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Lesson title: Quadratic Equations Lesson date: 29.03.2018

Links to curriculum: Grade 10

Length of lesson: 40 minutes

Objectives:

 Students will be able to recognize quadratic equations.


 Students will be able to understand what is meant by a quadratic equation.
 Students will be able to use algebra to solve quadratic equations.
 Students will be able to form a quadratic equation to represent a given problem.

Teacher preparation:

 Board Marker
 Name card
 Exit Card

Time
Lesson outline
allocation
Announcements, general administration, tasks:
2 minutes  Greeting the class, distributing cards.
Lesson starter (spark interest):
The teacher mentions what they are going to do in today’s lesson.
In mathematics, a quadratic is a type of problem that deals with a variable
multiplied by itself — an operation known as squaring. This language derives
from the area of a square being its side length multiplied by itself. The word
"quadratic" comes from quadratum, the Latin word for square.
3 minutes
Quadratic equations characterize a great number of phenomena in the real
world, such as where a rocket ship will land, how much to charge for a product
or how long it will take a person to row up and down a river. Because of their
wide variety of applications, quadratics have profound historical importance
and were foundational to the history of algebra.

30 minutes Lesson core (engagement and formative assessments

 A polynomial is an expression consisting of variables and coefficients.


So, basically a polynomial is of the form:
P(x) = an x n + an−1 x n−1 + ⋯ + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0

If n=2, the polynomial is known as quadratic polynomial.

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 A quadratic polynomial is of the form ax2 + bx + c. It is an algebraic expression. For


example, 5x2 -3x+7

The value of x that makes the polynomial 0 is called the zero of the polynomial. There are two
zeroes for a quadratic polynomial.

 A quadratic equation is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0.

1. What's the difference between quadratic polynomial and quadratic equation?

 There should be an equals sign. For example, 3x2 + 25x -18 = 0

The value of x which satisfies the equation is called as a root. There are two roots for a quadratic
equation.

 In a polynomial the highest power of the unknown can be greater than 2 but in a
quadratic equation is a polynomial in which the highest power of the unknown is 2.

1. Reminder. A monomial is an expression with one term, a binomial has two terms, and
a trinomial has tree terms.
But equations are named according to their degree;
 for instance, f(x)=x3+5 is a cubic, f(x)=x4+5x3-8 is a quartic equation.
 Equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 are given also a special name, they are called
Quadratic Equations. Where x represents an unknown, and a, b and c are constants with
a not equal to 0.

2. Give me an example of a Quadratic Equation.

Solve the equation: 2x2 + 5x + 2 = 0

3. What does it mean to solve the equation?

 Find values for x that makes this statement true.

What is meant by the roots of an equation?

 The roots of an equation are the values of x that make the equation true.

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It is true that finding the roots of an equation and solving the equation mean the same thing?

 Yes.
 If xy = 0 what we know about x and or y?

x= 0 or y = 0 or both are equal to 0.

 So, values of x which satisfy the quadratic equation is called solution to the equation or
root of the equation. Set of the roots is called the solution set and it is usually abbreviated
as SS. A solution or root, of this equation is a value of x that makes ax2 + bx + c = 0 a
true statement. Such a number is said to satisfy the equation.

There are some methods to find the solution set of quadratic equations.

 The question above, you used factorization method which you have already known.

Let’s look at more questions.

4. The area of a garden is 36cm2. The width of the garden is 5cm less than the length.
Represent this as an equation. Solve the equation. Use this information to find the
dimensions of the garden.

 Letting them to solve it.

5. We have some numbers which called perfect square.

Do you know what it is? Could you give me some examples?

 1, 4, 9, 16 and x2 are called perfect square where x. Product of the form (a + b)2 and (a
- b)2 are also called perfect squares and these expansions are called perfect square
trinomials which are containing three terms.

6. Let’s determine whether each of the following trinomials is a perfect square. If it is


factor and solve it.

a. 144 – 24p + p2
b. 4x2 + 12x + 9

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c. 25a2 + 10a + 1
d. x2/4 + xy + y2
e. x2 - 6x + 5

7. You could not factor the last expression. Is there another way to solve it? If it is not a
perfect trinomial, we can complete it to square.

Let’s look at the example above.

 Completing the square is a technique for re-formatting certain algebraic expressions.


In particular, it is useful for taking quadratic expressions like
ax2 + bx + c and rewriting them as ax2 + bx + c = a (x - h) 2 + k.

8. Find the solution set of the following equations.

a. x2 + 2x = 1
b. 2x2 – 1 = 3x

 What about if the coefficient of the squared does not equal to 1?

o Isolate the terms with variables on one side of the equation and arrange them in
descending order.
o Divide by coefficient of the squared term if that coefficient is not 1.
o Complete the square by taking half of the coefficient of the first-degree term and adding
its square on both sides of equation.
o Express one side of the equation as the square of a binomial.
o Use the principle of square roots.
o Solve for the variable.

c. ax2 + bx + c = 0, a 0 find the solution set of the following equations.

…. Solving by using the rules above and reach the quadratic formula.

−𝑏 ± √𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐
𝑥=
2𝑎

is called quadratic formula.

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In general, completing the square works for any quadratic equation, it can be used to solve
the general quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a 0 for x.

9. Find the solution sets of the following equations by quadratic formula.

a. 4x2 -2 = 3x
b. 3x2 + 5x = 3
c. 6x + 1 = 4x2

Do we always have real solutions?

Let’s look the nature of the solutions.

Conclusions and closure: Teacher revises the terms and to sum up and the teacher
3 says, “I wonder what you think about this subject. How do you feel themselves
minutes competent about this subject? Please write on your exit card!”

Final administrative or lesson tasks: Teacher checks notebooks of the students to


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control whether students copy the notes from the board.
minutes

Resources and references:

 Haese & Harris Mathematics for the International Students Mathematics HL


 Ali Oktay Koç, Ahmet Duran, Gamze Uçakçıoğlu Çakır & Serpil Çetin: Mathematics
for High School Turkish Education Association Publications
 Nilay Alpar, Necla Doğan & Deniz Candemir: The Math Book 10 Turkish Education
Association Publications

EXIT CARD
- What did you learn today?

- What questions do you have?

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-What is it about the topic that remains


unclear to you?