff
ERIC H A RRIS BERNST E IN RAKE E N MABUD
LISA BIAGAS JE NNIFE R R MILLE R
KEN DRA BOZA RTH VICTORIA ST RE KE R
J OS H DOLIN

Roosevelt Alumni
ZACH AGUSH ELISE LIU
MATTHEW ALHONTE AMY LITTLETON
SAUMYA BOLLAM HANNAH LOVE
ANGELA CAMMACK DANIEL LU
DAVID CARLSON CASEY MALISZEWSKI
ASHLEY CHAPPO TAI SZE MAN (ANN)
EMILY CHONG TARA MARLOWE
OLIVIA COHN IMANI MARSHALL
EMMA COPELAND SYEDA SUNDUS MUJAHID
ANDREW COX ROB NELB
RORY DOHERING NEKPEN OSUAN
TREVOR DOLAN CARLEY PRZYSTAC
MICHAEL DONNAY MICHAEL RADTKE
JOHN FORD AARON SAYAMA
LAWRENCE FRIED MATTHEW SELLERS
MIGUEL GALAZ AMISH SHAH
JASON GOULD CHARSAREE SLOMKA
AUDREY HENKELS SYD TERRY
MARI HICKS JAMIE WEIL
KEVIN HILKE DAVID WEINBERGER
JAMES HOBBS DYLAN WELCH
NELSON IGUNMA CATHERINE ZINNEL
COURTNEY JOLINE
ZACH KOMES
ZACH LIPP
2 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
Who We Are
The Roosevelt Institute, working to redefine the rules that guide our social and economic
realities, is home to the nation’s largest network of emerging researchers, writers, and
advocates. Our student members, organizing in 130 chapters in nearly 40 states across
the country, believe it matters who writes the rules for our communities and work in
coalitions to advance principled ideas and visionary, actionable plans. In the long-term,
Roosevelters seek to transform government to be reflective and responsive to the people
it serves, advancing a policy agenda to combat corporate power and regain public
control over public goods, such as water, transit, education, and health care.

What You’re Holding
The 10th anniversary edition of 10 Ideas stands as a testament to the vision set out by
our founders over a decade ago and the strength of the Roosevelt Network today. From
the most globalized cities, to rural communities, and everything in between, the 10
Ideas journal features submissions that reflect innovative solutions to some of the most
pressing issues of our time. Across geographies and issue areas, our members’ work
is aligned by the unified vision that to most effectively rewrite the rules that guide our
social and economic realities, we must change who gets to write them.

How You Can Join
When we write the rules for our communities, we define their futures. If you’re
interested in starting or joining a Roosevelt chapter on your campus, visit our website at
www.rooseveltinstitute.org. Thank you for reading and supporting the work of
Roosevelters. Together, we will reshape our social and economic institutions and
systems to ensure they are built by the many for the good of all.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 3
Dear Readers,

Welcome to the 10th anniversary edition of 10 Ideas! Over the last decade, this journal
has elevated the ideas of young people across the country seeking to not only rewrite
the rules for their communities, but to also foundationally shift who gets to write them.

This generation of Roosevelters is facing a political and social reality that is profoundly
different than the ones that existed in previous iterations of this journal: Across all
levels of government, policies that openly target our most vulnerable communities
are being promoted by political leadership; actions that dismantle our most venerable
institutions are being taken by those in power; and during a time that requires
unwavering vigilance, there is limited capacity to undo oppressive policies and
practices and push forward a progressive, aspirational vision for a better society.
Despite this reality, we’re channeling emerging leaders’ energy for resistance into
policy change and long-term civic participation.

Young people are rising to the challenges of today and building their own rule book, so
that government can be reflective of and responsive to the people it’s meant to serve.
At Roosevelt, we believe this starts at the local level, working in coalitions alongside
partner organizations and seeding student-led campaigns to push back on privatization
and corporate power. From eliminating commission payments for the use of prison
phones, to improving accessibility to mental health services in public education, to
expanding community-shared ownership of solar energy production, this year’s journal
embodies our commitment to regain public control over public goods. 10 Ideas 2018
centers equity, inclusion, and a mission to strengthen the public goods that provide
critical services and resources for us all.

The rules of our communities define their futures. Ultimately, we want our work to
move the country toward a new economic and political system: one built by many for
the good of all. We hope you enjoy reading these proposals and will join our fight to
rewrite the rules.

In solidarity,

Nehemiah J. Rolle
National Director
Contents
TABLE OF

E D U C AT I O N
5 Addressing the Mental Health of High School Students: Expanding Training
and Tools in North Carolina
7 Seeing the Future: Establishing Transition Services for the Visually Impaired

ECONOMY
9 Utilizing New Development for a More Affordable Ann Arbor
11 Modern Mobility for All: A Universal Ticket for NYC’s Subway System

HUMAN RIGHTS
1 3 Reducing Recidivism: Cutting the Cost of Prison Phone Calls in Georgia
1 5 Combating Discrimination and Reducing Jail Populations: Eliminating Bail for
Low-Level Crimes

H E A LT H C A R E
17 From Risk to Rehabilitation: Promoting Drug Court Programs in Pennsylvania

D E M O C R AT I C AC C E S S
1 9 Same-Day Voter Registration: Increasing Voter Turnout and Democratic Ac-
cess in Michigan

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
2 1 Democratizing Green Energy: Expanding Community Shared Solar
in New York State

FOREIGN POLICY
2 3 Protecting Refugee Resettlement in Michigan: The Private Sponsorship Solution
Addressing the Mental Health of High
E D U C AT I O N

School Students: Expanding Training
and Tools in North Carolina
By Shivpriya Sridhar, Rachel Despard, and Aditi Adhikari
Roosevelt @ University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

THESIS:
To address the increasing reports of anxiety and depression in North Carolina public high schools, state legislators and
the North Carolina State Board of Education should charge the Department of Public Instruction with (1) providing
Mental Health First Aid training to school educators and (2) integrating the free online screening tools of Mental
Health America into the North Carolina Standard Course of Study health education curriculum.1

BACKGROUND & ANALYSIS
The mental health of students in U.S. public high schools has worsened significantly in the past decade. The rise
of adolescent anxiety can be attributed to the realities of being a teenager, including constant testing in school,
homework, extracurricular activities, and the pressure to attend college. Anxiety, and the depression that often follows,
has risen significantly in the past few decades, and even in the past few years. The average high school student today has
similar levels of anxiety to a psychiatric patient in the 1950s.2 From 2005 to 2014, the number of teens who had a major
depressive episode jumped by 37 percent.3 Even more concerning, 20 percent of high schoolers consider suicide every
year, and 1,700 teens die from suicide each year.4

For public schools in North Carolina, these problems are just
as prevalent. In the state, 26 percent of high school students KEY FACTS
suffer from symptoms of depression, compared to 30 percent
of students in the United States at large. Of these students,
16 percent have seriously considered suicide, compared to 18 • 26 percent of high school
percent for the U.S. These statistics elevate the crucial need to students in North Carolina suffer
identify and address student mental health across the state. In from symptoms of depression,
this paper, we will discuss policy actions North Carolina public and 16 percent of these students
schools as well as the N.C. state government can implement to have seriously considered suicide.
better assess and address the mental health needs of students
and to improve students’ academic success and well-being. • The average high school student
today has similar levels of anxiety
to a psychiatric patient in the
TALKING POINTS 1950s.
• Over a quarter of public high school students in North Carolina
suffer from depression and anxiety.5 These issues can be created or
• From 2005 to 2014, the number of
exacerbated by school. teens who had a major depressive
episode jumped by 37 percent.
• Public schools in the state have very limited or ineffective resources
available to address mental health issues among students. • As of 2017, the North Carolina State
Board of Education has prioritized
• By providing educators with Mental Health First Aid training school mental health through a
and encouraging public schools in North Carolina to incorporate charter school-based initiative.6
mental health screening tools, high school students suffering from
depression, anxiety, and/or other mental disorders may be less
likely to be overlooked.

5 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
E D U C AT I O N
THE POLICY IDEA
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training provides a way for adults to identify and address signs of mental health
issues among students. The program has been implemented across the world and is recognized by the Substance
Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) as an evidence-based public health intervention.7
The widespread implementation of MHFA would provide North Carolina public high schools with a framework for
professionally addressing mental illness, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidality, while screening tools—i.e.,
surveys to check for mental disorders—would help students better identify their own mental health needs. The
policy idea, then, is to encourage the state’s public school system to implement MHFA training as an integral part of
preparing educators for their jobs and integrate Mental Health America (MHA) screening tools into standard health
education courses of study and/or school climate, so that students may feel better supported in school.8

POLICY ANALYSIS
North Carolina public high schools may utilize the established, efficient, and cost-effective training structure of Mental Health
First Aid USA and the free online screening tools of Mental Health America, in order to increase mental health awareness
and supports. MHFA training has exhibited marked success in the U.S. and countries across the world—most notably in
Australia, China, and Sweden, where randomized control trial (RCT) studies have shown improvement in the inclination and
confidence to assist distressed persons following training.9, 10 Because teachers, school nurses, administrators, coaches, and
many other school employees have backgrounds in education or work extensively with students, they are well-positioned
to undergo this training and subsequently provide students with adequate support and resource recommendations. In fact,
following training, most U.S. employees report a 67 percent confidence increase in their ability to recognize signs of mental
illness, 56 percent confidence increase to reach out to a struggling individual, and 47 percent increase in confidence to connect
a distressed person with appropriate resources.11 Within the context of school districts repeatedly plagued by state budget
shortfalls and/or a lack of school psychological supports,12 MHFA training is particularly cost-effective, inclusive of school
employees, and specifically tailored to meet the needs of youth or adults. Implementation may also proactively mitigate the
overwhelming scarcity of more than 4,000 child/adolescent psychologists the nation, as a whole, will incur by 2020.13

MHFA training instructors can be searched by locale, but if one does not exist in a particular area, a school official, teacher,
community leader, or any adult may obtain certification over five days, for a fee of $2,000. Training facilities can be searched
for by locale on the MHFA website. Once certified, instructors must simply facilitate three trainings a year to maintain
certification. A $2,000 fee pales in comparison to the annual costs of employing more school psychologists.14 By targeting
not only teachers but all school employees who work extensively with students, MHFA enables students to foster diverse
support networks and also demonstrates an institutional commitment to the intersectionality of a student’s identity in
school, whether that identity be intrinsic or extrinsic—i.e., defined by extracurricular commitments—in nature. In order to
suitably integrate the free mental health screening tools provided online (in English and Spanish) by Mental Health America,15
the Department of Public Instruction (DPI) may issue a formal statement of support to encourage parents, guardians,
and students to utilize these free resources. Additionally, or alternatively, the screening may be integrated into the state’s
mandated health education curriculum, at little to no financial cost to school districts.

NEXT STEPS
On April 7, 2017, the North Carolina State Board of Education (SBE) passed a school-based mental health initiative policy
targeting local education agencies and charter schools.16 While the policy did not specifically propose Mental Health First
Aid training efforts or recommend screening tools, it serves as a precedent for prioritizing mental health in public schools.
The N.C. Department of Public Instruction (DPI) is charged with implementation of policies from the SBE. As such, the SBE
has the authority to push for the Center for Safer Schools—a DPI initiative that funds technical trainings to school teachers
year-round in order to fund a mental health training initiative for public schools (similar to that already proposed for charter
schools).17 In addition to the SBE, another key mental health ally in the state is the North Carolina Department of Health and
Human Services (NCDHHS).18 By working with this department, the State Board of Education’s Charter School Initiative,
and other mental health coalitions, Department of Public Instruction officials may better prioritize the need for training and
increased resources in public schools.

The current state and federal political climate surrounding health care, alongside recent attempts by the North Carolina
House of Representatives to cut mental health salary spending, is not conducive to our policy area; for instance, House Bill 403
recently intended to cut salaries of mental health professionals.19 As such, we have proposed an initiative that would incur little
to no costs, in contrast to the costly alternative of increasing the number of positions for mental health professional in schools.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 6
Seeing the Future: Establishing
E D U C AT I O N

Transition Services for the Visually
Impaired
By Veronica Lewis
Roosevelt @ George Mason University

THESIS
By creating an interactive website detailing transition services for visually impaired students through the Virginia
Department of Education and the Virginia Department of the Blind and Vision Impaired, high school students with vision
impairments can learn about the resources available to them in the pursuit of higher education.

BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS
More than 8 million Americans report having some type of vision impairment, defined as vision loss not corrected by
glasses; 62,528 of these people are primary and secondary school students.20 This number is likely higher, as students
with multiple disabilities, traumatic brain injuries, learning disabilities, and other health issues may also have vision
impairments that are not reflected in these statistics.21 As early identification of vision impairment increases, the number
of visually impaired students is expected to grow.

While in school, students identified with disabilities receive services and accommodations through a federal document
called an individualized education plan (IEP). Accommodations may include large print, Braille, extended time, test
accommodations, and the use of assistive technology. Assistive technology is defined by the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act as “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified,
or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities.” Examples of assistive technology
include blindness canes, screen readers, video magnifiers, and high-contrast markers.22

When preparing to begin post-secondary education, students are often unaware of the auxiliary resources they receive in
high school or what resources may be available to them after high school. Some visually impaired students believe they
cannot obtain any resources and thus drop out of school or do not pursue higher education at all. For working adults ages
21 to 64, the national unemployment rate for people with significant vision impairment is approximately 58 percent.23

TALKING POINTS
• Because of a lack of services available to them, or the perception of such, students with vision impairments are at a
high risk of dropping out of high school.

• Nationally, less than 0.5 percent of IEPs are issued to students identified with vision impairments, so there are few
students who receive accommodations for vision impairment compared to other disability areas.24

• If students with disabilities, including vision impairment, are not provided with transition services, they may not
know about or understand the resources available to them. Therefore, they may not pursue higher education at all.

• An online resource will allow students from any location to access information about post-secondary education,
which they can also show to their parents, case managers, etc., to plan for their future.

7 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
THE POLICY IDEA

E D U C AT I O N
Creating a website, that is accessible anywhere and anytime, with information specific to post-secondary education, would
be extremely beneficial. Because there may be only one student in an entire school district who needs transition services, a
website is a more cost-effective way to reach students from various geographic areas—rather than relying on assistive staff
to visit students or schools individually, possibly interrupting class time.

By collaborating with the Virginia Department of Education to build a website that outlines transition services for
students with vision impairments, these students can learn more about the services available to them post-graduation and
document what services they will need. An online resource will also show students that higher education is accessible to
them, despite vision impairment, which may help to reduce the high school dropout rate in Virginia.

Because students may rely on assistive technology to access information on the internet, ensuring that the website is
responsive to devices like refreshable Braille displays and screen readers is crucial. Enabling students to use their own
devices will provide a sense of familiarity and encourage the use of the online resource.

School districts with a low number of students who identify as visually impaired will benefit the most in Virginia, as these
districts tend to have fewer resources available to students, especially for transition services. With an online resource,
students can learn about what they can do after graduating from high school and make plans to pursue higher education.
With 29 percent of people with vision impairments living below the poverty line nationwide, and 54.5 percent having a
high school education or less, increasing resources for transition services will help students not only graduate, but plan for
their future. Increased access to resources will better prepare visually impaired students to enter the workforce, pay taxes,
and earn a living.25

NEXT STEPS
The Virginia Department of Education, in KEY FACTS
conjunction with the Virginia Department of
the Blind and Vision Impaired, should create an • IEPs expire the moment a student
interactive website that allows students to explore graduates from high school. Because
transition services available to them leading up to and visually impaired students cannot bring
through post-secondary education. This can include an IEP with them to college, a disability
information about government agencies, disability services file or other document is
services, and assistive technology. Most notably, the necessary to continue services.26
proposed website would give students the opportunity
to document the services they receive in high school • 44 percent of visually impaired individuals
and create a printout that they can bring to disability between the ages of 21 and 64 have
intake meetings, assistive technology assessments, at least some college or a bachelor’s
and other crucial appointments that may occur during
degree.27
the admissions process.
• Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
requires colleges to be accessible to
students with disabilities.28

• The Virginia Department of the Blind and
Vision Impaired serves 5,800 people a
year.29

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 8
Utilizing New Development for a More
ECONOMY

Affordable Ann Arbor
By Christopher Olson, Nick Guisinger, Krishna Motta, Hannah Bradshaw,
Devan O’Toole, and Connor Reese
Roosevelt @ University of Michigan

THESIS
Due to increasing market-rate housing development and declining socioeconomic diversity, the City of Ann Arbor should
assess linkage fees on new market-rate development to supplement the Ann Arbor Affordable Housing Trust Fund and
develop more affordable housing in Ann Arbor.

BACKGROUND & ANALYSIS
Ann Arbor is the least affordable place to live in Michigan.30 Property values in the city continue to rise, achieving the highest
assessed value in the state last year, above the significantly larger city of Detroit. 31, 32 In 2015, the median gross rent was $978 a
month, up by 5.84 percent over the past three years; as prices have increased, the rental vacancy rate has fallen to 1.88 percent.33
For those making 30 percent of the area median income (AMI), in occupations such as baristas or wait staff, only 6.5 percent of
Ann Arbor rentals are affordable.34 As of 2016, Ann Arbor has only 1,070 affordable housing units, having added 16 committed
affordable housing units in 2016.35 Should that pace of construction continue, Ann Arbor would reach its county goal—adding
2,777 new units of committed affordable housing—in 310 years.36 A housing-employment linkage fee assessed on market-rate
development would create funding for new affordable housing in Ann Arbor.

Despite the need for affordable housing units, Ann Arbor has continued to see growth in market-rate housing—any rental space
that lacks rent restrictions and is priced according to supply and demand forces.37 In downtown Ann Arbor, there is demand
for 1,525 new housing units.38 A proposed development in the city, costing $44 million to build, would add 267 market-rate
apartments with rents between $800 to $1,800 a month, which is above what is affordable to those earning 50 percent of the
AMI.39, 40 In order to make Ann Arbor affordable to everyone, affordable housing stock must grow with market-rate housing.

TALKING POINTS
KEY FACTS
• Linkage fees—fees assessed on new market-
rate housing development—will increase • The median rent in Ann Arbor is approximately
funding for the Affordable Housing Trust 22 percent higher than that of Michigan as
Fund. In turn, this will fund Section 8 a whole, elevating the need for affordable
housing used throughout the city, leading housing in the city.41
to a more diverse and inclusive community
in Ann Arbor. • A new resolution for affordable housing in
Los Angeles, California, pushed by Mayor Eric
• Skyrocketing housing costs in Ann Arbor
Garcetti, is estimated to generate between $75
have priced out many families from moving
million and $92 million in revenue, which could
to the city, deepening socioeconomic
segregation in Washtenaw County. pay for 1,500 new units annually for residents with
lower incomes.42
• Growth of the City’s Affordable Housing
Trust Fund will extend the impact and • Linkage fees in Boston have assisted in the
reach of Ann Arbor’s non-profit housing creation of 10,176 affordable housing units across
developers by increasing the pool of 193 development projects.43
funding that can be distributed to support
affordable development.

9 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
THE POLICY IDEA

ECONOMY
Ann Arbor continues to experience rapid growth in market-rate housing developments. This development attracts high-
income families, increasing demand for services like stores and restaurants, which in turn require service employees.
These employees need housing but cannot afford market-rate housing in Ann Arbor, showing the link between new
market-rate development and increased need for affordable housing. For this reason, fees should be assessed on certain
types of new market-rate development—similar to impact fees, or fees charged by a local government to cover the costs
of providing public services (sewer, utilities, etc.) to the development—that would be used to supplement the Ann Arbor
Affordable Housing Trust Fund.

POLICY ANALYSIS
Linkage fees have been very successful in directing funds toward affordable housing in other localities: Boston’s program
has raised $45 million dollars for affordable housing construction and preservation since 1986, and a linkage fee program
in San Diego has brought in about $30 million since 1990.44 Berkeley, a city similar to Ann Arbor in population and also
home to a major university, has operated a linkage fee program since 1993 and brought in nearly $3 million to fund
affordable housing and childcare services.45 All three cities have operated linkage fee programs for at least two decades,
and all continue to boast healthy, growing housing markets.

Specific fee rates and uses assessed should be determined by a nexus study, which uses city data and a complex software
program to estimate the effects of a linkage fee program on the local housing market and uses these estimates to
recommend which land uses to assess and at what rate. Without such a study of Ann Arbor, we can use Berkeley as a
benchmark to observe what effects linkage fees might have in the city. There will be a demand for an additional 300,000
square feet of new downtown office space by 2021.46 If office, commercial, and residential developments were assessed
at $4.00 per square foot, as is Berkeley’s fee rate, the demand for office space alone would generate approximately $1.2
million dollars in revenue for the Ann Arbor Affordable Housing Trust Fund.47

Under Michigan law, inclusive zoning and rent control cannot be implemented in the state. Though linkage fees have
never been implemented in Michigan, they have weathered court challenges in other places with similar legal statutes
surrounding inclusive zoning and rent control, such as California.48

NEXT STEPS
In order to create impact, the linkage fee policy proposal must be supported by local affordable housing non-profits and
implemented by Ann Arbor’s city council. The city council established the supplementation of Ann Arbor’s Affordable
Housing Trust Fund as a key objective to address the increasing socioeconomic disparity created by rising property
values and prices. City Councilman Zach Ackerman has even suggested an initiative to allocate a portion of the revenue
generated by taxes to be put into the Ann Arbor Affordable Housing Trust Fund, which has had no dedicated funding
stream in the past.49 Non-profit developers, including Avalon, Habitat for Humanity of Huron Valley, and Housing Access
for Washtenaw County, will benefit from a greater pool of funding and are potential allies in garnering support for this
policy.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 10
Modern Mobility for All: A Universal
ECONOMY

Ticket for NYC’s Subway System
By Leopold Aschenbrenner and Hannah Healy
Roosevelt @ Columbia University

THESIS
New York City should provide universal public transit access, through a surcharge on residents and tourists in exchange
for an unlimited MetroCard. This would sustainably fund urgent modernization efforts, give low-income residents access
to essential mobility, and nudge New Yorkers towards more environment-friendly transportation.

BACKGROUND & ANALYSIS
New York City’s subway system transports more than 5.7 million people every day and is the lifeblood of one our nation’s key
economic hubs.50 Yet much of the 1930s-era infrastructure is crumbling: New York’s on-time performance is only 65 percent,
the lowest of any major transit system in the world.51 Across the board, independent analyses have concluded that the root of
this decay is a chronic lack of investment.52 After massive infusions of money in the 1970s to fix a similar crisis, Republican and
Democratic leaders have repeatedly cut funding, and, most egregiously, redirected earmarked funds and dedicated taxes away
from the subway system towards their own ventures.53 These failures carry social and economic consequences: Subway riders
miss everything from special occasions to job opportunities, potentially losing valuable time and earnings.

In addition, funding for the subway system increasingly comes from fares, which currently provide for a record 60 percent of
funding. A one-time ride currently costs $2.75, and the total cost for unlimited monthly passes over a year is $1,452.54 Without
a reduced-fare option for the economically disadvantaged, these prices not only put an undue burden on low-income New
Yorkers, who often rely the most heavily on public transit and have the least available funds, but they also prevent access to
basic mobility.55 According to the Community Service Society, transit expenses often exceed 10 percent of the overall household
budgets for more than 300,000 working poor New Yorkers, especially low-income African Americans and Latinos.56 High transit
costs, and the resulting barriers to mobility, can force residents to forgo critical medical care or food and impede access to job
opportunities, educational facilities, and even
voting polls.57 The decaying subway system in New
York City is failing those who need it most. KEY FACTS
• The New York City subway system is in a
“state of emergency,” with the worst on-time
THE POLICY IDEA performance of any major rapid-transit system
To provide universal access to public transit, in the world. This costs billions in lost economic
New York City should provide every resident productivity and severely restricts the essential
with an unlimited MetroCard. In return, mobility of 5.7 million daily riders.
every adult resident would pay a yearly
surcharge to the City, totaling $250 per year • While ridership has almost doubled in the
for those earning between 133 percent to 200 past two decades, maintenance spending has
percent of the federal poverty line, and $500 stagnated since the 1990s, leading to a chronic
per year for those earning above 200 percent lack of investment.58
of the poverty line (inflation-adjusted
annually). Commercial lodging services,
• More than one-third of New York City’s low-
including hotels and AirBnB, would charge
income residents said that subway fares were so
guests a $10 per day surcharge in exchange
for unlimited public transit access. Visitors
high they prevented them from getting medical
staying in private lodging and New York State care or seeking a better job, with particularly high
commuters would pay the existing fares. rates among African Americans and Latinos.59

11 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
POLICY ANALYSIS

ECONOMY
The surcharge on New York City residents would provide approximately $3 billion in funding every year;60 the surcharge
on visitors in commercial lodging would provide approximately $1.5 billion a year,61 with an extra $1.5 billion from those
paying the existing fares.62 Not only would the approximate $6 billion per year cover the current funding provided by
transit fares, but it would also provide an additional $1.2 billion a year in funding for infrastructure investments.63

Crucially, and in contrast to Governor Andrew Cuomo’s plan for $1 billion in one-time investments,64 this reform would
provide a recurring stream of investment revenue—providing much-needed funds to not only fix the current crisis, but
to also continually maintain and improve the system to avoid repeating the existing failure. By linking the unlimited
MetroCard to a flat surcharge, as opposed to the current, highly misused system of earmarking taxes, our proposal can
provide the accountability necessary to ensure that these funds are used as intended. Moreover, this simple surcharge
provides consistent revenue, as opposed to widely fluctuating property taxes in the financial hub of New York City.

By broadening the payment base for transit fares, thereby significantly reducing costs to individuals, and providing
universal access to public transport, this plan would reduce a massive burden on low-income New Yorkers and provide
them with critical mobility necessary to access economic opportunity. This change would especially impact historically
disadvantaged communities of color.65

Finally, the subway will become more reliable and significantly cheaper than other transportation options for residents
and tourists in commercial lodging, likely leading many to utilize the environment-friendly subway system over ride-
hailing and other transportation options that cause greater pollution.

TALKING POINTS
• Universal access to the New York City public transit system would make the subway turnstile a door to opportunity,
not a barrier to mobility.

• Fairer surcharges would enable a consistent, secure, and sustainable source of funding for investment in and
upkeep of New York City’s subway system, solving the current crisis and preventing a repeat of this failure.

• With a more reliable and cheaper transit system in New York City, more people will opt for environment-
sustainable public transit over polluting cars and ride-hailing services.

NEXT STEPS
This proposal could potentially be completely undertaken at the local level, with the City levying the surcharge and
distributing the MetroCards independent of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), the state-level agency
that currently manages the subway system. However, the most efficient solution would involve cooperation among the
City, New York State, and the MTA.

In order to fully illustrate the benefits of this plan, the MTA and advocacy groups should collaborate to create a
comprehensive cost analysis of the policy and model the economic and environmental outcomes.

As New York City’s transit system continues to deteriorate, pressure by disgruntled commuters will force lawmakers
to consider innovative proposals, thus providing a prime opening for our idea. Commuters would be encouraged by
improved reliability, as well as cheaper fares for most residents; progressive organizations and communities of color
would welcome significantly improved access to crucial mobility; and environmental advocates would also embrace
efforts to significantly decrease pollution. These common interests could provide fertile ground for a broad-based
grassroots movement.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 12
Reducing Recidivism: Cutting the Cost
HUMAN RIGHTS

of Prison Phone Calls in Georgia
By Nina Reddy
Roosevelt @ University of Georgia

THESIS
In order to reduce exorbitant calling rates for inmates and foster family contact during incarceration, Georgia’s General
Assembly should enact legislation that mandates both state prisons and local jail systems to phase out the commission
payments they generally receive from telephone service companies.

BACKGROUND & ANALYSIS
The prison telephone industry is one of the most lucrative businesses in the United States today. Prison phone companies
have a complete, state-sanctioned monopoly over the prison market—90 percent of incarcerated individuals live in
states where phone services are controlled exclusively by three companies: Global Tel*Link, Securus Technologies, or
CenturyLink.66, 67 Prison phone companies gain these monopolies when they submit contract proposals to the state prison
system, contracts that include a “commission” back to the state. Thus, prison systems are incentivized to choose the
company that provides the highest commission, as opposed to the one that offers the lowest rate.68 The market especially
exploits socioeconomically disadvantaged persons who are left with no affordable method of communicating with family.69

A variety of stakeholders maintain that there is a clear link between family contact during incarceration and reduced
recidivism. Even Congress has acknowledged evidence suggesting that inmates who are connected to their families are
more likely to have reduced sentences.70 The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) maintains that telephone privileges are an
important means of maintaining this connection, which contributes to inmates’ personal development. In many states,
however, the exploitative market structure means that a 15-minute phone call can cost over $15.71 These steep calling rates
can deter family communication. One study focused on individuals released from Illinois prisons, for example, shows that
phone call pricing was one of the two most significant impediments to family communication during incarceration.72

KEY FACTS
TALKING POINTS
• The prison phone market currently exploits • A four-minute call made to a Florida inmate in
socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, 2014 cost a whopping $56.18.73
as prison phone companies maintain an
exclusive monopoly over state prisons, • The prison phone system is now a $1.2 billion-
resulting in exorbitant call pricing. a-year industry dominated by just a few private
companies.74
• Legislation that prohibits state prisons from
receiving commissions, or “kickbacks,” from • A variety of stakeholders maintain that there
phone companies would result in lower call
is a clear link between family contact during
rates for incarcerated individuals and their
incarceration and reduced recidivism.
families, opening up lines of communication.

• Literature establishes an evident link • The Federal Prison System can charge
between family contact during incarceration comparatively low rates at $.06 per minute for
and reduced rates of recidivism. Increased local calls and $0.23 per minute for long-distance
communication could also foster calls, while still generating immense profit.75
relationships with incarcerated parents and
their children.

13 | CREATIVE COMMONS C OPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
THE POLICY IDEA

HUMAN RIGHTS
The Georgia General Assembly should enact legislation under Title 42 of the Official Code of Georgia Annotated that
(1) prohibits Georgia state prisons, county prisons, and contracting authorities from accepting any type of commission,
or “kickback,” from contracts with prison telephone companies—as they inflate call rates—(2) requires all correctional
facilities to carefully assess contractual fees in order to deem them legitimate, and (3) prohibits correctional institutions
from contracting with telephone companies that are not fully transparent about how they calculate the fees proposed in
their company contracts.

POLICY ANALYSIS
The barriers exorbitant calling rates pose to society, particularly for low-income individuals least able to sustain
additional expenses, underscore the need for new legislation. The proposed legislation would greatly curb call pricing
by incentivizing correctional facilities to choose telephone companies that offer the lowest rates. Though prison phone
companies defend high rates, claiming they are needed to cover the costs associated with providing secure telephone
service, reality demonstrates that the high rates are unnecessary. New York State law bans kickbacks and requires that the
lowest cost option be utilized for users.76, 77 Currently, incarcerated individuals in the New York prison system are charged
approximately $.05 per minute for local and long-distance calls, while call monitoring and other security measures
remain intact for the state.78 The Federal Prison System (FPS) also charges comparatively low rates at $.06 per minute
for local calls and $0.23 per minute for long-distance calls, while still generating immense profits that provide for prison
amenities. In 2010, federal phone rates covered prison costs and generated an additional $34 million in profit, a financial
structure that would extend to the state prison system if the proposed legislation were implemented.79, 80 Additionally, any
short-term revenue generated by extortionate phone rates would be offset by the high costs associated with maintaining
the livelihood of larger prison populations in the future, due to increased cases of reoffending that would result without
regulation. With legislation, future prison costs would decrease, consistent with reduced recidivism. Additionally, 52
percent of individuals incarcerated in state prisons report having minor children.81 While reducing rates of recidivism,
lower call rates would also increase contact between the incarcerated and their children, fostering important parent–child
contact before release.82

NEXT STEPS
The Georgia General Assembly passed House Bill 349 in 2013, a resolution creating the current Georgia Council on
Criminal Justice Reform—a bipartisan, interbranch special council that is mandated to deal with criminal procedure,
sentencing laws, better management of the prison population, and other issues related to criminal proceedings and court
accountability.83 One key task addressed by the council is strategizing ways public safety can be improved by reducing
crime and rates of recidivism.84 The council makes yearly recommendations and yields significant influence over the
Georgia General Assembly.

Targeting council members for support would enhance the likelihood of obtaining a policy recommendation, which would
prove critical in enacting actual legislation. Lobbying Steve Teske—Chief Judge of Clayton County’s juvenile court and
a strong advocate for juvenile justice reform— for instance, appears promising.85 Garnering influence from a key council
member would open up lines of communication with the council and help build overall support.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 14
Combating Discrimination and
HUMAN RIGHTS

Reducing Jail Populations: Eliminating
Bail for Low-Level Crimes
By Finntan Storer, Isabelle Bogojevic, and Logan Niswander
Roosevelt @ University of Michigan

THESIS
To reduce overpopulation in jails and combat subjectivity during arraignment proceedings, Michigan should pass a state
law that requires anyone who is arrested and held for a non-violent misdemeanor or low-level felony—with an exception
for DUIs—and has no criminal record be released pretrial.

BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS
The failed “War on Drugs” transformed American jails and prisons into institutions that go beyond punishing
perpetrators of crime; inmates today are targeted for inherent characteristics, such as race, mental health, and economic
status. Beginning in the 1960s, the political push for “law and order” resulted in the implementation of harsher drug
sentencing laws at the state and federal level, including the use of mandatory minimum penalties.86 Urbanites, who were
predominantly minorities and residents of impoverished neighborhoods, bore the heaviest burden for such laws—a trend
that continues today.87 Take Detroit, for example: more residents of the city were in detention centers in 2010 than were
union workers.88 The impact of a biased, ambiguous criminal justice system is not only apparent in racial and geographic
disparities, but it is also made evident within the system itself—specifically, in pretrial release decisions.89

The pretrial decision process is typically highly subjective due to equivocal bail laws—the rules that judges follow when
they set the monetary amount, or bond, that a person charged with a crime must pay to be released before their trial.90
While racial bias has a strong presence in pretrial release decisions, other pertinent factors include a defendant’s record
and the level of his or her offense.91, 92 Most people detained across the country are charged with misdemeanors and are
practically forced into jail because of their inability to afford bail.93 If Michigan laws were reformed to ensure that those
convicted with misdemeanors aren’t charged with unreasonable bail fines, the number of inmates in county jails in
Michigan—which are at or exceeding capacity—would be significantly reduced across the state.94

TALKING POINTS
• There are racial disparities in current jails and prisons, and the ambiguity of bail laws means that the potential for
discrimination is even higher. African Americans, for example, serve nearly 20 percent longer sentences than their
white counterparts who commit similar crimes.95

• Nationally, two-thirds of prisoners in county jail are awaiting trial.96 Pretrial detention costs U.S. taxpayers $13.6
billion each year.97 With bail supervision costing, on average, only $7 a day compared to $75 a day for imprisonment, it
is far cheaper to release detainees before trial and supervise them until.98

• In Washington D.C., a bail-free pretrial release system has proved to be incredibly effective, with only 10 percent of
those released pretrial reoffending. Only 2 percent of those released reoffend by committing a violent crime.99

• Given that the median annual income for county jail inmates is $15,109, people in jail are the poorest members of the
prison population. Not only is the average bond of $10,000 unfeasible, but bail alone also reinforces a crushing cycle of
poverty and desperation.100

15 | CREATIVE COMMONS C OPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
POLICY IDEA

HUMAN RIGHTS
Due to the subjectivity and ambiguity surrounding how bail is set, the State of Michigan should implement a law requiring
judges to release defendants pretrial—provided that the criminal charge is a misdemeanor or class H felony, the accused is
a first-time offender, and the charge is non-violent.

POLICY ANALYSIS
Given the racial disparities in jails and prisons, this policy aims to prevent discrimination in setting bail and to reduce
pretrial jail populations, which have risen significantly since 1978.101 African Americans, for example, serve nearly 20
percent longer sentences than their white counterparts who commit similar crimes.102 The ambiguity of bail laws, the
cash bail system, and the criminal justice system in general—the 8th Amendment has fostered such creation of ambiguous
laws—means that the potential for discrimination is even higher. By setting specific guidelines and eliminating judges’
ability to arbitrarily set bail, our policy reduces the likelihood of subjective sentencing from happening at the lower level.

By releasing first-time offenders back into the public, our policy would also help to prevent employment termination
and give the accused time to build a criminal defense with their counsel. A 2005 Department of Justice study found that
67.8 percent of state prisoners were arrested within three years of their release.103 Allowing these offenders to be released
pretrial could lead to more successful defenses and result in little to no jail time, potentially lowering both the rate of
recidivism and prison populations. Washington D.C., for example, has largely eliminated their cash bail system. Under this
policy reform, only 10 percent of offenders out on release pretrial have reoffended—committing crimes that are largely
non-violent, as well.104 This policy does not propose a measure as drastic as D.C.’s bail system, but the example shows that
the most drastic measures carry little risk to public safety. In order to be more actionable, implementable, and politically
appealing, our policy targets low-level crime.

NEXT STEPS
Prison overpopulation, caused by a biased bail KEY FACTS
system and extensive pretrial detention, is a
serious issue in Michigan. In order to change the • Because of the inability to afford bail, pretrial
system, the Michigan state legislature would have detainees account for 95 percent of the growth
to pass new legislation. To effectively push for in jail population size in the United States over
policy change, it is necessary to build agency and the past 20 years. As a result, these inmates
cooperation with other advocates. Such agents of comprise approximately 67 percent of the total jail
change include the American Civil Liberties Union population.107
(ACLU) undergraduate chapter at the University
of Michigan (UM), other Roosevelt Network • Michigan has seen its pretrial population increase
members at UM, the Michigan Collaborative to threefold since 1978.108
End Mass Incarceration (MI-CEMI), and the
State of Michigan. Michigan Supreme Court Chief • Given that the median annual income for
Justice Bridget Mary McCormack, who leads a county jail inmates is $15,109, people in
working group on cash bail reform,105 will be key jail are the poorest members of the prison
to the success of the campaign. Additionally, we population, making the average bond of $10,000
will work with and lobby the Criminal Justice unfeasible.109
Policy Commission. Specifically, we will connect
with State Representative Vanessa Guerra, who
• Because of the unprecedented increase in
can push our policy in the Michigan House of
detainees, county jails in Michigan are either at or
Representatives by introducing legislation.106
exceed operating capacity.110

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 16
From Risk to Rehabilitation: Promoting
H E A LT H C A R E

Drug Court Programs in Pennsylvania
By Michael Gormley
Roosevelt @ Carnegie Mellon University

THESIS
To reduce recidivism rates, increase access to treatment, and reduce costs to taxpayers, the State of Pennsylvania should
establish drug court programs in its counties. This initiative will also help to reframe drug abuse as a health care issue.

BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS
High incarceration rates for drug crimes in the United States create a significant strain on the American justice system
and economy. Research shows that drug incarcerations disproportionately affect communities of color, especially black
Americans.111 Mass incarcerations strip a significant portion of the population of their right to vote,112 alongside the
ramifications of possessing a criminal record. Drug-related arrests, having grown by more than 90 percent over the past
three decades, also affect lower-class families at higher rates.113 Both trends exacerbate socioeconomic stratification
nationwide. Prison sentences also fail to treat the addiction itself, leaving the root cause of drug-related crime
unaddressed.

With the emergence of the opioid abuse epidemic, trends involving drug crime have undergone a dramatic shift over the
past 15 years. Classified as a national public health emergency by the federal government,114 the opioid crisis took root in
the over-prescription of pain medication. Sales of opiates nearly quadrupled over the last two decades.115 With increased
access to these drugs came increased abuse by those to which they were prescribed, and even the development of black
markets to re-sell the drugs. Increases in tolerance following the release of stronger drugs have led many abusers to
turn to heroin,116 along with criminal activity to fund the increasingly expensive habit. Government response has largely
consisted of incarcerating addicts for these crimes, instead of providing treatment for the addiction epidemic as the cause.
With its high recidivism rates and costs of incarceration, U.S. drug and prison policy has collectively failed to serve the
country’s interests.

TALKING POINTS
• Criminal sentencing for drug crimes KEY FACTS
disproportionately affects the most
marginalized, including minority • As of 2017, recidivism rates nationwide are
communities and the poor. approximately 49.3 percent,117 while recidivism rates
among drug court participants are approximately 25
• Drug courts promote rehabilitation more percent.118
effectively than normal prison, with lower
recidivism rates and at a lower cost to the • For each participant in a drug court program, the
public. public saves $6,744 on average over five years.119
• Juvenile drug courts give children and
• Drug court participants, on average, report 20
teenagers access to treatment without the
percent less drug use and test positive for drug use
drawbacks of criminal records or prison
17 percent less than non-participants.120
sentences.

• Successful implementation of drug courts • Out of the 67 counties in Pennsylvania, 40 have
helps to reframe drugs from a criminal access to a drug court. Only 7 have access to a
issue to a health care issue, further juvenile drug court program.121
destigmatizing drug treatment.

17 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
POLICY IDEA

H E A LT H C A R E
The main goal of this policy is to promote the propagation of “drug court” programs in district courts across Pennsylvania.
Drug courts offer non-violent offenders the opportunity to defer prison sentences in exchange for taking supervised
drug tests and attending rehabilitation programs, alongside additional measures designed to reintegrate individuals
into society. Expanding the drug court program to encompass the judiciary statewide provides these opportunities
to otherwise neglected at-risk populations. This includes juvenile drug courts, which serve a specialized need for
communities with young offenders.

POLICY ANALYSIS
Drug courts are alternative-sentencing programs used in state courts. First established in Florida in 1989 as a means to
proactively combat the crack epidemic, drug courts hold trials that give judges a wider array of options during sentencing.
Judges can opt to defer punitive measures like imprisonment in favor of mandates toward recovery, and they personally
oversee the recovery processes to deem when individuals are fit to return to the public. Empirical evidence supports the
use of drug courts as a means to reduce recidivism and to improve the overall prison system. Studies have found decreased
recidivism rates from 10 percent122 to 25 percent123 in different observed jurisdictions that use drug courts. Specifically,
drug courts nearly halved the recidivism rate among former participants compared to non-participants, with 13 percent
reporting fewer criminal acts overall.124 Drug courts also have specific branches to serve juvenile delinquents. Juvenile
drug courts are effective in rehabilitating minors,125 though there are few dedicated programs for juveniles; only seven
exist in all of Pennsylvania.126

Drug courts are a cost-effective policy measure. Analyses of the costs associated with maintaining a drug court, including
the specific upkeep with individuals in treatment that the program requires, find that drug courts cost more to maintain
on a per-capita basis. However, with the positive externalities of the program factored in, including a reduced prison
population and increased social benefit from more healthy and productive members of society,127 research has found there
to be an overall economic gain from participation in drug courts. Specifically, each participant in a drug court, who would
otherwise serve a prison sentence, would save the state $6,744 on average over five years.128 While the intended purpose of
drug courts is not to act as a cost-cutting measure, the economic feasibility of the program strengthens its sustainability.

NEXT STEPS
The next phase of this policy proposal is to build a coalition of fellow advocates with an interest in drug court reform to
target stakeholders involved with the Pennsylvania judiciary. To actualize this policy, identifying key state legislators
assigned to judicial committees and developing a case to motivate legislative action is crucial. To develop that campaign,
interest groups associated with prison reform, drug policy reform, and health care reform should be consulted for their
expertise in how to best expand the drug court system, while accounting for the various perspectives associated with the
program. Proponents of state drug court systems outside of Pennsylvania, in both government and the private sector, can
serve as influential allies during the lobbying and legislative processes, and they should be connected with their relevant
Pennsylvania equivalents when appropriate.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 18
Same-Day Voter Registration:
D E M O C R AT I C AC C E S S

Increasing Voter Turnout and
Democratic Access in Michigan
By Hayley Padden, Claire Galligan, Noah Harrison, Elise Rometsch, and Usha Yeruva
Roosevelt @ University of Michigan

THESIS
To increase voter turnout, the State of Michigan should implement same-day voter registration systems for local, state,
and national elections. This measure would reduce barriers to voting and increase participation without incurring
significant costs to Michigan’s electoral system.

BACKGROUND & ANALYSIS
Increasing voter participation has always been a crucial goal of democratic nations and states. In order to combat low
voter turnout, the State of Michigan must reduce barriers to voting. Voter turnout is particularly low among racial
minorities, millennials, and people of a lower socioeconomic standing.129 In order to increase voter turnout rates among
these groups of people, it is important to understand what barriers stand in their way. One of the biggest barriers to voting
in Michigan is the arbitrary deadline for voter registration. Under current Michigan law, residents must register to vote
30 days before an election.130 Voters’ applications must be mailed in or submitted to a city clerk in-person, which can be
inconvenient for some people. Additionally, there is a lack of publicity regarding these deadlines, so some residents may
not even be aware of what steps they have to take toward becoming a registered voter. To ensure that more Michigan
residents are able to exercise this fundamental right, it is important to address this issue by implementing a same-day
voter registration system as soon as possible.

TALKING POINTS
• Registering to vote should be made easier and more accessible to all citizens in Michigan.

• Studies show that same-day registration leads to increased voter turnout.

• Thousands of eligible Michigan residents are unable to vote because they fail to register before the deadline.131

• Voting is the most basic right in a democracy, and reducing barriers to electoral participation will protect it.

THE POLICY IDEA
The State of Michigan should pass a law enacting same-day voting registration systems for local, state, and national
elections in Michigan. This legislation would eliminate arbitrary registration deadlines, allowing potential voters to
register at their polling location before casting their ballot on Election Day. With this system, every polling location in
Michigan will have one or more staffed booths available where eligible, unregistered voters can present identification and
proof of residency and immediately be added to voter registration lists that day.

19 | CREATIVE COMMONS C OPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
POLICY ANALYSIS

D E M O C R AT I C AC C E S S
Fifteen states have already implemented same-day registration (SDR) systems; all had a higher voter turnout rate in the
2016 national election than the national average of 60.2 percent.132 However, state-by-state comparisons have limited
utility given the variability amongst the states in terms of region, demographics, and election law. Therefore, stronger
evidence is found in intrastate analyses that compare turnout rates before and after the implementation of same-day
registration. One such analysis in Wisconsin found that SDR increased turnout by an average of roughly 3 percent in each
county.133 Other estimates have shown increases in voter participation of up to 5 percent.

Same-day registration systems have proven to be especially effective at increasing turnout among the least-represented
groups in society: the groups, including minority and low-income communities, where increased participation is
necessary in order to improve equal representation in government. In North Carolina, for example, which allows same-
day registration for early voters, African Americans make up 35 percent of same-day registrants, even though they
compose only 22 percent of the electorate.134 Furthermore, one nationwide study found that SDR significantly reduces
the income-class disparity in voter turnout, and could be more effective than convenience-voting measures and motor-
voter programs.135

Additionally, SDR systems have relatively low costs, most of which are incurred by increasing staff capacity at polling
locations in order to process incoming registrations. In order to accommodate the implementation of same-day voting
registration, some costs would be associated with the swift update to Michigan’s current registration lists. No credible
research suggests that same-day voter registration increases voter fraud; according to the Minnesota Secretary of State,
it likely makes voting more secure.136

NEXT STEPS
Michigan was once a leader in increasing voter
accessibility, but the state has since fallen KEY FACTS
behind others. In order to implement a same- • 15 states and the District of Columbia offer
day voter registration system in Michigan, same-day registration, and all of them had voter
a bill must be written that outlines the
turnout rates higher than the national average
proposed SDR system. This bill would have to
for the 2016 national election.137
be introduced and passed in both Michigan’s
House of Representatives and Senate, with
subsequent approval by Governor Rick Snyder.
• Intrastate analyses show that states have higher
Successful completion of this process would voter turnout rates after implementing SDR
establish same-day voter registration law systems than they did prior to implementation.138
in the state. This process could be initiated
through a petition to the state legislature • In order to verify eligibility, every state with
or through introduction by a legislator in same-day registration requires identification and
Lansing, the state capital. Either method proof of residency for registration.139
requires allies from advocacy groups, public
support, and a draft of the proposed statute • Implementing same-day registration systems
that is informed by legal expertise. Upcoming incurs little cost, and maintenance costs virtually
state elections in 2018 create an opportunity nothing.140
to elevate Michigan’s restrictive voter
laws—a critical issue that limits democratic
participation.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 20
Democratizing Green Energy:
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT

Expanding Community Shared Solar
in New York State
By Zachary Frieden and Brianna Cea
Roosevelt @ Binghamton University

THESIS
To prioritize local and equitable community-owned energy production—over a corporate-controlled utility system—
New York State should reform the Affordable Solar Predevelopment and Technical Assistance program in order to make
community shared solar projects more accessible.

BACKGROUND & ANALYSIS
New York State’s Reforming the Energy Vision (REV) initiative is a comprehensive plan for the state to achieve 50 percent
renewable energy generation by 2030. To accomplish this goal, the REV initiative includes $5 billion for market-based
initiatives, encouraging private sector involvement in renewable energy development while neglecting local, sustainable
energy development projects.141 REV’s reliance on market-based incentives concentrates wealth into the hands of “clean
energy barons”—corporate executives who profit from monopolizing clean energy development.142

REV operates at the detriment of New Yorkers because it supports privatization, or corporate control, of utilities and boxes
out low-to-middle income (LMI) populations. Since only 1 in 5 residents are able to go solar-on-site,143 and the proportion of
renters who can’t is higher among populations of color,144 many New Yorkers lack access to the energy reform promised by
REV. This is alarming given that 40 percent of households in New York State (NYS) are LMI,145 the energy burden for LMI
households can reach up to 30 percent of income,146 and LMI areas are often sites for traditional polluting power plants.147
Private corporations do not prioritize community shared solar projects due to project risk and a lack of financial resources in
LMI communities.148

Community shared solar (CSS), which was introduced in New York in 2015, is an effective solution to the pitfalls of REV’s
market-based strategy. CSS projects involve municipalities or community organizations hosting off-site panel farms that
allow individuals to join together and invest in or subscribe to community-controlled clean energy production. CSS boasts
many advantages over traditional corporate-controlled energy projects, including increasing solar access to millions of New
Yorkers,149 putting communities in control of their energy,150 lowering energy bills,151 and supporting the local economy.152

TALKING POINTS
• REV’s privatization of clean energy development concentrates wealth into the hands of “green energy barons” as a
replacement to traditional oil barons.

• Community shared solar is the solution to a corporate-controlled energy system, making renewable energy local,
accessible, and equitable.

• High pre-development costs are the number one barrier to solar development; reforming the way that NYS assists
municipalities and local organizations with their pre-development costs is key to making CSS projects feasible.

• Energy projects funded by private corporations are less likely to prioritize LMI communities.

21 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
THE POLICY IDEA

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
In order to expand CSS projects—and therefore make green energy production local, accessible, and equitable—the New
York State Public Service Commission should: 1) reallocate funding from REV’s market-based programs to the Affordable
Solar Predevelopment and Technical Assistance (ASPTA) program, 2) guarantee ASPTA coverage to 100 percent of
pre-development costs, 3) expand coverage of pre-development activities to help address other soft costs, such as early
interconnection study fees,153 and 4) provide ASPTA costs up-front as part of a grant program, modeled after California’s
Multifamily Affordable Solar Housing (MASH) upfront rebate program.154

POLICY ANALYSIS
CSS projects make up the largest portion of backlogged solar initiatives in REV.155 The number one barrier to solar
development is the very high upfront cost,156 and pre-development spending is also very risky.157 For example, a potential
CSS project with Southern Tier Solar Works (STSW) had $40,000 in fully at-risk pre-development costs, and an additional
$125,000 may have been necessary for interconnection (connecting the project to the energy grid). STSW, a non-profit
organization based in Binghamton, New York, doesn’t have the risk tolerance or cash flow for this project, and ASPTA
doesn’t cover many of the necessary costs.158

New York State’s Affordable Solar Pre-Development and Technical Assistance (ASPTA) program provides some pre-
development funding to LMI projects. The program, however, doesn’t cover many important pre-development costs, such
as interconnection study fees and permits.159 It also provides capital at benchmarks, not upfront.160 Most detrimentally,
the program lacks funding: ASPTA received only $4.4 million,161 compared to the $782 million Green Bank—a state-
sponsored financial entity that works with the private sector162—received for market-based incentives.163

Expanding pre-development support would help initiate projects serving LMI communities.164 The few programs in
operation are successful: For example, California’s MASH, which provides upfront incentives to offset the costs of solar
for multifamily affordable housing, has successfully led to the installation of 23 megawatts (mW) across 360 solar projects
from 2008 to 2015, serving 6,500 LMI households.165 Ontario, which reduces application fees for and prioritizes projects
with aboriginal, community, or municipal ownership, awarded contracts for 241 mW of new generation across 936
projects in its fourth quarter of 2016 alone.166

NEXT STEPS KEY FACTS
To make community shared solar accessible to • Only 1 in 5 New Yorkers are able to go solar-on-
a greater number of New York residents and to site.167
prioritize CSS projects for LMI communities, the
New York State Public Service Commission (PSC) • CSS projects have substantial pre-development
must remove the barrier of pre-development costs, with one Southern Tier Solar Works CSS
costs for CSS projects. The Energy Democracy project requiring a fully at-risk $40,000 in feasibility
Alliance (EDA), an active statewide coalition with studies alone, and a potential $125,000 to simply
over 22 member organizations and 100 allied begin interconnection.168
groups, should lobby the PSC to reform ASPTA and
increase awareness for CSS projects throughout • The ASPTA program has only $4.4 million in
LMI communities in New York. Since the EDA has funding,169 compared to $782 million in subsidies to
successfully lobbied the Public Service Commission private corporations through the New York Green
to support CSS reform, the coalition should influence Bank.170
important stakeholders such as PSC Chair John
Rhodes, New York State Research and Development • Community energy projects have local employment
Authority (NYSERDA) President Alicia Barton, and
impacts which are 1.1 to 1.3 times higher during
Chair of Energy and Finance Richard Kauffman.
construction and 1.1 to 2.8 times higher during
Moreover, since Governor Andrew Cuomo directly
appoints PSC commissioners, the EDA should
operation, compared to conventional projects.171
pressure Governor Cuomo through a public
campaign for ASPTA reform.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 22
Protecting Refugee Resettlement in
FOREIGN POLICY

Michigan: The Private Sponsorship
Solution
By Clara Harter
Roosevelt @ Columbia University

THESIS
To protect refugee resettlement from federal budget cuts, Michigan’s Department of Health and Human Services should
establish a private sponsorship system, allowing willing citizens to provide the funding and local knowledge to effectively
integrate refugees into their community.

BACKGROUND & ANALYSIS
The current administration is actively working to limit refugee resettlement in the U.S. One key indication is the refugee
admission ceiling, which has been cut from 110,000 admissions in Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 to just 45,000 in FY 2018—resulting
in a $218,000,000 decrease to the Department of Health and Human Services’s (HHS) resettlement budget.172 Resettlement
in Michigan works in a private-public partnership where the federal government provides funding to the Michigan
Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS), which in turn funds six private resettlement agencies who manage
local integration.173 Though resettlement agencies will have a smaller incoming demand, budget cuts will affect refugees
already living in the Michigan who still rely on these agencies’ services. In the long run, program downsizing could destroy
resettlement infrastructure, leaving Michigan ill-equipped for any influx of refugees in the future.

In Michigan, federal support alone—which provides Medicaid, food stamps, and a one-time fund of $1,125 per person—is
insufficient to meet new families’ needs.174 Additionally, many MDHHS caseworkers are overloaded and may also lack the
local connections necessary to help refugees form relationships in their communities, find the best jobs, and enroll in the
best schools.175 To support education, housing, employment, language services, cultural integration, and more, private
agencies are essential.176

Historically, the people of Michigan have long welcomed refugees. Michigan has the second-largest Arab American
population and Syrian refugee population in the U.S.177, 178 Despite the state’s relatively small population size, Michigan was
ranked as the fourth most popular state for refugee resettlement in FY 2016.179

TALKING POINTS
• The federal government has slashed the refugee resettlement budget,180 leaving the future of funding for resettlement
agencies uncertain and the long-term resettlement infrastructure at risk.

• Private sponsorship is an alternative to state-level resettlement agencies. Because it is funded by private citizens, this
option is resistant to the current administration’s anti-refugee stance.

• Private sponsorship has been shown to reduce the time needed for refugees to reach self-sufficiency, help resettled
families attain higher household incomes, and provide invaluable local connections.181

• With a long history of supporting refugee resettlement, a large volunteer community, and informal sponsorship
networks, Michigan is an ideal state for launching a private sponsorship program.182, 183

23 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
THE POLICY IDEA

FOREIGN POLICY
Michigan’s Department of Health and Human Services, which manages refugee resettlement services, should launch a
private sponsorship program. Through such a program, groups of Michigan residents would be assigned a new family
and would work together to integrate them into their community. Private sponsorship would protect funding for refugee
resettlement, and the program would help ensure that refugee families receive personalized attention, local connections,
and easier integration.

POLICY ANALYSIS
A private sponsorship program would allow concerned citizens to preserve resettlement infrastructure by providing the
funds and local expertise to resettle refugee families into their communities. This is not a new idea: Since 1978, Canada
has successfully resettled over 195,000 refugees through private sponsorship.184 In Canada, these families typically reach
self-sufficiency faster than those supported by the government and collect, on average, $6,000 higher in income in their
first year.185 A U.S. movement for private sponsorship already exists, and organizations, including Human Rights First, the
International Refugee Assistance Project, and the Urban Justice Center, have voiced their support.186

Michigan’s precedent of accepting refugees, as well as its large volunteer population, makes the state an ideal community
for a sponsorship program. In response to President Trump’s travel ban and the new refugee admission limits, Michigan
residents have expressed their support of refugees through protests, petitions, fundraisers, and initiatives against
xenophobia.187, 188, 189 Some citizen volunteers have already organized informal private sponsorship networks.190 Former
U.S. Assistant Secretary of Labor Doug Ross and his team of eight, for example, were able to provide services for a new
family through local connections that their coordinating agency could not. They used a friend at a law clinic to waive the
family’s $7,500 green card fee, utilized a connection at a local preschool to enroll the children halfway through the school
year, relocated the family to a better school district, and made sure someone was always available to provide immediate
support.191

NEXT STEPS
Because most funding would come from private KEY FACTS
citizens rather than the state government, this
policy should be attractive to policymakers • The federal government has proposed a
and easy to implement. The system for private
$218,000,000 cut in refugee resettlement
sponsorship would be established through
funding for FY 2018.193
MDHHS, which is responsible for refugee
assistance services.192 By elevating Michigan’s
willingness to support refugees, the success of
• Refugees in Michigan only receive funds from the
Canada’s private sponsorship program, and the federal government for the first 30 to 90 days
voices of refugees currently living in Michigan who they are in the country and are expected to reach
struggle under federal funding limits, a strong case self-sufficiency after this point.194
can be made to state legislators as to why private
sponsorship is a pertinent solution. The expertise • By collectively contributing $8,000, private
of informal private sponsors in tandem with private sponsorship teams can provide the funding
resettlement agencies would be the foundation for necessary to support a newly resettled family in
developing the training program for new private Michigan for a year.195
sponsors, again illustrating the simplicity of this
solution and the ability of the state government to
institutionalize it.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 24
References
ADDRESSING THE MENTAL HEALTH OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: EXPANDING TRAINING
AND TOOLS IN NORTH CAROLINA

1 “Organization.” North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.ncpublic-
schools.org/organization/).
2 Dwyer, Lucy. 2014. “When Anxiety Hits at School.” The Atlantic. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.theatlantic.
com/health/archive/2014/10/when-anxiety-hits-at-school/380622/).
3 Leahy, Robert L. 2008. “How Big a Problem Is Anxiety?” Psychology Today. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.
psychologytoday.com/blog/anxiety-files/200804/how-big-problem-is-anxiety).
4 Mojtabai, Ramin, Mark Olfson, and Beth Han. 2016. “National Trends in the Prevalence and Treatment of Depression
in Adolescents and Young Adults.” Pediatrics 138(6). Accessed February 8, 2018 (http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/con-
tent/early/2016/11/10/peds.2016-1878).
5 Office Of Adolescent Health. 2017. “North Carolina Adolescent Mental Health Facts.” U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/facts-and-stats/national-and-state-data-sheets/
adolescent-mental-health-fact-sheets/north-carolina/index.html).
6 “Teen Suicide is Preventable.” American Psychological Association. Accessed February 8, 2018 (http://www.apa.org/
research/action/suicide.aspx).
7 Zobel, Sarah. 2017. “Mental Health First Aid Training.” Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.samhsa.gov/homelessness-programs-resources/hpr-resources/mental-health-first-
aid-training).
8 “Mental Health Screening Tools.” Mental Health America. Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.mentalhealthamer-
ica.net/mental-health-screening-tools).
9 Svensson, Bengt, Lars Hansson, and Sigrid Stjernswärd. 2015. “Experiences of a Mental Health First Aid Training
Program in Sweden: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.” Community Mental Health Journal 51(4): 497–503. Accessed February 6,
2018 (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10597-015-9840-1).
10 Svensson, Bengt, Lars Hansson. 2014. “Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid Training in Sweden. A Randomized
Controlled Trial with a Six-Month and Two-Year Follow-Up.” PLoS ONE 9(6). Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://journals.plos.
org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0100911&type=printable).
11 “Research & Evidence Base.” Mental Health First Aid. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.mentalhealthfirstaid.
org/about/research/).
12 Hui, T. Keung. 2017. “NC’s Low-Performing Schools Will Get Less Help Under State Budget Cut.” News & Observer.
Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.newsobserver.com/news/local/education/article163498468.html).
13 Goldberg, Emily. 2016. “The New Focus on Children’s Mental Health.” The Atlantic. Accessed February 6, 2018
(https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/10/the-new-focus-on-childrens-mental-health/504227/).
14 “Become an Instructor.” Mental Health First Aid. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.mentalhealthfirstaid.org/
become-an-instructor/).
15 “Pruebas de Salud Mental en Español.” Mental Health American. Accessed February 13, 2018 (http://www.mental-
healthamerica.net/pruebas-de-salud-mental-en-espanol).
16 “School-Based Mental Health Initiative.” North Carolina State Board of Education. Accessed February 6, 2018
(https://stateboard.ncpublicschools.gov/policy-manual/student-health-issues/school-based-mental-health-initiative).
17 “Center for Safer Schools.” North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.
ncpublicschools.org/cfss/).
18 “Mental Health First Aid.” North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed February 6, 2018
(https://www.ncdhhs.gov/news/press-releases/editorial-mental-health-first-aid).
19 Hoban, Rose. 2017. “Bill Would Speed Another Overhaul of NC’s Mental Health System.” North Carolina Health News.
Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.northcarolinahealthnews.org/2017/06/16/bill-speed-another-overhaul-ncs-mental-
health-system/).

25 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
SEEING THE FUTURE: ESTABLISHING TRANSITION SERVICES FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED

20 “Statistical Facts about Blindness in the United States.” National Federation of the Blind. Accessed November 27, 2017
(https://nfb.org/blindness-statistics).
21 “Children and Youth With Disabilities.” National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed November 27, 2017
(https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgg.asp).
22 Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, §§ 33-1401-1402 (2004).
23 “Statistical Facts about Blindness in the United States.” National Federation of the Blind.
24 “Children and Youth With Disabilities.” The Condition of Education - Participation in Education - Elementary/Sec-
ondary - Children and Youth With Disabilities - Indicator May (2017). May 2017. Accessed November 27, 2017. https://nces.
ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgg.asp.
25 “Statistical Facts about Blindness in the United States.” National Federation of the Blind.
26 “Children and Youth With Disabilities.” National Center for Education Statistics.
27 “Statistical Facts about Blindness in the United States.” National Federation of the Blind.
28 Rhode Island Technical Assistance Project (2003) (enacted).
29 “Virginia Department for the Blind and Vision Impaired - AFB Directory Profile.” American Foundation for the
Blind. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.afb.org/directory/profile/virginia-department-for-the-blind-and-vision-im-
paired/12). http://www.afb.org/directory/profile/virginia-department-for-the-blind-and-vision-impaired/12).

UTILIZING NEW DEVELOPMENT FOR A MORE AFFORDABLE ANN ARBOR
30 Aurand, Andrew, Dan Emmanuel, Diane Yentel, Ellen Errico, and Marjorie Pang. 2017. “Out of Reach 2017: The High
Costs of Housing.” National Low Income Housing Coalition. Accessed November 13, 2017 (http://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/
oor/OOR_2017.pdf ).
31 Kirchner, Emily. 2017. “Average Listing and Sales Prices Surge.” Ann Arbor Area Board of REALTORS. Accessed
November 13, 2017 (http://www.aaabor.com/mls-tools-top-menu/area-housing-stats-top-menu/2017/374-september-2017-
stats/file.html).
32 Stanton, Ryan. 2017. “Ann Arbor Has State’s Highest Assessed Property Value in 2016.” MLive.com. Accessed
November 13, 2017 (http://www.mlive.com/news/ann-arbor/index.ssf/2017/03/ann_arbor_boasts_states_highes.html).
33 “Ann Arbor Michigan Residential Rent and Rental Statistics.” Department of Numbers. Accessed November 15, 2017
(http://www.deptofnumbers.com/rent/michigan/ann-arbor/).
34 “Housing Affordability: Washtenaw County and Ann Arbor.” Washtenaw County Office of Community and Economic
Development. Accessed November 15, 2017 (http://www.ewashtenaw.org/government/departments/community-and-eco-
nomic-development/housing-and-community-infrastructure/affordable-housing-1/FINALfinalAHInfographic.pdf ).
35 Ibid.
36 Ibid.
37 “Housing Type Definitions.” Housing Type Definitions - Homebase for Housing. Accessed February 16, 2018. http://
homebaseforhousing.org/Education/Definitions.cshtml.
38 “State of the Downtown Report Ann Arbor, Michigan 2016.” Ann Arbor Downtown Development Authority. Accessed
November 19, 2017 (http://www.a2dda.org/wp-content/uploads/SotDR_FY2016_Final_10.04.2016_v2.pdf ).
39 Stanton, Ryan. 2017. “See Plans for New $44M Apartment Development in Ann Arbor.” MLive.com. Accessed
November 19, 2017 (http://www.mlive.com/news/ann-arbor/index.ssf/2017/10/see_plans_for_44m_new_apartmen.
html#incart_river_index_topics).
40 Stanton, Ryan. “Housing Affordability.” Washtenaw County Office of Community and Economic Development.
41 “Ann Arbor Michigan Residential Rent and Rental Statistics.” Department of Numbers.
42 Chandler, Jenna. 2017. “‘Linkage Fee’ Aimed at Spurring Affordable Housing in LA Clears City Committee.” Curbed
LA. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://la.curbed.com/2017/8/22/16186528/linkage-fee-plum-vote-developer-fees-affordable-
housing).
43 “Neighborhood Housing Trust.” City of Boston. Accessed November 27, 2017 (www.boston.gov/sites/default/files/
nht_report_2014_160622_1110.pdf ).
44 “Survey of Linkage Programs in Other U.S. Cities.” Boston Redevelopment Authority. Accessed November 19, 2017
(http://www.bostonplans.org/getattachment/8440bf23-afa7-40b0-a274-4aca16359252/ ).

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 26
45 Ibid.
46 “State of the Downtown.” Ann Arbor Downtown Development Authority.
47 “Survey of Linkage Programs in Other U.S. Cities.” Boston Redevelopment Authority.
48 Kamlarz, Phil. 2011. “Affordable Housing Impact Fee.” City of Berkeley, Office of the City Manager. Accessed
November 19, 2017 (https://www.cityofberkeley.info/uploadedFiles/Clerk/Level_3_-_City_Council/2011/01Jan/2011-01-25_
Item_14a_Affordable_Housing_Impact_Fee.pdf ).
49 Stanton, Ryan. 2017. “Ann Arbor Considers Plan to Put $400K a Year into Affordable Housing.” MLive.com. Accessed
November 15, 2017 (http://www.mlive.com/news/ann-arbor/index.ssf/2017/04/ann_arbor_considers_plan_to_pu.html).

MODERN MOBILITY FOR ALL: A UNIVERSAL TICKET FOR NYC’S SUBWAY SYSTEM
50 Rosenthal, Brian M. 2017. “How Politics and Bad Decisions Starved New York’s Subways.” The New York Times.
Accessed November 27, 2017 (https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/18/nyregion/new-york-subway-system-failure-delays.html?_
r=1).
51 Ibid.
52 Ibid.
53 Ibid.
54 Walker, Ameena. 2017. “Brace Yourselves, New York: MetroCard Prices Are About to Go Up.” Curbed NY. Accessed
November 27, 2017 (https://ny.curbed.com/2017/3/15/14937536/nyc-subway-metrocard-fare-hike-mta).
55 Burke, Kerry, Laura Dimon, Emilie Ruscoe, and Dan Rivoli. 2016. “High Cost of Commuting Calls for Reduced Subway
Fares.” New York Daily News. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/high-cost-commuting-
calls-reduced-subway-fares-article-1.2889108).
56 Stolper, Harold and Nancy Rankin. 2016. “The Transit Affordability Crisis.” Community Service Society and Riders
Alliance. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://lghttp.58547.nexcesscdn.net/803F44A/images/nycss/images/uploads/pubs/
The%20Transit%20Affordability%20Crisis%20updates%204%2018%2016%20-%20UPDATED%204.pdf ).
57 Ibid.
58 Rosenthal, Brian M., Emma G. Fitzsimmons, and Michael LaForgia. 2017. “How Politics and Bad Decisions Starved
New York’s Subways.” The New York Times. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/18/nyregion/new-
york-subway-system-failure-delays.html).
59 Stolper and Rankin, “The Transit Affordability Crisis.”
60 American Community Survey. 2015. “Income and Taxes (NYC): Number of Households - By Income Range.” U.S.
Census Bureau. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/income-taxes/hhold_income-numbers.
htm).
61 Josephs, Leslie. 2017. “New York City Needs Foreign Visitors Because They Spend Four Times More Money Than
Americans.” Quartz. Accessed November 27, 2017 (https://qz.com/954413/new-york-city-needs-foreign-tourists-because-
they-spend-more/).
62 “NYC Visitation Statistics.” NYC & Company. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.nycandcompany.org/
research/nyc-statistics-page).
63 “MTA 2017 Adopted Budget: February Financial Plan 2017-2020.” Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Accessed
November 27, 2017 (http://web.mta.info/mta/budget/pdf/MTA%202017%20Adopted%20Budget%20February%20
Financial%20Plan%202017-2020.pdf ).
64 Lovett, Kenneth, Sarah Gabrielli, and Larry Mcshane. “Cuomo Announces $1 Billion Infusion of State Funds to Repair
MTA.” New York Daily News. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/cuomo-announces-1-
billion-infusion-state-funds-repair-mta-article-1.3287974).
65 Stolper and Rankin, “The Transit Affordability Crisis.”

27 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
REDUCING RECIDIVISM: CUTTING THE COST OF PRISON PHONE CALLS IN GEORGIA

66 Kukorowski, Drew. 2012. “The Price to Call Home: State Sanctioned Monopolization in the Prison Phone Industry.”
Prison Policy Initiative. Accessed November 12, 2017 (https://static.prisonpolicy.org/phones/price_to_call_home.pdf ).
67 Carson, E. Ann and Daniela Golinelli. 2012. “Prisoners in 2012 Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991–2012.” Report
no. NCJ 243920. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Accessed November 13, 2017 (https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p12tar9112.
pdf ).
68 Dannenberg, John E. 2011. “Nationwide PLN Survey Examines Prison Phone Contracts, Kickbacks.” Prison Legal
News. April 15, 2011. Accessed November 27, 2017 (https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/news/2011/apr/15/nationwide-pln-sur-
vey-examines-prison-phone-contracts-kickbacks/).
69 Kukorowski, “The Price to Call Home.”
70 42 U.S.C. § 17501 (2012).
71 “Offender Telephone System: Global Tel*Link Customer User Guide.” The Georgia Department of Corrections. Ac-
cessed November 12, 2017 (https://www.prisonphonejustice.org/media/phonejustice/GA%20Rate%20Sheet%20with%20
Ancillary%20Fees%204-22-14.pdf ).
72 La Vigne, Nancy G., Rebecca L. Naser, Lisa E. Brooks, and Jennifer L. Castro. 2005. “Examining the Effect of Incar-
ceration and In-Prison Family Contact on Prisoners Family Relationships.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 21(4):
314-35. Accessed November 14, 2017 (http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1043986205281727).
73 Ramachandra, Komala. 2017. “Extortionate Phone Fees Cut Off US Prisoners.” Human Rights Watch. June 16, 2017.
Accessed November 15, 2017 (https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/06/16/extortionate-phone-fees-cut-us-prisoners).
74 Williams, Timothy. 2015. “The High Cost of Calling the Imprisoned,” The New York Times. Accessed November 14,
2017 (https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/31/us/steep-costs-of-inmate-phone-calls-are-under-scrutiny.html).
75 Ibid
76 “New York Consolidated Laws, Correction Law - COR § 623.” Findlaw. Accessed November 15, 2017 (http://codes.
findlaw.com/ny/correction-law/cor-sect-623.html).
77 Kukorowski, “The Price to Call Home.”
78 Ibid
79 Kukorowski, Drew, Peter Wagner, and Leah Sakala. 2013. “Please Deposit All of Your Money: Kickbacks, Rates and
Hidden Fees in the Jail Phone Industry.” Prison Policy Initiative. Accessed November 11, 2017 (https://www.prisonpolicy.org/
phones/pleasedeposit.html).
80 Myser, Michael. 2007. “The Hard Sell,” CNNMoney. Accessed November 12, 2017 (http://money.cnn.com/magazines/
business2/business2_archive/2006/12/01/8394995/index.htm).
81 Glaze, Lauren E. and Laura M. Maruschak. 2008. “Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children.” Report no. NCJ
222984. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pptmc.pdf ).
82 Ibid
83 “Georgia Council on Criminal Justice Reform.” Department of Community Supervision. Accessed November 15, 2017
(https://dcs.georgia.gov/georgia-council-criminal-justice-reform).
84 Boggs, Michael P. and Carey A. Miller. 2017 “Report of the Georgia Council on Criminal Justice Reform.” Georgia
Council on Criminal Justice Reform. Accessed November 15, 2017 (https://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/
JR-in-GA_Report-of-the-Council-on-CJ-Reform.pdf ).
85 “Steve Teske: Chief Judge, Juvenile Court of Clayton County.” Governor Nathan Deal: Office of the Governor. Accessed
November 15, 2017 (https://gov.georgia.gov/steve-teske).

COMBATING DISCRIMINATION AND REDUCING JAIL POPULATIONS:
ELIMINATING BAIL FOR LOW-LEVEL CRIMES
86 Collier, Lorna. 2014. “Incarceration Nation.” Monitor on Psychology. Accessed November 16, 2017 (http://www.apa.
org/monitor/2014/10/incarceration.aspx).
87 Ying, Erica. 2017. “Black men get longer prison sentences than white men for the same crime: Study.” ABC News.
Accessed February 14, 2018 (http://abcnews.go.com/amp/Politics/black-men-sentenced-time-white-men-crime-study/sto-
ry?id=51203491)

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 28
88 Thompson, H. A. 2010. “Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Post-
war American History.” Journal of American History 97(3): 703-34. Accessed November 16, 2017 (doi:10.1093/jahist/97.3.703)
(https://academic.oup.com/jah/article/97/3/703/749784).
89 Collier, “Incarceration Nation.”
90 Roelofs, Ted. 2016. “The Price of Michigan’s Cash Bail System.” MLive.com. Accessed November 16, 2017 (http://www.
mlive.com/news/index.ssf/2016/11/the_price_of_michigans_cash_ba.html).
91 Stevenson, Megan and Sandra G. Mayson. 2017 “Bail Reform: New Directions for Pretrial Detention and Release.”
Penn Law: Legal Scholarship Repository. Accessed November 17, 2017 (http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/faculty_scholar-
ship/1745/).
92 Billings, Thanithia. 2016. “Private Interest, Public Sphere: Eliminating the Use of Commercial Bail Bondsmen in the
Criminal Justice System.” Boston College Law Review 57(4). Accessed November 17, 2017 (https://search-proquest-com.proxy.
lib.umich.edu/docview/1828171099/fulltext/A70CB9D5B46A43A4PQ/1?accountid=14667).
93 Stevenson and Mayson, “Bail Reform.”
94 “Criminal Justice Policy Commission.” Michigan Legislative Council. Accessed November 26, 2017 (http://council.
legislature.mi.gov/CouncilAdministrator/cjpc).
95 “Racial Disparities in Sentencing.” ACLU. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/as-
sets/141027_iachr_racial_disparities_aclu_submission_0.pdf ).
96 Ortiz, Natalie. 2015. “County Jails at a Crossroads: An Examination of the Jail Population and Pretrial Release.”
National Association of Counties. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.naco.org/sites/default/files/documents/
Final%20paper_County%20Jails%20at%20a%20Crossroads_8.10.15.pdf ).
97 Rabuy, Bernadette. 2017. “Pretrial Detention Costs $13.6 Billion Each Year.” Prison Policy Initiative. Accessed
November 27, 2017 (https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2017/02/07/pretrial_cost/).
98 Marimow, Ann E. 2016. “When It Comes to Pretrial Release, Few Other Jurisdictions Do It D.C.’s Way.” The
Washington Post. Accessed November 27, 2017
(https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/public-safety/when-it-comes-to-pretrial-release-few-other-jurisdictions-do-it-dcs-
way/2016/07/04/8eb52134-e7d3-11e5-b0fd-073d5930a7b7_story.html?utm_term=.53f13e233f31).
99 Marimow, “When It Comes to Pretrial Release.”
100 Rabuy op. cit.
101 Stevenson and Mayson, “Bail Reform.”
102 ACLU, “Racial Disparities in Sentencing.”
103 Durose, Matthew R., Alexia D. Cooper, and Howard N. Snyder. 2014. “Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 states in
2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010.” Report no. NCJ 244205. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Accessed February 8, 2018 (https://
www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rprts05p0510.pdf ).
104 Marimow, “When It Comes to Pretrial Release.”
105 “Michigan Bail Reform Efforts.” Davis Law Group, PLLC. Accessed November 26, 2017 (https://www.michigancrimi-
nallawyer.com/michigan-bail-reform-efforts/).
106 Michigan Legislative Council. “Criminal Justice Policy Commission.”
107 Stevenson and Mayson, “Bail Reform.”
108 Ibid.
109 Rabuy, Bernadette and Daniel Kopf. 2016. “Detaining the Poor: How Money Bail Perpetuates an Endless Cycle of Pov-
erty and Jail Time.” Prison Policy Initiative. Accessed November 17, 2017 (https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/incomejails.
html).
110 “Michigan Collaborative to End Mass Incarceration | MI-CEMI.” Michigan Collaborative to End Mass Incarceration |
MI-CEMI. Accessed November 26, 2017 (https://www.michigancollaborative.org/).

FROM RISK TO REHABILITATION: PROMOTING DRUG COURT PROGRAMS IN PENNSYLVANIA

111 Rothwell, Jonathan. 2014. “How The War on Drugs Damages Black Social Mobility.” Brookings Institution. Accessed
November 27, 2017 (https://www.brookings.edu/blog/social-mobility-memos/2014/09/30/how-the-war-on-drugs-damages-
black-social-mobility/).
112 Kief, Nicole. 2008. “Voting with a Criminal Record: How Registration Forms Frustrate Democracy.” The
American Civil Liberties Union. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/field_document/
votingwithacriminalrecord_report.pdf ).

29 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
113 Office of the Press Secretary. 2016 “Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System.” The
White House. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/04/23/cea-report-
economic-perspectives-incarceration-and-criminal-justice).
114 Office of the Press Secretary. 2017. “President Donald J. Trump is Taking Action on Drug Addiction and the Opioid
Crisis.” The White House. Accessed November 27, 2017 (https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/10/26/president-
donald-j-trump-taking-action-drug-addiction-and-opioid-crisis).
115 “Prescribing Data.” CDC. Accessed November 27, 2017 (https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/prescribing.html).
116 Carey, Benedict. 2014. “Prescription Painkillers Seen as a Gateway to Heroin.” The New York Times. Accessed
November 27, 2017 (https://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/11/health/prescription-painkillers-seen-as-a-gateway-to-heroin.
html?_r=0).
117 Hunt, Kim S. 2016. “Recidivism Among Federal Offenders: A Comprehensive Overview.” United States Sentencing
Commission. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.ussc.gov/research/research-reports/recidivism-among-federal-
offenders-comprehensive-overview).
118 “Drug Court.” Drug Court | Chester County, PA. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.chesco.org/1133/Drug-
Court).
119 Finigan et al., “The Impact of a Mature Drug Court Over 10 Years of Operation.”
120 National Institute of Justice, “Drug Courts.”
121 “Problem-Solving Courts.” The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania.
122 National Institute of Justice. 2017. “Drug Courts.” Office of Justice Programs. Accessed February 8, 2018 (https://www.
nij.gov/topics/courts/drug-courts/pages/welcome.aspx).
123 Truitt, Linda et al. 2002. “Evaluating Treatment Drug Courts in Kansas City, Missouri and Pensacola, Florida: Final
Reports for Phase I and Phase II.” National Institute of Justice. Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.abtassociates.com/
reports/es-eval_treatment.pdf ).
124 Rossman, Shelli B. et al. 2011. “The Multi-Site Adult Drug Court Evaluation: The Impact of Drug Courts.” Urban
Institute Justice Policy Center. Accessed February 8, 2018 (https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/237112.pdf ).
125 Drake, Elizabeth K. 2012. “Chemical Dependency Treatment for Offenders: A Review of the Evidence and Benefit-
Cost Findings.” Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/
ReportFile/1112/Wsipp_Chemical-Dependency-Treatment-for-Offenders-A-Review-of-the-Evidence-and-Benefit-Cost-
Findings_Full-Report.pdf ).
126 “Problem-Solving Courts.” The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.
pacourts.us/judicial-administration/court-programs/problem-solving-courts).
127 Downey, P. Mitchell and John K. Roman. 2014. “Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Guide for Drug Courts and Other Criminal
Justice Programs.” National Institute of Justice. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/246769.pdf ).
128 Finigan, Michael W., Shannon M. Carey, and Anton Cox. 2007. “The Impact of a Mature Drug Court Over 10 Years
of Operation: Recidivism and Costs.” NPC Research. Accessed February 6, 2018 (https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/
grants/219225.pdf ).

SAME-DAY VOTER REGISTRATION: INCREASING VOTER TURNOUT AND
DEMOCRATIC ACCESS IN MICHIGAN

129 “Same Day Voter Registration.” National Conference of State Legislatures. Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.
ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/same-day-registration.aspx).
130 Pillsbury, George and Johannesen (2016). “America Goes to the Polls 2016: A Report on Voter Turnout in the
2016 Election.” Nonprofit VOTE. AccessedNovember 2, 2017 (http://www.nonprofitvote.org/documents/2017/03/ameri-
ca-goes-polls-2016.pdf ).
131 Ibid.
132 McDonald, Michael. 2018. “2016 November General Election Turnout Rates.” United States Election Project. Ac-
cessed November 27, 2017(http://www.electproject.org/2016g).
133 Neiheisel, Jacob R., and Barry C. Burden2012. “The Impact of Election Day Registration on Voter Turnout and Elec-
tion Outcomes.” American Politics Research40(4), 636-664. Accessed February 6, 2018. (doi:10.1177/1532673x11432470)
134 Green, Zachary and Andrew Mach 2015. “Interactive Map: Does Same-Day Registration Affect Voter Turnout in the
U.S.?” PBS NewsHour. Accessed November 27, 2017. (https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/day-registration-affects-vot-
er-turnout-u-s).

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 30
135 Rigby, Elizabeth and Melanie J. Springer 2010. “Does Electoral Reform Increase (or Decrease) Political Equality?”
Political Research Quarterly 64(2), 420-434. Accessed February 6, 2018 (doi:10.1177/1065912909358582).
136 Minnite, Lorraine C. 2007. “Election Day Registration: A Study of Voter Fraud Allegations and Findings on Voter
Roll Security” Demos. Accessed February 6, 2018 (http://www.demos.org/publication/election-day-registration-study-vot-
er-fraud-allegations-and-findings-voter-roll-security).
137 Pillsbury and Johannesen, “America Goes to the Polls 2016”
138 Ibid.
139 Ibid.
140 Ibid.

DEMOCRATIZING GREEN ENERGY: EXPANDING COMMUNITY
SHARED SOLAR IN NEW YORK STATE

141 Cha, J. Mijin,“Privatizing Clean Energy Development Is Putting Lipstick on a Pig,” The Huffington Post, last modified
May 7, 2016, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/j-mijin-cha/privatizing-clean-energy_b_7233618.html.
142 Cha, “Privatizing Clean Energy.”
143 Herman K. Trabish, “Inside New York’s Aggressive New Community Shared Renewables Program,” Utility Dive, last
modified July 30, 2015, http://www.utilitydive.com/news/inside-new-yorks-aggressive-new-community-shared-renewables-
program/402896/.
144 “Shared Renewables/Community Net Metering.” New York Energy Democracy Alliance. Accessed February 8, 2018
(http://energydemocracyny.org/community-net-metering-shared-renewables).
145 New York State, “Governor Cuomo Announces $3.6 Million Available to Help Low-To-Moderate-Income Residents
Access Clean, Affordable Solar,” last modified December 6, 2016 https://www.nyserda.ny.gov/About/Newsroom/2016-
Announcements/2016-12-06-Governor-Cuomo-Announces-Millions-Available-to-Help-LMI-Residents.
146 Christophe Jospé, Curtis Probst, Mara Elana Burstein, Tiancheng Deng, Erica Helson, Chanelle Mayer, . . . Bora Youn,
“Ensuring New York Solar Programs Reach Low Income Residents,” Columbia University, last modified Spring 2014, http://
mpaenvironment.ei.columbia.edu/files/2014/06/GRIDAlternativesProject.Final_.pdf.
147 Interstate Renewable Energy Council, “Model Rules For Shared Renewable Energy Programs” (Report, Interstate
Renewable Energy Council, 2013), 15. Accessed February 8, 2018 (http://www.irecusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/
IREC-Model-Rules-for-Shared-Renewable-Energy-Programs-2013.pdf ).
148 Steve Calechman, “Making Community Solar Work for Low-Income Customers,” Greentech Media, last modified
March, 14, 2016 https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/making-community-solar-work-for-low-income-customers-
is-crucial-for-growth#gs.xth055E
149 “Shared Renewables/Community Net Metering.” New York Energy Democracy Alliance.
150 Laura Sheperd, “New York is Bringing Solar Power to the Masses,” ThinkProgress, last modified December 6, 2016,
https://thinkprogress.org/New-york-is-bringing-solar-power-to-the-masses-9e5e598c5ca6.
151 Ibid.
152 Lantz, E. and S. Tegen, “Economic Development Impacts of Community Wind Projects: A Review and Empirical
Evaluation.” Report no. NREL/CP-500-45555, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2009), iii. Accessed February 8, 2018,
https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/45555.pdf.
153 Community Owned Shared Renewables Group of the Energy Democracy Alliance (EDA CoShare),“New York
Community Solar Case Studies: Opportunities and Challenges,” (Report, New York Energy Democracy Alliance, 2017),
Accessed February 8, 2018, http://energydemocracyny.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/CoShare-CSS-case-studies.pdf.
154 Jospé et al., “Ensuring New York.”
155 Southern Tier Solar Works. 2017. “Southern Tier Solar Works Community Solar 2017” presentation [PowerPoint
slides].
156 U.S. Department of Energy. 2016. “Solar Powering Your Community: Addressing Soft Costs and Barriers” presentation.
157 EDA CoShare, “New York Community Solar Case Studies.”
158 EDA CoShare, “New York Community Solar Case Studies.”
159 EDA CoShare, “New York Community Solar Case Studies.”
160 “Affordable Solar Predevelopment and Technical Assistance.” New York State Energy Research and Development
Authority (NYSERDA). Accessed February 8, 2018 (https://www.nyserda.ny.gov/ASPTA).
161 NYSERDA, “Affordable Solar Predevelopment.”

31 | CREATIVE COMMONS C OPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
162 “About,” New York Green Bank, accessed February 15, 2018. https://greenbank.ny.gov/About/About.
163 NYSERDA. 2016. “Reforming the Energy Vision: Clean Energy Fund” [Fact sheet].
164 EDA CoShare, “New York Community Solar Case Studies.”
165 Environmental Protection Agency, “Case Study: California Multifamily Affordable Solar Housing Program,” (Report,
Environmental Protection Agency, 2016), Accessed February 8, 2018, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-06/
documents/mash_case_study_6-1-16_508.pdf.
166 Karlee Weinmann, “Unlocking Universal Access to Community Solar,” Institute for Local Self-Reliance, last modified
March 23, 2017, https://ilsr.org/unlocking-universal-access-to-community-solar/.
167 Trabish, “Inside New York’s.”
168 EDA CoShare, “New York Community Solar Case Studies.”
169 NYSERDA, “Affordable Solar Predevelopment.”
170 NYSERDA, “Reforming the Energy Vision.”
171 Lantz & Tegen, “Economic Development Impacts.”

PROTECTING REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT IN MICHIGAN:
THE PRIVATE SPONSORSHIP SOLUTION

172 Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration. 2017. Proposed Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2018. United
States Department of State, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States Department of Health and Human
Services. Accessed February 8, 2018 (https://www.state.gov/j/prm/releases/docsforcongress/274613.htm).
173 “State of Michigan - Programs and Services by Locality.” Office of Refugee Resettlement. November 16, 2015. Accessed
November 27, 2017 (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/orr/resource/state-of-michigan-programs-and-services-by-locality).
174 Ross, Doug. Telephone interview. November 20, 2017.
175 Ibid.
176 “Refugee Assistance & Services.” Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed November 27, 2017
(http://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-71547_5526-15492--,00.html).
177 “Demographics.” Arab American Institute. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.aaiusa.org/demographics).
178 Radford, Jynnah and Connor, Phillip. 2016. “Just 10 States Resettled More Than Half of Recent Refugees to U.S.” Pew
Research Center. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/12/06/just-10-states-resettled-
more-than-half-of-recent-refugees-to-u-s/).
179 Ibid.
180 Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, Proposed Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2018.
181 Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2007. Summative Evaluation of the Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program.
Government of Canada. Accessed February 8, 2018 (https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/
reports-statistics/evaluations/private-sponsorship-refugees-program.html).
182 Gustafson, Anna. 2016. “Embracing Michigan’s Long History of Refugee Resettlement, State Opens Arms to
Mewcomers.” Second Wave Michigan. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.secondwavemedia.com/features/
refugeemichigan22416.aspx).
183 Ross, telephone interview.
184 Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Summative Evaluation of the Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program.
185 Ibid.
186 Talla, Vasudha. 2016. “Private Sponsorship of Refugee Resettlement in the United States: Guiding Principles and
Recommendations.” International Refugee Assistance Project. 1-19.
187 Gustafson, “Embracing Michigan’s Long History.”
188 Basha, Riyah. 2017. “Thousands Protest Trump Immigration Ban at Detroit Airport.” The Michigan Daily. Accessed
November 27, 2017 (https://www.michigandaily.com/section/government/thousands-protest-trump-immigration-ban-dtw).
189 Valeii, Kathi. 2017. “Breaking Down Barriers to Make Immigrants and Refugees Feel Welcome in Michigan.” Second
Wave Southwest Michigan. Accessed November 27, 2017 (http://www.secondwavemedia.com/southwest-michigan/features/
Breaking-down-barriers-to-make-immigrants-and-refugees-fee-welcome-in-Michigan-0204.aspx).
190 Ross, telephone interview.
191 Ibid.
192 “State of Michigan - Programs and Services by Locality.” Office of Refugee Resettlement.

| CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG | 32
193 Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, Proposed Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2018.
194 “The Reception and Placement Program.” U.S. Department of State. Accessed November 27, 2017 (https://www.state.
gov/j/prm/ra/receptionplacement/).
195 Ross, telephone interview.

33 | CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHT 2018 | ROOSEVELTINSTITUTE.ORG |
R O O S E V E LT I N S T I T U T E . O R G