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A FACTS ON FILE PUBLICATION


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Political
Terrorism
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010

http://www.archive.org/details/politicalterroriOOsobe
Political
Terrorism

Edited by Lester A. Sobel

Contributing editors: Hal Kosut, Joseph Fickes,

Joanne Edgar, Myrna Lebov, Chris Hunt, Steve


Orlofsky, Maurie Sommer, Gerry Satterwhite

12317

FACTS ON FILE, INC. NEW YORK, N.Y.

M IKUY
Political

Terrorism

© Copyright, 1975, by Facts on File, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be


reproduced in any form without the permission
of the publisher except for reasonably brief
extracts used in reviews or scholarly works.
Published by Facts on File, Inc.,

1 19 West 57th Street, New York, N.Y. 10019.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 74-84438


ISBN 0-87196-232-2

987654321
PRINTED IN
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Contents

INTRODUCTION 1

THE MIDDLE EAST 9


Arab-Israeli Antagonism 9
IsraelActs Vs. Terrorists 10
IsraeliAttacks in Jordan 11
Terrorists Clash with Jordanians 16
Terrorists Bomb Israeli Targets 17
Arabs Attack Planes 19
Arab States & Terrorists 29
Guerrilla Attacks, Israeli Retaliation 38
Terrorism in Israel & in Occupied Areas 42
Guerrilla-Arab State Tensions 44
Lebanon Suffers Retaliation 47
Terrorists Hijack Planes, Slay Tourists at Airport 51
Mid-East Terrorists Strike in Europe & Other Areas ... 53
Strife Embroils Israel, Arab States & Commandos 69
LATIN AMERICA 82
Action Against Terrorism Urged 82
ARGENTINA: Recent Terrorists & Their Activities .. 83
Diplomats & Officials Become Kidnap/Terrorist
Targets 83
Trelew Prison Break & Killings 89
Assassinations & Kidnappings Continue 89
Peronists Return to Power 91
Action Against Terrorists 98
Terrorism After Peron's Death 101
BOLIVIA: Che Guevara Slain as
Guerrilla Campaign Fails 106
Struggle Continues 109
BRAZIL: &
Assassinations Kidnappings 1 13
CHILE: Unrest & Terrorism 118
COLOMBIA: Terrorist-Government Clashes 122
CUBA: Exile Attacks 127
Action Against Hijackings 129
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Unrest & Terrorism 130
GUATEMALA: Terrorism & Repression 135
HAITI: Repression & Exile Activity 143
MEXICO: Many Guerrilla Bands Active 145
PERU: Terrorism Curbed 151
URUGUAY: Tupamaros Suppressed 151
Foreign Diplomats Attacked 153
Security Tightened 157
VENEZUELA: Terrorism Declines 163
THE UNITED STATES 167
RACIAL TERRORISM: Terrorists' Diverse Goals... 167
The Black Panthers 167
San Rafael Judge Killed,
Angela Davis Acquitted 174
Other Black Militants 174
The Ku Klux Klan & Similar Terrorists 178
'NEW LEFT' & ANTIWAR ACTIVISTS 181
PUERTO RICO: Terrorism in
Name of Independence 200
OTHER AREAS 203
CANADA: Separatists Blamed for
Bombings& Kidnappings 203
Cross &
Laporte Kidnapped, Laporte Slain 204
CYPRUS: Demand Spurs Terrorism
Enosis 209
ETHIOPIA: Eritrean Terrorist Attacks 212
FRANCE: Minor Terrorism, Many Causes 213
GREAT BRITAIN: Scattered Terrorist Acts 216
G REEC E: Terrorists Oppose Junta 218
IRAN: Muslim & Communist Terrorists 220
ITALY: Rightist & Leftist Terrorism 221
JAPAN: United Red Army Strikes 225
NORTHERN IRELAND: War Against Partition 227
Londonderry Killings & Aftermath 232
Violence Spreads to London 233
Anti-Terror Action 234
Attacks in London & Abroad 238
PORTUGAL & AFRICA: African Territories
Promised Freedom After Coup in Portugal... 243
THE PHILIPPINES: Red & Muslim Terrorism 250
RHODESIA: African (Black) Struggle
for Majority Rule 254
SOUTH AFRICA & SOUTH-WEST AFRICA
(NAMIBIA): Stern Action
Curbs Terrorism 259
SOVIET UNION: Jewish Militants Active 263
SPAIN: Basques Fight Regime 267
TURKEY: Leftist Terrorism 271
WEST GERMANY: Baader-Meinhof
Group Accused 274
YUGOSLAVIA: Croatians Attack Regime 276
INTERNATIONAL ACTION 279
U.N. Discusses Problem 279
No Action on 'Skyjackings' 282
INDEX 285
Introduction

ASSASSINATIONS, THE CAPTURE OF HOSTAGES, the destruction of


property and other politically motivated violence short of war
have been relatively common occurrences since the early days of
man's experiments in political action. Only since the late 1960s,
however, has terrorism become so widespread as to constitute a
significant cause of international concern.
The word terrorism is employed to specify acts of violence for
political coercion. But there seems to be no definition that will
satisfactorily cover all uses of the term. According to an academic
quip, terrorism is "what the other fellow does." Yet, even this is
not always so, since some activists (the late Brazilian urban guer-
rilla theorist Carlos Marighella, for example) seem quite willing to
describe their behavior as both idealistic — and terroristic. In
general, the word terrorism is used today to define almost all
illegal acts of violence committed for political purposes by clan-
destine groups.
The lawyer William A. Hannay, writing in the April 1974 issue
of International Lawyer about United Nations debate on terror-
ism, asserted that "recent contemporary usage tends to curb its
[the term's] meaning to either random or extortionate violence,
aimed ultimately at the target state of a guerrilla, resistance or
liberation movement but which strikes at unarmed civilians, dip-
lomats or non-combatants."
Martha Crenshaw Hutchinson of the University of Virginia
refined the use of the term by describing a concept called "revolu-
tionary terrorism." In an article in the September 1972 issue of
2 POLITICAL TERRORISM

The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Professor Crenshaw wrote


that "revolutionary terrorism is a part of insurgent strategy in the
context of internal warfare or revolution." Such terrorism, she
noted, "is manifested in acts of socially and politically unac-
ceptable violence. There is a consistent pattern of symbolic or
. . .

representative selection of the victims or objects of acts of terror-


ism. . . . The revolutionary movement deliberately intends these
actions to create a psychological effect on specific groups and
thereby to change their political behavior and attitudes."
In 1933, the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences listed ter-
rorism as a word for "the method whereby an organized group or
party seeks to achieve its avowed aims chiefly through the
systematic use of violence." It held that "terroristic acts are
directed against persons who as individuals, agents or representa-
tives of authority interfere with the consummation of the objec-
tives ofsuch a group." According to the Encyclopaedia, the "car-
dinal point in the strategy of terrorism" was the "publicity value
of the terrorist act." It said that "the terrorist does not threaten;
death or destruction is part of his program of action, and if he is
caught, his behavior during trial is generally directed primarily not
toward winning his freedom but toward spreading a knowledge of
his doctrines."
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, however, terrorists acting on
behalf of the Palestinian Arab cause have frequently made no at-
tempt to direct their violence toward representatives of authority
or even toward individuals who were less obvious in their in-
terference with Arab objectives. Instead, as Hannay indicated,
they often killed victims or seized hostages at random. But their
stated purposes, in keeping with the Encyclopaedia description,
usually were to bring political grievances to the world's attention
and to win the release of imprisoned comrades. Latin American
terrorists of the same period also frequently chose victims who did
not seem to constitute serious impediments to their cause. While
some victims of Latin American terrorists were linked with
regimes the activists were fighting, many of their kidnap targets
seemed to be picked on the basis of the ransom for which they
could be bargained.
Col. Roger Trinquier noted in Modern Warfare (1954) that "the
goal of modern warfare is control of the population, and terrorism
is a particularly appropriate weapon, since it aims directly at the

inhabitant. In the street, at work, at home, the citizen lives con-


tinually under the threat of violent death. In the presence of this
permanent danger surrounding him, he has the depressing feeling
INTRODUCTION

of being an isolated and defenseless target. The fact that public au-
thority and the police are no longer capable of ensuring his se-
curity adds to his distress. ... He is more and more drawn to the
side of the terrorists, who
alone are able to protect him."
This expression of at least one rationale for terrorism seems to
be an apt explanation of, for example, the Viet Cong's use of this
weapon in South Vietnam. It provides little insight, however, into
the activities of terrorists who kill or kidnap foreign diplomats,
who hijack airliners far from home or who rob banks or kidnap
wealthy people for ransom.
Leila Khaled, who took part in more than one Arab skyjacking,
gave further, if perhaps unwitting, illumination. She told a Time
correspondent in October 1970 (as reported in the issue dated
Nov. 2, 1970): "If we throw bombs, it is not our responsibility.
You may care for the death of a child, but the whole world ignored
the death of Palestinian children for 22 years. We are not
responsible." The implication is that "the whole world" is
responsible for her group's attacks and that "the whole world"
could end the terrorism by yielding to the terrorists' demands.
What might be described as a more authoritative justification of
Arab terrorism was elicited by staff members of the U.S. Senate
Committee on Foreign Relations during a survey trip to the Mid-
dle East in November-December 1973. It was summarized by
staff member Seth Tillman in a staff report published March 5,
1974:
Terrorist activities, say top Palestinian leaders, have not been carried out for
the sake of their immediate results, or for the purpose of terror in itself, or for
personal revenge, or as acts of random criminality. Their purpose, they say, has
been broadly political, to draw the attention of the world, and most especially of
the United States, to the Palestinian movement and to its purposes. Terrorism,
they say, has been used by other patriotic movements which lacked other
effective means, including the Israelis before 1947, or for that matter, the Ameri-
cans before 1776.
The modern brand of terrorism, striking in almost any non-
Communist country, bears the trademark of a new variety of
political activist —the urban guerrilla. The new terrorists have dis-
carded the dicta of Mao Tse-tung, Ernesto (Che) Guevara and the
other classic revolutionary theorists that guerrillas must win their
first victories in the countryside. As far as many Latin American
revolutionaries are concerned, this proposition received death- its

blow in 1967 when Guevara was defeated and unsuc-


slain in his
cessful effort to put the theory into effect in the mountains of
Bolivia. Since Guevara's death, revolutionaries have increasingly
concentrated on the large population centers, and the cities and
suburbs have become the principal locale of their terroristic acts.
4 POLITICAL TERRORISM

An early advocate of urban guerrilla tactics was the American


black militant Robert Williams. Williams, credited with exerting a
strong influence on both black and New Left activists, wrote in the
February 1964 issue of his publication The Crusader:
"The new concept of revolution ... is lightning campaigns con-
ducted in highly sensitive urban communities with the paralysis
reaching the small communities and spreading to the farm areas.
The old method of guerrilla warfare, as carried out from the hills
and countryside, would be ineffective in a powerful country like the
USA. . The new concept is to huddle as close to the enemy as
. .

possible so as to neutralize his modern and fierce weapons. The


new concept creates conditions that involve the total community,
whether they want to be involved or not. During the hours of
. . .

day sporadic rioting takes place and massive sniping. Night brings
all-out warfare, organized fighting and unlimited terror against
the oppressor and his forces. ." . .

Perhaps the most influential of the urban guerrilla theorists was


the late Brazilian revolutionary Carlos Marighella, who was
ambushed and slain by the Brazilian police in 1969. His instruc-
tions for conducting campaigns of terrorism in the cities of Brazil
were reduced to 55 pages of a handbook published in numerous
languages as Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla. The Mini-
manual was circulated among rebels in almost every part of the
world.
Marighella disdained the definition of terrorism as "what the
other fellow does." "The accusation of assault or terrorism no
longer has the pejorative meaning it used to have," Marighella
declared. ". It does not factionalize, it does not discredit; on the
. .

contrary, it represents a focal point of attraction. Today, to be an


is a quality that ennobles any honorable
assailant or a terrorist
man because an act worthy of a revolutionary engaged in
it is

armed struggle against the shameful military dictatorship and its


monstrosities."
In the Minimanual, Marighella described the principal task of
the urban guerrilla as being "to distract, to wear out, to demor-
alize the militarists, the military dictatorship and its repressive
forces, and also to attack and destroy the wealth and property of
the North Americans, the foreign managers and the Brazilian up-
per class." "Thus," he continued, "within the framework of the
class struggle, as it inevitably and necessarily sharpens, the armed
struggle of the urban guerrilla points toward two essential objec-
tives: (a) the physical liquidation of the chiefs and assistants of the
armed forces and of the police; (b) the expropriation of govern-
ment resources and those belonging to the big capitalists, latifun-
INTRODUCTION

distsand imperialists, with small expropriations used for the


maintenance of individual urban guerrillas and large ones for the
sustenance of the revolution itself."
Marighella defined and prescribed in the Minimanual a variety
of terrorist/urban guerrilla activities. For example:
Terrorism— "Terrorism is an action, usually involving the
placement of a bomb or fire explosion of great destructive power,
which is capable of effecting irreparable loss against the enemy.
Terrorism requires that the urban guerrilla should have an ade-
quate theoretical and practical knowledge of how to make explo-
sives. The terroristic act, apart from the apparent facility with
which it can be carried out, is no different from other urban guer-
rilla acts and actions whose success depends on the planning and
determination of the revolutionary organization. It is an action the
urban guerrilla must execute with the greatest cold-bloodedness,
calmness and decision. ."
— . .

Execution "Execution is the killing of a North American spy,


of an agent of the dictatorship, of a police torturer, of a fascist
personality in the government involved in crimes and persecutions
against patriots, of a stool pigeon, informer, police agent or police
provocateur. . Execution is a secret action in which the least
. .

possible number of urban guerrillas are involved. In many cases,


the execution can be carried out by one sniper, patiently, alone and
unknown, and operating in absolute secrecy and in cold
"
blood
Kidnapping—" Kidnapping is capturing and holding in a secret
spot a police agent, a North American spy, a political personality
or a notorious and dangerous enemy of the revolutionary move-
ment. Kidnapping is used to exchange or liberate imprisoned
revolutionary comrades, or to force suspension of torture in the
jail cells of the military dictatorship. The kidnapping of North
. . .

American residents or visitors in Brazil constitutes a form of


protest against the penetration and domination of United States
imperialism in our country. . .
."

The objective of the type of action advocated by Marighella was


made clear by the Brazilian urban guerrilla Ladislas Dowbor in an
interview with Sanche de Gramont in Algiers in the summer of
1970. De Gramont quoted Dowbor in the New York Times
Magazine Nov. 15, 1970 as saying that "you cannot build the revo-
lutionary consciousness of a population through political explana-
tions. But military actions can create this consciousness." Al-
though discontent in Brazil is widespread, people "have not yet
reached the stage of holding the system responsible," Dowbor
asserted. He said: Terrorists, therefore, "attack the targets they
POLITICAL TERRORISM

[the people] consciously identify," "their visible enemies — the


farm overseer, or the shop foreman, or the landowner who throws
squatters off his land." This "provokes a reaction of the
system. . [W]e provoke the army, the police, the press and the
. .

clergy into taking positions against us and in support of the visible


enemy. It is then that the workers are able to identify the system
as the enemy. [Ajrmed action, which means living in small,
. . .

clandestine cells, reduces the possibility of contact with the popu-


lation. We must rely on the repercussions of our actions. If it is a
violent action, appeal to those parts of the population that
it will
are sensitive to violence —
that is the marginal masses, the unem-
ployed, Ihzfavelados."
Assertions that most terrorists belong to a worldwide network
taking orders from some secret, high-ranking power center are
childishly far-fetched. Terrorist groups seem more frequently to
be small, autonomous units not infrequently at ideological odds
with each other even though they seldom know each other. Some,
however, do seem to keep in touch in formal or informal ways by
the circulation of the Minimanual and other underground publica-
tions, by broadcasts from Havana, Cairo and other revolutionary
centers, by occasional personal contacts and reciprocal aid and
even by attending international meetings of revolutionaries or ter-
rorist/guerrilla training sessions said to have taken place in such
diverse places as Cuba, the Soviet Union, China, North Korea, Al-
geria, Lebanon, Syria, West Germany and Italy.

An example of how terrorists of different countries have made


contact with and cooperated with each other is the case of three
Japanese who massacred 26 tourists at Lod airport in Israel in
1972. Nine members of the Japanese United Red Army, a ter-
rorist group, had hijacked an airliner in Japan in 1970 and had
forced it to land in North Korea. There they met Arab terrorist
leader George Habbash and agreed to aid the Arabs. As a result of
this contact, a Habbash agent contacted three United Red Army
members in Japan early in 1972. The three flew to Lebanon for
training, then were armed in Rome by Italian terrorists, who sent
them on to Israel by Air France for the brief shooting attack that
brought death or serious injury to 100 people, many of them
Puerto Ricans with no previous involvement in the Arab-Israeli
dispute.
Although terrorists are found among adherents of almost every
brand of left-wing or right-wing ideology, the overwhelming ma-
jority of today's terrorists can be described as leftists. Most have
a New Left or Trotskyist character. Establishment Communists
. .

INTRODUCTION 7

and other members of the "Old Left" generally deplore terrorism


under current conditions as "adventurist" (or "romantic") and
counter-productive. Following a meeting of the U.S. Communist
Party National Committee, party leader Gus Hall was quoted in
Daily World July 13, 1971 as asserting that "masses have largely
rejected the tactics of anarchism and acts of individual terror.
This rejection of wrong tactics has isolated many groups of petty
bourgeois radicals such as Students for a Democratic Society,
Progressive Labor, to an extent the Black Panther Party, the
Weathermen and many varieties of Trotskyism."
Orthodox Communists sometimes cite Lenin as the authority
for opposing terrorism. Yet Lenin did not reject terrorism under
all circumstances. Frequently quoted is Lenin's letter of Oct. 16,

1905 to the St. Petersburg Committee:


. [I]t horrifies me to find that there has been talk about bombs for over six
. .

months, yet not one has been made! . .Form fighting squads at once
.

everywhere, among the students, and especially among the workers, etc., etc. Let
groups be at once organized of three, ten, thirty, etc., persons. Let them arm
themselves at once as best they can, be it with a revolver, a knife, a rag soaked in
kerosene for starting fires.. .

The propagandists must supply each group with brief and simple recipes for
making bombs, give the man elementary explanation of the type of the work, and
then leave it all to them. Squads must at once begin military training by
launching operations immediately, at once. Some may at once undertake to kill a
spy or blow up a police station, others to raid a bank to confiscate funds for the
insurrection, others again may drill or prepare plans of localities, etc. But the
essential thing is to begin at once to learn from actual practice: have no fear of
these trial attacks. They may, of course, degenerate into extremes, but that is an
evil of the morrow, whereas the evil today is our inertness, our doctrinaire spirit,
our learned immobility, and our senile fear of initiative. Let every group learn, if
it is only by beating up policemen: a score or so victims will be more than com-

pensated for by the facts that this will train hundreds of experienced fighters, who
tomorrow will be leading hundreds of thousands. . .

This book is intended as a record of the wave of violence


described as terrorism that achieved worldwide proportions
toward the latter half of the 1960s and continued on into the
1970s. The material comes largely from the reports printed by
Facts on File in its weekly coverage of world events. Although
much that is here is highly controversial, a conscientious effort
was made to set it all down without bias and to make this volume,
as far as possible, a reliable and balanced reference work.
The Middle East

Arab-Israeli Antagonism of Jews into Palestine despite pleas


for the admission of the survivors of
Hitler's death camps.
Arabs and Jews have been fighting After the establishment of Israel,
over their conflicting claims to Arab terrorism was considered in
Palestine since long before the 1948 part responsible for the Arab-Israeli
conflict from which Israel emerged as warfare of 1956 and 1967.
an independent Jewish state. The Israel's military success in these
struggle has been characterized by two conflicts brought no peace to the
frequent recourse to terrorism. Jewish state. Israel faced continued
The Balfour Declaration of Britain attacks from Arab fedayeen (self-
in 1917 had expressed that govern- sacriflcers) and other terrorists— not
ment's decision to "facilitate" "the all of them necessarily Palestinian.
establishment in Palestine of a na- Israelis, their friends and innocent
tional home for the Jewish people," third parties were subject to aircraft
and the declaration's principles were hijackings, bombings, machine-gun-
incorporated by the League of Na- nings and indiscriminate homicidal
tions in the mandate that the League attacks in virtually any part of the
of Nations gave to Britain to govern world. The Israeli armed forces
Palestine. Arab reaction to the decla- retaliated by striking at Arab com-
ration and to Zionist aspirations in mando bases.
Palestine were manifested in such ac- The major Arab terrorist groups
tions as the riots of 1920 and 1921, a operated, nominally at least, under
series of murderous attacks on Jews the guidance of the Palestine Lib-
in Palestine in 1929 and the terrorism eration Organization (PLO), which
of 1936-9, in which Arab bands at- had been formed by the Arab govern-
tacked Jewish settlements, murdered ments at a summit meeting in Cairo
Jews, mined roads, burned crops and in 1964. Arab terrorist groups in-
ambushed vehicles. cluded: Al (or El) Fatah, the largest
Terrorism by Jews against Britain of the Arab guerrilla organizations,
followed World War II, when the which was headed by Yasir Arafat,
British continued to restrict the entry the PLO chairman; the Popular
10 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Front for the Liberation of Palestine terrorists were reported to have told
(PLFP), an independent Marxist-Le- Israeli authorities they had been
that
ninist group opposed to Al Fatah and trained by Syrian and Algerian officers
Soviet policies; the Popular Demo- at camps at Duma and Hamma near
Damascus and at Zebdani near the
cratic Front For the Liberation of
Palestine (PDFLP), a group that had
Syrian-Lebanese border. The Duma
camp was said to be a base of the
split away from the PLFP; the
Palestine Liberation Front, whose mem-
Popular Front for the Liberation of bers had carried out widespread raids
Palestine-General Command (PFLP- against Israel before the war. Trucks of
GC), an independent group; Al the Palestine Battalion of the Iraqi
Saiqah, a group controlled by the army, stationed in Jordan, were said to
Syrian government; Arab Liberation have moved the saboteurs from Syria to
Front, a unit controlled by the Iraqi Jordanian territory near the Jordan
River.
government. The name Black Sep-
Syrian Foreign Min. Ibrahim Makhous
tember has been used for what some
had denied Sept. 26 that Syria was in-
observers consider ad hoc terrorist volved in the outbreak of anti-Israeli
operations in which, it has been said, guerrilla attacks. In a note circulated to
recruits from the PLFP and PDFLP foreign diplomatic representatives in
have participated. Damascus, Makhous charged that Israel
The events described below were had accused Syria "to prepare world
public opinion for launching new Israeli
among the significant developments
aggression" against the Arabs. Makhous'
in the post-1967 terrorism involved in
remarks followed statements by Israeli
the Arab-Israeli dispute.
officials earlier in the week that. the Arab
terrorists should be fought "not only on
Israeli soil but at the source."

Israel Acts Vs. Terrorists


Terror Base Wiped Out. Israeli forces
Dec. 7, 1967 wiped out an Arab terrorist
Fatah Men Seized. Israeli police base in a cave near the west-bank town of
Jerusalem announced Oct. 12,
officials in Nablus. Army, border police and secu-
1967 the arrest of 24 members of Al rity personnel killed 6 Arabs, captured
Fatah (the Syrian-based terrorist organi- an undisclosed number of prisoners and
zation that had perpetrated raids against seized a cache of arms that included
Israel before the June war) and the Soviet and Chinese Communist weapons.
capture of large quantities of arms. The The Jordanian government charged
police commissioner of Jerusalem, Shaul Dec. 8 that the Israelis Dec. 7 had ex-
Rosolio, said that "by these arrests we pelled 200 Jordanians of the Nuseirat
have thwarted a wave of planned tribe from the west bank near Jericho to
sabotage that would have been carried the east bank of Jordan. Saleh Nazhan,
out in the next few weeks.'" The weapons muktar of the tribe, told Jordanian au-
taken in and around East Jerusalem in- thorities that prior to their eviction, the
cluded machineguns, light mortars, Israelis had destroyed almost all of the
explosives and anti-tank guns. victims' homes, the local school and a
The 24 Arabs had been accused of mosque and had killed several men. The
participating in a sabotage campaign in Israelis claimed the raid was in retalia-
the Jerusalem area since Sept. 17. Prior tion for the inhabitants' hiding of Arab
to their arrests, more than 100 other saboteurs, Nazhan said.
suspects had been seized throughout the
Israeli-occupied west bank of the Jordan
River. Arab Terror Ring Smashed. Israeli
Israeli army sources were reported announced Dec. 21 the -mash-
officials
Sept. 28 to have linked the Syrian govern- ing of an Arab attempt to revive a wide-
ment, and to some extent Algeria, with spread sabotage campaign against Israeli
the guerrilla operations. Captured Arab control of the west bank.
THE MIDDLE EAST 11

Israeli military authorities said that 54 war. The action was deplored by Je-
Arab suspects had been seized and that 2 rusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek.
had been shot in a roundup that had The building blasted by explosives
startedin Ramallah Dec. 15. Subsequent was the residence of Kamal Nammer, a
arrestswere carried out in Jenin, Nablus suspected Al Fatah terrorist who had
and East Jerusalem. The 2 slain Arabs been captured Mar. 3. The structure
were killed in an exchange with Israeli was destroyed and several nearby
security forces while resisting arrest in homes in the Arab quarter were
the Beit Haran area near Latrun. heavily damaged. Kollek and his aides
The Israeli newspaper Maariv reported visited the neighborhood Mar. 7,

Dec. 22 that the 54 captured Arabs had apologized for the incident and offered
confessed to receiving orders to stir up immediate compensation for the
trouble in East Jerusalem and Bethlehem damage.
during Christmas observances.

UAR Aids Guerrillas. A report from


Israel Battles Raiders. Israeli author- Cairo Apr. 12 said the UAR had begun
ities Mar. 7, 1968 reported the seizure of 2 to help Arab guerrillas attacking
suspected Al Fatah commanders in a Israel by giving them arms, training and
round-up of Arab infiltrators Mar. 2-4. intelligence information.
The search followed the slaying Mar. 1 The report followed a statement Apr.
of an Israeli Druse in Abu Ghosh, a vil- 10 in which UAR Pres. Gamal Abdel
lage west of Jerusalem. The 2 alleged Al Nasser had declared that Egypt was
Fatah leaders were identified as William "fully prepared to support, train and
Naguib Nasser, arrested in Jerusalem arm the Palestine resistance movement
Mar. 3, and Kamal Nammer. because it is part of the battle for des-

Israeli officials said that Nasser, whom tiny."


they described as the highest-ranking Al In its first broadcast, Al Fatah said
Fatah officer caught so far, had trained May 11, 1968 that its objective was to free
terrorists in Algeria and West Ger- all of Palestine and not only to terminate
many, then had become a terrorist Israeli occupation of Arab areas seized
instructor in Syria. After his capture, the in June 1967. The announcement, ap-
Israelis said, Nasser helped the Israelis parently beamed from Cairo, said that
capture Nammer and other terrorists. In Al Fatah would broadcast an hour a day
addition to Nasser and Nammer, 15 al- and direct its messages largely at Pales-
leged terrorists were seized, and 2 alleged tinian Arabs under Israeli rule.
terrorists were slain. Israeli security
The Palestine National Council, con-
forces also captured several arms caches sisting of the Palestine Liberation Or-
near Ramallah and Hebron and in the
ganization, Al Fatah and a number of
Gaza Strip. smaller Arab guerrilla groups, held its
The Defense Ministry had reported first meeting in Cairo July 10 to plan a
Mar. 3 that Israeli troops had killed 35 coordinated strategy against Israel. UAR
of about 50 Arab infiltrators trying to
Labor Min. Kamal Rifaat told the con-
cross the Jordan River to the west bank ferees that the "Arab nation rejects
in the previous 10 days. 5 had been slain
defeat and demands victory." "You
Feb. 23 4 miles north of the Allenby have chosen to wage a holy war of libera-
Bridge, near Jericho; an Israeli state- tion," he declared.
ment said they carried sabotage equip-
ment and Russian and Chinese sub-
machineguns.
Israeli Attacks in Jordan
Israeli Reprisals. The Israeli military
practice of blowing up the homes of
suspected Arab terrorists was ex- Israeli troops and planes made several
tended Mar. 6 to East Jerusalem, the attacks on targets in Jordan during 1968
former Jordanian sector of the city in what was described as operations
annexed by Israel after the June 1967 against infiltrators and terrorist bases.
12 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Israeli Raid in Jordan. A force of about east of the Allenby Bridge, the Israelis'
15,000 Israeli troops entered Jordan Mar. deepest penetration into Jordan. 30
21 and carried out a day-long massive Arab commandos in Karameh were killed.
retaliatory raid against alleged Arab Israeli forces suffered more than 200
terrorist bases used for guerrilla attacks casualties, including more than 100
on Israel. Jordanian army troops also killed. Jordanian forces destroyed 45
entered the fray and clashed with the Israeli tanks and 50 other vehicles and
Israelis. Israeli Premier Levi Eshkol said downed 5 Israeli planes. Israeli forces,
the operations were designed to forestall pursued by Jordanian troops, retreated to
an expected "new wave of [Arab] terror" the occupied west bank after having
against Israel. The UNSecurity Council "abandoned equipment."
convened in emergency session Mar. 21 It was reported Mar. 22 that the Arab

and unanimously adopted Mar. 24 a commandos, believed to be members of


resolution condemning Israel. the Al Fatah terrorist organization, had
The major ground
Israeli raid, the first returned to their Karameh base following
thrust into Arab territory since the June the withdrawal of the Israeli troops. Ac-
1967 war, was spearheaded by armor, cording to the commandos* version of the
paratroop drops and air strikes. The fighting: The Israelis had first tried to
major assault was directed primarily at cross the Jordan River by throwing up a
an Arab jedayeen (commando) camp at temporary bridge opposite Karameh,
Karameh, 3 miles east of the Jordan but Jordanian artillery destroyed the span.
River, and at nearby Shune, north of the The Israeli force then employed a pincer
Dead Sea. Another Israeli force crossed movement, crossing the Allenby Bridge
the Jordan River south of the Dead Sea and the Damiya Bridge to the north. The
to strike at suspectedArab guerrilla bases southern column was the first to reach
in the Jordanian towns of Safi and Dakal. Karameh, but by then the commando
Israeli and Jordanian authorities both force had withdrawn to the hills because
claimed victory and gave conflicting their ammunition was running low.
versions of the number of casualties and Another Israeli unit of 400-500 men
damage inflicted. According to the landed by helicopter about > mile east
l

Israelis: "At least 150 saboteurs were of the Karameh camp and engaged the
killed, and there were substantial Jor- commandos. More than 100 of the
danian army losses. Israeli casualties were Israelis were killed.
21 killed and 70 wounded" (a revised an address to the Knesset (parlia-
In
Israeli report Mar. 23 said: 23 Israelis ment), Eshkol Mar. 21 justified Israel's
had been killed, and 3 Israelis were miss- attack on Jordan. He assailed the Amman
ing; 138 Arabs had been taken prisoner, government for not having "acted to stem
and nearly 1,000 weapons, mostly of the terrorist acts" against Israel. Eshkol
Soviet and Chinese Communist make, said: "The terrorist bases are well known
had been seized). About 30 Jordanian to the Jordanian government. Members
tanks were hit and 2 captured. 6 Israeli of the gangs appeared openly wearing
armored vehicles were hit. Terrorist their uniforms and bearing arms. Ac-
bases and buildings, and other installa- cording to highly authoritative in-
tions were destroyed in both areas, and formation, a new wave of terror was
Jordanian artillery had been demolished. about to take place. Since political con-
One Israeli plane was downed by Jor- tacts did not bring about cessation of the
danian gunfire, but it crash-landed , in murders, we had no other choice but to
Israeli territory and the pilot was saved. act in self-defense to avert these dan-
Before withdrawing from Jordanian gers."
territory, an Israeli force occupied Eshkol noted that since mid-February
Karameh, searched its houses for ter- 6 Israelis had been killed and 44 injured
rorists and blew up several installations. by Arab terrorists. In the latest incident,
Jordan's account of the fighting, as 2 Israeli adults had been killed and 28
given in various army communiques and children injured when a school bus had
broadcasts by Amman radio: 20 Jorda- been blown up by a mine Mar. 18 in the
nian soldiers were killed and 65 wounded. Negev desert, 12 miles north of Elath.
15 Jordanian civilianswere slain by King Hussein declared Mar. 23 that
the Israelis at Shimat Nimrin, 7 miles hisgovernment was not responsible for
THE MIDDLE EAST 13

the security of Israel and therefore downed by Jordanian anti-aircraft fire,


would do nothing to inhibit the activities but the pilot bailed out safely, and the
of guerrillas stationed in Jordan.* Com- plane crashed in Israeli territory.
menting on the suffered in the
losses Amman claimed the Israelis had
Karameh attack, Hussein said 50 Arabs started the fighting with machinegun
had been killed, but it was "difficult to and tank fire directed at Jordanian
distinguish" how many were commandos. positions near the Sea of Galilee.
The Jordanian army death toll was Other Jordanian targets came under
considerably higher than the 20 Israeli fire from the occupied Golan
fatalities announced since many of
first heights on the Syrian border. Amman
the wounded had eventually died, the communiques claimed that Jordanian
king said. (Jordanian officials reported forces had shot down 7 Israeli planes
later that army totaled 40.)
fatalities and inflicted heavy losses on Israeli
Hussein said that, according to an tanks, half-tracks and other vehicles.
Israeli message intercepted by Jordan
Mar. 21, the number of Israeli soldiers
killed was 73, not 21 as announced by the 'Copter Raid in Jordan. Israeli army
Israelis. authorities reported Apr. 8 that a few
dozen Israeli helicopter-borne soldiers
Duel on Border. Israeli and
Artillery
had crossed 18 miles into Jordan that day
Jordanian engaged in a 6-hour
forces to pursue Arab jedayeen infiltrators. All
artillery duel along 85 miles of the Jor-
of the guerrillas, "about half a dozen,"
dan River Mar. 29. The fighting, the 2d were killed and the Israelis suffered no
major clash on the cease-fire line in 8 casualties, the report said.
days, was marked by Israeli air strikes.
According to the Israelis: The guer-
The fighting followed the killing
rillas had been spotted east of the Israeli
earlier Mar. 29 of 4 Israeli farm workers Negev settlement of Ein Yahav, near
and the injuring of several others when the Jordanian border, 35 miles south
their tractor ran over a mine near Dead Sea. After firing at a circling
of the
Massada, a communal settlement south Israeli helicopter,the Arabs fled back
of the Sea of Galilee in the Beisan
to Jordan. Several other helicopter
Valley. The incident first led to an ex- patrols joined the chase, and some landed
change of light arms fire nearby be- behind the fleeing band to bar their
tween Jordanian and Israeli soldiers escape. The operation culminated in a
across the Jordan River. The fighting
gun clash between the Arabs and their
intensified as both sides employed pursuers on the cliffs of the Hills of
artillery and tank guns. Israel claimed
Moab. In addition to wiping out the in-
that Jordanian shells struck the 5 nearby
filtrators, the Israeli patrol destroyed a
settlements of Shaar Hagolin, Ashdot granite house used as a terrorist base.
Yaakov, Kfar Ruppin, Tel Katzir and The infiltrators were members of the
Gesher. No casualties were reported. Egyptian 141st Commando Battalion,
by carrying out
Israeli forces retaliated
receiving its orders from the Egyptian
air strikesmiles inside Jordan. 4
7
embassy in Amman, Jordan. The Israelis
Jordanian long-range artillery pieces found documents telling of imminent
were reported destroyed. The artillery Negev towns
attacks against the Israeli
exchanges extended as far south as the
of Elath, Sdom and Timna.
Dead Sea. Some Israeli shells struck The Israeli raid followed the killing
Karameh, the Arab commando base earlier Apr. 8 of 2 Israeli soldiers and a
raided by Israeli troops Mar. 21. Is-
Bedouin scout when their jeep ran over a
raeli losseswere listed at one soldier mine.
killed and 8 wounded. One plane was According to Jordan's version of the
fighting south of the Dead Sea, an Israeli
*An Al Fatah member captured by Israel told
reporters inTel Aviv Mar. 23 that the Jordanian armored force, supported by helicopters
army gave Al Fatah military intelligence and pro- and planes, crossed the cease-tire line
vided covering fire for river crossings but otherwise following an exchange of artillery and
did not work directly with the guerrillas. The
tank fire. But the Israeli raiders were
Syrian and Iraqi armies gave Al Fatah most of its
help, he said. repelled by Jordanian troops and were
14 POLITICAL TERRORISM

forced to withdraw to their own territory mortars shelled the Israeli settlement of
without "achieving their aims." Kfar Ruppin, in the Beit Shean Valley,
Israel's possible use of counter- about midnight the night of June 3-4.
terrorism was suggested in a statement About 11 hours later Jordanians on the
made Apr. 9 by Maj. Gen. Chaim Bar east bank opened up with small-arms fire.
Lev, Israeli chief of staff. Bar Lev said The Israelis returned the fire. The Jor-
Israel had not yet "adopted all possible danians replied with long-range artillery.
methods against terrorism." "Counter- Jordanian tanks pulled up near Israeli-
terrorist activity cannot be excluded, occupied El Hamma, on the Golan
although it would not be the reply par Heights (in Syria), and fired at Israeli tar-
excellence," he said. gets. Israeli jets attacked Jordanian
artillery positions around Irbid until a
de jacto cease-fire went into effect.
Israeli-Jordanian Clashes. An Israeli According to a Jordanian account of
patrol Apr. 28 killed 13 Arab infiltrators the fighting, as narrated in a complaint
on the occupied west bank in one of the filed with UN
Security Council Pres.
bloodiest encounters since the June 1967 Arthur J. Goldberg of the U.S. by Jor-
war. The skirmish was one of several danian Amb. Muhammad H. El-Farra:
fought by Israeli troops with Arab Israel carried out a "surprise attack" on
guerrilla raiders and regular Jordanian Jordan about 9 miles south of the Sea of
forces on the west bank and on the Galilee. The attack opened with ma-
Jordan-Israel cease-fire line. As a result chinegun and artillery fire followed by
of the clashes, the Israeli government artillery and air strikes on Irbid and sur-
Apr. 26 issued one of its sternest warnings rounding villages. "For the first time the
to Jordan about possible armed retalia- Israelis are using land-to-land rockets,
tion for the continued incursions into shelling Jordanian villages and the city of
Israeli-held territory. Irbid and its suburbs. Several quarters of
The Apr. 28 clash occurred several . Irbid were destroyed."
. .

miles north of Jericho in Wadi Auja, a Israeli military officials speculated that
dry river bed that led from the Judean the fighting had been started by members
Hills north of Jerusalem to the Jordan of Al Fatah and that regular Jordanian
River. In addition to the 13 Arabs killed, army troops had entered the fighting
one was captured and 2 escaped. Israeli after the Israelis returned fire.
authorities reported that 2 Israeli Israel reported June 22 that its forces
soldiers had been killed and one wounded. had killed 11 Arab guerrillas of an Al
Israeli and Jordanian forces June 4 en- Fatah unit near Jericho. One Israeli
gaged in an all-day clash along the north- soldier was killed.
ern sector of the Jordan River near the
Sea of Galilee. The fighting was marked
by Israeli air attacks on Jordan. Israelis Battle Guerrillas. Israel re-
The clash was described by Amman
as ported taking a heavy toll of Arab guer-
the most serious since the Israeli incur- rillas in clashes along the west bank of

sion into Jordan Mar. 21. Heavy casual- the Jordan River July 17-28.
ties were reported on both sides. The Israelis said their forces killed 13
Israel reported that 3 Israeli farmers Arab saboteurs July 17 in a brief engage-
in the border area had been killed and 5 ment northwest of the Dead Sea. One
wounded. Jordan claimed that 45 Israeli Arab was captured and an Israeli
soldiers had been killed or wounded in the wounded. The guerrillas, who were re-
day's action, that Jordanian antiaircraft ported to have crossed the Jordan River
had shot down 4 Israeli planes and that 4 from the east bank July 16, carried Soviet
Israeli tanks and 3 artillery positions had assault rifles, bazookas, grenades and
been destroyed. Jordan said that Israeli explosives.
air strikes on Irbid, a Jordanian village 12 All 6 members of an Arab guerrilla
miles east of the cease-fire line, had re- force were killed July 22 in a clash with
sulted in the killing of 34 civilians and an Israeli patrol between the Damiya and
the wounding of 134. Allenby bridges. The slayings brought to
According to Israeli military authori- 59 the number of Arab guerrillas killed
ties: The fighting started when Jordanian since the beginning of June, according to
THE MIDDLE EAST 15

Israeli army figures. 2 Israelis were killed ing as Al Fatah's command center, the
and 10 wounded in the engagements. Israelis said.)
7 Arab guerrillas, identified as mem- Bar-Lev described the air raid as "an
bers of Al Fatah, were killed July 26 in a answer to 3 violations of the cease-fire
2-hour clash with Israeli troops near per day" by terrorists based in Jordan.
Jericho. 2 Israeli officers — a brigade According to an army press report, the
commander (Col. Arie Regev, 35) and a Arab guerrillas had carried out 98 forays
lieutenant —
were killed. against Israeli territory in July; 3 Israelis
An Israeli patrol killed 2 guerrillas and 44 guerrillas were slain in the raids.
July 28 as it repulsed a guerrilla unit In the Israeli ground incursion into
that crossed the Jordan River. Jordanian Jordan Aug. 6, the first since Apr. 8,
army guns on the east bank opened fire helicopter-borne troops intercepted an
to provide cover for the retreating in-
escaping band of Arab guerrillas, killing
filtration force.
5 and wounding 2. 2 others escaped. The
engagement occurred a few miles east of
the Israeli settlement of Ein Yahav,
Israelis Raid Jordan. Israeli planes
about 30 miles south of the Dead Sea.
carried out a heavy raid Aug. 4 on Arab According to Israel, the helicopters
guerrilla bases 10 miles inside Jordan. began combing the area after the guer-
The air strike was followed by an Israeli rillas had fired 3 bazooka shells into Ein
ground incursion into Jordan Aug. 6 by Yahav. No one was injured. The settle-
troops pursuing a band of Arab guerril- ment's infirmary, empty at the time,
las.
was shattered. After spotting the Arabs
Reporting on the Aug. 4 incident, a escaping a jeep, the helicopters landed
in
Jordanian communique said: Israeli and the troops destroyed the
Israeli
planes had bombed positions in the vi- force. A further search turned up a cave
cinity of Salt, about 13 miles northwest apparently used as a guerrilla base. It
of Amman. 23 civilians and 5 soldiers contained food, weapons and ammuni-
were killed; 76 civilians and 6 soldiers tion. The Israelis returned to their own
were wounded. One Israeli plane was territory after blowing up the Arab jeep
claimed shot down by ground fire in the and cave.
Jericho area. (Israel said all of its planes An Al Fatah broadcast from Cairo
returned safely.) During the 3-hour air Aug. 8 warned that "Israeli civilians
strike, Jordanian and Israeli tanks and should not hope to be safe if Arab civil-
artillery exchanged fire across the ians are subjected to genocide" attacks
Jordan River. Amman reported that 2 by Israeli troops. Another Arab com-
Israeli tanks and 2 artillery positions were mando group, the Popular Front for the
destroyed and Israeli forces suffered Liberation of Palestine, also threatened
casualties in the Jericho area. reprisals against Israeli civilians. The
Gen. Haim Bar-Lev, the Israeli chief front claimed it had set off an explosion
of staff, called the air strike a "sub- in an Israeli bar in Jerusalem in retal-
stantial and unexpected blow to the iation for the death of Arab civilians
terrorist organizations. I hope this will in the Israeli attack on Salt.
help the authorities in Jordan to finally (The Palestine Liberation Organization
realize that violations of the cease-fire had reported Aug. 1 that its commandos
will bring unpleasant consequences." that day had killed 6 Israeli soldiers in a
Bar-Lev said he was certain that Al rocket attack on a patrol vehicle near
Fatah's 2 bases to the south and west of the Jordan Valley settlement of Maoz
Salt had been destroyed. He was unable Haiyim. An Israeli army spokesman's
to say how many of the 300-400 guerrillas account of the incident said one soldier
stationed in the area had been killed in had been killed and 3 wounded in an
the raid. (The Israeli army said Al Fatah ambush.)
had chosen the mountainous area around
Salt as "a substitute base for Karameh,"
which had been destroyed in a similar Israelis Attack in Jordan. Israeli com-
Israeli strike Mar. 21. About 12 bases and mandos, attacking targets 37 miles inside
command posts had been shifted to the Jordan Dec. 1, 1968, destroyed 2 bridges
Salt area, with the southern sector serv- in retaliation for infiltration attacks
16
POLITICAL TERRORISM

on Israel. The
raid precipitated heavy Arab host countries—primarily Jordan,
Israeli-Jordanian artillery and aerial Syria and Lebanon—were having trouble
bombardments, which continued through controlling the often undisciplined armed
Dec. 3. Iraqi troops, stationed in Jordan irregulars. guerrillas were accused of
The
since the June 1967 war, were involved acting asquasi-governments, levying
in the clashes. tribute from citizens of the host country,
The Israelis said the Dec. 1 com- fighting with police and armed forces of
mando attack centered on targets east of the host country and terrorizing fellow
Sodom (Israel), at the southern end of A rabs.
the Dead Sea. The UPI reported that the
Israelis had destroyed a highway bridge
at Wadi el Abyad, about 60 miles north Jordan Quells Commandos. Tension be-
of Maan, and the Hejazi railway bridge, tween Jordan and a minor Arab com-
6 miles farther north. mando group based in Jordan erupted
An Israeli army spokesman said the into an open clash between the 2 sides in
raid was retaliation for 50 Arab in-
in and around Amman Nov. 3, 1968. At
filtration attacks against Israel since the least 25 civilians and 5 soldiers were
signing of a pact Nov. 16 by Jordanian killed. About 70 persons were arrested.
officials and Arab commandos based in commando unit was
The dissident
Jordan. The incidents included bazooka identified as Kataeb al Nasr (Contingents
and rocket attacks on Israeli civilian also called Al Saiqah.
for Victory),
settlements and industrial facilities. The
Its leader, ex-Syrian army officer Taher
heaviest assault took place Nov. 23, when
Dablan, 37, had formed the group in June
guerrillas, believed to be A Fatah mem-
1

bers, launched 15 rockets against the after he had been expelled from the

Sodom potash works. Palestine Liberation Organization.


engagement Dec. 1, The fighting followed the arrest of
In a simultaneous
Israeli and Jordanian forces traded the Dablan Nov. 2 for Kataeb Nasr's al-
al

heaviest artillery fire to the north since leged link to a mob attack that day on the
the June 1967 war. The 5-hour gun duel U.S. embassy in Amman.

ended at dawn Dec. 2 with an Israeli air


Angered by Dablan's arrest, his follow-
attack on Irbid, about 40 miles north of ers Nov. 3 ambushed a police car and
Amman. At one point, Israeli tanks and seized 4 policemen as hostages. 3 of the
artillery along a 20-mile front
fired policemen were reportedly killed. Jor-
against Iraqi and Jordanian forces as well danian security officials then raided Ka-
as at Arab guerrillas. The guerrillas fired taeb al Nasr's headquarters in the Wah-
rockets, some of which landed in the dat refugee camp outside Amman and
Israeli settlement of Deganya "A."* Jor- seized large supplies of arms. Firing
dan said Israeli artillery had shelled the broke out, and many of Dablan's men
Jordanian towns of El Shuna, Asad, broke out through a police encirclement.
Taiviba and Irbid. They made their way into Amman, where
A 3-hour Israeli-Arab artillery duel further fighting ensued. Kataeb al Nasr
along the Jordan Valley the night of Dec. urged Amman residents to rally to its
2 was climaxed by a 2d Israeli air strike cause on the ground that the government
on targets in Jordan early Dec. 3. The was out to crush the commando group.
fresh fighting erupted with a coordinated In response to the appeal, more than
Jordanian-Iraqi artillery barrage along 10,000 persons, including students, com-
the 25-mile front north of the Israeli-held mandos and townspeople, staged an anti-
west bank. government demonstration Nov. 4. Secu-
rity forces moved in and suppressed the
uprising after a bloody clash.
Terrorists Clash With Jordanians During the fighting Nov. 4, King Hus-
sein had assailed "phony elements"
Although the Arab governments gave among the commandos in Jordan. He
material as well as verbal support to the charged in a broadcast that their target
guerrilla-commando-terrorist groups at- was "not [Israeli] occupied territory
tacking Israel, it became obvious that the but the [Jordanian] east bank itself."
THE MIDDLE EAST 17

The 2 largest commando groups in by a council made up of 4 major com-


Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organi- mando groups based at the Amman head-
zation (PLO) and Al Fatah, agreed to quarters of the Palestine Liberation or-
government demands to submit to offi- ganization (PLO).
cial checkpoints, to abolish their own The council's formation had been con-
checkpoints and to keep their armed fol- firmed in an Al Fatah broadcast Nov. 20.
lowers out of Amman. A smaller com- Represented on the council were Al
mando group, the Popular Front for the Fatah, PLO, the Popular Front for the
Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), rejected Liberation of Palestine and the Syrian
the government demands. Baath-dominated Al Saiqa, also known
At a meeting of Al Fatah, PLO and as Kataeb al Nasr.
PFLP representatives in Cairo Nov. 5, (Al Fatah leader Yasir Arafat was
the commando groups accused Jordan of elected at a PLO meeting in Cairo Feb. 3,
attempting to break up the guerrilla 1969 as chairman of a newly formed PLO
forces and to make peace with Israel. An executive committee.)
Al Fatah broadcast charged the Jor-
danian government with staging the Am-
man unrest Nov. 4 to weaken and dis-
credit the guerrilla fighters. Terrorists Bomb Israeli Targets
Jordan's previous confrontation with
Kataeb al Nasr (when it was known as Al
Blasts Kill Jews & Arabs. A bomb ex-
Saiqah) had occurred following the kid-
plosion in the Jewish section of Jerusalem
naping Oct. 7 of rightwing Druse leader
Nov. 22, 1968 killed 12 persons and in-
Hassan al-Atrash. Suspecting the com-
jured 55. The fatalities comprised 10 Is-
mando group of having seized Atrash
raeli Jews and 2 Arabs.
and of having taken him to Damascus,
the Jordanian government had estab- The blast ripped through Jerusalem's
lished roadblocks on the outskirts of Am- crowded Mahane Yehuda market place,
man and on roads to the Jordan Valley destroying fruit and vegetable stalls and
and the north. Al Fatah had charged that several nearby shops, apartments and
the roadblocks were an excuse to harass automobiles. Police said the explosives
the commandos and keep them out of were hidden car parked in the mar-
in a

Amman. ket place 2 hours before the blast. 500


Arabs were rounded up for questioning;
by Nov. 25 all but 30 were released.
Jordan-Commando Pact. A 7-point One of the Arab commando groups
agreement governing the relations be- that had carried out raids against Israel
tween Jordan and the Arab commando — The Popular Front for the Liberation
groups operating from Jordan was of Palestine— announced Nov. 22 that
reached Nov. 16, 1968. its members were responsible for. the
Terms of the agreement (some of which Jerusalem incident. The front said the
formalized previous government-com- explosion was "in retaliation for Israeli
mando understandings): (1) Commandos terrorist actions against our people" in
were forbidden to carry arms or wear Arab occupied territories.
uniforms in Jordanian towns; (2) com-
mandos had no right to search civilian
A bomb exploded in a Jerusalem super-
market Feb. 21, 1969, killing two
cars; (3) commando vehicles were to
youths and wounding nine other persons.
carry Jordanian license plates; (4) com-
mandos were to carry identity cards of Hundreds of shoppers were in the Je-
their organizations; (5) a crime com- rusalem supermarket, during its busiest
mitted by a commando was to be in- period, the hours before the Jewish Sab-
vestigated by Jordanian authorities in the bath, when the bomb exploded. Fifteen
presence of a representative of the guer- minutes after the blast, and after the
rilla's organization; (6) commandos were store had been cleared of customers, an-
forbidden to enlist Jordanians subject to other bomb was found on the premises
conscription or deserters from Jordan's and defused. Among the injured was Maj.
armed forces; (7) commando-Jordanian Roy Skinner of Australia, a U.N. truce
government disputes were to be handled observer.
18 POLITICAL TERRORISM

(A third bomb had been found earlier A bomb exploded in the cafeteria
Feb. 21 in front of the British consulate of the Hebrew
University in Jerusalem
in East Jerusalem; it was disarmed in a March 6, wounding 29 Israelis, most of
nearby field.) them students. About 200 students were
The Popular Front for the Liberation in the room, which was heavily damaged.
of Palestine said Feb. 21 that it was In Beirut, two Arab guerrilla groups,
responsible for that day's bombing. the Popular Democratic Front for the
A bomb heavily damaged the British Liberation of Palestine and the Popular
consulate in East Jerusalem Feb. 25, Front for the Liberation of Palestine
1969. (PFLP), claimed credit for the attack.
The blast caused slight injury to a con- A branch of the Israeli National Bank
sulate secretary. British officials said they in the west-bank town of Al Bireh was

believed Arab guerrillas had decided damaged by a guerrilla hand grenade


to attack British targets because of earlier March 6. One person was injured.
"highly exaggerated" reports that Brit- Israeli security forces March
6 de-
ain was planning to sell tanks to Israel. stroyed five Arab houses East Jeru-
in

The East Jerusalem consulate had been salem that had been found to contain
the target of an unsuccessful bomb attack arms, explosives and other terrorist
Feb. 21. The Popular Front for the Lib- equipment. After permitting the families
eration of Palestine Feb. 25 claimed re- to leave, an Israeli demolition squad
sponsibility for the bombing. The PFLP razed the buildings. Previously, the
said it had decided on the attack because Israelis had blown up buildings suspected

of the alleged British decision to supply of harboring Arab terrorists. But they
Israel with tanks. were said to have discontinued the prac-
A bomb exploded in Lydda, Israel Feb. tice because of damage to surrounding
structures.
25, injuring one person. Three Arabs were
detained for questioning. One of them Three bombs exploded on a street
was said to have been carrying the bomb leading to the Western (Wailing) Wall in
on a tricycle and it was believed to have Jerusalem June 20. The blasts killed one
detonated accidentally. The rider was Arab and wounded five other persons,
wounded. including two American tourists and an
The arrest of 80 Arabs on charges of Israeli soldier. At least 20 suspects were
conducting an extensive guerrilla opera- arrested.
tion against Israel was announced March The Popular Front for the Liberation
5 byDaniel Bareli, the Israeli police of Palestine (PFLP) said in Amman
chief in Jerusalem. Twenty of those ar- June 21 that its members were responsi-
rested had been seized March 4. Bareli ble for the explosions. The PFLP state-
said the group, most of whom were sus- ment said the attack was not aimed at
pected PFLP members, would specifically injuring Jewish worshippers "but to re-
be charged with the bombings of the Jeru- mind the world and tourists of the Zion-
salem supermarket Feb. 21 and of the ists' barbaric and Nazi-like acts and to

British consulate in East Jerusalem Feb. warn the enemy to stop these actions."
25. Bareli said the group had operated in
Jerusalem, the west bank and the Gaza
Strip and received instructions from the Gaza Violence. Arab students staged
Egyptian embassy in Amman, Jordan. riotous demonstrations in the Israeli-
Among those arrested were Wodet occupied city of Gaza Feb. 2-3, 1969.
Komeri, a woman, who reportedly had The violence was precipitated by the
directed the operations, Bashir el-Hirri, sentencing Feb. 2 of three Arab girls as
a prominent lawyer from the west-bank members of a terrorist group in the Gaza
town of Ramallah, accused of having or- Strip. One received a three-year jail
ganized the terrorist network, and Illya sentence; the two others were given terms
el-Khouri, an Arab Anglican priest from of two years each for having served as
Ramallah, who was said to have crossed messengers for terrorist bands. Israeli
the Jordan River several times in recent authorities released the three girls Feb. 3
months to contact the ring's leaders in on the condition that they end their con-
Amman. nections with the guerrillas.
THE MIDDLE EAST 19

About 2,000-3,000 Arab girls, protest- A PFLP statement issued in Beirut


ing the sentences, poured out of three July 23 claimed that members of its
high schools Feb. 2 and rampaged "specialized unit" had taken over the
through the streets of Gaza, blocked Israeli airliner without the advance
traffic and hurled stones, injuring several knowledge of the Algerian government.
persons, including an Israeli woman sol- The front urged Algeria to hold the
dier. Israeli troops, armed with night- plane and its Israeli passengers and crew
sticks,drove the rioting girls back to but to release the non-Israelis. PFLP
their schools. More than 90 were in- officials said July 24 that the organization
jured and almost half required hospital- had asked the International Red Cross to
ization. supervise the exchange of the Israeli
Tensions in Gaza were further height- crew and passengers in Algiers for cap-
ened Feb. 3 when a grenade, hurled by an tured Palestinian guerrillas imprisoned in
unknown assailant into a crowded square, Israel.

killed two Arab boys (aged 9 and 16) and Algerian Foreign Min. Abdelaziz
wounded 10 others. Bouteflika, arriving in Paris July 24 on a
An Israeli lieutenant was killed June diplomatic visit, denied that his govern-
15 when a terrorist tossed a grenade at ment was "involved, either directly or
his patrol vehicle in Gaza city. Two indirectly" in the hijacking.
grenades thrown at Israeli vehicles in Algeria Aug. 31 released the last 5
Gaza city June 16 and 20 missed their passengers and 7 crewmen of the Israeli
marks and exploded among groups of airliner. The plane was released a few
Arab civilians. One Arab was killed and hours later and was flown to Rome by a
21 others were injured in the first in- French pilot. The Israelis were flown to
cident; another Arab was killed and 16 Rome in an Italian jet and returned to
were wounded in the other attack. Israel Sept. 1. The Israeli plane arrived
in Israel the same day.
Italy had negotiated with Algerian
A rabs A ttack Planes officials for the release of the Israeli
plane.
A new war on Israel
tactic in the terrorist Israel informed the Red Cross Sept. 2
was unveiled in 1968 when Arabs began a that it free 16 convicted Arab in-
would
series of seizures of Israeli airliners in captured prior to the June 1967
filtrators,
war, in exchange for the release of the
flight or of attacks on passenger-laden
planes on the ground. As time went on, the hijacked plane.
attacks were not confined to Israeli planes A PFLP spokesman Sept. 2 criticized
but were directed against aircraft of almost the release of the plane. He said Algeria
any nationality. had not consulted his group.

Israeli Hijacked. An Israeli


Plane
commercial en route from Rome
airliner, Plane Attacked in Athens. 2 Arab
to Tel Aviv, was hijacked over Italian terrorists attacked an commercial
Israeli

territory July 23, 1968 by 3 armed mem- jetliner in Athens the day after Christmas
bers of the Popular Front for the Libera- 1968.
tion of Palestine (PFLP). The plane The Israeli jetliner, an El Al Boeing
landed in Algiers. 707 carrying 41 passengers, was attacked
The Algerian government immediately at the Athens airport Dec. 26 as it was
released 19 non-Israeli passengers, who about to take off on a flight to New York
were flown to Paris later July 23 in an from Tel Aviv. The 2 Arab assailants
Algerian plane. 10 Israelis 4 women— fired a submachinegun at the plane and
passengers, 3 children and 3 of the its passengers and tossed incendiary
plane's air hostesses —
were released July grenades at one of the plane's engines,
27 and were flown to Geneva before setting it ablaze. One passenger was shot
going on to Tel Aviv. The Algerian to death and the plane's hostess was
government temporarily held the plane seriously injured when she jumped out of
— an El Al Boeing 707 jet 7 crew — the plane with the passengers. Greek
members and 5 Israeli male passengers. police arrested the 2 suspects, identified
20 POLITICAL TERRORISM

as Mahab H. Sleiman, 19, of Tripoli, 13 civilian planes belonging to 3 Arab


Lebanon and Mahmoud M. Mohamad, airlines. The assault was in retaliation
25, a Palestinian Arab refugee. The 2 for theAthens attack.
men had arrived at the Athens airport According to Lebanese accounts: The
earlier Dec. 26 on an Air France flight attack was carried out by 8 Israeli heli-
from Beirut. They said they were mem- copters. 5 landed at the hangar area and
bers of the Syrian-based Popular Front one on a runway, while 2 others hovered
for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) overhead. The Israeli commandos
and were under orders of a PFLP official destroyed the aircraft by planting explo-
in Beirut "to destroy an Israeli plane and sive charges in the nose-wheel well and
killJews." Their statement was made to the undercarriage-wheel well of each
Greek Deputy Premier Stylianos Pata- plane.
kos, who had hurried to the airport to The planes destroyed were esti-
13
question the captives. mated be worth $43.8 million. 8 of the
to
The PFLP Dec. 26 claimed credit for aircraft belonged to Trans-Mediterran-
the Athens airport attack. Charging that ean Airways, Lebanese-owned; 3 to
El Al was no longer "an airline under- Lebanese International Airways; 2 to
taking innocent civilian transport," the Middle East Airlines, 30%-owned by
statement said that El Al planes, "in Air France.
secret flights under supervision of the The Israelis were under orders to con-
Israeli Defense Ministry," had transfer- fine their attack to Arab-owned planes
red "air force pilots trained in flying and not to inflict casualties. The com-
Phantom jets in preparation for a sur- mandos were reported to have made
prise attack and new aggression against sure that no passengers were aboard
the Arab states." the planes destroyed; aircraft of non-Arab
Israeli Transport Min. Moshe Carmel carriers were parked at the airport but
asserted Dec. 26 that Israel could not none were touched.
"relieve the government of Lebanon A Jerusalem communique* said all the
from responsibility for acts of sabotage Israeli helicopters returned safely. An
organized on Lebanese soil with govern- Israeli government announcement on
mental encouragement." the raid Dec. 28 said that the Arab
The Lebanese government Dec. 27 terroristswho had struck the Israeli jet
denied Carmel's charge of Lebanese com- in Athens had "come from Beirut airport
plicity the Athens airport shooting.
in and belonged to the branch of the sabo-
The statement said the allegation was an tage organization in Lebanon." The
Israeli "attempt to justify its repeated statement warned that "Arab govern-
aggressions against Lebanese territory." ments that allow the activities of sabotage
The two terrorists were convicted and organizations from their territories
sentenced by a Greek criminal court must know they bear responsibility for
March 26, 1970. terrorist acts."
Mahmoud Mohammad was sentenced In defending the raid, Israeli Premier
to 17 years months, Maher
and five Levi Eshkol declared Dec. 29 that "on no
Suleiman to 14 years and three months. account can we accept the idea that the
Both were convicted of interfering with waging of war against Israel should be
air traffic, arson and illegal use and pos- permitted if those who wage it call
session of explosives. The original charge themselves an organization and not a
of premeditated murder against Mo- government."
hammad, for a machinegun
wielding Lebanese Premier Abdullah Yaffi said
that had killed an Israeli passenger, was Dec. 30 that the Israeli attack on the
revised to a lesser count of manslaughter Beirut airport "has had no effect on our
by negligence. stand regarding the commandos" who
operate against Israel. This was inter-
preted to mean that Lebanon would
Israelis Raid Beirut Airport. Helicopter- continue to refuse to adopt a stronger
borne Israeli commandos carried out a anti-Israeli policy. Yaffi, however, as-
one-hour raid on the Beirut International serted that "we consider commando
Airport in Lebanon Dec. 28, destroying action as a legitimate and sacred action.
THE MIDDLE EAST 21

Every people whose land has been


. . . less attacks upon Israel [in Council
taken away must resort to every means debate Dec. 29 and 30] for alleged
to get it back." policies and acts having nothing to do
The Israeli army reported Dec. 30 that with the episodes properly before us."
Arab commandos had shelled 5 Israeli In debate Dec. 30, Israeli delegate
settlements Dec. 29 in apparent reprisal Tekoah asserted that the Arab terrorist
for the Beirut attack. Al Fatah reported attack on the Israeli plane in Athens "was
that it already had started "the first of the same character" as Arab assaults
rain" of retaliation raids by shelling against Israeli territory. Since the Arabs
an Israeli town, Beisan, Dec. 29. were defeated by Israeli forces in 1967,
Israel reported that 2 civilians were they had engaged in a policy of "bleeding
killed Dec. 31 when Arab guerrillas from Israel by murder, of the innocent and
Lebanon shelled the Israeli settlement of defenseless, by terror and sabotage,"
Kiryat Shmona in the upper Galilee. Tekoah said. The Athens incident left
Lebanese authorities denied that rock- Israel with no alternative but to take ac-

had come from Leba-


et fire against Israel tion "against this menace threatening
to bring chaos and catastrophe to inter-
non. Al Fatah asserted that its
forces had fired on Kiryat Shmona from national life" Tekoah said. He chided
inside Israel.
world governments for having remained
"strangely silent" in the face of the
Athens incident and recalled how these
governments had "remained passive
UN Censures Israel. The Security UN when Israeli shipping was barred from
Council Dec. 31 approved by 15-0 vote a the Suez Canal for 20 years."
resolution condemning Israel for the at-
Lebanese ex-Foreign Min. Fouad
tack on the Beirut airport, favoring
Boutros, who had flown to New York to
Israeli compensation for the damage attend the Council meeting, said Israel
inflicted and hinting at possible sanctions was not justified in raiding Lebanon in
if such assaults were renewed. The Coun-
retaliation for the attack on the Israeli
cil had convened Dec. 29 at the request
plane in Athens. "Lebanon can certainly
of Lebanon and Israel.
not be held responsible for acts which
After the vote, Israeli delegate Yosef were committed outside its territory by
Tekoah assailed the resolution, which, Palestinian refugees whose intent was
he said, "fails to take account of Israel's not known to Lebanon, and whose acts
rights under the cease-fire, disregards
were due to the fact that they were refu-
the rights of its citizens to be free from gees thrown out by Israel."
Arab attacks, overlooks and slights the
Israeli dead and wounded, is an affront In a message Dec. 30 to Lebanese Pres.

to the basic values of the United Na- Charles Helou, Pope Paul VI deplored
tions." Referring to Soviet delegate the Israeli attack and expressed hope
Yakov A. Malik's criticism of Israel's that Lebanon would not be "drawn along
actions, Tekoah said: "As long as this the path of violence."
Arab war of aggression against Israel Israeli Religious Affairs Min. Zerah
continues, Israel will insist on its right Warhaftig Dec. 31 criticized the pope
to defend itself in the best way it finds it for his expressions of sympathy to Leba-
necessary, whether the guardians of in- non over the loss of its planes while say-
ternational law in Moscow are pleased or ing nothing about the "murder of in-
not." nocent Jews" by Arab terrorists.
Malik earlier had denounced other Warhaftig particularly cited the Arab
Council members for refusing to invoke attack on a Jerusalem marketplace Nov.
sanctions under Chapter VII of the 22 in which 13 Israelis were killed. Speak-
Charter. ing at a memorial service for the 6 million
In explaining his vote on the resolution, Jews by the Nazis, Warhaftig said:
killed
U.S. representative J. R. Wiggins said "We must learn the lesson from what
that although the U.S. delegation had happened during the period of genocide,
supported it, the American representa- not only concerning those who per-
tives dissociated themselves "from the petrated the crime but those who kept
sweeping generalizations, the reck-
. . . their peace and raised no voice in protest.
22 POLITICAL TERRORISM

The policy of silence continues in our meeting Feb. 19 on the crisis resulting
day." from the Zurich attack.
A statement drawn up at the meeting
was delivered later in the Knesset (par-
Plane Attacked in Zurich. An Israeli liament)by Communications Minister
El Al Boeing 720 commercial airliner MosheCarmel. Carmel warned the Arabs
with 17 passengers and 10 crewmen that Israel "retains the moral right
was attacked Feb. 18, 1969 by four Arab and the operational ability to take any
terrorists with submachine guns as it was necessary means of protection, when-
about to take off from the airport at ever required to break the strength of
Zurich, Switzerland. those scheming against us and our planes
Three passengers and three crewmen and to secure the free aerial traffic of
were injured in the attack. An Israeli Israel's air routes." "Compliance [by
security guard aboard the plane jumped Arab government] with hijacking and
out and shot and killed one of the assail- with scheming against and assault upon
ants. The three other terrorists, including our air routes will cause serious damage
a woman, were captured immediately by to all, including the Arab states," Carmel
Swiss policemen and airport personnel. said.

The Arabs had fired 60 bullets at the Carmel linked Beirut to the Zurich at-
plane and also hurled three incendiary tack, to the Arab commando assault on
grenades, which fell short. an Israeli airliner in Athens Dec. 26,
A statement issued Feb. 18 by the Pop- 1968 and to the hijacking of an Israeli
ular Front for the Liberation of Palestine commercial plane July 23, 1968. "Infor-
(PFLP) at headquarters in
its Amman, mation at our disposal," Carmel said,
Jordan, claimed responsibility
for the indicated that plans for the three inci-
attack. The PFLP said the raid was in dents had been plotted in Lebanon and
retaliation for what it called Israeli acts that the raiders had left from Beirut for
and brutality against "unarmed
of torture each attack.
and innocent civilians in occupied Arab Support for the Zurich raiders was ex-
territory." The statement said the raid pressed Feb. 20 by the Cairo newspaper
was in accordance with PFLP policy to Al Ahram, which said the attack "proved
track down and strike the El Al fleet, that the will of the resistance will not
which called a military arm of Israel.
it
falter despite all the enemy's counter-
The PFLP identified the attackers as blows." In further support of the Arab
all Palestinians: Ammah
Ahmed guerrillas, Al Ahram disclosed that the
Dahbour, the woman,
Ibrahim and Egyptian government would provide
Tewfik, Mohammed Abu
Haja and el health insurance for the commandos and
Abdel Mohsen Hassan. Hassan was the their families. Under the plan, wounded
one killed. or sick Arab commandos would be flown
Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban without charge to Egyptian hospitals "if
asserted that the raid "demonstrates the they are unable to obtain treatment in
character of the terrorist organizations Jordanian medical institutions."
which the president of Egypt [Gamal Two newspapers in Beirut Feb. 20 crit-
Abdel Nasser] praised unreservedly only icizedthe commando raid in Zurich.
a few days ago." "There is no doubt," One, the conservative Al Jarida, wrote
Eban said, "that the executors of this that "loyalty to commando activity
act of terrorism as well as their masters prompts us to say that this raid at Zurich
drew encouragement from the climate of has been an embarrassment to the com-
forgiveness shown to them after the at- mandos. It would have been better from
tack on the El Al plane at Athens air- the beginning to leave civil aviation out
port." He recalled that the UN resolution of the battle." Al Amal, journal of Leba-
condemning Israel for its retaliatory non's Phalangist party, said that "no
raid on the Beirut airport "did not de- matter how daring and courageous this
vote a single word of condemnation to attack is said to have been, there is no
the Athens attack." doubt that it exposes the legality and
The Israeli government's ministerial- integrity of commando activity to a chal-
level Security Committee held a four-hour lenge, and will provide Israel with a
THE MIDDLE EAST 23

golden opportunity to spread her propa- in communique from Cairo Aug. 30


a
ganda against the Arab cause." that the two Israeli men would be held
The Soviet Communist Party news- hostage in Damascus for "the release of
paper Pravda Feb. 27 defended the Arab Syrian comrades in Israeli prisons."
commando attacks on Israeli airliners as The two hijackers, PFLP members,
acts "carried out by patriots defending were identified as Leila A. Khaled, a
home-
their legal right to return to their 20-year-old woman, and Selim al-Ei-
land." At the same time, the newspaper sawi, about 30. Both were taken into
assailed Israeli reprisal raids for these at- Syrian custody after the landing in Da-
tacks as "acts of undisguised aggres- mascus. Rome police said the two had
sion." come from Beirut Aug. 28.
A court in Winterthur, Switzerland Seizing control of the plane shortly
Dec. 22 convicted and sentenced the three after it took off from Rome, the hijackers
Arab terrorists to 12 years in prison on a had told the occupants that "the
charge of murder. Che Guevara Commando Unit of PFLP"
Switzerland sent notes Feb. 28 to Jor- had taken command of the flight. They
dan, Syria and Lebanon, protesting announced that "among you is a passen-
against the attack on the Israeli plane. ger responsible for the death and misery
of Palestinian children, women and men,
The notes called on the three Arab gov-
on behalf of whom we are carrying out
ernments to take measures "to prevent
this operation. This assassin will be
any new violations of Swiss territory."
brought before a Palestinian revolu-
According to a Swiss Foreign Ministry
tionary court." The statement did not
communique issued in Berne, the three
identify the accused Israeli official.
surviving Arab raiders had told Swiss in-
vestigators that they had been "trained in U.S. Secretary of State William P.
Jordan and some of them left Syria to Rogers expressed hope Aug. 29 that
carry out their attack in Zurich." Syria would not "associate itself with
this irresponsible act and will take im-
mediate steps to arrange the release of
U.S. Jet Hijacked to Syria. A U.S. the aircraft, its crew and its passengers."
Trans World Airlines passenger jet, en Rogers Aug. 30 deplored Syria's "for-
route from Rome to Athens and Tel cible detention of some of the innocent
Aviv, was hijacked over southern Italy civilian passengers." He said the U.S.
was "astonished that a government
Aug. 29, 1969 by two armed Arabs
[Syria], which is a member of the United
and was forced to fly to Damascus, Syria.
Nations, having its own international
Moments after the plane landed, the
airline and obviously benefitting from
cockpit was heavily damaged by a bomb
and dependent upon the freedom and
that had been planted by the hijackers.
safety of air travel, would choose to
Warned of the impending blast, the pas-
condone and associate itself with this
sengers jumped out of an emergency exit
act of piracy."
minutes before the explosive device went
off.
The International Federation of Air
Line Pilots Associations (IFALPA) voted
The plane carried a crew of 12 and 101 Sept. 1 to call a 24-hour worldwide strike
passengers, including six Israelis. The
against airlines manned by its 44,000
others were mostly Americans, Greeks
pilot members unless Syria released the
and Italians. The Syrians, holding all six two Israeli passengers.
of the Israelis, freed 105 passengers and
IFALPA
said that the organiza-
crewmen Aug. 30; most of them were tion "urgently calls upon the U.N. to
flown to Athens and Rome on an Italian . secure the immediate release of the
. .

plane. Four of the Israelis, all women, two passengers and, further, the
. . .

were released Sept. 1 and were flown back imposition of suitable punishment on the
to Israel via Athens. The two remaining hijackers." The detention of the two
Israelis, both men, were held in custody. Israelis and the failure to prosecute the
The Popular Front for the Liberation hijackers gave "overt encouragement to
of Palestine (PFLP), which claimed re- further criminal acts of this nature," the
sponsibility for the hijacking, declared statement said.

24 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Leila Khaled and Selim al-Eisawi, the El Al Office Bombed in Athens. Two
two hijackers, were freed by the Syrian Jordanian members of an Arab com-
government Oct. 13. mando group tossed a hand grenade into
The two Israelis, whom Syria had held Israel's El Al airline
office in Athens
as hostages, were exchanged by Syria Nov. 27, wounding 15 persons and caus-
Dec. 5 for 13 Syrian prisoners in Israel. ing heavy damage. One of the injured,
The two Israelis freed Dec. 5 were a 2-year-old Greek boy, died Nov. 29.
Hebrew University Prof. Shlomo The other injured were three Americans,
Samueloff and Salah Muallem. They re- 10 Greeks and a Briton employed by El
turned to Israel via Athens, flying first Al.
to the Greek capital on the plane, TWA The Jordanians were seized and ad-
which had been repaired following the mitted their guilt. The two, Elie Karabe-
bomb damage it had suffered during the tian, 23,and Mansur Seifeddin Mourad,
hijacking. 21, were
formally charged in Athens
Criminal Court Nov. 28 with "attempted
premeditated murder."
Centers Bombed in Europe. Arab youths The Palestine Popular Struggle Front,
Sept. 8, 1969 hurled bombs at the Israeli
an Arab guerrilla organization based in
Belgium
El Al Airlines office in Brussels,
Amman, Jordan, claimed responsibility
for the attack.
and tossed hand grenades at the Israeli
embassies in The Hague, Netherlands Greek Premier Stylianos Patakos con-
and in Bonn, West Germany. demned the attack Nov. 28 as a "cow-
A spokesman for the Popular Front for ardly act by unscrupulous criminals."
the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) in His statement followed an Israeli pro-
Amman said the coordinated attacks test to the Greek government contending

were carried out by teen-age members of that its failure to repudiate the first Arab
the "Young Tigers" of the "Ho Chi Minh armed attack on an Israeli jet airliner in
Section" of the PFLP. Four persons were in 1968 had encouraged the Nov. 27 in-
slightly injured in the Brussels incident cident. Israeli sources said Nov. 28
three El Al employes and a passerby. that Israeli officials had warned Greek
Police arrested two Arab youths. No one authorities of a possible bombing by
was injured in the embassy blasts. Two Arab terrorists against the El Al office in
had grenades, thrown at the rear of the Athens but said the Greeks had taken no
embassy in Bonn, exploded under the precautions.
window of Ambassador Asher ben
Nathan. One Arab youth was arrested.
A PFLP spokesman said Sept. 9 that
Arab Hijacking Thwarted. Greek po-
its forces planned an all-out war against
lice Dec. 21, 1969 arrested three Arabs,
Israeli commercial interests around the
including a young woman, suspected of
world and warned travelers not to use
planning to hijack a U.S. Trans World
Israeli planes or ships. The spokesman
Airlines passenger jet at the Athens air-
said the embassies had been bombed be-
port.
cause they "are the centers of espionage
and collection points for mercenaries and They were seized as they were about to
immigrants to our occupied Palestine." board the plane, bound from Tel Aviv
The Hague and Bonn were singled out be- for Rome and New York, after a TWA
cause Israeli pilots had been trained to clerk became suspicious. A subsequent
fly the newly-acquired U.S. Phantom jets search revealed that the trio possessed
in the Netherlands and West Germany, two guns, three hand grenades and mim-
the statement said. eographed announcements that the plane
A bomb planted by Arab terrorists had was being seized by the Popular Front
injured two persons Aug. 25 at the Lon- for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
don office of Zim, the Israeli shipping One Doumidi, 18,
of the suspects, Issam
company. PFLP leader George Habbash was have confessed that he and
said to
warned in Amman Aug. 29 that other his colleagues planned to hijack the air-
Jewish-owned firms in ,_ondon faced
t craft to Tunis, evacuate the passengers
similar assaults. and then blow it up "to warn the Amer-
THE MIDDLE EAST 25

icans to stop providing air communi- Israel-bound jet crashes. A Swissair


cations with Israel." passenger plane bound from Zurich to Is-
rael crashed after takeoff Feb. 21, 1970,
killing all 47 persons aboard, including
14 Israelis and six Americans. An Arab
Attack Munich. Three Arab terror-
in
guerrilla group at first claimed responsi-
ists Feb. 1970 killed one Israeli and
10,
bility for the crash, but another group
wounded 11 other persons in a grenade
later denied Arab involvement. The
attack on a bus and lounge at an airport
Swiss government Feb. 22 officially cited
in Munich, West Germany. The three
sabotage as the suspected cause of the in-
assailants were arrested and charged
cident.
with murder.
The Swiss plane, enroute to Tel Aviv,
The Israeli was killed by one of the was carrying 38 passengers and a crew of
grenades thrown onto an airport bus that
nine when it crashed near Wurenlingen
19 passengers of an El Al plane had board-
15 minutes after takeoff. The aircraft was
ed to return to the airliner from the
returning to Zurich after the pilot re-
terminal. The plane had landed earlier
ported an explosion aboard, apparently
on its way from Tel Aviv to London. in the rear luggage compartment. Smoke
Two of the guerrillas had boarded the from the resultant fire filtered into the
bus with the others and ordered the crew's compartment, obscuring the
driver at gunpoint to open the door before pilot's vision, and he crashed.
it pulled out. The third Arab outside A communique read Feb. 23 by Swiss
hurled a grenade into the vehicle when President Hans-Peter Tschudi said it was
the bus driver tried to drive away. The not yet possible to "draw conclusions of
Arab then threw another grenade into the causes of the catastrophe." The chief
the lounge where the remaining passen- of the Zurich crime laboratory, however,
gers were waiting to return to their plane. said he was "already convinced it was a
Police identified the assailants as Mo- bomb."
hammed el-Hanafi, an Egyptian, and The Arab claim of credit for the crash
Rahman Saleh Abder and Mohammed was issued in Beirut Feb. 21 by a spokes-
Hadidi, both Jordanians. Police said they man for the Popular Front for the Libera-
had flown into Munich airport earlier Feb. tion of Palestine-General Command. Its
10 from Paris. During the attack, Hanafi's alleged attack on the aircraft was said to
right hand was almost blown off by a be its first operation abroad.
grenade. His arm was later amputated.
Abder was wounded when he crashed The denial of Arab connection with the
incident was announced Feb. 23 by the
through a skylight attempting to flee.
unified command of Palestinian guerrilla
Responsibility for the Munich attack
organizations, which comprised 10 Arab
was claimed Feb. 11 by two guerrilla

groups in Amman, Jordan the Popular guerrilla groups based in Jordan. The
statement, broadcast from Cairo by Al
Front for the Liberation of Palestine and
Fatah, the largest of the units, said an
the smaller Action Organization for
investigation had shown "beyond a
the Liberation of Palestine. An Action
shadow of a doubt" that none of the com-
spokesman said, "We did not intend any
harm to these Israelis, ... but intended" mando groups had anything to do with
the incident. The statement added: "The
to capture them "in exchange for some
[Arab] revolution strongly condemns
Palestinian commando captives" held by
such barbaric action. No commando con-
Israel.
tingent would have carried out such ac-
The Action statement was confirmed
tion."
in Bonn Feb. 12 by Bavarian Interior
Minister Bruno Merk, who said Munich Al Fatah leader Yasir Arafat said in
police concluded that the three Arabs Amman Feb. 27 that "the unified com-
had originally planned to hijack the Is- mand of the commando organizations is
raeli plane. Merk said the police based now seriously reviewing the entire ques-
their findings on two texts of Arab com- tion of attacks on international airlines."
mando orders discovered at the airport Arafat, however, again denied Arab in-
lounge. volvement in the incident, saying that
26 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Palestine revolution's policy is Airways, which had suspended freight


"the
against endangering all civilians when- and mail service to Israel Feb. 22, lifted
ever they are." the ban Feb. 26. Other airlines that had
imposed similar restrictions eased them,
Swiss authorities investigating the crash
but Lufthansa of West Germany con-
reported March 3 that they had found
of tinued the curbs. Swissair announced that
parts of an altimeter in the wreckage
it would resume mail and cargo
altimeter deliver-
the plane. They said that this
ies to Israel March 5.
had probably set off the explosion that
caused the crash. Meanwhile, police in
Frankfurt, West Germany reported
aboard
3 that a Feb. 21 explosion
March Arabs hijack 4 planes. Members of the
been
an Austrian Airlines plane had also Popular Front for the Liberation of Pal-
set off by an altimeter. Nobody
was in- estine hijacked three jet airliners bound
jured in the Austrian Airlines incident. for New York from Europe Sept. 6, 1970
(Police had arrested three armed Arabs and diverted them to the Middle East. The
at the Munich, West Germany airport attempted seizure of a fourth, an El Al
Feb. 17, thwarting a possible attempt
to plane bound from Amsterdam, was
hijack an Israeli airliner. The three Arabs thwarted when security guards aboard
the aircraft shot and killed one hijacker
—two Iraqis and a Jordanian— arrived
plane from and wounded his companion. The plane
in Munich aboard a Yugoslav
Paris enroute to Belgrade. Acting on
the thenmade an unscheduled landing in
pilot's suspicions, police seized the
Arabs London and later flew on to New York.
and found several pistols in their luggage The wounded hijacker, held by British
was identified as Leila Khaled,
and two statements indicating they police,

planned to hijack an El Al plane. Police who had been involved in the hijacking of
the leaflets identified the men as aTWA 707 to Syria in 1969 and who had
said
members of an Arab commando group.) been released by the Syrians.
The other planes seized were: a Swiss-
Airline curbs— Several European air-
air DC-8, bound from Zurich, with 155
lines suspended cargo flights to Israel passengers and crew; a TWA
Boeing
Feb. 22. They were Swissair, Air France, 707 from Frankfurt, with 151 passengers
Austrian Airlines and Royal Dutch Air- and crew; and a Pan American World
lines. British Overseas Airways Corp.
and Airways 747 jumbo jet, bound from
48-
British European Airways imposed a Amsterdam with 152 passengers and a
hour ban on all freight service to Israel. crew of 1 7. The Swissair and TWA
planes
BOAC continued bound for
to accept mail were flown to what was described as a
Israel. Olympic Airways of Greece
an-
"revolution airport" in the desert at
nounced Feb. 23 a "temporary suspen- Zerqa, Jordan. The Pan Am
plane was
sion" of cargo and mail deliveries to firstflown to Beirut and after refueling,
flew to Cairo, where the aircraft was
Aharon Remez, Israel's ambassador to
blown up on the runway minutes after the
the flight restrictions
Britain, criticized passengers and crew were evacuated. The
BOAC BEA in a letter to the two
of and passengers were later flown to Rome on
carriers Feb. 22. He said their action another plane.
"can onlv be interpreted as a capitulation The PFLP held the occupants of the
to intimidation and encouragement to two planes Jordan as hostages for im-
in
continue air piracy and indiscriminate at- prisoned commandos in Israel, Great
tacks against airlines of all nationalities." Britain, Switzerland and West Germany.
The British government came in for at-
The Popular Front warned that it would
tack the House of Commons Feb. 23
in blow up the two planes with its passengers
for permitting the two airlines to
curb attacks in-
if the guerrillas, jailed for
flights to Israel. volving planes, were not freed by 10 p.m.
Ground crews at London's airport (New York Time) Sept. 9.
refused Feb. 24-25 to service airlines of
Switzerland and West Germany at
agreed to meet the commando de-
eight Arab countries and Israel's El Al first

airline for safety reasons. British Over-


mands^to release six Arab guerrillas held
in the two countries but reversed
their
seas Airways Corp. and British European
THE MIDDLE EAST 27

decisions Sept. 8 in favor of joint inter- regular Bombay-London route. The


national efforts to negotiate the passen- VC-10, with 105 passengers and a crew of
gers' release. ten, was ordered to land at Beirut for fuel
The guerrillas removed 127 passengers and to pick up a woman commando. Fol-
from the two planes in Jordan, mostly lowing orders relayed by commandos at
women and children, and housed them in the Beirut control tower radio, the plane
two hotels in Amman. A commando circled southern Lebanon and was flown
spokesman said they were free to leave to the desert airstrip near Amman later
Amman. The remaining passengers on Sept. 9.
the two aircraft, all males, were of Amer- The PFLP said Sept. 9 in Beirut that the
ican, Israeli, British and West German VC-10 and those aboard would be hos-
nationality. The planes were surrounded tages for the release of Leila Khaled, the
by the commandos and by an outer ring commando woman jailed in London after
of Jordanian army troops, including more her capture during the abortive hijacking
than 50 tanks and armored cars. attempt on the El Al 707 Sept. 6.
A PFLP spokesman in Beirut said The U.S., Britain, Switzerland and
Sept. 6 that the TWA and the Pan Am West Germany agreed to joint action
planes had been seized "to give the Amer- by working through the International
icans a lesson after they supported Is- Committee of the Red Cross. Three Red
rael all these years" and in retaliation Cross officials, named by the four govern-
for the U.S. peace initiative in the Mid- ments as a liaison group, arrived in Am-
dle East. The spokesman said the Swiss- man to confer with officials of the Popu-
air hijacking was in reprisal for the sen- lar Front for the Liberation of Palestine
tencing of three terrorists for their 1969 to seek release of the hostages.
attack on a plane in Zurich. U.S. Secretary of State William P.
The Brussels newspaper Le Soir had Rogers met in Washington Sept. 8 with
reported Sept. 5 the interception by ambassadors of 10 Arab countries. A
amateur radio operators of a message spokesman for the group, Kuwaiti Am-
from Interpol, the international police bassador Talat al Ghoussein, said after
organization, saying that a Palestinian the meeting that the hijackings "do not
commando force was on its way from serve the cause of the Palestinian people."
Beirut to Europe. El Al officials in Am- He said the Arab governments would
sterdam Sept. 6 refused to allow onto the "try to contact the guerrillas and con-
plane whose hijacking was attempted later vince them of this."
that day two men holding Senegalese The Egyptian newspaper Al Ahram
passports. When El Al informed Pan asserted Sept. 8 that the hijacking of
American Airways that suspected hi- the four airliners was harmful to the
jackers were aboard its 747 jumbo jet, guerrillas' cause. "One of the main goals
ground controllers warned the captain, of the battle is to gain world public opin-
who searched the two men but found ion on the side of the Palestinian struggle
nothing. They had hidden weapons under and not to lose it," Al Ahram said. "It
their seats. (According to the New York is evident that the attack on international
Times Sept. 13, all hijackings carried out civil aviation," the newspaper said, "does
by the PFLP since July 1968 were directed not encourage world feeling of solidarity
by Dr. Wadi Haddad, second in command with the Palestinian cause." Another
of the PFLP.) Egyptian newspaper, Al Akhbar, also
International efforts were begun Sept. 8 expressed opposition to the commandos'
to seek the release of the passengers held action Sept. 9, asserting that interna-
in Jordan. Meanwhile, security was tional reaction "reflects the denunciation
tightened at airports around the world and disgust of people against those who
in the wake of bomb threats against carry out such acts."
planes and in an attempt to prevent fur- The TWA, Swissair and BOAC planes
ther plane seizures. were blown up by the terrorists at the
Meanwhile, another plane, a British "revolution airport" in Jordan Sept. 12.
Overseas Airways Corp. (BOAC) VC-10 The destruction of the planes came at
jet, was seized Sept. 9. It was hijacked the end of a week of international efforts
after takeoff from Bahrein, a stop on its to secure release of the more than 300
28 POLITICAL TERRORISM

passengers and crewmen seized aboard desert airstrip. The committee leader-
the jets. The efforts were made more ship, especially Yasir Arafat, head of the
complicated by a renewal of fight- committee and of the dominant Al Fatah
ing between Jordanian troops and com- commando organization, had criticized
mandos. the PFLP's actions, and particularly its
Despite the commandos' initial threats failure to move the passengers to Amman,
to blow up their captives with the planes, as bringing discredit on the entire com-
none was harmed and most of the pas- mando movement. The situation was
sengers and crews were permitted to leave made more difficult by the absence of the
Jordan soon after the jets were destroyed. PFLP leader, Dr. George Habash, who
However, at least 54 passengers and was reported to be visiting Communist
crewmen remained in commando hands China and North Korea to seek new arms
Sept. 15, hostages to the demands for supplies.
the release of commandos held by Great
Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban
Britain, West Germany, Switzerland and
announced Sept. 15 that his government
Israel.
would not be party to a unified agreement
The destruction of the three jetliners
with European governments to free Arab
was carried out by PFLP demolition men prisoners in exchange for the hostages.
15 minutes after the last of the passengers
His statement was understood to have
had left. Passengers reported that after been motivated by the inconclusive na-
the planes had been blown up, Jordanian ture of Red Cross talks with the com-
armored units, which had surrounded the mandos. Israel was reported Sept. to 1 1

desert airstrip for the past week, moved have agreed "in principle" to the release
to circle the passengers and their armed of some Arab guerrilla prisoners in ex-
commando escorts. The troops withdrew, change for all the hostages and an un-
however, after the guerrillas warned that specified number of Israeli prisoners of
the passengers would die with them if war.
there was any interference with the con-
Eban declared that the Arab terror-
voy.
ists held in Britain, West Germany and
The PFLP spokesman in Amman told Switzerland were common criminals
a news conference later Sept. 12 that the whose aim was "assault on the lives
sole
planes had been destroyed earlier than of Israelis." "If the three governments
planned because of "a conspiracy by involved," he said, "are prepared to
various imperialist powers to abort this consider, out of dire distress, purchasing
operation." The PFLP originally had the liberation of all the hijacked persons
set a 10 p.m. Sept. 12 deadline for de-
by these releases, it must under no cir-
struction of the planes if its demands for cumstances be claimed that the contri-
the release of imprisoned commandos bution is in any other coin than that of
had not been met. the safety of Israelis."
The Liberation Organiza-
Palestine
tion's maincoordinating body, the
*Commando radio broadcasts from Baghdad, re-
commando Central Committee, sus- corded Sept. 1by the BBC Monitoring Service, gave
1

pended the Marxist PFLP from mem- the following text of the Central Committee policy
bership Sept. 12 for its destruction of statement on the hijacked aircraft: "The committee
has decided the following: ( ) To transfer all the pas-
the aircraft. A statement broadcast by I

sengers to Amman. ... (2) To release all passengers


the committee said the PFLP had of various nationalities with the exception of Israelis
pledged to follow policy guidelines set by of military capacity. These passengers wiU be re-
the Central Committee Sept. 10 on the leased when an official statement is issued by the
foreign countries concerned that they are ready to
release of the jets and passengers,* and free the Palestinian girl and other fedayeen held . . .

that "the Central Committee was sur- in Western Germany, Switzerland and Britain. (3) To

prised by the PFLP's violation of the release the three aircraft and their crews as soon as
the fedayeen in question arrive in Jordan or in any
afore-mentioned decisions."
other Arab country. ... (4) To hold the Zionist pas-
Relations between the PFLP and the sengers of military capacity in Amman until an
more moderate commando elements agreement is reached in the current negotiations
with the Red Cross on the release by the Zionist au-
heading the Central Committee had been
thorities occupying Palestine of a number of Pal-
increasingly strained during the week the estinian men and women fedayeen imprisoned in

airliners and passengers were held at the enemy jails."


THE MIDDLE EAST 29

The remaining hostages were freed by 330 civilians. (Israel's combat fatalities
the guerrillas in separate groups Sept. 25, in the June 1967 war had been listed as
26 and 29 as part of a deal for the release 759.) According to the Israelis, guerrilla
of Arab terrorists held in Europe. losses were "close to 600 killed" near
Sixteen Swiss, German and British the truce lines, and hundreds more in the
nationals, abandoned by their guerrilla west bank area. About 1,500 guerrillas
captors in the Wahdat refugee camp near had been arrested or captured.
Amman, were discovered by Jordanian
army troops Sept. 25.
Thirty-two American hostages were re- Commando Shift to Jordan. Al Fatah
leader Yasir Arafat, chairman of the Pal-
leased to Red Cross custody Sept. 26,
after being held in various places around estine Liberation Organization's (PLO)
executive committee, announced plans to
Amman.
shift a large part of his guerrilla force
The final six American hostages-
from Egypt and Syria to Jordan, the
three U.S. government officials, two
Jewish rabbis and a teacher were — Cairo newspaper Al Ahram reported
Feb. 6, 1969. The force was said to con-
handed over Sept. 29 to the Red Cross,
sistof three battalions: 3,800 men in
whose Geneva headquarters announced
Egypt, 3,000 in Syria and 1,200 attached
their release.
to an Iraqi division in Jordan.
A Swiss government official Sept. 29
Arafat and the PLO's executive com-
said that Switzerland, Britain and West
mittee conferred in Amman Feb. 16 with
Germany would release a total of seven
Jordanian King Hussein. It was believed
Arab guerrillas when the six Americans
to be the first meeting between Hussein
had safely Jordan. According to the
left
and a PLO executive chairman.
New York Times Sept. 29, Swiss au-
Al Fatah officials had reported in Cairo
thorities expected Israel to release as a
Feb. 13 that Israeli Defense Minister
"humanitarian" gesture 10 captured
Moshe Dayan had sent a message to Ara-
Lebanese soldiers and two Algerians
fat informing him that he was ready to
taken from an airliner Aug. 14. The meet with the guerrilla leader. Arafat
seven terrorists held by Western govern- had not responded to the request. The Al
ments were freed Sept. 30. Fatah officials said Dayan had released
an Arab prisoner to carry the message to
Arafat.

Arab States & Terrorists


Iraq Curbs Commandos. The Lebanese
Communist newspaper Al Nida reported
UAR Linked to Raiders. An Israeli pro- April 17, 1969 that Iraq had curbed the
test to the U.N. Security Council Feb. activitiesof commandos operating there.
12, 1969 charged that Egypt had "come In a note dated March 31, the secre-
out openly in full support" of Arab guer- tary of Iraq's ruling Revolutionary
rillas in campaign against Israel.
their Command Council, Chafic al-Daraji, had
Israeli delegate Yosef Tekoah asserted ordered the Palestine Liberation Orga-
in a message to Council President Ar- nization (PLO) to work through a newly
mand Berard of France that Cairo was established Iraqi-controlled "Arab Lib-
organizing and directing the commandos. eration Front." The note complained
Israeli sources reported that between that PLO members had ignored Bagh-
June 6, 1967 and Dec. 31, 1968 Israel had dad's orders to keep Iraqi military in-
been subjected to 1,288 acts of sabotage telligence authorities informed of "mat-
and border incidents: 920 in the Jordan- ters pertaining to their presence in
Israel sector, 166 in the Egyptian sector, Iraq." Specifically the PLO was accused
37 in the Syrian sector, 35 in the Leba- of holding unauthorized rallies and fund
nese sector, 130 in the Gaza Strip. These drives and of establishing contacts with
incidents reportedly had claimed the lives "certain Iraqi political organizations."
of 234 Israeli soldiers and 47 civilians The note suggested that the PLO es-
and had wounded 765 Israeli soldiers and tablish training camps at Al Rutbah,
30 POLITICAL TERRORISM

close to the Jordanian border. It said the mit "freedom of commando activity"
guerrillas must not operate outside the in Lebanon and "freedom of movement
battle ground "and must concentrate in and supply" in the country.
Jordan. There is no reason for them to Pierre Gemayel, head of the Phalan-
be in Iraq." gist Party, Lebanon's largest political
In another anti-guerrilla action, the organization, proposed April 26 that Al
Iraqi radio was reported to have dis- Fatah leader Yasir Arafat mediate the
continued Al Fatah's daily one-hour pro- dispute between the commandos and the
gram from Cairo. Lebanese government. Expressing fears
Ibrahim Bakr, deputy chairman of the of Israeli retaliation, Gemayel said of
PLO*s executive committee, said in the guerrillas: "Their crossing of Leba-
Beirut April 18 that as a result of meet- nese territory would cost us the occupa-
ings he had held with Iraqi leaders in tion of a large part of our southern dis-
Baghdad, Iraq's restrictions against the trict," which bordered Israel.
commandos could be disregarded. Iraq,
he said, had agreed to support increased
guerrilla operations.
Lebanese Army Post Besieged. Pales-
tinian commandos surrounded an army
post in Lebanon April 29, but Lebanese
Lebanon Fights Commando Backers.
troops lifted the siege April 30. Several
Lebanese Premier Rashid Karami re-
signed April 24, 1969 following clashes men were wounded. The operation was
between security forces and demonstra- part of Lebanon's drive to prevent guer-
rilla attacks against Israel.
tors demanding an end to government re-
strictions against guerrillas who sought The attackers were members of Saiqah,
to use Lebanon as a base for attacks on the commandos of the Palestinian branch
Israel. of Syria's Baath party, and were said
The pro-commandodemonstrations to be controlled by the Damascus
were called by the Progressive Socialist government. The Lebanese army post,
Party, the Arab Nationalist Movement, situated between the villages of Merj
the Baath party and the Communist Ayun and Hasbeya, six miles from the
Party. All were illegal except the Social- Israeli frontier and miles from the
1 1

ists. Syrian border, was astride a commando


Karami submitted his resignation after infiltration route from Syria. It was re-
two Abdullah Yaffi and
ex-premiers, ported that since the Israeli attack on
Saab Salal, had charged in parliamen- the Beirut International Airport Dec.
tary debate April 24 that the government 28, 1968, Saiqah and other guerrilla
was unduly harsh in suppressing the dem- units, totaling about 1,000 men, had
onstrators. (A resolution adopted April massed on the southern Lebanese
25 by the Council of the Ulemas, the border facing Israel. Lebanese police
Moslem religious teachers, demanded a and troops reportedly had sought to
parliamentary investigation of the "tough curb their operations.
methods" used by the government to The siege of the army post followed
quell the riots. The group called on the weeks of friction between the govern-
government to release arrested demon- ment forces and commandos in the area,
strators and to permit guerrillas in Leba- including a guerrilla attempt to kidnap
non to attack Israel.) a police officer. The army garrison's
Alluding to fears of Israeli retaliation radio appeal for outside help brought
against Lebanon for guerrilla attacks, armored units to the scene, and the
Karami told parliament: "There are two Saiqah men were driven off after some
sides in Lebanon, one saying commando shooting.
from Leba-
action should be carried out Yasir Arafat, leader of Al Fatah, con-
non, whatever the circumstances," and ferred with Lebanese officials in Beirut
another saying "the commandos repre- May 8-12 in an attempt to mediate the
sent a danger to Lebanon. ."
. . dispute between the government and the
An Al Fatah statement April 25 de- commandos. Arafat reportedly failed to
manded that the Beirut government per- persuade Beirut to permit the free
THE MIDDLE EAST 31

movement of guerrillas from Lebanon broiled Israel, the Soviet Union and the
into Syria and to allow them to useLeb- U.S. in the growing Middle East crisis.
anese territory to attack Israel. Lebanon, The crisis appeared to ease as a tacit
however, was said to have offered sev- cease-fire went into effect throughout
eral concessions. It agreed to recognize Lebanon Oct. 27.
the "presence" of the commandos in Damascus denounced Lebanon Oct. 24
Lebanon. for announcing the previous day that
The commando delegation said May tanks and armored cars were massing on
12 that in the talks it had rejected any its Syrian frontier and that a force of 200
"tutelage of the Palestinian revolution," men had been seen climbing a hill toward
and "limitation of the area of operation the Lebanese border. These reports, the
of the commandos." Damascus broadcast charged, were
Taking part in the Beirut talks until meant to give- the erroneous impression
May 11 was Dr. Hassan Sabry al-Kholy, that Syria was about to attack Lebanon.
special representative of U.A.R. Presi- Syria assailed Beirut for its drive against
dent Gamal Abdel Nasser. the guerrillas in the south and vowed
An Al Fatah broadcast May 9 had ap- that it would intensify the measures it
pealed to the "Lebanese masses, the had taken against Lebanon.
army and students" not to "stand by
idly while the conspiracy against the
A force of about 300 men, reported to
be Al Fatah, crossed into Lebanon from
commandos is fulfilled."
Syria Oct. 25 and occupied the village of
Yanta, six miles inside the country,
astride the Damascus-Beirut highway.
Lebanon Battles Commandos. Leba-
The invaders also laid siege to the nearby
non's stepped-up campaign to curb the
village of Deir Al Ashaer. In announcing
activities of anti-Israeli Palestinian com-
the incursion, the Lebanese government
mando groups operating in Lebanon pre- said the force included 20 trucks, eight
cipitated a major military confrontation
military vehicles towing 120-mm. mortars
between the government and the guerril-
and five tanks. The statement said Leba-
las. Scores were killed and wounded in nese troops had taken up positions a few
fighting between both sides and in guer-
miles west of Yanta to prevent a further
rilla-instigated riots and clashes in guerrilla advance. Beirut held Syria
Beirut and Tripoli Oct. 18-25, 1969.
responsible for permitting the guerrilla
In submitting his resignation for the
force to enter Lebanon.
second time in just under six months,
Karami Oct. 22 dissociated himself from An Al Fatah broadcast from Cairo Oct.
government forces' attacks on the guerril- 25 appealed to "honest elements" in the
las. Karami praised the commandos Lebanese army to revolt against their
Lebanese to maintain officers and "imperialist agents" in the
and appealed to
their national unity and not to permit
armed forces who "carry out the instruc-
tions of the CIA." Al Fatah insisted that
"imperialist and Zionist agents" to
it wanted to use Lebanese territory as
undermine the country's security.
"a base and a passageway for comman-
Syria exerted pressure against Beirut
dos" in their military actions against
Oct. 21 by closing its borders with Leba- Israeli villages and military positions on
non and prohibiting Syrian citizens the Lebanese border.
from traveling to Lebanon. Damascus
threatened "firmer and more effective The clashes were halted by a secret
measures" to stop Lebanese army attacks Lebanese-commando peace agreement
on the guerrillas. A Baghdad announce-
Nov. 3, but serious new commando
attacks on Lebanese forces broke out
ment Oct. 22 pledged that Iraq would
again Nov. 20.
provide the guerrillas with material and
diplomatic support. At least 30 persons were killed and
The clashes threatened an open break more than 80 were wounded March 24-27,
between Lebanon and Syria (which vowed 1970 in clashes in Lebanon between com-
strong support for the guerrillas), prompt- mandos and armed civilian followers of
ed the resignation of Lebanese Premier the Christian Phalangist Party, which
Rashid Karami Oct. 22 and further em- opposed the presence of the guerrillas
32 POLITICAL TERRORISM

in the country. Lebanese army troops ence of commando leaders in Lebanon


were involved in some of the fighting. Oct. 30. In the talks, presided over by
Arafat, the commandos agreed to these
measures restricting their activities in
the country: the offices set up by the 10
U.S. centers hit in Lebanon. The ex-
separate commando groups in Lebanon's
tremist Popular Front for the Liberation
15 Palestinian refugee camps would be
of Palestine carried out seven rocket
replaced by centers in each camp under
and bomb attacks against U.S. property
the authority of the Palestine Liberation
in Beirut and southern Lebanon March
Organization, the commandos' coordinat-
28-29, 1970. There were no casualties and
ing group headed by Arafat; the com-
little damage.
mandos would establish a centralized
A PFLP statement March 29 said the
fund-raising office in Beirut; the com-
raids were in retaliation for "plans of the
mandos would no longer wear uniforms
United States embassy in Beirut to
and carry arms in public.
foment religious strife and create civil
massacres in Lebanon aimed at paralyz-
ing the Palestine resistance movement." Jordan-Commando Clashes. At least 30
The statement the March
referred to persons were killed or wounded in clashes
24-27 clashes between the Palestinian between Jordanian troops and Palestinian
commandos and armed civilian followers guerrillas in the Amman area Feb. 10-12,
of the Christian Phalangist Party. 1970.
The PFLP attacks were directed near The was precipitated by com-
fighting
the U.S. embassy and the American In- mando violation of a government decree
surance Co. in Beirut March 28 and the issued Feb. 10. restricting their activities
U.S. -owned Medreco oil refinery near in order to prevent a possible challenge
Sidon and the John F. Kennedy Library to King Hussein's rule. The directive
and the Bank of America in Beirut barred commandos from carrying arms in
March 29. towns, gave them two weeks to turn in
caches of weapons and explosives, banned
demonstrations and unauthorized pub-
Lebanese Curbs. Palestinian com- lications and outlawed political party
mandos were reported 1970
Oct. 31, activity.
to have agreed
reorganize their
to Al Fatah, speaking for all 10 Pales-
movement in Lebanon in order to improve tinian guerrilla groups in Jordan, de-
relations with the Beirut regime. The clared in a broadcast Feb. 10 that the
commando decision followed demands by decree was a U.S. -supported attempt to
the Lebanese that the guerrillas stop disarm the Palestinians in preparation
using Lebanon as a base for firing rockets for a settlement with Israel. Al Fatah
into Israel. reported Feb. that all the commando
1 1

The government pressure came after units had agreed to be represented by a


residents of the Marjyun border dis- Unified Command to insure unity in their
trict insouthern Lebanon staged an un- dealings with Hussein.
usual anti-commando demonstration in The clashes were ended by a suspension
protest against a guerrilla rocket attack of the government decree agreed to in
into Israel from the neighboring border talks between Hussein and commando
village of Qaliah Oct. 25. The protesters representatives Feb. 11-12. The accord
feared that the shelling would provoke provided for immediate discussions to
Israel into more retaliatory attacks on resolve all outstanding differences be-
Lebanon. The demonstrators set up road- tween the two sides.
blocks in the area and called on Lebanese A further government-commando ac-
troops and policemen to stop the com- cord reached Feb. 22 said that both sides
mando raids. were in "full understanding on strength-
The controversy was reported Oct. 27 ening national unity and on mobilization
to have been discussed at a meeting of of the masses in Jordan so they may stand
Lebanese Premier Saeb Salam and united with the gallant Jordanian forces
Yasir Arafat, leader of the guerrillas. and the struggling resistance organiza-
These talks were followed by a confer- tions."
THE MIDDLE EAST 33

Although specific provisions of the June 11 said Hussein disclosed that


agreement were not made public, they his bodyguard was killed and five other
were said to permit the commandos to persons were wounded in the attack.
exercise their own discipline, with the Reuters news service reported Hussein
understanding that they refrain from was wounded in the ambush.
carrying arms in public and not appear The truce pact was reached in nego-
in uniform in the main cities. tiations between Hussein and Yasir
Maj. Gen. Mohammed Rassoul Ki- Arafat, leader of Al Fatah. It called for
lani, who reportedly advocated a tough the return of all guerrilla forces to their
policy against the commandos, was re- barracks, the establishment of joint con-
moved as Jordanian interior minister trols and checkpoints, the release of
Feb. 23. prisoners and the formation of two com-
mittees to investigate the cause of the
clashes and to prevent their recurrence.
Jordan Troops Fight Guerrillas. About Lt. Gen. Hammad Shehab, the Iraqi
200 persons were killed and 500 were chief of staff, acted as mediator in the
wounded in clashes between Jordanian Hussein-Arafat talks.
army troops and Palestinian guerrillas in The PFLP rejected the truce agree-
and around Amman June 6-10, 1970; ment and demanded instead the abolition
90% of the victims were civilians. The of what it called the government's anti-
fighting stopped when King Hussein commando organizations and the dis-
yielded to commando demands that he missal of officials believed to be hostile
oust two top army officers accused by the to the commandos.
commandos of plotting with the U.S. Following further talks with Arafat
against the Palestinian cause. June 11, Hussein yielded to PFLP de-
The Syrian government June 11 pro- mands and dismissed his uncle, Maj.
claimed support for the Palestinian com- Gen. Nasser Ben-Jamil as commander
in chief and Maj. Gen. Zaid Ben-Shaker
mandos in their fighting with the Jor-
danian government. as commander of the Third Armored
Damascus radio
called on Jordanian soldiers to stop Division, which surrounded Amman.
shooting at the commandos. The commandos accused Ben-Jamil
of collaborating with U.S. intelligence
The underlying cause of the violence officials. An Al Fatah broadcast from
remained commando opposition to Jor-
Cairo June 10 had labeled him as "the
danian government attempts to restrain
head of the anticommando conspiracy"
their operations against Israel.
and called Ben-Shaker a co-conspirator.
In an outgrowth of the disturbances, The commandos had assailed Ben-
the U.S. military attache in Amman was Shaker for harsh repression of the guer-
shot to death, another American aide rillas. Hussein reportedly rejected a
was abducted and then released, a num- commando demand to deport Ben-Jamil
ber of foreigners, including Americans, and Ben-Shaker along with Rasoul al-
were held hostage but later freed, and Kallani, the former chief of security,
pro-commando mobs in Beirut burned and former Premier WasfiTell. Kallani
the Jordanian embassy. had been accused by the Al Fatah broad-
The brunt of the fighting for the com- cast of being a co-conspirator. These
mandos was believed conducted by the men reportedly had been members of
Popular Front for the Liberation of an intelligence board whose aim was to
Palestine (PFLP). undermine the commandos.
King Hussein was the target of an Premier Bahjat al-Talhouni reported
assassination attempt June 9. A govern- June 13 that a government motorcade
ment broadcast said his motorcade carrying Maj. Gen. Mashur Haditha,
came under "criminal attack" near army chief of staff, had been fired on
Suweilih, a small town west of Amman, that day near Amman. Five of the gen-
where the king had a summer villa. eral's guards were wounded, he said.
Hussein was reported returning to his According to a commando broadcast of
palace in Amman to deal with the crisis the incident, joint action by comman-
at the time. An Amman broadcast dos and troops loyal to King Hussein had
34 POLITICAL TERRORISM

blocked an advance on Amman of tanks consisted of 112 members, representing


operated by a dissident force. The broad- the commandos, students, workers and
cast said the dissidents were followers individual leaders of the Palestinian
of Gen. Ben-Jamil. community in various Arab countries.
U.S.aide slain —
Maj. Robert Perry, The Supreme Military Council, com-
posed of the 10 commando groups, di-
34, military attache in Amman,
U.S.
was shot to death by commandos in his vided Jordan into several military zones
home in the Jordanian capital June 10. and appointed a separate command for
A State Department statement said guerrillas operating from each zone.
Perry was killed by automatic-weapons The Central Committee constituted
fireat close range through the locked the highest political authority for the
doors of his house when guerrillas at- commandos.
tempted to enter. The 10 commando groups in the Cen-
In other incidents involving members tral Committee were: Al Fatah, the
of the U.S. embassy, Morris Draper, largest of the groups; As Saiqah, the
42, head of the embassy's political divi- second largest group, sponsored by the
sion, was kidnaped by commandos ruling Baath party of Syria; the Popular
June 7 as he drove to a dinner party in Front for the Liberation of Palestine;
Amman. He was released unharmed the Popular Democratic Front for the
June 8 following contacts between Liberation of Palestine; the Popular
the Jordanian government and the Front for the Liberation of Palestine
commandos. The guerrillas had said (General Command); and the Palestine
Draper was being held for the release of Arab Organization (the last three had
commandos captured in the fighting broken away from the PFLP); the Ac-
with Jordanian troops. tion Group for the Liberation of Pales-
Sixty foreigners held hostage by tine, an offshoot of Al Fatah; the Arab
the commandos in two Amman hotels Liberation Front, sponsored by the
for three days were released June 12 as Iraqi Baath party; the Popular Libera-
peace was restored in the capital. Most tion Forces, the military branch of the

of those freed were Americans and Bri- PLO; and the Popular Struggle Front.
tons. announcing their release, Dr.
In Only four of the 10 groups were repre-
George Habash, head of the PFLP, told sented on the PLO executive committee.
a gathering of the hostages in one of They were Al Fatah, As Saiqah, the
the hotels: "Believe me —
and I am not Popular Democratic Front for the Lib-

joking we were determined to blow up eration of Palestine and the Popular
the hotels with the hostagesin them if Liberation Forces.
we had been smashed in our camps." The Palestine National Council also
A guerrilla spokesman had said June 10 established a joint committee of com-
that the hostages were being held to mandos and leftist organizations in Jor-
force the Jordanian army to halt the dan and Lebanon. The inclusion of the
shelling of guerrilla positions in refugee PFLP on the Central Committee was
camps. the first time that organization became
involved in any overall commando
group.

Arab commandos reorganize. A new


27-man Central Committee of the 10 Jordan-commando accord. An agree-
Palestinian commando organizations ment aimed at settling the long-standing
was formed at an emergency meeting of dispute between Jordan and the Pales-
all the guerrilla groups in the Palestine tinian commandos was signed in Am-
Armed Struggle Command in Jordan man July 10, 1970. It had been worked
June 9, 1970. Yasir Arafat was elected com- out by representatives of Egypt, Libya,
mander in chief of all Palestinian forces. Sudan and Algeria.
The decision to reorganize the com- The accord, signed by Jordanian Pre-
mando leadership had been made at a mier Abdel Moneim Rifai and by Yasir
meeting of the Palestine National Coun- Arafat, chairman of the Central Com-
cil May 29-June 4 in Cairo. The council mittee of the Palestine Liberation Or-
THE MIDDLE EAST 35

ganization, reasserted most of the terms crackdown on the commandos are com-
of the agreement reached after previous pletely untrue, and the aim of these ru-
Jordanian-commando clashes in Feb- mors is to create confusion."
ruary. Its principal points: The attempt on Hussein's life pointed
The commandos would remove their up the continued opposition of the Pales-
forces from Amman and other major tinian commandos to Jordan's decision
towns, but a civilian militia would be to enter peace talks with Israel. The in-
permitted to remain under supervision cident followed clashes Aug. 26-30 be-
of a joint government-commando com- tween Jordanian army troops and the
mittee. commandos in Amman.
The commandos would refrain from:
carrying arms in public places, using un-
licensed vehicles, military training with Clashes resume in Jordan. Two weeks
live ammunition, storing heavy weapons of sporadic but heavy fighting between
and explosives in populated centers and commandos and Jordanian toops led to
maintaining bases in towns. the installation of a military government
The commandos would obey Jordanian by King Hussein Sept. 16. The prior gov-
statutes, hand over law violators and ernment, headed by Premier Abdel Mon-
refuse to accept recruits liable for service eim Rifai, was reported to have been
in the Jordanian army. dismissed by Hussein Sept. 15 when he
Amman government pledged to
The learned terms of a truce agreement
support the Palestinian guerrilla move- negotiated with the commandos an —
ment and to bar any government body agreement that reportedly would have
from carrying out acts detrimental to turned control of Jordan's major cities
the commandos. over to the guerrilla leaders. The truce
negotiated by the Rifai government was
the fourth to be concluded with the com-
mandos during the two week period.
Palestinians urge war. Arab guerrillas The fighting had broken out following
called for a continued military struggle the attempt to assassinate Hussein.
against Israel at a meeting of the Palestin-
The fourth truce agreement was worked
ian National Council in Amman Aug.
out with the aid of Arab League me-
27-28.
diators and was signed Sept. 15 by Rifai
Resolutions adopted by the delegates
and PLO Central Committee Chairman
Aug. 28 denounced a U.S. peace initia- Yasir Arafat. The agreement called
tive that had brought about negotiations
for replacing army guards by police
between Israel, Jordan and Egypt. The units throughout Amman, reductions in
council said that anyone opposed to the
army strength near the capital and the
Palestinians' campaign to destroy Israel
evacuation of all new positions by both
"is a traitor to his cause and the revolu-
sides.
tion and deserves severe punishment." commandos were to
In addition, the
remove roadblocks and stop all inter-
ception, interrogation and arrest proce-
Hussein escapes assassination. Jordan- dures. The army agreed not to intercept
ian King Hussein escaped injury when commandos. The post office, power
would-be assassins fired on his motorcade plant and water stations would continue
in Amman Sept. 1, 1970. to be guarded by units of both sides.
The
incident was followed by an ex- The agreement, to go into effect
change of gunfire between Jordanian Sept. 16, was presented by Rifai to King
army troops and Palestinian commandos Hussein, who reportedly declared that
hostile to Hussein in and around Amman. he "had been betrayed." The king im-
A government communique issued after mediately dismissed the Rifai govern-
the attack declared: "The Jordanian gov- ment.
ernment assures the Jordanian people Hussein announced the formation of
and the Arab nation that the situation in the military cabinet Sept. 16.
the capital and the kingdom is under full The new government was headed by
control. Any rumors by the army of a Brig. Mohammed Daoud as premier
36 POLITICAL TERRORISM

and minister of foreign affairs and jus- surrounded and attacked the Al-Hus-
tice and included five other generals, seini and Wahdat refugee camps, sites of
two colonels and three majors. However, commando operational headquarters.
Hussein simultaneously named Field Hussein's military government charged
Marshal Habes al-Majali to replace Maj. in a broadcast that the guerrillas began
Gen. Mashur Haditha as commander in the fighting by firing on the army's gen-
chief of the army and military governor eral staff headquarters shortly before
of Jordan. Real authority was believed dawn. The commando radio denied the
to be in Majali's hands. account, asserting that the army started
Hussein's letter appointing Daoud the shooting by opening fire on the two
ordered him to implement the cease-fire Palestinian refugee camps.
agreement negotiated with commando By 5 p.m. the official Amman radio
leaders by Rifai. Government spokesmen announced that the government troops
said Sept.16 that the military leaders were in command of the city except for
were aiming at a "Lebanese" solution scattered pockets of guerrilla resistance.
under which commandos would be con- As the fighting ebbed in the capital at
centrated in border areas adjacent to sunset, the clashes in the north increased
Israel. A spokesman for Al Fatah, the in intensity. At Zerqa, 13 miles north-

largest guerrilla group, said Sept. 16 that east of Amman, government forces over-
the commandos would not leave their ran a guerrilla redoubt that had once been
strongholds in the cities of northern the staging area for commando forays
Jordan. against Israel.
The Central Committee of the Pales- Fierce house-to-house fighting con-
tine Liberation Organization rejected the tinued in Amman Sept. 18.
military government Sept. 16 as the prod- A large force of the guerrillas, fighting
uct of "a fascist military coup." It or- from behind a column of Syrian tanks,
dered commandos to hold their positions Sept. 21 routed Hussein's forces in north-
and fortify them against attack by the ern Jordan. The guerrilla radio reported
army. that all the cities in the north, except
Central Committee statements broad- Amman, had fallen to the commandos.
cast that day by the commando radio
stations in Baghdad and Damascus said
Jordanian tanks rolled across the desert
Sept. 23, pushing back a guerrilla force
that the Popular Front for the Libera-
that had driven a wedge between govern-
tion of Palestine had been readmitted to
ment forces in the north and south. Syrian
the committee and that all guerrilla units
tanks that had spearheaded the guerrilla
were now under the command of Yasir
Arafat. The committee called for a general
advance were chased back across the bor-
der into Syria after constant pounding
strike Sept. 17 to help it topple the govern-
ment.
from a squadron of Jordan jets. Field
The Baghdad and Damascus broad- Marshal Majali announced a cease-fire
casts made it clear that the commandos order in Amman. The order was ignored,
however, as both sides continued to ex-
had the backing of the Iraqi and Syrian
governments. The Damascus broad- change small-arms fire throughout the
new city. King Hussein said Sept. 23 that most
casts said that Syria considered the
Jordanian government the puppet of of the capital was under government con-
trol. He said he believed "the brunt of the
an imperialist plot to destroy the Arab
commando movement. problem" was over.
Columns of tanks and troops under or- Hussein later noted an agreement be-
ders of the new military government tween his government and four captured
entered Amman at dawn Sept. 17 and commando chiefs that he said amounted
immediately engaged Palestinian guer- to capitulation by the guerrillas. The ac-
rillas emplaced in buildings throughout cord was repudiated in a broadcast from
the Jordanian capital. The fighting Damascus by Arafat who called it a
quickly spread to other parts of the coun- "conspiracy." He said the four guerrilla
try. officers, two of them line officers in his

The was in the capital,


fiercest fighting chain of command, "do not represent the
where Jordanian tanks and infantry units Palestine Resistance at this time."

THE MIDDLE EAST 37

The ebbed Sept. 24 as


level of fighting The two key provisions in the 14-point
Arafat announced shortly after mid- agreement provided that (1) Hussein
night that he would meet with four envoys would continue in control but under the
representing the Arab chiefs of state who supervision of other Arab nations until
were meeting in Cairo to seek an end to the situation in Jordan could be nor-
the civil war. malized and (2) the guerrillas would have
Fighting ends in cease-fire accord — full support of the Arab world until "full
liberation and victory over the aggres-
Peace returned to Jordan for the first time
sive Israeli enemy." The accord also in-
in 10 days Sept. 25 as King Hussein's
government and the Arab commando cluded the following major points:
leadership jointly ordered an immediate Withdrawal of Jordanian forces to
nationwide cease-fire. areas three miles outside of Amman.
At the time of the cease-fire, Jordanian
forces controlled nearly all of Amman Withdrawal of guerrilla forces from
and had pushed north to encircle guerrilla Amman to a new position suitable for
forces holding Irbid, Ramtha and Jarash.
staging commando raids against Israel.
A Jordanian general told newsmen that The transfer of power and responsi-
the Arab commando leadership had bility for the administration of internal
agreed to the cease-fire to freeze the security from military to civilian authori-
military position and prevent a worsening ties.
of their situation.
Hussein forms new government King — Jordan recognizes Al Fatah Jorda- —
nian Information Minister Adnan Abuh
Hussein Sept. 26 appointed a new civilian-
military government of "national recon-
Odeh said Oct. 1 that in the future his
ciliation" to replace the all-military gov-
government would recognize only one
of the 10 Arab guerrillas organizations
ernment he installed 1 1 days before on
Al Fatah, headed by Yasir Arafat. As-
the eve of his drive to crush the Arab
serting that all other guerrilla groups
commando movement.
were illegal, Odeh said "We are not
The new cabinet of seven civilians and
going to suppress anyone, but we want
sixarmy officers was to be headed by
to deal only with Fatah." He suggested
Ahmed Toukan.
that members of the other commando
The military retained the key defense
forces join Al Fatah.
and interior ministries in the new govern-
ment. A senior army officer, Brig.
Mazen Ajluni, the deputy military
governor under Majali, was also re- Commandos quit north Jordan. Pales-
tained the new cabinet as minister of
in tinian commandos began withdrawing
state for the premier's office. from towns in northern Jordan Oct. 6 in
The commandos assailed Hussein and accordance with the Sept. 27 agreement.
his new cabinet through a spokesman in The guerrillas were moving to encamp-
Damascus. The spokesman for the Cen- ments in the countryside and some were
tral Committee said the appointment of reported going to Syria.
the new cabinet "does not change our at-
Both guerrillas and Jordanian troops
titude in the least. Nor will it make any
had begun moving out of Amman Sept.
change in the situation, as long as the
30 in implementation of the Cairo ac-
royal regime exists and the real criminals,
cord; the pullout was reported complete
first and foremost King Hussein, are in
Oct. 4. The government forces took up
power."
positions along the front line with Israel.
The troop withdrawals were supervised
Agreement ends Jordanian civil war. by a truce team of 100 Arab officers from
King Hussein of Jordan and Yasir Arafat Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and
met with Arab chiefs of state in Cairo Tunisia.
Sept. 27 and joined them in signing a 14- A truce pact to restore peace in
point agreement that called for an im- northern Jordan, supplemental to the
mediate end to the fighting in the 10-day Sept. 27 Cairo agreement, had been
Jordanian civil war. signed Oct. by Jordanian army officers
I
38
POLITICAL TERRORISM

and guerrilla representatives in Ramtha. to the Israelis, Halma was the principal
Principal points of the agreement: Al Fatah training base in Syria and Leb-
Both sides were to withdraw their anon and served as the group's logistic
headquarters. Halma also was said to be
armored units from the Ramtha-Irbid-
Jerash triangle. the staging area for guerrillas trained in
would be per- the U.A.R., Algeria and Communist
All unarmed units
Amman or other China.
mitted to go south to
towns.
Guerrillas must keep their weapons
New Arab Commando Group. A new
at theirbases or in their homes and
commando group, called the Arab Or-
must not carry them in the streets. of Sinai, was reported by
ganization
prisoners were to be set free.
All Cairo to have carried out its first raids be-
(Jordan reported Oct. 6 that at least hind Israeli lines inthe Sinai Peninsula
10,400 guerrillas had been released March 23, 1969. In one raid, the at-
from detention camps the previous day, tackers, using portable rockets, were
bringing to a total of 18,882 the number said to have destroyed an Israeli com-
of commandos freed since the Cairo mand center and radar site at El Borg,
agreement.) 10 miles east of the Suez Canal in the
The cease-fire continued to be punc- northern part of the peninsula. In another
tuated by clashes. A Jordanian tank raid, the guerrillas reportedly struck at
force advancing toward Ramtha was Israel artillery and supply positions at
attacked by guerrillas Sept. 30. One Ein Moussa, on the eastern shore of the
tank was blown up by a commando Red Sea.
mine.

Israel Jordan. Jordan charged


Bombs
March that 18 civilians had
26, 1969
Guerrilla Attacks, been day when four Israeli
killed that
Israeli Retaliation jets bombed roadside rest houses at Ein
Khanzir, on the outskirts of the town of
Salt, 16 miles north of Amman. The
U.N. Security Council, at Jordan's re-
Israeli Jets Bomb Syria. In the first air quest, took up the incident March 27
raid on Syria since the 1967 war, Israeli and April 1 censured Israel for the raid.
jets Feb. 24, 1969 bombed sites on
the
France and the Soviet Union joined
Damascus-Beirut road allegedly used as the majority in voting for the resolution.
bases for Al Fatah. The U.S., Britain, Colombia and Para-
Israeli authorities reported that the guay abstained.
planes bombed guerrilla camps at Halma
The vote by the Council was the first
and Maisalun, in the vicinity of Da- since the 1967 war that failed to take a
mascus. The report said that hundreds of unanimous stand on a cease-fire viola-
commandos were caught in their build- tion. Yosef Tekoah, the Israeli represen-
ings and tents in the 30-minute strike and tative, said this was a clear indication
that two Syrian MiG-21s were downed by that the U.S. and Britain were opposed
Israeli pilots in four air clashes during the to Arab guerrilla and terrorist attacks
operations. Israel said all its planes re- on Israel, while the Soviet Union backed
turned safely, refuting Syrian claims that the Arab "terror organizations."
3 Israeli Mirages had been shot down.
U.S. Ambassador Charles Yost said
Israeli military authorities said the air
that the U.S. could not vote for a resolu-
strike was in retaliation for increased
tion that did not hold Arab terrorists
terrorist attacks from Syrian bases on the
equally to blame. "Death is just as final
Israeli-held Golan Heights. The Israelis
and as shocking if it comes from a bomb
charged that 12 such raids had occurred
in a supermarket or from a bomb from the
in the previous two weeks. Syria had al-
air."
ways supported the commandos but only
recently had permitted them to infiltrate
Yoseph Tekoah charged that Amman
across the border into Israel. According was playing a major role "in warfare
THE MIDDLE EAST 39

by terror against the people of Israel" ists and the Iraqi expeditionary forces
"since Jordanian territory serves as the and without them."
main jumping-off ground for attacks Israeli jets attacked Jordan June 22.
against Israel." Jordan, he charged, "is The 45-minute raid against targets at
the central base of the terror operations." Arab el Hassan and Khirbet el Barka
Thus, the Israeli attack on the Salt area were described by Israeli officials as
"was an act of self-defense," Tekoah said. retaliation for the Arab shelling earlier
Tekoah warned that if the Arab govern- June 22 of a settlement near Beison in
ments were "unwilling to stop" guer- northern Israel.
rilla raids on Israel, then Israel "must Israeli Deputy Prime Minister Yigal
take itself all the necessary measures Allon had warned June 16 that unless
to put an end to it." the guerrillas halted their attacks Israel
Vowing to avenge the
killing of the "will stop drawing the distinction be-
Jordanian the Popular Front
civilians, tween the terrorists and the Arab regu-
for the Liberation of Palestine March 27 lar armies."
urged foreigners not to travel on Israeli
planes or ships "so we may have a free
hand in striking at Israeli communica- Israeli AttacksJordan. Israeli officials
in
tions lines."
disclosed May 1969 that Israeli
9,
Israeli jets attacked Jordanian posi- commandos had been crossing the Jordan
tions again March 30, bombing targets River for the past year to attack Arab
south of the Sea of Galilee. The raid guerrilla forces in Jordan.
followed the wounding of four Israeli The assaults on the east bank of the
soldiers by bazooka rockets. Jordan came to light when Israeli news-
was reported June
Israel to have 1 papers were permitted to publish ac-
warned Jordan that Israeli forces would counts of one of the heaviest of these raids,
strike at Jordanian soldiers unless Am- carried out May 8. Striking one mile east
man's troops stopped aiding Arab guer- of the river in the area of Wadi Yavesh,
rillas in their attacks on Israel. The opposite the Israeli settlement of Tirat-
warning, the second reported in a week, Tsvi, an Israeli commando unit de-
was said to have been transmitted to stroyed 12 guerrilla structures and killed
King Hussein through U.S. channels. three Jordanian civilians in an abandoned
Israeli jets struck Jordan June 18 and village. Amman reported that the civil-
19. The June 18heavier of the
strike, ians were killed when their car ran over
two, was directed against an area extend- mines planted by Israelis before they
ing 45 miles from the Dead Sea to the withdrew.
Gilead Hills, on the east bank of the The Israelis reportedly divulged the
Jordan. A
Jerusalem communique said commando activities when it was felt they
among targets hit were Jordanian
the could no longer be concealed because of
artillery batteries near El Zahadane and the widespread damage caused by the
positions near two bridges crossing the latest raid.
Jordan River. Amman reported four
Jordanian soldiers killed and seven
wounded in the air attack. Israeli mili- Arab guer-
Guerrillas Attack Jericho.
tary officials said the aerial assault was rillas,apparently firing from Jordan,
in retaliation for 600 "acts of aggres- shelled Jericho in the Israeli-held west
sion" against Israel from Jordanian ter- bank May 27 and 28. It was the first at-
ritory since Jan. 1. In the past two tack on the all-Arab city since the 1967
months the Israelis listed 40 attacks by war.
artillery, 107 by mortars, 17 by tanks, In the May 27 incident, an Arab police-
17 by Soviet-made Katyusha rockets and man was injured, several stores were
7 by antitank rifles. The Israelis re- burned and other structures were dam-
ported killing 66 guerrillas and taking 20 aged. Israeli authorities reported that
prisoners during the two-month period. one civilian was wounded and a building
An Israeli Defence Ministry statement destroyed in the May 28 shelling.
said "Jordanian aggression is increas- A spokesman for Al Fatah charged
ing — with the participation of the terror- May 29 that Israeli forces had fired on
40 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Jericho in an effort to force the Arab on Israeli territory by Jordan-based Arab


population to flee. guerrillas and by regular Jordanian
forces. Israeli jets also launched a re-
prisal raid on guerrilla camps in Lebanon
Arabs Damage Pipeline. Arab guerril- Aug. 11.
las of the Popular Front for the Libera- The heaviest of the Israeli strikes,
tion of Palestine May 30, 1969 blew up Aug. 10, blasted sections of northern Jor-
and heavily damaged a section of the dan's Ghor Canal, which drew water
Trans-Arabian Pipeline, owned by the from the Yarmuk River for the irrigation
Arabian-American Oil Co. (Aramco), in of 180,000 acres of land in the Jordan
the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights of Valley.
Syria. Israeli jets struck at targets southeast
The explosion and resultant fire block- of the Sea of Galilee Aug. 6, about 20
ed the flow of oil through the 1,000-mile minutes after Jordanian artillery had
pipeline connecting Dharan, Saudi Ara- shelled the settlement of Ashdot Yaakov.
bia on the Persian Gulf to Sidon, a Leba- Israeli jets Aug. 7 penetrated up to 15
nese port on the Mediterranean. The miles across the Jordan border south of
pipeline provided Saudi Arabia, Jordan, the Yarmuk River, hitting camps, forti-
Syria and Lebanon with millions of dol- fied positions, command posts and trans-
lars in royalties and transit fees each portation equipment. Israeli tanks joined
year. in the attack but did not cross into Jor-
A PFLP spokesman in Amman, Jor- danian territory. The assault followed an
dan said May 31 that an explosive charge Arab guerrilla attack earlier Aug. 7 in
had been placed in the Baniyas River which an Israeli bus was blown up near
where the pipeline runs along the river El Hamma, killing the civilian driver and
bed. The purpose of the blast, the spokes- a soldier and wounding 12 soldiers. A
man said, was to spill oil into the river commando group, the Popular Front for
and pollute the water it supplied to Israeli the Liberation of Palestine, claimed its
settlements and fisheries in the Huleh forces had killed 50 Israeli soldiers in the
Valley. As a result of the blast, oil was bus attack.
reported seeping into the northern part The Palestine Armed Struggle Com-
of the Sea of Galilee, an important water mand, representing seven guerrilla or-
source for Israel, but without causing ganizations, said a joint commando
dangerous pollution. Oil slicks also were force had attacked and occupied for three
observed on the Jordan River. Israelis hours the Israeli settlements of Neve-Ur,
fought the pipeline blaze 14 hours before Yardena and Beit Yossef and three Is-
extinguishing it May 31. raeli military posts in the northern Jor-
The PFLP was sharpiy criticized in the dan Valley Aug. 7. The command said
Arab world June for having blown up
1 many Israelis had been killed and four
the pipeline. The Egyptian newspaper Al tanks were destroyed. Commando losses
Ahram said the PFLPs "incomprehen- were listed as six wounded in the three-
sible" action had inflicted no harm on Is- hour attack. The Israelis dismissed the
rael but had violated a "logical frame- Arab claims, saying that the guerrilla as-
work of Arab principle and interests." sault had been confined to a bazooka at-
The Saudi Arabian government, tack on Yardena in which one woman
which stood to lose most from the pipe- was injured.
line attack, charged in a Mecca radio A guerrilla attack on the Israeli potash
broadcast that the PFLP commandos works at Sodom on the Dead Sea Aug. 7
had served Zionism by their sabotage. prompted Israeli jets to pound Jordanian
The Beirut newspaper Al Hayat said positions in the area the following day.
the PFLP was serving Israeli interests
The air strike on Lebanon Aug. 1 1 was
by its attack. directed at seven guerrilla bases east of
the Hasbani River, a tributary of the Jor-
dan River. An Israeli spokesman said the
Israeli Jets Raid Jordan. Israeli jets 30-minute mission, the first air attack on
carried out heavy attacks on targets in Lebanon, had been ordered "as a result
Jordan Aug. 6-10, 1969 following raids of the increase in terrorist activities ema-
THE MIDDLE EAST 41

nating from Lebanese territory." The launched a raid from the first village
statement said 21 such attacks had occur- against the Israeli settlement of Ramat
red in the past month. Shalom Sept. 30, killing an Israeli Druze
Al Fatah reported that its commandos watchman.
Sept. 11 had blown up the Mahraniah Israelicommandos Dec. 3, attacking
dam, at the confluence of the
irrigation lessthan one mile inside Lebanon, re-
Jordan and Yarmuk Rivers. ported destroying an Arab guerrilla base
Northern Jordan's East Ghor Canal, near the villages of Chabaa and Kifar
damaged by Israeli attacks, was re- Chouba in the foothills of Mount Her-
paired Sept. 22 for the second time in mon.
two months under an unofficial agreement The raiding party claimed that 12
between Israel and Jordan negotiated Arab guerrillas were killed and "many
with the aid of U.S. officials in Amman. more" wounded in the attack. One Is-
An Israeli spokesman said Jerusalem had raeli was reported killed. Before leaving,
agreed not to interfere with the repair the raiders blew up equipment and
work if the cease-fire agreement in the area ammunition. Lebanon said the Israelis
south of the Sea of Galilee was observed. were brought in by helicopters.
But within four hours after the repairs The Israelis said the raid was in re-
were completed, the Israeli settlements of taliation for an attack by Arab guerrillas
Tirat Zvi, Neve Ur and Gesher, across Dec. 2 on their positions near Massada,
the Jordan River from the canal, came un- in the Golan Heights, six miles south-
der Arab guerrilla fire. east of the commandobase struck by the
Israelis. As
Saiqa, the Syrian-supported
guerrilla group, claimed credit for the
raid, saying in Damascus Dec. 3 that its
Israelis Strike at Lebanon. Increasing forces had ambushed a patrol and killed
Arab commando attacks along the Leba- 15 Israelis' and wounded 30 others.
nese frontier prompted Israeli forces to
carry out heavy air strikes against Leba-
non Sept. 3-5, 1969 as well as the first U.N. acts on Israeli raid. An Israeli
commando attack on Lebanon since Oct. attack on Arab guerrilla bases in Leba-
28, 1966. non was condemned by the U.N. Security
The Sept. 3 air strike was directed at Council Sept. 5, 1970. A resolution calling
suspected guerrilla concentrations on the for "complete and immediate withdrawal"
slopes of Mount Hermon from which of Israeli forces from Lebanon was ap-
rockets the previous day had shelled the proved by a vote of 14-0, with the U.S.
northern Israeli villages of Kiryat abstaining.
Shmona and Kfar Giladi. Three civilians Israeli representative Shabtai Ro-
were killed and four others were senne acknowledged that Israeli forces
wounded at Kiryat Shmona. had "carried out a search-and-comb
The target of the Israeli commando mission" around Mt. Hermon in Leba-
strike the night of Sept. 4 was the vil- non Sept. 4 and 5, but that the troops
lage of Halta, two miles inside Lebanon. had "completed their mission a few
The Israelis emptied 12 houses of hours ago and have since evacuated the
occupants and destroyed the structures, territory." Rosenne dismissed the oper-
reportedly containing weapons and uni- ation as "a minor action .directed
. .

forms. Five Arab guerrillas were killed solely against terrorists in the area af-
and four Israelis were wounded in the fected."
operation. In report on the Israeli incursion,
a
A Beirut communique Sept. 5 said Lebanon had said Sept. 5 that its tanks
the Israeli commandos had been trans- and guns had stopped an Israeli advance
ported to Halta by helicopters but that toward Rashaya. The village had come
Lebanese forces had repulsed them. under Israeli air attack along with the
Israeli troops moved into southern adjacent communities of Suba and Haia-
Lebanon Oct. and blew up buildings in
3 riya in the Mt. Hermon area. An Al
the villages of Mazraat Deharjat and Ait- Fatah spokesman said its commando
run, suspected of housing Arab guerrillas. forces had been engaging the Israeli
According to the Israelis, guerrillas had forces in the area for the past 36 hours.
42 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Commandos score truce. Palestinian The incidents occurred before dawn in


guerrillasAug. 7, 1970 reiterated opposi- the towns of Gaza, Jabaliya, Khan Yunis,
tion to any truce in the Middle East and Rafa and Deir el Balah. They were re-
followed up their pronouncement with lated to a general Arab protest marking
attacks against Israel from Jordan, Syria Israel's Independence Day, which coin-
and Lebanon. Israeli forces struck back. cided with the lunar Hebrew calendar
The guerrillas acted in defiance of a U.S.- anniversary of Jordanian Jerusalem's
proposed truce accepted by Israel and the capture by the Israelis in 1967.
Arab governments. An Israeli military court in the Gaza
In Amman, a spokesman for the Cen- Strip April 13 had sentenced an 18-year-
tral Committee of the commando move- old girl to 20 years in prison —
the stiffest
ment, which comprised 10 commando penalty imposed on a woman since the
groups, said the Palestinians "reject the war. The girl had been found guilty of
cease-fire; we want to liberate our land hurling grenades at an Israeli patrol ve-
and the decision of the United Arab hicle and injuring four soldiers.
Republic to accept a cease-fire does not Israeli forces May 27 arrested 10 mem-

change our position and will prompt us bers of an Arab guerrilla group, the Pop-
to step up our military operations until
ular Front for the Liberation of Palestine,
final victory."
accused of terrorizing Gaza Strip resi-
A Central Committee statement
dents suspected of collaborating with the
issued in said the Palestinians
Beirut
Israelis. The arrests followed the May
would continue their struggle until all of 26 shooting of an Arab member of Is-
Palestine had been "liberated."
rael's Gaza border police.
Commando sources reported rival
Beirut reported another Israeli attack
Palestinian groups reached agreement
inside Lebanese territory Sept. 6. A com-
Aug. 6 on preventing further clashes munique said an Israeli armored column
between the guerrilla organizations op-
had advanced from the Golan Heights
posed to the American peace plan and
toward the Lebanese villages of Haman
those commandos who supported Cairo's
and Rashaya, about three miles north-
acceptance of it. In one action Aug. 5, west of the border. The report said the
a member of the Popular Front for the
Israeli force withdrew three hours later
Liberation of Palestine was killed in an
in the face of Lebanese artillery fire. Al
exchange of fire with the pro-Nasser Fatah claimed its men fought with the
Action Group for the Liberation of Israelis in the same area.
Palestine at Irbid in northern Jordan.
Injuries were reported on both sides.
A grenade thrown by an Arab terrorist
Nov. 19 killed an Arab boy in the Gaza
Fighting broke out again Aug. 6 when
Strip town of Khan Yunis. Five other
PFLP commandos raided the Amman Arabs were wounded in the attack, which
office of the pro-Nasser Palestine Arab
was directed at the branch of an Israeli
Organization.
bank.
Israeli authorities Nov. 20 announced
the arrest of more than 50 members of
five Arab groups suspected of major
Terrorism in Israel
terrorist incidents in Israel and in the
& in Occupied Areas occupied areas in the past few months.
Two of the groups operated out of the
west-bank town of Hebron, one in Gaza,
one in Acre, north of Haifa, and the
Gaza & West Bank Hit. About 35 other in Taiyibe, an Arab village between
Arab residents of the Israeli-occupied
Tel Aviv and Haifa. The Acre group
Gaza Strip, many of them women, were
was believed responsible for the dyna-
injured May 15, 1969 by grenades and
miting of five Haifa apartment houses
other explosive devices that were
in October. Six of its seized members,
thrown market areas by Arab ter-
into
all Israeli Arabs, were said to have links
rorists. (Since the June 1967 Arab-Israeli
with the El Asifa, an arm of Al Fatah.
war, hundreds of residents of Arab areas The arrest of the Acre suspects and
had been injured by terrorist bombs.) the demolition of a car in the town Nov.
THE MIDDLE EAST 43

22 prompted Jewish youths to attempt following the discovery Aug. 26


to break into the Arab quarter there of 16 guerrilla rockets aimed at the Is-
Nov. 23. The car, containing explosives, raeli capital.
blew up as it entered Acre, killing its Three shells fired from three of the
two Israeli Arab occupants. rockets had struck the southern Jerusalem
One of the victims of the car explo- suburbs Aug. 25 but caused no casualties
sion was said to have provided Israeli or damage. The 13 other rockets had
authorities with information before his failed to go off. Israeli army helicopters
death leading to the arrest later Nov. 22 searching for the rocket emplacements
of Capt. Abdul Latif Rsheid, a key spotted them on a barren hill, two miles
figure in Arab terrorist groups. Rsheid, east ofBethlehem, between the Arab
a former Jordanian army intelligence villages ofSur Bahir and Beir Sahhour.
officer who was believed to have organ- Israeli planes Aug. 26 bombed Arab
ized the Acre terrorist groups and guerrillas bases in Jordan south of the
similar organizations in the Galilee, Dead Sea in retaliation for the Jerusa-
was seized in Sir, a village south of the lem shelling.
west-bank town of Jenin.
An Arab was killed and five injured
by a grenade thrown into a crowded 516 Arab Homes Destroyed. Defense
marketplace in Jerusalem Jan. 1, 1970. Minister Moshe Dayan Dec.
disclosed
Another grenade thrown at an Israeli 16, 1969 that Israel haddestroyed
army vehicle in Hebron that day missed 516 homes in the occupied areas since
its target and killed two Arab bystanders. the 1967 war in retaliation for Arab
They were identified as Moho Hilbi el cooperation with suspected guerrilla
Moukhtasseb, 28, son of the mufti of terrorists. Of this number, 265 were
Jerusalem, and the mufti*s uncle. demolished in the west bank, 227 in the
Six Arab terrorist suspects were killed Gaza Strip and 24 in East Jerusalem,
and 24 captured in a series of Israeli Dayan said. Fourteen of the 24 East
anti-guerrilla operations along the Jordan Jerusalem houses had been "closed up,"
River the west-bank area Jan. 8. Two
in a recent action in which doors and
were slain near Umsutz, three in two windows were bricked up to avoid de-
separate operations in the Arava area, stroying nearby houses, according to
south of the Dead Sea, and one in Beit Israeli authorities.
Fajar, south of Bethlehem. In the latter Arab leaders claimed that more than
clash, 20 suspects were captured and a 7,500 dwellings had been blown up by the
huge arms cache was uncovered. Israelis in the occupied territories since
Police Minister Shlomo Hillel
Israeli the 1967 war.
said Jan. 5 that 120 Israeli Arabs had
been found guilty of collaboration with
Arab guerrillas since the 1967 war. Haifa Blasts Kill 2. Two Israeli civil-
Terrorist grenade attacks in the Gaza ians were killed and 20 were wounded
Strip in March 1970 killed 27 persons and when Arab terrorist bombs exploded
injured 132, making it the bloodiest month under five apartment buildings in Haifa
in the Israeli-occupied strip since the 1967 Oct. 22 and 23, 1969. Police attributed the
war. Most of the attacks were directed blasts to the Popular Front for the Libera-
against Arabs accused of collaborating tion of Palestine.
with Israel.
Israeli miliary authorities reported Jan.
3, 1971 that 39 Arabs in the occupied
areas had been killed and 734 wounded Tel Aviv Blasts. Bomb explosions in Tel
Aviv Nov. 6, 1970 killed one person and
by Palestinian guerrilla action, largely
injured 34. Al Fatah took credit for
in the Gaza Strip, during 1970.
the blasts and said a large number of
Israelis were killed or wounded.
Rockets Aimed at Jerusalem. The Israeli The two explosions, spaced 20 minutes
army sealed off a six-square-mile area apart, occurred in the city's central bus
southeast of Jerusalem Aug. 29, 1969 station. (The terminal had been the target
44 POLITICAL TERRORISM

of a similar Arab bomb attack Sept. 4, dismantling an explosive package in a


1968, in which one person was killed and Tel Aviv police station Jan. 3. A num-
51 wounded.) ber of prominent Israelis, including Gen.
An Al Fatah statement issued in Am- Ezer Weizman, former air force com-
man Nov. 8 by Abu Iyad, the guerrilla mander, were recipients of the packages.
group's second-in-command, boasted (A British decision to permit the Pales-
that the Tel Aviv blasts were "the start tine Liberation Organization to open an
of more and bigger operations within office in London was assailed by Israel
our occupied homeland." July 4, 1972.)

Arab Rocket Attack. Arab guerrilla rock- Guerrilla- Arab State Tensions
ets July 7, 1971 struck the Israeli town of
Petah Tiqva, seven miles northeast of
Tel Aviv, killing four persons and wound- Commandos curb forces in Lebanon.
ing 30. Targets"of the attack were a hos- The Palestinian commandos in Lebanon
pital and a schoolyard. Al Fatah, the Jan. 3, 1971 announced new actions de-
commando group, claimed credit for the signed to curb the "bourgeois appear-
shelling. ance" of the movement in the country,
Six Arab guerrillas linked by Israeli to restore the secrecy of the guerrilla
authorities to the Petah Tiqva raid were organization and to create greater ef-
killed in encounter with an Israeli
an ficiency.
patrol July according to a Tel Aviv
14,
Al Fatah announced that it would
communique. A seventh was reported to withdraw arms from its men in Lebanon
have escaped into Jordan. The guerrillas
to achieve closer cooperation with the
were intercepted in the west bank 12
Beirut government and close its four
miles north of Jericho.
offices in the country's refugee camps.
The Beirut office would remain open.
The guerrillas also were said to be
Terrorists Attack Arabs. Arabs under
concerned over a recent outbreak of
Israelicontrol were victims of several violence among their followers. In one
Arab terrorist strikes during 1971. incident, an Al Fatah man had been slain
Palestinian commandos inflicted
by three other guerrillas in Beirut Dec.
casualties on other Arabs in retaliation 31, 1970. Al Fatah's own military' police
for suspected cooperation with Israeli
arrested two of the three suspects and
authorities in a series of hand grenade turned them over to Lebanese authorities.
attacks in the Gaza Strip June 6, 11 and The alleged assailants were identified as
23. Two Arabs were shot to death follow- members of the extreme Action Organi-
ing a grenade assault June 6. zation the Liberation of Palestine
for
Arab laborers waiting for Israeli (AOLP), an offshoot of Al Fatah. Al
buses to take them to work were the tar- Fatah also seized AOLP leader Issam
get of grenade attacks June 11. Two Sartawi, closed AOLP's office in Beirut
Arabs were killed and 81 injured. The and seized its arms.
incident occurred near the Muwazzi
refugee camp in Gaza.south
Two Arabs were and 44 persons
killed
were wounded June 23 by a hand grenade Jordan in anti-commando drbe. Jorda-
tossed into a market place at Khan nian troops launched a major attack
Yunis. against Palestinian commando bases
north of Amman Jan. 8, 1971. Fighting
Bombs by Mail. Explosive parcels continued in the area and in the capital
itself until Jan. 13 when a truce was
were mailed" to Israel from Europe Jan.
2-9, 1972. Thirteen mail-bombs were agreed to by both sides.
sent to individuals in Israel in the The fighting broke out Jan. 8 around
seven-day period. Most were sent from the towns of Jarash, Salt and Ruseifa. The
Vienna. The only casualty was a bomb government said the clashes in the Jarash
disposal expert who was injured while area followed the kidnaping Jan. 7 by
THE MIDDLE EAST 45

commandos of two noncommissioned Jordan. The commando forces displayed


army officers and the killing of a Jorda- their most aggressive stance since the
nian soldier. Guerrilla statements as- September 1970 civil war, initiating
serted that government forces had shelled offensive actions and carrying out wide-
commando bases and confiscated their spread acts of sabotage against govern-
arms. Al Fatah claimed that a hospital at ment facilities.
El Rumman had been shelled and that the The Interior Ministry reported that
al-Baqaa refugee camp, a few miles west 10 civilians and eight government sol-
of Amman, had been bombed. (Amman diers had been killed in the fighting at
had reported Jan. 6 that three persons Irbid March 26.
were killed and nine wounded in clashes Fighting spread to Amman March 28
in the capital that day following guerrilla as government troops fired on a crowd of
attacks on two police stations in the city.) demonstrating women, killing three of
A clash in Amman Jan. 11 resulted in them. The government charged that the
the deaths of three civilians and a police- guerrillas were using the demonstrators
man. Meanwhile, Ibrahim Bakr, a mem- as a shield to fire on Jordanian police-
ber of the Central Committee, the co- men. A spokesman for the Palestine
ordinating group of the 10 guerrilla Liberation Organization charged that
organizations, said Jan. 1 1 that the latest the troops had first opened fire on the
Jordanian attacks had paralyzed the com- women, who were protesting govern-
mando movement and made it impossible ment policy. Fighting quickly spread to
for them to mount raids against the Is- other parts of the city.
raelis. A guerrilla announcement April 2
Government and commando represen- declared that the fedayeen were fighting
tatives, assisted by the inter-Arab truce to force King Hussein to replace Wasfi
officials, met Jan. 12 to negotiate a truce Tell as premier and to oust the high-
that was agreed to the following day. A ranking officers whom they regarded as
13-point agreement that went into effect responsible for starting the latest round
Jan. 14 reportedly contained nothing new of fighting. An Al Fatah newspaper
except a timetable to implement the un- published in Damascus and distributed in
fulfilled pledges outlined in the pact that Amman said the commandos would not
had ended the September 1970 fighting. sign a new peace agreement with the
The latest treaty called on the guerrillas government as long as Tell remained in
to withdraw to bases outside the cities office. It charged that he and some army
and towns and for both sides to release all officers were planning to "finish off the
prisoners by Jan. 20. commando movement once and for all."

Other points of the agreement: The Amman press reports April 5 told of
government was to return guerrilla weap- a meeting of commando leaders in the
ons and provide for free commando border town of Dera, Syria April 1 in
movement. It also was required to return which they had decided on a "scorched
the office of the Palestine Armed Struggle earth" policy to force King Hussein to
Command at Ramtha seized during the accede to theirdemands for freedom
September fighting. The commandos of action and movement in Jordan.
were to be permitted to reopen within a Syria was reported April 4 to have
month their closed offices and bases spe- warned Jordan that the 6,000 regular
cified under previous agreements. troops of the Palestine Liberation Army
stationed south of Damascus would be
permitted to move into Jordan "unless
harassment of guerrillas was quickly
Jordan-commando clashes. Jordanian stopped."
troops and Palestinian commandos en-
gaged sharp fighting in Amman and
in
in the northern sector around Irbid Hussein orders commando purge.
March 26-April 6, 1971. Fighting broke Hussein gave orders June 2, 1971 for
out for the first time along the border a "final crackdown" against the Palestin-
with Syria from which some guerrilla ian commandos, whom he charged with
units were believed to have moved into attempting "to establish a separate
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THE MIDDLE EAST 47

tember and the distribution of anti-Soviet tered Egypt several days prior with Syri-
pamphlets in the city by an unknown an passports. All four were freed on bail
organization was disclosed in Beirut Sept. (to be provided by the Palestine Libera-
29, 1971 by travelers from Cairo. tion Organization) Feb. 29, 1972.
The bomb alert followed the dis- A medical-ballistics report said the
covery of an explosive device near the bullets fatal to Tell had not been fired
office of Information Minister Abdel from the guns carried by the four de-
Kader and elsewhere, including a ship in fendants.
a district inhabited by Russians.
The anti-Soviet literature was signed
by a group called the Egyptian National Jordan aides attacked. The Jordanian
Front. The tracts, circulated by mail, ambassadors to Britain and Switzerland
denounced "Soviet imperialism" in Egypt were the targets of assassination attempts
and called for the ouster of "Soviet Dec. 15 and 16, 1971.
imperialism from our land." Ambassador Zaid al-Rifai was shot
Egyptian officials were reported Oct. 3 and wounded in the hand Dec. 15 when
to have accused Israeli intelligence of a gunman waiting in ambush near a Lon-
having distributed the leaflets in order don street intersection fired at his car.
to create suspicion between Egypt and In Geneva, two Swiss policemen were
the Soviet Union. seriously injured Dec. 16 when a package
left at Jordan's U.N. mission and ad-
dressed to Ambassador Ibrahim Zreikat
exploded as they were opening it. The
Jordanian premier assassinated. Pre- reception room of the mission was de-
mier Wasfi Tell of Jordan was shot to
stroyed. Zreikat was in another room
death by three Palestinians while enter- and escaped unhurt. Police and firemen
ing a hotel in Cairo Nov. 28, 1971. Jor- had been called to examine the parcel by
danian Foreign Minister Abdullah Sal- mission authorities.
lah was slightly injured and an Egyptian The Black September organization said
policeman accompanying the two men it was responsible for the attempt on
was seriously wounded. At least 10 shots Rifai's life. An Al Fatah broadcast from
were fired. The three gunmen and an- Cairo Dec. 16 expressed approval of the
other Palestinian acting as lookout effort to kill Rifai and charged that he
were arrested. was King Hussein's liaison with U.S.
Tell was assassinated as he was return- intelligence.
ing to his hotel from a meeting of the A Jordanian government statement
Arab League's Joint Defense Council of Dec. 17 charged that the Black Sep-
discussing strategy against Israel. In tember group did not exist and was
Beirut, the Popular Front for the Libera- "only a mask used by Fatah to hide its
tion of Palestine claimed responsibility treacherous schemes" against Jordan.
for his death. The statement said "We know very
The gunmen described themselves as well those in Fatah who are in charge of
members of a Palestinian commando these schemes" and warned "they shall
faction called the Black September or- not escape punishment."
ganization. It had been formed in July
to avenge the slaying of Palestinian
guerrillas in the Jordan civil war in Sep-
tember 1970. A statement issued by the Lebanon Suffers Retaliation
group at the time vowed a "scorched
earth" policy against the Jordanian gov-
ernment. The commandos considered
Tell a prime enemy after their forces were Israeli forces raid Lebanon. Israeli
crushed during that conflict. forces crossed the border into Lebanon
The three assassins were identified as June 28, 1971 to attack a guerrilla base
Monzer Suleiman Khalifa, 27; Gawad at Blida. The 200 troops involved in the
Khali Boghdadi, 23; and Ezzat Ahmad operation were said to have blown up
Rabah, 23. The fourth man was not three houses apparently used by the
identified. The police said all had en- commandos for attacks on Israel.
48 POLITICAL TERRORISM

A Beirut military spokesman reported ports told of Libyan instructors or ad-


another Israeli incursion into Lebanon visers with the commandos. Elazar's
June 29. The spokesman said govern- statement was transmitted to Beirut in
ment troops fought the Israelis about one writing through the U.N. Mixed Ar-
mile inside Lebanon as they attacked mistice Commission.
the villages of Taybeh and Al Adassiyae, The Palestinian commandos were re-
north of Blida. ported Jan. 15 to have decided to re-
crossed into Lebanon Jan.
Israeli forces frain from firing on Israel while inside
10, 1972 for attacks against
retaliatory Lebanon. The guerrillas, whose leaders
commando bases in the towns of Bint had conferred with Lebanese officials,
Jbail and Kfar Hamam, three miles north agreed instead to operate from "mobile
of the border. The operation followed bases" and fire only when inside Israeli
guerrilla raids on Israel from Lebanon territory. The arrangement was worked
Jan. 6-10. out following a meeting Jan. 14 between
According to an Israeli announcement commando leader Yasir Arafat and
Jan. 11, two guerrilla buildings were Lebanese military officials. The Lebanese
blown up in Bint Jbail and "a number reportedly feared an occupation
Israeli
of terrorists were killed." Two other of the Arkub region aimed at neutraliza-
commandos and an Israeli soldier were tion of the commandos' main military
killed in an exchange of fire. In the Kfar bases.
Hamam raid, Israeli soldiers "also blew Israeli air and ground forces carried
up two buildings with the terrorists in- out heavy reprisal operations against
side them." One Israeli soldier was killed commandos in Lebanon Feb. 25-28. The
in the engagement. Israelis claimed about 60 guerrillas
According to the Lebanese govern- killedand more than 100 wounded. Israel
ment's version of the attack, a force of placed its losses at 1 slightly wounded.
1

100 Israeli soldiers struck at Bint Jbail, The guerrillas admitted that 20 of their
blew up two buildings and withdrew. In men had been slain and 36 wounded.
the second operation later that night, The attackers pulled out after the
150 Israelis struck out from the Golan U.N. Security Council had adopted a
Heights and pounded Kfar Hamam and resolution earlier Feb. 28 demanding
the nearby village of Rashya Fakhar on withdrawal from Lebanon.
Israeli
the slopes of Mount Hermon. Three Jerusalem said the operation was in
houses in Kfar Hamam were blown retaliation recent infiltration of
for the
up and a number of buildings in Rashya commandos into northern Israel from
Fakhar were destroyed by shelling. Lebanon. Three Israeli soldiers and a
Three commandos and a Lebanese civilian couple were killed and several
civilian were killed in the two attacks. others were wounded in guerrilla am-
An Israeli force crossed into Lebanon bushes Feb. 22-23.
Jan. 13 for a reprisal raid on a commando The Israeli thrust was centered on a
base Kafra. They reported blowing up
in number of guerrilla strongholds in the
two houses used by guerrillas. The in- Arkoub Valley, an area between the
cursion followed guerrilla shelling Jan. Hasbani River and the western flank of
8, 10 and 12 of the Israeli town of Kiryat Mount Hermon.
Shmona. An Israeli report Feb. 28 said the
Lt. Gen. David Elazar, Israeli chief four-day offensive had left the guerrilla
of staff, warned Lebanon Jan. 14 that forces in disarray and that much of
the recent commando attacks from its their equipment had been captured.
territory were "liable to bring disaster Buildings, installations, base camps and
upon the villages of south Lebanon." He headquarters were destroyed from the
called on the Beirut government and air or dynamited on the ground.
its army to "do their best to prevent Some of the Israeli ground patrols
such a grave development." Elazar at- had come under fire by guerrillas from
tributed the recent upsurge of com- nearby Syria Feb. 27.
mando following months of calm,
raids, Lebanese troops Feb. 28 quickly
to massing of nearly 4,000 com-
the moved into the commando areas eva-
mandos at Lebanese bases near the Is- cuated by the Israelis. "This time we
raeli border. He said intelligence re- intend to occupy the guerrilla positions
THE MIDDLE EAST 49

and keep them," a high-ranking Leba- Israelis Seize Captives. An Israeli


nese officer was quoted as saying. armored force struck into Lebanon
A guerrilla spokesman Feb. 29 ac- June 21, 1972 and captured five Syrian
knowledged the Lebanese army's right officers, a Lebanese officer and three
to control the area, saying "under no military policemen. The strike coincided
circumstances will we infringe on this with an Israeli air and artillery attack
sovereignty." against a suspected Palestinian com-
mando base at Hasbeya in southeastern
Lebanon. The Israeli action
military
followed by a day resumption of guer-
Golan Heights clash. Israeli forces rilla attacks across the border after a
followed up their four-day attack on four-month lull. Two civilians were
Palestinian commandos in Lebanon killed in the ambush of a tourist bus.
with air and artillery strikes March 1
According to Beirut's account of the
on suspected guerrilla bases in the incident: Four Lebanese policemen were
southern and central part of the Israeli- killed and two civilians were wounded
occupied Golan Heights. Syrian planes during the capture of the Syrians and
retaliated later in the day with raids Lebanese at the village of Ramieh about
on Israeli settlements about two miles 100 yards from the Israeli border. The
inside the heights. Syrians and their Lebanese escorts were
army spokesman in Jerusalem
An ambushed by five Israeli tanks and three
bombing of the suspected com-
said the other armored vehicles.
mando strongholds was in response Reporting on the Hasbaya attack, the
to mortar attacks on Israeli settlements Lebanese said the Israeli planes and ar-
during the night. A Damascus broad- tillery killed 14 civilians and wounded
cast said the Syrian air assaults were in 25 others. Commando sources reported
retaliation for Israeli shelling of three that 30 of their men had been killed
Syrian villages in the heights and an and 30 wounded in the raid.
air raid on a guerrilla camp near Dera A Syrian communique broadcast by
in Syria, close to the border with Jor- Damascus radio said the captured Syrian
dan. officers were in Lebanon "as part of
the visits exchanged" by the Syrian and
Lebanese armies.
Israel Warns Lebanon. Israeli Defense An Israeli military spokesman said
the operations against Lebanon
Israeli
Minister Moshe Dayan warned March 3,
1972 that Israel "reserves the op- were "connected with information we
had in recent weeks of preparation"
tion" of maintaining an indefinite pres-
for more guerrilla attacks against Israel
ence in Lebanon if Beirut failed to curb
from Lebanese territory. The capture
attacks by Palestinian commandos on
of the Syrians came as a surprise and was
Israel from Lebanese soil.
"evidence of joint Syrian-Lebanese plan-
Speaking in a television interview,
ning against Israel," the spokesman said.
Dayan described as a "fundamental
In a previous encounter, Israel re-
change" in Lebanon's policy to have its
ported that its forces June 15 had
army take control of former commando
killed four Arab infiltrators in the oc-
areas on the slopes of Mount Hermon
cupied Golan Heights. The men were
from which the guerrillas had been op-
said to have worn uniforms largely iden-
erating against Israel since 1968.
tical with Syrian army uniforms.
The executive committee of the Pales-
tine Liberation Organization was re-
ported to have decided at meetings in Lebanon Raided Again. Israeli planes
Beirut March 1-2 to order their guerrilla and artillery June 23, 1972 struck at
forces out of populated centers in south- suspected Palestinian commando bases
ern Lebanon and to abandon their fixed in Lebanon for the second time in
bases. The action was aimed at avoiding three days, inflicting heavy casualties.
confrontations with the Lebanese army, The June 23 Israeli attack followed
which had moved into the areas for- the commando shelling earlier June 23
merly controlled by commandos. of Qiryat Shemona, an Israeli town.
50 POLITICAL TERRORISM

A Lebanese communique said 18 shall remain so." He refused to give


Lebanese civilians were killed and 12 further details.
wounded in the Israeli assaults. The Salam had said June 24 that his gov-
Palestinian Resistance Movement in ernment had no intentions of cracking
Beirut reported "scores of guerrillas" down on the commandos. He declared:
killed or wounded in the attacks. Seven- "Let Israel hear this: There will not be
teen of the Lebanese fatalities occurred a clash between Lebanon and the Pales-
during Israeli jet strikes on Deir el tinians in any way."
Ashayer on the Syrian border, accord- Salam made his statement after con-
ing Lebanese authorities. The com-
to ferring three times in the previous 24
munique said the other Lebanese was hours with commando leader Yasir Ara-
killed by an Israeli rocket attack near fat.
Marjoun, directly opposite Kiryat Three right-wing and Christian lead-
Shmona. ers opposed to the guerrillas had urged
Justifying the Israeli action, Premier abrogation of the 1969 Lebanese-com-
Golda Meir said June 23 "if the danger mando pact that had ended several
[to Israeli lives] is from over the border weeks of bloody fighting between gov-
and the Lebanese government is unable ernment and commando forces and pro-
to handle it, we don't have any choice vided for cooperation between the two
but to do it ourselves." sides. The opponents of the guerrillas
were former President Camille Chamoun,
U.N. condemns Israel— The U.N. Deputy Raymond Edde, head of the Na-
Security Council, called into emergency
tional Bloc party, and Deputy Pierre
session June 23 at Lebanon's request, Gamiel, head of the Phalangist party.
approved a resolution June 26 condemn-
ing "the repeated attacks of Israeli A formal agreement barring commando
forces on Lebanese territory and popula- raidson Israel from Lebanon was reached
tion." The vote was 13-0, with the U.S. June 27 by Salem and Arafat.
and Panama abstaining. Although neither side gave details in
The resolution, sponsored by Belgium, announcing the accord the following day,
Britain and France, called on Israel to informed sources reported that the com-
refrain from future attacks on Lebanon mandos had agreed to pull back from a
and urged it to release the five Syrian number of Lebanese villages and towns
officers and one Lebanese officer cap- near the Israeli border. The guerrillas
tured June 21. also were said to have acceded to a Leba-
The U.S. and Panama explained that nese request to establish a unified infor-
their abstentions were based on the mation office in Beirut that would not be
resolution's failure to also condemn the permitted to issue its own military com-
Arabs for their attacks on Israel. muniques.
Israeli delegate Yosef Tekoah de- The Popular Front for the Liberation of
plored the Council's action, charging Palestine-General Command announced
that the resolution "ignores the mur- June 28 that it would not abide by the
derous attacks on innocent civilians, the Beirut accord for freezing operations
assaults on villages and towns, the crimes against Israel. The PFLP-GC said its

of air piracy perpetrated by Arab ter- forces would continue attacks on Israeli-
rorist organizations." held areas but would carry out the raids
"in the depth of enemy territory" and not
near the cease-fire lines.
Commando-Lebanese Accord. Beirut
sources reported June 26, 1974 that the
commandos in Lebanon had agreed to a
government request to temporarily sus- Commando leader assassinated. A
pend attacks on Israel to spare Lebanon leader of the Popular Front for the Lib-
from reprisal attacks by Israel. The de- eration of Palestine, Ghassan Kanafani,
cision was confirmed by Premier Saeb 36, was killed in an explosion in a car in

Salam, who said "we are in an under- Beirut July 8, 1972. Also killed was his

standing with the commandos and we 17-year old niece.


THE MIDDLE EAST 51

A statement by the PFLP accused Terrorists Hijack Planes,


"Zionist and imperialist quarters" of Slay Tourists at Airport
the deaths and pledged retaliation.
Kanafani had been a spokesman for
the front but recently had said he no
longer held that position. He had said he German airliner seized, then freed. A
was only editor of its weekly journal, Al West German Lufthansa jumbo jet
Hadaf. airlinerenroute from New Delhi to
Commando sources, linking Israeli in- Athens was hijacked by five Palestin-
ians Feb. 21, 1972 and was diverted
telligence with Kanafani's death, said
their investigators had found at the blast to Aden, Southern Yemen Feb. 22. All

site a card bearing the official Israeli em-


172 passengers held hostage, including
blem with the sentence: "With the com- Joseph P. Kennedy 3rd, son of the
late Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, were re-
pliments of the Israeli embassy in Co-
leased later Feb. 22. The 16 crewmem-
penhagen."
bers were freed Feb. 23, and the hijack-
A spokesman for Israel's National
ers surrendered to Yemeni authorities.
Police Headquarters in Jerusalem said
The plane was commandeered one-
July 9 that the bomb or explosive device
half hour out of New Delhi when the
that killed Kanafani probably had gone
guerrillas, armed with hand grenades,
off accidentally and that it apparently
dynamite and pistols, broke into the
was intended for Israel as part of a guer-
cockpit. The pilot said the Arabs did
rilla plot to send parcels containing ex-
not say they wanted to fly to any speci-
plosive devices to kill Israelis. The fic country, but submitted compass
spokesman, Mordechai Tavor, said the
readings that would have brought the
card found at the blast site was a type
aircraft to the desert along the Red Sea
commonly used by the Israeli embassy in on the coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Copenhagen that was sent out with pub- He said the hijackers were persuaded to
licity material and invitations. He noted
have the plane fly to Aden instead. On
that Kanafani's brother lived in Den-
landing, the hijackers wired the doors of
mark. the jet with explosives and threatened to
The PFLP July 11 claimed credit for a blow it up.
grenade explosion that day at the central The described
Palestinians them-
bus terminal in Tel Aviv. Nine people were selves as members of
the Organization
wounded. The front said the attack was in for Victims of Zionist Occupation,
reprisal for Kanafani's death. based in a refugee camp in the Is-
raeli-occupiedGaza Strip.
Baghdad radio broadcast a political
Russians arm commandos. A New message which it claimed had been
York Times dispatch from Geneva read by the hijackers to the passengers
Sept. 17, 1972 reported that the U.S.S.R. over the plane's public address system.
for the first time had begun sending arms The statement assailed "the flagging
directly Al Fatah, the chief Pales-
to and defeatist attitude certain Arab re-
tinian guerrilla organization. Sources in gimes are adopting" on Israel and on
the Swiss city said the first shipment had West German aid to Israel. It pledged
arrived within the last few weeks. The that "we will pursue the enemy every-
Soviet Union was said to have pledged where and strike him and uproot him
the weapons during talks in Moscow in throughout the world."
July with a delegation of commando The Bonn government disclosed
groups led by Yasir Arafat. Feb. 25 that it had paid $5 million in
The Soviet arms shipment was con- ransom for the release of the Lufthansa
firmed by pro-commando sources in jet airliner and its crew.
Beirut Sept. 21. Its destination, accord- Transport Minister Georg Leber said
ing to the sources, was Syria where Al the Palestinian commandos had de-
Fatah maintained its military head- manded the money in a letter addressed
quarters. One Arab informant was to Lufthansa and mailed at Cologne
quoted as saying that the Russians had Feb. 22. It had stipulated that the ran-
sent "only light weapons this time— but som be carried by messenger to a secret
there will be more deliveries." meeting place outside Beirut, Lebanon.
52 POLITICAL TERRORISM

The West German government, which ers, disguised overalls of air-


in the
was a majority shareholder in the air- craft repairmen, were driven
to the plane
line, complied with the request. in an airlines service vehicle. The sol-

Leberidentified the hijackers as diers climbed ladders onto the wings,


members of the Popular Front for the opened two emergency doors and burst
Liberation of Palestine. into the jet. A
10-second exchange of gun-
fire with the Arabs ensued. Two of the
The Middle East News Agency re-
hijackers were shot to death, one of the
ported that the five hijackers were re-
women commandos was wounded and
leased by the Yemen authorities Feb. 27.
the second woman hijacker surrendered.

Israel thwarts Arab hijackers. Israeli


paratroopers broke into a hijacked Tourists slain at Israeli airport. Three
Belgian airliner at Lod Airport in Tel Japanese used by an Arab
terrorists
Aviv May 9, 1972, two of four
killing
commando group attacked the Lod In-
Palestinian commandos and ternational Airport near Tel Aviv the
rescuing 90
passengers and 10 crewmen. (But one night of May 30, 1972, killing 24 per-
woman passenger shot accidentally died sons and wounding 76. The death toll was
May 18.) 28 by June 24. One attacker was slain
Theplane, operated by Sabena Air- by his own grenade, another was shot
lines, had been seized May 8 by the to death, apparently by bullets fired by
four Arabs, including two women, his own companions, and the third was
after taking off from Vienna en route to captured by an El Al airliner mechanic.
Tel Aviv. The hijackers, armed with The captured attacker told Israeli au-
guns and grenades, were identified as thoritieshe was a member of "the Army
members of the Black September or- of the Red Star" (also referred to as the
ganization. United Red Army), a left-wing Japanese
On landing at Lod, the Arabs, with group recruited by the Arab guerrilla
International Red Cross representa- movement. In Beirut, the Marxist Popu-
tives acting as intermediaries, began ne- lar Front for the Liberation of Palestine
gotiating with Israeli authorities in the claimed credit for the assault.
field's control tower. They demanded the The three Japanese had debarked with
release of 317 Palestinian guerrillas in 116 other passengers from an Air France
Israeli prisons in exchange for the safety flight from Rome. Entering the pas-
of the plane and its passengers and crew. senger lounge, the three men picked up
The Arabs threatened to blow up the two valises from a conveyor belt, un-
aircraft with all its hostages unless zipped them and whipped out machine-
their demands were met. The negotia- guns and grenades. Then they began fir-
tions and subsequent rescue operation ing and lobbing grenades indiscriminately
at a crowd of about 300 in the waiting
were directed by Defense Minister
Moshe Dayan, who was in the control room. One of the terrorists fired at air-
craft on the runway from an opening of
tower with Lt. Gen. David Elazar, chief
the baggage conveyor, and the other, who
of staff, and other Israeli officials.
eventually was captured, raced out to the
After the rescue had been carried out,
Elazar disclosed that the negotiations tarmac, shooting at anyone in sight.
with the commandos had been a ploy to The Japanese embassy in Israel iden-
gain time for preparing the plan to tifiedthe captured men as Daisuke
take over the plane, that Israel had no Namba, 22, and the others as Ken Torio,
intention of meeting the hijackers' de- 23, and Jiro Sugizaki, 23.
mands. Tokyo police June reported that Dai-
1

According to witnesses, Israelis suke Namba's name actually was Kozo


crawled under the aircraft in the dark- Okamoto, brother of another Red Army
ness and damaged it, making it unable member who had .taken part in the hi-
to take off. They offered to repair the jacking of a Japanese airliner to North
airliner could fly on to Cairo
so it Korea in 1970. The two slain terrorists
with the hostages, as the hijackers later were correctly identified later as Rakeshi
demanded. Eighteen Israeli paratroop- Okudeira and Yoshuyiki Yasuda.
THE MIDDLE EAST 53

Among the dead were 16 Puerto by the group several months ago to Mid-
Ricans who arrived on a pilgrimage to dle East camps to receive guerrilla train-
the Christian holy places. Eight Israelis ing.
were slain, including Dr. Aharon Katzir-
Katchalsky, 58, one of the country's lead-
ing scientists.
Mid-East Terrorists Strike
in Europe & Other Areas
Arab commandos claim credit In a —
statement issued from its Beirut head-
quarters May 31, the Popular Front for
the Liberation of Palestine said it was re- 11 Israelis slain at Olympics. Seventeen
sponsible for the Tel Aviv airport attack. persons, among them members of the
1 1

The PFLP "announces its complete re- Israeli Olympic team, were shot to death
sponsibility for the brave operation Sept. 5, 1972 in a 23-hour drama that be-
launched by one of its special groups to- gan when Arab terrorists broke into the
night in our occupied land," the state- Israeli dormitory at the Olympic village in
ment said. The announcement identified Munich, West Germany. Nine of the
the three attackers as Bassem, Salah and Israelis, seized by the Arabs as hostages,
Ahmed, and said they belonged to a were killed along with five of their captors
group called the "Squad of the Martyr in an airport gun battle between the Arabs
Patrick Uguello." Uguello was identi- and West German police.
fied by the PFLP as a Nicaraguan who The Arabs and their hostages had
had been shot to death during an attempt been taken by helicopter to the airport
to hijack an El Al plane over London 15 miles west of Munich where a jet was
September 1970. being made ready to fly them all to
Thefront said the Tel Aviv airport at- Cairo.
tack also was in reprisal for the Israeli The other two Israelis were killed in the
killing of two Arab guerrillas during an Arab attack on their living quarters.
initial
aborted hijacking of a Belgian plane at The 17th victim was a West German
the Lod airfield May 9. policeman.
PFLP spokesman Bassam Zayid said In Cairo, the organization called Black
in Beirut May 31 that the front had in- September claimed responsibility for the
structed the three Japanese gunmen not attack.
to fire on the Air France plane passen- The bloody drama began at 4:30
gers but on those debarking from an El a.m. Sept. 5, when the commandos
Al flight due to arrive 10 minutes later scaled an eight-foot wire fence that sur-
and those waiting for them. "We were rounded the Olympic village com-
sure that 90%-95% of the people in the pound. The raiders made their way to
airport at the time the operation was Building 31, which housed the Hong
due to take place would be Israelis or Kong, Uruguayan and Israeli teams.
people of direct loyalty to Israel," Zayid At about 5:30 a.m. the commandos
said. "Our purpose was to kill as many burst into the quarters where the Israeli
people as possible at the airport, Israelis, athletes were staying. As they rushed
of course, but anyone else who was in, they were intercepted by Moshe
there." Weinberg, the Israeli wrestling coach,
An Egyptian broadcast from Cairo who held a door against the commandos
May 31 boasted that "the heroes proved while shouting for the Israeli athletes
they can penetrate the conquered terri- to flee. Seconds later the Arabs broke
tories to avenge the blood of others. Now in, killing Weinberg, 33, and Joseph
Israel has no alternative but to close Romano, 33, a weight lifter.
down Lydda [Lod] Airport and to pre- Six of the fifteen Israelis managed to
vent tourist visits if she wishes to pro- escape the building. The nine, who were
tect her borders." trapped inside their quarters, were re-
According to Japanese press reports, ported to have fought the attackers for a
sources close to the United Red Army time with knives. The Arabs, however,
said the three Japanese terrorists could
overpowered the Israelis, seizing them
have been among several "soldiers" sent as hostages.
54 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Oncein control of the Israeli quarters PLO disavows responsibility— The


in Building 31, the Arabs made known executive committee of the Palestine
their demand: they wanted the release Liberation Organization declared in a
of 200 Arab commandos imprisoned in statement issued in Damascus Sept. 14
Israel. that its group was not responsible for
Throughout the late morning and the Black September group linked to
afternoon, West German officials ne- the Munich killings. The statement
gotiated with the Arabs on the patio of insisted that the PLO's objective "was
the Israeli dormitory. only aimed at pressuring Israel to release
The stalemate was broken at about detained guerrillas from Israeli jails."
9 p.m. when the West Germans suc-
ceeded in persuading the terrorists to
move out of Building 31 with the hos- Arabs force release of Munichslayers.
tages. As part of the bargain, the West Two Arab guerrillas of the Black Sep-
Germans agreed to have three helicopters tember group hijacked a West German
transport the Arabs and the nine Is- airliner overTurkey Oct. 29, forcing the
raelis to the military airport at Fur- Bonn government to release the three
stenfeldbruck.
Arabs held for the Munich murders. The
Munich authorities then cleared a freed killers were flown to Libya.
path around the building, from which
the Arabs and Israelis emerged at about
The released Arabs who faced trial for
10 p.m. Using underground passage- the killings were Mahmud el-Safadi, 21,
ways, the group was moved by bus out Samer Mohammad Abdullah, 22, and
of the Olympic village to the waiting Ibrahim Badran, 20.
helicopters. The aircraft, a Lufthansa Boeing 727
Whenthe convoy arrived at the air- with 13 passengers and seven crewmen,
port, two of the terrorists walked from was commandeered by the two guerrillas
the helicopters to inspect a Boeing after it left Beirut, Lebanon for Ankara,
707 jet that was to take them to Cairo. Turkey. Threatening to blow up the
As they walked back to the helicopters, plane and its occupants unless their de-
German riflemen reportedly opened mands were met, the commandos forced
fire. The Arabs, armed with automatic the pilot to fly to Munich, with fuel stop-
weapons, returned the fire. overs at Nicosia, Cyprus and Zagreb,
Israeli leaders warned the Palestinian Yugoslavia. As the plane circled the
guerrillas Sept. 6 that they would pay for heavily-guarded Munich airport, how-
ever, the hijackers ordered it flown back
the Munich deaths.
At the same time, the Israeli govern- to Zagreb. It circled the airfield there for
ment indirectly linked the governments an hour and did not land until a smaller
of the Arab world to the murders. jet carrying the three guerrillas released
The Israeli government issued a by the West Germans arrived at the Yu-
statement warning goslav airport. The three freed prisoners
that "Israel will
persevere then boarded the hijacked airliner,which
in her struggle against
the
flew to Tripoli, Libya.
terrorist organizations and will
not
absolve their accomplices from responsi- The Israeli government reacted
bility for terrorist actions." Government sharply to the release of the Munich com-
sources later identified those "accom- mandos. A Foreign Ministry spokesman
plices" as the Arab nations that gave said Oct. 29 that "every capitulation en-
sanctuary to the guerrill?s, specifying courages the terrorists to continue their
Egypt, Syria and Lebanon. An unidenti- criminal acts."
fied Israeli
official said "the Egyptians Lufthansa chairman Herbert Culmann
are prime party in this incident.
the and the pilot of the hijacked plane as-
They have the power and influence to sumed responsibility Oct. 30 for capitu-
stop these groups, and instead they lating to the terrorists. Culmann told a
encourage them." The official said news conference in Cologne that refusal
Eg>pt "shares the responsibility" with to accede to the hijackers' demands
the Black September guerrillas for the would have "sealed the fate of the peo-
attack. ple" aboard the commandeered aircraft.
THE MIDDLE EAST 55

Israeli Abba Eban


Foreign Minister Amsterdam police theorized Sept. 21
protested toBonn Oct. 30. The message, that the Arabs had
slipped into the
conveyed through West German Ambas- Netherlands the previous week and fled
sador to Israel Jesco von Puttkamer, the country after carrying out their mis-
charged "capitulation to terrorists" and sion.
said Israel questioned whether "there has Amsterdam police said Sept. 22 that
been a change in German policy regard- the British police would coordinate
ing terrorists and their actions." international efforts to investigate the
In reply to Eban's charge of "capitu- letter-bomb activities. Authorities in
lation," a West German government the Netherlands and other countries
spokesman said Oct. 30 that the foreign agreed to forward pertinent information
minister had "missed the point" that 20 to Scotland Yard in London.
lives were at stake. A Jordanian government spokesman
The U.S. Department Oct. 30
State said Sept. 23 that the Amman post
criticized theWest German decision in office that day had intercepted and de-
freeing the Arab terrorists. Spokesman fused four letter bombs addressed to
Charles W. Bray 3rd expressed "regret four Jordanian officials. The spokesman
that known terrorists can secure their said the letters bore Amsterdam post-
freedom as a result of extortion and marks.
blackmail and can find safe haven." Dutch authorities Oct. 25 detained and
then released a Jordanian with an Alge-
rian diplomatic passport who was found
Letter bombs go to many countries. An to be carrying unaddressed letter bombs,
envelope bomb apparently mailed by hand grenades and explosives in his lug-
Arab guerrillas exploded and killed a gage. The Jordanian, intercepted at the
diplomat the Israeli embassy in Lon-
in
Amsterdam airport, told a magistrate
don Sept. 1972. This was followed
19, that he was unaware of the contents of
by the discovery of similar booby- the suitcases. He said he thought his lug-
trapped envelopes destined for Israeli gage contained documents for an Alge-
officials in at least eight other cities. All rian embassy in South America. In re-
bore Amsterdam postmarks. None of sponse to an Israeli query as to why the
these detonated. Jordanian was freed, the Dutch Justice
The man killed was Dr. Ami Sha- Ministry repeated the statement made by
chori, counselor for agricultural affairs. the Arab.
Three more explosive devices in en- A letter bomb
delivered Oct. 4 to the
velopes addressed to senior Israeli Rome United Hias Service, a
office of
embassy members were discovered by Jewish immigration office, was defused
Israeli security men. Israelis told police by Italian explosive experts. The letter,
that one of them contained a leaflet mailed from Malaysia, bore inscriptions
from Black September. which said "Black September."
Four more explosive letters addressed A postal clerk was seriously injured Oct.
to members
of the Israeli embassy staff 14when a letter bomb exploded in a New
were found in a London post office later York post office.
September 19.
The letter, bearing a Malaysian post-
A
security check of mail at the Israeli
mark, was addressed to an unidentified
embassy in Paris Sept. 19 turned up two former national officer of Hadassah, the
large envelopes containing explosives.
women's Zionist organization.
They were defused.
Additional bomb letters were inter- Two other New York women also
cepted Sept. 20 in New York, Montreal, active in American Zionist circles had
Ottawa, Brussels and Jerusalem. All were received letter bombs Oct. 10. The
addressed to Israeli officials. recipients opened the envelopes, but the
Ten more letter bombs, postmarked bombs did not explode. Both letters
from Amsterdam, were intercepted in a bore Malaysian postmarks. Similar
Jerusalem post office Sept. 21. Others letters were mailed Oct. 10 to Jewish
were received at the Israeli embassies in families in Bulawayo, Rhodesia.
Kinshasa, Zaire; Brussels and Buenos Letter bombs were sent Oct. 24-27
Aires. to U.S. officials, including President
56 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Nixon, and to Palestinian Liberation Or- A letter bomb


received by the Egyp-
ganization leaders and other Palestinians tian embassy London Oct. 31 was
in
in four Arab countries. Several of the lat- rendered harmless. London police Nov.
ter bombs were opened and exploded, in- 2 defused a letter bomb destined for
juring a number of Arabs. the British Technion Society, which
Israeli postal authorities in the north- was connected with the University of
ern town of Kiryat Shmona Oct. 24 inter- Haifa in Israel. It was postmarked
cepted three letter bombs intended for Penang.
President Nixon, Secretary of State Wil- Another 19 letter bombs intended for
liam P. Rogers and Defense Secretary Jews in London and Glasgow were
Melvin R. Laird. received Nov. 10-13 bearing postmarks
Letter bombs bearing Belgrade, Yugo- from New Delhi and Bombay, India.
slavia postmarks were received Oct. 25 in One of the devices that had not been
Lebanon, Libya, Algeria and Egypt. A intercepted was opened Nov. 10 at a
letter opened in Beirut exploded and in- London diamond trading company,
jured the secretary of a trading company exploding and wounding an official of the
known to have arranged arms deals with firm.
Arab countries. The envelope was ad- Swiss authorities intercepted five
dressed to a Palestinian partner in the letter bombs at the airport postal center
firm who was traveling outside Lebanon. in Geneva Nov. 10. All bore New Delhi
A Beirut postman was blinded after one postmarks and were addressed either to
of the letters he was sorting exploded in the Israeli mission to U.N. agencies in
his face. Palestine Liberation Organiza- Geneva or to Jews and Jewish organiza-
tion official Abu Khalil was injured in tions.
Algiers when he opened a booby-trapped The Indian government was criticized
parcel. Another PLO official, Mustafa by opposition leaders in parliament Nov.
Awad Abu Zeid, the organization's sec- 13 for allegedly being lax in preventing
retary in Libya, was blinded by a parcel dissemination of the letter bombs. Right-
bomb opened in Tripoli. Two other per- wing Jan Sangh party members charged
sons received less serious injuries. Egyp- that New Delhi's "pro-Arab policy"
tian authorities intercepted a parcel hindered government action in the
bomb at the Cairo airport. The package matter. Communications Minister
was addressed to a PLO official. H. N. Bahgunua denied the allegations,
Three other letter bombs exploded at saying that more than 50 letter bombs
the Cairo airport Oct. 26, seriously in- had been caught by Indian authorities.
juring an Egyptian security officer, who
was examing the envelopes after inter-
cepting them. The letters were intended Israel opposes anti-terror groups. Fol-
for three officials of the PLO office in lowing the Sept. 19 letter-bombing in
Cairo. London, the Israel branch of the Jewish
The Beirut office of the newspaper of Defense League (JDL) announced the
the Popular Front for the Liberation of formation of an anti-terrorist organiza-
Palestine was the intended target of a let- tion to combat Arab guerrilla groups
ter bomb Oct. 27. The device was inter- and institutions in Europe and the U.S.
cepted at the city's post office and ren- The Israeli government immediately
dered harmless. cracked down on the JDL and individuals
The Malaysian Home Affairs Min- attempting to take action on their own.
istry confirmed Nov. 1 that 15 letter Israeli authorities Sept. 21 disclosed
bombs meant for Jewish groups in the arrest of Amihai Paglin, a former
London, Rome and the U.S. had been leader in the underground struggle
discovered in the Kuala Lumpur post against British rule in Palestine, in con-
office Oct. 31 and defused by army ex- nection with a secret shipment of arms
perts. Malaysian officials said Nov. 2 that had been intercepted at the Tel Aviv
that a local Malay-Arab group was airport. The weapons, including machine
responsible for sending out 35 letter guns and grenades, were meant for use
bombs, including the 15. The same against Arabs abroad. The JDL claimed
group was said to have mailed out nine responsibility for the arms shipment,
other explosive devices from Penang in but its leader, Rabbi Meir Kahane, was
October. later said to have told Justice Minister
THE MIDDLE EAST 57

Yacov Shapiro that it was wrong to in- that priority must be given to combatting
volve Israel. Israeli authorities also ar- international terrorism, although "op-
rested JDL member Abraham Hersh- tions must be kept open" for a Middle
kowitz on charges of attempting to ship East peace settlement. The announced
the arms out by air. American position followed a report
Police Sept. 22 raided JDL's Jerusa- Sept. 21 that Israel had informed friendly
lem headquarters, seized documents governments that it would refuse to
connected with the alleged arms smug- participate in further peace negotiations
gling operation and arrested the league's until all Arab terrorism was crushed.
secretary, Joseph Schneider. He was The U.S.-Israeli agreement on ter-
charged with illegal possession of rorism was reached in talks in Washing-
weapons. ton between Secretary of State William
Israeli police acknowledged Sept. 26 P. Rogers and Foreign Minister Abba
that some arms shipments meant for the Eban. After the meeting a State Depart-
anti-terrorist campaign against Arabs ment spokesman said Rogers had agreed
had slipped out of the country and with Eban that "individual governments
reached their destinations. must act effectively to combat this chal-
The Israeli government issued an in- lenge to world social order." Eban, the
junction Sept. 22 against Kahane and 19 spokesman said, had outlined the mea-
other JDL members ordering them to sures Israel was taking to fight terrorism.
keep out of the West Bank and the Gaza
After meeting with Rogers, Eban
Strip. The order was said to be aimed at
emphasized to newsmen that his country
preventing the JDL from conducting
was determined to combat terror tactics
"any activities liable to disrupt order or
because "it has always been our policy
endanger security in those areas."
to hit where we can those who make
Kahane, who had planned to leave war against us."
Israel Oct. 2 for a visit to the U.S., was
arrested by Israeli police Oct. 1 . They said "It is not our policy or duty," he said,
he had in his possession detonators for the "to wait for the saboteurs to kill us or
grenades in the arms shipment seized Sept. our children." Eban charged that Egypt,
14 at the Tel Aviv airport. Syria and Lebanon had engaged "in a
(A group in West Germany calling new form of warfare" against Israel by
itself the International Anti-Terror supporting the Arab commandos.
Organization warned Sept. 20 that it (Rogers discussed the issue of ter-
planned to bomb Arab airlines, organi- rorism later Sept. 22 with French For-
zations and embassies in retaliation for eign Minister Maurice Schumann.
Arab attacks on Israelis.) Rogers, the department later disclosed,
had informed Schumann that the U.S.
"will press hard for sanctions in the
Arab bookstore bombed in Paris. A
case of civil aviation and for other prac-
bookstore in Paris serving as the French
tical responses to terrorist acts.")
headquarters of the Palestine Liberation
Organization was slightly damaged by a The Sept. 21 report that Israel would
bomb blast Oct. 4. Police said an ex- refuse to negotiate pending the elimina-
tremist Jewish group had taken respon- tion of the Arab terrorist threat also said
sibility for the explosion. Shortly after that Israel was preparing new blows
the incident, a Paris newspaper received against the Palestinian commandos. Ac-
an anonymous message signed by the cording to the Israeli source, in the com-
"Massada action and defense move- ing months Israel would launch a "major
ment." said the bombing was the or-
It military effort" in the Middle East to
ganization's first response to terrorism destroy the terrorist groups. It would
against Israelis and Jews and vowed re- also take preventive action anywhere
taliation against future acts of Arab ter- in the world if necessary, particularly in
rorism. Europe, where the Arab guerrillas were
becoming more active. The "Europeans
are less capable of coping with them [the
U.S.-Israeli talks on terrorism. The guerrillas] than the Israelis," the source
U.S. Sept. 22, 1972 backed Israel's view said.
58 POLITICAL TERRORISM

U.S. tightens security. The U.S. gov- chief of the Palestinian Student Union.
ernment announced Sept. 27 that hence- He and eight other Arabs were deported
forth all foreigners in transit through Sept. 27. Hesse Interior Minister Hans
the U.S. would be required to have Heinz Bielefeld had said earlier in the
transit visas. week that the Munich attackers had tried
State Department officials said the to telephone Frangi's apartment on the
move was prompted by the increasing day of their assault. Bielefeld said police
threat of terrorist activities. had found evidence in Frangi's apart-
Under the rule, foreigners, even those ment indicating that he had helped plan
changing planes at U.S. airports, must Arab terrorist moves against the Israeli
have transit visas. Exempted were and Lebanese embassies in Bonn.
naturalized Canadians, British subjects
living in Bermuda and Mexicans holding
valid border-crossing cards.
Arab & El Al man slain in Rome. An
Formerly, foreign visitors had been
Libyan embassy clerk believed to have
permitted to remain in the U.S. for
been an official of Al Fatah was shot to
up to 10 days without a visa on condition
death in Rome Oct. 16, 1972. The victim,
that they presented evidence to airlines
Abdel Wael Zuaiter, a Jordanian, report-
or shipping lines that they would leave
edly was Al Fatah's top agent in Italy.
the country by that time.
An Al Fatah statement issued in Beirut
Oct. 17 charged that Zuaiter's assassina-
U.S. seeks to bar Arab terrorists. The tion had been engineered by Israel's
Nixon Administration had begun a secret service and was carried out by
major effort to identify Arabs in the U.S. Israeli terrorists.
suspected of planning terrorist acts Rome police said Oct. 18 that they
against Israeli citizens in the country and believed Zuaiter's killing was the result
to carry out a more careful check of of a feud between Black September and
travelers from Arab countries, it was re- other Palestinian commando groups.
ported Oct. 4. The security measures An Italian employe of the Israeli El Al
were in accord with a promise by President airline office in Rome was shot to death
Nixon to prevent terrorist attacks on April 27, 1973. The victim was Vittorio
Israelis in the U.S.
Olivares. His accused assailant, who was
arrested, was identified as Zaharia Abou
Bonn bans Palestinian groups. West Saleh, a Lebanese.
Germany announced Oct. 4 that it had Saleh told Italian police he was a
outlawed two Palestinian organizations member of the Palestinian Black Sep-
in the country after receiving "concrete tember and was sent to Rome by the orga-
evidence that new terrorist acts are being nization on a mission to kill Olivares be-
planned for Germany.'" Police started a cause he was an Israeli spy responsible for
nationwide search for followers of the the slaying of Zuaiter.
groups, identified by Interior Minister
Hans-Dietrich Genscher as the General Arabs seize Israelis in Thailand. Four
Union of Palestine Students, with 800 armed Palestinian commandos seized
listed members, and the General Union
the Israeli embassy in Bangkok, Thailand
of Palestinian Workers, with 1,000 mem- Dec. 28, 1972 and held six Israeli oc-
bers. cupants hostage for 19 hours before
Genscher said "well under 100 Arabs" releasing them. The Arab guerrillas,
with suspected ties to terrorists had been described as members of the Black Sep-
expelled from West Germany since the tember group, freed the Israelis Dec. 29
Sept. 5 guerrilla attack in Munich and after negotiations with Thai officials.
that 1,900 other Arabs had been barred The guerrillas were flown to Cairo in a
from entering West Germany for lack of Thai plane.
proper papers or because of suspicious The seizure of the embassy began
connections. Among those listed as hav- when two of the commandos climbed
ing been ousted from West Germany was the wall of the compound and opened
Abdullah Hassan Yums el-Frangi, 30, the gate for the two others. The guer-
THE MIDDLE EAST 59

rillas walked into the building and held Israeli agent slain in Madrid. An agent
the six Israelis at gunpoint, threatening of the Israeli security services was shot
to kill them and blow up the embassy and killed by a Palestinian commando in
unless 36 Palestinian prisoners held in Madrid Jan. 26, 1973. Black September
Israel were freed by 8 a.m. Dec. 29. claimed credit for the killing.

Two Thai officials Marshal Dawee The Israeli government Jan. 30 ac-
Chullaspaya, the armed forces chief of knowledged the death of the agent and
staff, and Deputy Foreign Minister identified him as Baruch Cohen, 37.
Chartichai Choonhavan entered — the
embassy and conferred with the guer-
Western diplomats slain in Saudi em-
rillas while hundreds of Thai soldiers
and police surrounded the building.
bassy in Sudan. Three diplomats two —
They were assisted in the negotiations by U.S. and one Belgian —
were murdered
Ambassador Mourtafa el- March 2, 1973 in Sudan by Black Septem-
Egyptian
ber terrorists who had seized the Saudi
Essaway. After the guerrillas were
Arabian embassy the previous day during
persuaded to give up the hostages and
leave the country, the commandos, the
a reception for one of the men later slain.

negotiators and the six Israelis left by


The Arab terrorists took over the
SaudiArabian embassy in Khartoum
bus for the Bangkok airport, 18 miles
away. The commandos, the two Thais
March and held six diplomats hostage,
1

demanding the release of Arab prisoners


and the Egyptian ambassador boarded
in various countries. When the terrorist
the plane and arrived in Cairo later
demands were refused during negotiations
Dec. 29. The Israelis remained in the
that followed, they murdered three of
bus at the Bangkok airport.
the hostages— U.S. Ambassador Cleo A.
Thai officials said the guerrillas had Noel, Jr.; George C. Moore, the departing
been shamed into releasing their cap- U.S. charge d'affaires; and Guy Eid, the
tives. A Thai officer said the Egyptian Egyptian-born charge at the Belgian em-
ambassador had told the commandos bassy.
that Dec. 27 and 28 "were very important The terrorists ended their three-day oc-
days for the Thai people," because cupation of the embassy at dawn March
ceremonies were being held for the 4, surrendering to Sudanese authorities,
investiture of the son of King Phumiphol who promised only that they would not
Aduldet as crown prince, and "if any- be killed immediately.
thing happens it would make things very The attack began about 7 p.m. March 1
difficult." when a Land Rover with diplomatic
plates, later identified as belonging to Al
Fatah, drove up to the gates of the
Arab & Israeli slain in Cyprus. A embassy, where a party celebrating
representative of the Palestine Liberation Moore's departure was in progress. The
Organization in Cyprus was killed by a eight invaders, led by Abu Salem, second-
bomb explosion in a Nicosia hotel room ranking official at the Fatah office in
Jan. 25, 1973. Police said that the victim, Khartoum, crashed the gate and entered
Hussain al-Bathis, must have been han- the building firing machine-guns and
dling a number of bombs. Police said Ba- revolvers. No police guards were on duty.
thir had arrived in Nicosia Jan. 22 from
Many of the guests escaped by jumping
Beirut and carried a Syrian passport and over the embassy wall. Others hid and
Lebanese identification documents. then fled, while some identified themselves
An Israeli was shot to death March 12 and were released. Noel suffered an ankle-
in a Nicosia hotel by a man said to be wound from a ricocheting bullet and Eid
a Jordanian, Cyprus police reported. The was shot in the leg. According to Shigeru
murdered Simha Gilzer, 59, was
Israeli, Nomoto, the Japanese charge d'affaires
described by police as a businessman. who described the attack in a March 3
The Iraqi news agency reported March statement, the commandos "tightly bound
13 that Black September had claimed Ambassador Noel and Mr. Moore with
credit for Gilzer's slaying. According to ropes they had brought with them and
the report, the Palestinian commando punched and kicked them unmercifully."
group said Gilzer was an Israeli intelli- Also held in the attack were Sheik
gence officer responsible for Bathir's death. Abdullah el-Malhouk, Saudi ambassador
60 POLITICAL TERRORISM

and host to the party; his wife and four the bodies of the slain diplomats unless
children and Adli el-Nazir, the Jordanian the government guaranteed the com-
charge d'affaires. mandos safe conduct to an unspecified
Several hours later the guerillas issued Arab capital. Baghir told the terrorists
an ultimatum that they would kill the six later in the day that an emergency
hostages within 24 hours unless certain Cabinet session had rejected their request
demands were met. They insisted on the for an airplane and that they would be
release of Abu Daoud and other members given until dawn the following morning to
of Fatah imprisoned in Jordan as well as surrender. The commandos surrendered
of Maj. Rafeh Hindawi, a Jordanian on that schedule.
officer under life sentence for plotting (According to the Washington Post
against the Amman government. They March 6, Sudanese Information Minister
also demanded the release of Sirhan Umar al-Hag Musa confirmed that a
Sirhan, convicted assassin of U.S. Sen. major role in the surrender of the com-
Robert F. Kennedy; all Arab women mandos had been played by Yasir Arafat,
detained in Israel; and members of the leader of Al Fatah. The Post quoted
Baader-Meinhof urban guerrilla group Musa as having said: "He helped in the
in West Germany "because they sup- last part, when it became clear they had
ported the Palestinian cause." no way out.")
Telephone contact with the commandos In Lebanon, Prime Minister Saeb
was maintained by Sudanese Interior Salam expressed March 3 "the regret" of
Minister Mohammed el Baghir who in-
his government but noted that the Pales-
formed them early March 2 that the Jor- tinians "have an issue of fate which
danian government had refused demands should be dealt with from its roots" and
for the release of Daoud, Hindawi and the that the international community should
others. "embark on finding positive solutions for
Shortly after the Jordanian refusal, the this issue based on right, justice and the
commandos read a statement in which dignity of man."
they gave up their demand for the release Baghir reported March 10 that a con-
of prisoners in Israel, "since Sudan cannot fession by one of the terrorists had revealed
contact the Zionist enemy," and for the that the attack had been directed from the
"German comrades," because the West Beirut headquarters of Al Fatah and that
German ambassador, who left the party the terrorists had maintained radio con-
early, "was not present as we had
tact with Al Fatah.
hoped." The dispatch concluded: "We in- The eight terrorists were convicted of
sist and reconfirm that we will not leave
murder and were given life sentences by a
the embassy or release the hostages or Khartoum court June 24, 1974, but
even guarantee their lives except if the Sudanese President Gaafar el-Nimeiry im-
Palestinian prisoners held in the prisons mediately commuted the sentences to
of the reactionary regime of Jordan are seven-year terms and announced that the
freed." convicted men would be turned over to
At a Washington news conference
the Palestine Liberation Organization
March President Nixon said that while
2,
(PLO), headed by Arafat, who had been
the U.S. would "do everything we can"
accused of complicity in the case. The
to have the hostages released, it would
eight men were released to the PLO June
"not pay blackmail."
25 and flown to Cairo.
The three Western diplomats were
killed March 2 at about 9:30 p.m., the Su-
danese government announced the Jordan thwarts commando plot. The
following day. A Sudanese officer, who Jordanian regime announced that it had
entered the embassy with permission arrested in Amman Feb. 15, 1973 a num-
from the terrorists, confirmed that the ber of men "who infiltratedinto the
men had been taken to the basement and country to commit acts against the se-
shot repeatedly. curity of the state." It was subsequently
The commandos remained in the em- disclosed that the Jordanians had seized
bassy throughout March 3, occasionally 17 Palestinian commandos, including Abu
speaking through a bullhorn to Sudanese Daoud, a member of Al Fatah's executive
soldiers outside and refusing to hand over unit, the Revolutionary Council, thwart-
THE MIDDLE EAST 61

ing a reported plan to assassinate King people from Al Fatah." He also said that
Hussein and overthrow his government. Fatah, and not Black September, was
The men had entered Jordan from Kuwait responsible for the March 1 attack on the
and Syria. Saudi Arabian embassy in Khartoum.
Amman radio announced March 4 that
the 17 men had been tried by a court-
martial and were sentenced to be exe- Bombs defused in New York. Police in
cuted. Hussein March 6 offered to sus- New York March 7, 1973 discovered
pend the death sentences if the guerrilla and defused three bombs in parked cars
groups agreed to "put an end once and for next to Israel's El Al Airlines terminal at
all to their plots against Jordan/'' Kennedy International Airport and near
Hussein's offer followed a plea by the two Israeli-owned banks.
ruler of Kuwait, Sheik Sabah al-Salem A U.S. federal warrant was issued
al-Sabah, who had sent an emissary to March 15 for a suspected Black Septem-
Amman to ask the king for clemency. ber terrorist believed to have escaped the
(The Palestinian news agency in Beirut country after planting the bombs. Federal
had reported Dec. 17, 1972 that Hussein Bureau of Investigation agents identified
had expelled the last unit of the Palestine the suspect as Khalid Danham Al-Jawari,
Liberation Army from Jordan. The an Iraqi.
agency said the commandos' 4th Battalion An FBI the bombs were set
official said
had crossed into Syria that day. The to explode March 4 during Premier Golda
major part of the PLA was thus in Syria.) Meir's visit to New York but failed to go
off because of "an error in the circuitry
system."
Fatah linked to Black September.
Jordan reported March 24, 1973 that Al
Fatah leader Abu Daoud had confessed Israeli aide slain in U.S. The air and
that Black September was a "fictitious naval attache of the Israeli embassy in
entity, a camouflage" for commando Washington, Col. Yosef Alon. 43. was
operations conducted by Fatah. murdered July 1, 1973 by unknown
Daoud was quoted by Amman radio as assailants who escaped in a car. Alon was
having named Fatah leaders who had shot five times as he was parking his auto
planned a number of raids in thepast 18 outside his suburban home in Chevy
months in the name of the Black Sep- Chase, Md. after returning from an em-
tember organization. Daoud was quoted bassy party.
as saying that Saleh Khalef (also known A broadcast later July by the Voice of
1

as Abu Ayad) had masterminded the Palestine Radio in Cairo said Alon had
Black September attack on Israeli been "executed" in reprisal for the
Olympic athletes in Munich and tfee slay- "assassination" June 28 of an alleged
ing of an Israeli agent in Madrid in Janu- Palestinian Black September representa-
ary. Amman radio said Khalef was be- tive in Paris. Identified by French police as

lieved to be second in command to Al an Algerian, Mohammed Boudia, 41, was


Fatah chief Yasir Arafat. Daoud was said killed when his automobile exploded as he

to have told his captors that another started the engine. The Cairo broadcast
Fatah leader, Abu Youssuf, had engi- said Boudia was murdered "at the hands
neered the 1971 assassination of Jorda- of the Zionist intelligence element."
nian Premier Wash Tell and the 1972 hi- Boudia had been sought by Italian police
jacking of a Belgian airliner to Tel Aviv in connection with the sabotage of petro-
and the seizure of the Israeli embassy in leum installations in Trieste in 1972.
Bangkok, Thailand. Daoud said the
Munich attack had been planned by
Fatah leaders in Sofia, Bulgaria and that
France deports guerrilla suspects. Two
all participants of the assault had left for
suspected Black September members who
Munich from Libya.
reportedly were part of a plan to blow up
In a British television interview
the Israeli and Jordanian embassies in
broadcast March 27, Daoud reiterated his
Paris were arrested there March 16, 1973.
charges that Black September "is not a
separate organization" but "a group of Dianne Campbell-Lefevre, a Briton, was
— .

62 POLITICAL TERRORISM

deported to London March 22, and Jamil Japanese jet hijacked, destroyed. A
Abdelhakim, was flown to Damascus Japan Air Lines 747 passenger jet en route
March 23. to Tokyo were hijacked July 20, 1973 by
Information on the two suspects and four armed terrorists shortly after take-
the reported bomb plot had been provided offfrom Amsterdam and was diverted to
by two Arabs who had been arrested the Persian Gulf sheikdom of Dubai, a
March 14 by French authorities near the state in theUnion of Arab Emirates. The
Italian border with explosive equipment plane remained on a desert airstrip for
in their car. three days and was then flown July 24 to
Benghazi, Libya, where it was blown up
by the hijackers minutes after they and the
Attack Cyprus. A group of Arab
fails in
137 passengers and crew evacuated the
guerrillas April 9,1973 blew out the en-
aircraft.
trance to the Nicosia apartment building
The hijackers had boarded the plane
housing Israeli Ambassador Rahamim
earlierJuly 20 in Paris. They com-
Timor and then attacked an Israeli El Al
mandeered the aircraft 30 minutes out of
airliner in a futile attempt to hijack be-
it
Amsterdam. Shortly afterward a woman
fore takeoff. Nine men participated in the
hijacker was killed and the plane's Japa-
raid.
nese purser was wounded when the hand
No residents of the building were in-
grenade she was holding exploded acci-
jured. The ambassador's family, but not
dentally.
Timor himself, and others were in their
apartments at the time. The bomb The terrorists first tried to have the
exploded after it was placed at the en- plane land in Beirut, but Lebanese offi-
trance by an Arab who ran to a waiting cials refused permission. Then they flew
car. Cypriot security guards opened fire on to Basra, Iraq, where the runway was
as the automobile sped away and its three regarded as too short for a jumbo jet.
occupants were later arrested. The plane headed for Bahrain in the
Shortly afterward, Arabs in two cars Persian Gulf, but authorities there also
crashed through the gates of the Nicosia denied the hijackers the right to land.
airport. One of the vehicles was stopped The plane finally touched down at the
by police, but the other made its way to Dubai airport.
the Israeli plane about to leave with Sheik Mohammed bin Rashid, defense
passengers for Tel Aviv. The Arabs began minister of the Union of Arab Emirates,
exchanging fire with Cypriot policemen boarded the plane July 21 to negotiate
and an Israeli security agent. The Israeli for the release of the hostages. The ter-
wounded three of the Arabs with auto- rorists rejected this request.
matic weapons fire; one of them later The Dubai control tower July 23 re-
died. Two Cypriot policemen were layed tothe hijackers a message re-
wounded. One Arab assailant escaped and ported by authorities to have been sent
a total of seven were taken into custody. by a clandestine terrorist group in West
Dynamite and grenades were tossed at Germany. The message said: "If you in-
the plane but failed to explode. tend to kill the passengers on board . .

The nationality of the captured raiders do it at once, otherwise be human enough


was not certain. Six carried passports to release them. Please give up your
. .

two each from Oman, Saudi Arabia and intentions. There are other means of un-
Ras al Khaima, a Persian Gulf emirate. bloody possibilities to reach your politi-
President Makarios of Cyprus cal aims."
condemned the Arab attack April 10 and Shortly after receiving the message, the
called on the Arab6 and Israelis not to use hijackers demanded and Dubai authori-
his country "as a battlefield in the Arab- ties agreed to refuel the plane. The plane
Israeli conflict." took off July 24. The hijackers' request
The seven Arabs were sentenced in to land at Baghdad was rejected by Iraqi
Nicosia July 27 to seven years in prison for officials. Syrian officials granted the plane
the April 9 attack, but they were granted permission to land at Damascus, where it
amnesty by Makarios, were freed Dec. 6 refueled and took off a few hours later
and were flown to Cairo. for Benghazi.
THE MIDDLE EAST 63

The plane landed at the Libyan field in compensation for the victims of the
later July 24, all on board slid down the Lod incident.
emergency escape chute. Two minutes A PLO spokesman confirmed Aug. 14,
later, the aircraft was rocked by an ex- 1974 that Libya had released the four
plosion, starting a fire that quickly de- terrorists and that they had arrived in
stroyed the jet. The hijackers were cap- Damascus Aug. 13. A Beirut newspaper
tured by Libyan troops. said that Libyan leader Muammar el-
The captain of the plane, Kenzi Ko- Qaddafi had personally decided to free
numa, said the hijackers had received a them following requests from Yasir
relayed message from other guerrillas in Arafat and other Palestinian guerrilla
Amsterdam to blow up the plane on land- leaders.
ing in Benghazi. The message had been
sent via the air control towers in Bahrain
and Kuwait, the captain said.
Arab blocked in Athens raid. An armed
The hijackers, identified as three Pales-
Arab terrorist who failed in an attempt to
tinians and one member of the terrorist
attack an El Al Israeli airlines office in
Japanese Red Army, were arrested by Athens July 19 was later flown out of
Libyan authorities.
Greece in exchange for the release of 17
During the flight to Dubai, the hi- hostages he had held in a nearby hotel for
jackers variously described themselves more than five hours.
as members of the Organization of Sons The gunman was prevented from en-
of Occupied Territories, the Mount Car- tering the El Al office by a guard inside
mel Martyrs, "the Japanese Red Army who pressed the security lock that closed
acting for the People of Palestine," and
the inner glass doors. The Arab then fled
"Palestine commandos and members of
to the hotel with two policemen giving
the Japanese Red Army."
chase. Armed with a submachine gun and
The major Palestinian commando grenades, the Arab threatened to kill the
groups in Beirut disclaimed any knowl-
hostages in the lobby unless Greek Deputy
edge of these groups and disassociated
Premier Stylianos Patakos escorted him
themselves from the hijacking.
to the Athens airport for safe conduct out
Although the hijackers publicly made of the country. Patakos refused.
no specific demands, they were reported The release of the hostages was ne-
to have said during the flight to Dubai gotiated by the ambassadors in Athens of
that they sought the release of Japanese Egypt, Libya and Iraq, who spoke with the
Red Army terrorist Kozo Okamoto, serv- gunman in the lobby for two and a half
ing a life sentence in Israel for the hours. The gunman was taken to the air-
1972 massacre at Tel Aviv's Lod Inter- port and flown to Kuwait.
national Airport.
Israeli Transport Minister Shimon
Peres declared July 21 that his govern- Arabs raid Athens airport terminal. Two
ment would not turn Okamoto over to the Arab attacked the crowded
terrorists
hijackers. "The position of Israel that we Athens airport terminal with machine
don't give in to blackmail still holds," guns and grenades Aug. 15, 1973, killing
he said. three people and wounding 55. (Two
Israeli officials said July 24 that un- more victims died later.) The terrorists,
specified precautions had been taken to identifying themselves as Black Sep-
prevent the Japanese plane from entering tember guerrillas, surrendered to Greek
Israeli air spacepreparation for a pos-
in police after releasing 35 hostages they had
might carry out
sibility that the hijackers seized following the killings.
previous commando threats to crash such The two Arabs were identified as Shafik
a plane into an Israeli city. el Arida, 22, of Palestine and Tallal

A statementsigned and distributed Khaled Kaddourah, 21, of Lebanon. They


clandestinely by the Organization of Sons told the court Aug. 7 that they were obey-
of Occupied Territories in Beirut July 26 ing "orders to hit at emigrants to Israel
said the Japanese plane was hijacked and because they kill our wives and chil-
destroyed in retaliation for the $6 million dren." Court officials said Arida and
the Japanese government had paid Israel Kaddourah had flown to Athens from

L LI
64 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Benghazi, Libya Aug. 3 to survey the tacks in Greece unless the two com-
transit lounge. Then they took off for mandos were freed.
Beirut and returned Aug. 5 to carry out The Israeli government expressed
the attack. shock May two
5 at the release of the
Police said the two Arabs drew guns commandos, saying that mur-
"freeing
and started shooting as they were about to derers under pressure of threats" would
undergo a routine search by a Greek se- lead to more terrorism.
curity inspector. The terrorists fired at a
The U.S. State Department May 6 also
line of passengers about to board a Trans
was critical of the Athens government's
World Airlines plane bound for New York action, stating that "deporting individuals
and others waiting in the terminal. Arid
convicted of murdering innocent people is
and Khantouran admitted to police Aug.
not the answer to deterring further ter-
6 that they had meant to fire at the
rorist activity."
passengers of another TWA
flight for Tel
Aviv. Those Israel-bound travelers had al-
ready boarded the aircraft when the two Arab slain in Norway. A Moroccan
Arabs entered the terminal. suspected of being a member of the
Palestinian Black September organization
An Athens court Jan. 24, 1974 sen-
was killed by two gunmen July 21, 1973
tenced the two terrorists to death.
in the Norwegian town of Lillehammer,
Arida, who with his companion had
1 15 miles north of Oslo.
pleaded guilty, said "We are sorry in our
Oslo police said six persons of various
hearts that we injured Greeks, but orders
nationalities, including two Israelis, were
are orders and we do not question them.
arrested connection with the slaying of
in
Any plane of any country that flies to Is- Ahmed Bouchiki, 30.
rael is a target for us."
An Oslo newspaper (Aftenposten)
an operation connected with the
In reported Aug. 1 that Bouchiki had been
case, three Pakistanis seized a Greek killed after being mistaken for a Black
freighter in Karachi Feb. 2, 1974 and September leader by an extremist Israeli
threatened to blow up the ship and kill counterterrorist group called the Wrath
itstwo crewmen unless Greece freed the of God, an offshoot of the militant Jewish
two Arabs. Defense League. The newspaper said that
two Israeli undercover agents had
The gunmenreleased the hostages Feb.
infiltrated the group and had been in
3 after
receiving assurances from the
telephone contact with diplomat Yigal
Greek government that it would com- Eyal and other Israeli officials in Oslo.
mute the death sentences. The two Israelis were arrested in Eyal's
The hijackers described themselves as Oslo apartment July 25.
members of the Moslem International The Israeli counterterrorist group was
Guerrillas, a group known to be active in believed to have carried out the killing of
the Philippines and Indonesia. They were Bouchiki as part of an Israeli plan to
flown to Cairo Feb. 4 and threatened to thwart a Black September effort to
commit suicide unless they were given safe assemble a group in Norway and then
conduct to Libya. hijack an El Al Israeli airlines jet in
The Arabs were deported from Greece Denmark.
to Libya May 5. Greek Justice Minister An Oslo court Feb. 1, 1974 convicted
Stylianos Triandafyllou said the men were five Jews, including two Israelis, in con-
being handed over at the request of the nection with Bouchiki's murder. sixth A
Libyan government, which had pledged defendant, an Israeli, was acquitted. The
they would be "held answerable for their prosecution said Bouchiki was mistaken
actions." for a Palestinian agent.
The death sentences of the terrorists The defendants were charged with being
had been commuted to life imprisonment accessory to murder and with spying for
April 30, and then President Phaidon Israel. Sylvia Rafael of South Africa and
Gizikis granted them a full pardon. Abraham Gehmer of Israel each received
Greece had pledged to treat the two men a 5H-year prison term. Dan Aerbel of
leniently following threats of further at- Denmark was given a five-year sentence.
65
THE MIDDLE EAST

Ethel Marianne GladnikofT of Sweden The French dropped their original de-
received a 2 Hi -year sentence and Zwi mand that the commandos must not
Steinberg of Israel a one-year sentence. leave with their arms and the hostages.
The terrorists with the four hostages
transferred later Sept. 7 to a Kuwaiti
Commandos to get East Berlin office. Boeing 707 plane and circled over Riyadh,
Allied officials in West Berlin reported
Saudi Arabia, threatening to throw their
Aug. 18 that the Palestine Liberation Or- captives out of the aircraft unless the
ganization (PLO) would open an office in
Saudis took action to help secure Abu
East Berlin under an agreement reached Daoud's release. Saudi officials refused.
there earlier in 1973 between PLO Jordan announced Sept. 7 that it would
leader Yasir Arafat and East German not free Daoud.
Communist party secretary Erich
Returning to Kuwait, the gunmen
Honecker.
asked for another Syrian plane to fly them
An East German statement said the to Damascus. Ali Yassin, PLO represen-
purpose of the commandos' office would tative in Kuwait, who was serving as
be "to further mutual understanding" be- mediator between the commandos and
tween East Germans and Palestinians and the Kuwaitis, was seized as a hostage by
"to increase solidarity in their joint strug- the commandos. In further negotiations
gle against imperialism and Zionism." Sept. 8 Kuwait offered to give the com-
mandos safe passage to Iraq in a car if the
commandos freed all the hostages. The
Arabs raid Saudi embassy in Paris. A
guerrillas insisted on taking Yassin or a
group of five armed Palestinian com- with them. This
Kuwaiti security official
mandos entered the Saudi Arabian em- demand was refused. Yassin was freed two
bassy in Paris Sept. 5, 1973 and seized 13
hours later. The commandos surrendered
diplomats and employes as hostages. later Sept. 8, released the four Saudis and
After 28 hours of protracted negotia- were taken into custody.
tions, the guerrillas agreed to release all
but four Saudi hostages, and left Paris
Sept. 6 with their captives aboard a Italy thwarts commando air attack.
plane provided by Syria. The aircraft Italian military police Sept. 5 arrested
landed in Kuwait Sept. 7 after a re-
whom
they said planned to
five Arabs
fueling stop in Cairo. shoot down an Israeli El Al airliner at
The commandos described them- Rome's international airport at Fiumi-
selves as belonging to a hitherto un- cino.
known group called Al Icab. After One ofthe Arabs was seized in an
storming the embassy, they threatened apartment at Ostia, four miles from the
to blow up the building or kill the hos- airport, along with two light-weight
tages unless their demands were met. launchers for ground-to-air missiles, ac-
They called for the release of Abu cording to the police. The four others
Daoud, an Al Fatah leader serving a were arrested later in Rome.
life term in Jordan for terrorism. The
later dropped this demand and
Two of the Arabs were soon released
gunmen in their own recognizance and presumably
insisted only that they be given safe pas-
left Italy. The other three were convicted
sage by plane to an Arab country.
and sentenced in a Rome court Feb. 27,
The impasse was finally broken Sept. 1974. They received prison terms of five
6 when Syrian President Hafez al-Assad years and two months each and were fined
agreed to put a Syrian Arab Airlines $2,500 each. Then they were freed on bail.
plane at the disposal of the commandos. (Observers noted that Italy was then
The aircraft arrived at Paris' Le Bourget negotiating foroil from Arab oil states,
airfield later in the day. which had imposed a cutback in oil pro-
The French government agreed to duction and had raised oil prices in what
safe passage for the commandos and was described as retaliation for Western
their Saudi hostages in exchange for the failure to support the Arabs against

release of four women held hostage. Israel.)


66 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Hostages used to curb Austrian transit munist countries since 1971 had passed
of Soviet Jews. Yielding to terrorists, the through Austria in groups, without
Austrian government announced Sept. 29, Austrian visas.
1973 it would no longer allow group tran- Kreisky, Jewish-born, said he had acted
sit of Soviet Jewish emigrants through solely to prevent loss of life but said
Austria and would close Israeli-run Austria "would sooner or later have had
facilities for emigrants awaiting transfer to order a modification" of the emigration
to Israel. The decision was made in re- procedures because of the threat of
turn for the release of one Austrian and violence and the presence of "armed men
three Soviet Jewish hostages, whom Arab from both sides."
guerrillas had held at the Vienna airport. Austria had been criticized by Arab and
The three Jewish hostages were seized Communist governments for permitting
Sept. 28, along with a woman who later the transit facilities. Three Arabs had
escaped with her infant son, on a Mos- been arrested as suspected terrorists early
cow-Vienna train carrying 40 Jewish in 1973, only to be released after the
emigrants in Czechoslovak territory at the Austrian embassy in Beirut received a
Austrian border. The two heavily armed terrorist bomb threat. Austrian security
guerrillas, who
said they were members officials were reported to have opposed
of a group called the Eagles of the the Schoenau operation, in existence for
Palestinian Revolution, left the train 1 1 years.
at the Austrian customs station, where officials condemned Austria's
Israeli
they seized a customs official, com- decision on the transit issue. Israeli
mandeered a car and drove to Vienna's Ambassador Yitzhak Patish, recalled to
Schwechat airport. Tel Aviv Sept. 29, said this was the first
During several hours of negotiations, success by Arab terrorists in forcing a
the Austrian Cabinet offered to fly the government to change its policy.
guerrillas to the Middle East but re- Israeli Premier Golda Meir asked the
fused their demands to take the hostages Austrian government to reconsider its de-
with them. The hostages were released cision in an Oct. 1 address to a meeting of
early Sept. 29, after Austrian Chancellor the Assembly of the Council of Europe in
Bruno Kreisky agreed to close the Strasbourg, France. She called the
Schoenau Castle transit facility outside Austrian decision "the greatest en-
Vienna, run by the Jewish Agency of couragement to terrorism throughout the
Israel, and to bar "group transports" of world."
Jews through Austria. But Meir failed to convince Kreisky to
The guerrillas were given a twin-engine reverse his decision when she met with
plane with two Austrian pilots and were him in Vienna Oct. 2.
allowed to land in Libya only after they The
17-nation Council of Europe voted
had been refused by Tunisia and Algeria unanimously Oct. 2, after hearing Meir,
and had threatened to blow up the plane. to advise Austria that it considered no
The plane had made refueling stops in government bound by pledges obtained
Yugoslavia and Italy. In a statement through blackmail.
issued at Schwechat, the guerrillas said
After their meeting, Kreisky told news-
they had acted "because we feel that the
immigration of Soviet Union Jews con-
men that resisting the terrorists would
have not discouraged future terrorism,
stitutes a great danger to our cause."
since "by now, even if they are indicted
Austria's government-run television
and convicted, terrorists know the events
said Sept. 29 that
the offer to close
Schoenau had been a compromise sug-
that follow —
that they will be liberated
anyway."
gested by Arab governments, "especially
Iraq." Kreisky, in several interviews that President Nixon Oct. 3 also criticized
day, said he had refused demands to bar what was seen as an Austrian capitulation
all future Jewish emigrants from entering
to terrorism.
Austria and said "all people with proper Nixon said "we simply cannot have
papers" would be allowed to pass governments— small or large give in to —
through. Nearly all the 70,000 Jewish emi- international blackmail by terrorist
grants who had left the European Com- groups."

THE MIDDLE EAST 67

Arabs hijack, free Dutch plane. A KLM persons aboard the plane. Two other
Royal Dutch Airlines 747 passenger jet en persons, including an Italian policeman,
route from Amsterdam to Tokyo was were shot to death as the gunmen were
seized over Iraq Nov. 25, 1973 by three hijacking a West German Lufthansa air-
Palestinian hijackers. The plane and the liner nearby. The hijacked plane was flown
last of its 1 1 hostages were released by the to Kuwait Dec. 18 after short stopovers at
gunmen after landing in Dubai Nov. 28. Athens and Damascus. The guerrillas re-
The
plane, carrying 18 crew members leased 12 hostages and surrendered.
and 247 passengers, mostly Japanese, was The Palestinians began shooting as they
taken over by the hijackers Nov. 25 removed submachineguns from luggage in
shortly after taking off from Beirut. The the lounge of the airport at Fiumicino, 15
gunmen miles from Rome. The men made their
identified themselves as members
of a little-known group called the Arab
way to a Pan American Boeing 707 that
Nationalist Youth for the Liberation of
was preparing to take off for Beirut and
Palestine. KLM
said the men demanded
Teheran. They hurled incendiary bombs
inside the aircraft, killing the 29 people
that the airlines halt the transporting of
arms to Israel, and that the Dutch govern- aboard and heavily damaging the plane.
ment alter its "pro-Israel
drastically
Among the dead were four Moroccan
stance" and cease providing mediation or
government officials en route to Teheran
for a state visit and 14 U.S. employes of
assistance in the emigration of Soviet Jews
the Arabian-American Oil Co.
to Israel. They threatened to blow up the
plane if their demands were not met. The guerrillas herded five Italian hos-
The commandos forced the plane to tages into the Lufthansa plane and killed a
turn back and land in Damascus, Syria, sixth, the Italian customs policeman, as he

where it was denied refueling. It then flew tried to escape. The second man shot out-
to Nicosia, Cyprus Nov. 26. It took off side the plane died on the way to the hos-
again after Cypriot officials rejected the pital. The plane, carrying the guerrillas,
hijackers' demand for release of seven the Italians and the crew, took off,and the
Arabs jailed for the April attack on the pilot was ordered to head for Beirut.
home of Israel's ambassador to Cyprus Lebanese authorities, however, refused
and on an Israeli airliner. (The seven were landing permission, and the jet was flown
granted amnesty by Cypriot President to Athens, where it landed Dec. 18.
Makarios and flown to Cairo Dec. 6.) In negotiations by radio with Greek au-
The aircraft stopped briefly at Tripoli, thorities n the Athens airport control
;

Libya and then landed Nov. 27 at Valletta, tower, the guerrillas reportedly demanded
Malta, where the gunmen freed all 247 the release of two Arab terrorists held
passengers and eight stewardesses. Their since August for an attack on the Athens
release followed a Dutch government an- airport. The terrorists killed one of their
nouncement Nov. 26 pledging not to Italian hostages and dumped his body
"allow the opening of offices or camps for from the plane before leaving Athens.
Soviet Jews going to Israel" and banning
The plane's pilot, Capt. Joe Kroese, had
"transportation of weapons or volunteers
urged the Greek authorities to meet the
for Israel."
commandos' demands, reporting that
The plane left Malta with hostages 1 1
four other hostages had been shot dead.
10 crewmen and a KLM vice president, Kroese was unaware at the time that the
A.W. Withholt. It arrived in Dubai Nov. shootings were a hoax, that the guerrillas
28, then left for Aden, South Yemen and
were merely firing their guns in the air to
returned to Dubai later Nov. 28 after
give the false impression that they were
Yemeni authorities discouraged a landing. killing the other prisoners.
The three gunmen surrendered the plane
and its hostages
1 1 in return for safe-con- The plane then flew to Damascus,
duct guarantees. where Syrian authorities permitted the
loading of food and fuel.
On landing Kuwait later Dec. 18, the
in
Commando massacre at Rome airport. five guerrillasreleased their hostages in
Five armed Palestinian commandos at- return for "free passage" to an unknown
tacked a U.S. airliner at Rome's inter- destination. But Kuwait announced Dec.
national airport Dec. 17, 1973, killing 29 23 that they would be turned over to the
68 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) situation of today's oil crisis." They de-
for trial. manded a plane to fly them to an Arab
The PLO had said Dec. 17 that the country.
assault was against the interests "of our The Singapore government rejected
people." A PLO Dec. 18 his
official said their request but offered the gunmen
group would "do everything in our power sanctuary Feb. 4 in any of the 42 diplo-
to stop such acts." matic missions in Singapore.
U.S. Dec. 26 identified the
officials Later, in Kuwait, five PFLP guer-
terrorists as members of the Popular rillasbroke into the Japanese embassy
Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Feb. 7 and seized Ambassador Ryoko
They said Libya had provided and trans- Ishikawa and nine members of his staff at
ported the weapons used. gunpoint. Four non-Japanese staff mem-
bers were permitted to leave the building.
The PFLP raiders threatened to kill the
Guerrillas attack in Singapore, Kuwait. hostages unless the four guerrillas in
A combined operation of guerrilla actions Singapore were freed and flown to Kuwait
by the Popular Front for the Liberation of aboard a Japanese airliner.
Palestine (PFLP) and the radical Japanese Kuwait refused to allow landing of a
Red Army was carried out in Singapore Japanese plane but offered the gunmen
Jan. 31, 1974 and Kuwait Feb. 7. The nine safe-conduct out of the country if they
terrorists involved were flown to Aden, surrendered the Japanese hostages
South Yemen Feb. 8 after agreeing to re- unharmed.
lease all hostages. The PFLP
their Japan appealed to the Kuwaiti govern-
claimed credit for the entire operation. ment later Feb. 7 to meet the PFLP de-
In the first raid, in Singapore Jan. 31, mand. Kuwait at first rejected this
four guerrillas —
two of the PFLP and two plea but accepted it Feb. 8. A Japan Air
of the Red Army —
seized a ferryboat in Lines plane carrying the four guerrillas
the harbor with five hostages aboard after from Singapore landed in Kuwait later
making an unsuccessful attempt to blow Feb. 8, picked up the other four PFLP
up the refineries of Royal Dutch Shell. commandos and flew to Aden, South
Two of the hostages managed to escape Yemen.
Feb. 1 by jumping overboard.
The guerrillas threatened in a note to
Singapore authorities to kill themselves Arabs hijack British plane. A British
and their hostages unless they were given Airways jetliner was hijacked by two
safe-conduct to an Arab country. One of Arab terrorists March 3, 1974 shortly
the three storage tanks they attempted to after takeoff from Beirut. The plane was
blow up was set afire but was quickly ex- forced to land at Amsterdam's Schiphol
tinguished. The men said they had set off airport. where it was set afire after all 92
the blast to support the "Vietnam revolu- passengers and 10 crewmen were permit-
tionary people and for making a revolu- ted to evacuate the aircraft. The two
tionary situation after considering the hijackers were arrested.

A rab Terrorists Captured in Europe


January 1972 through January 1974
Number Release Released Convicted Awaiting
captured secured for other and or on
by threat reasons sentenced trial
Italy 12 7 2 3
France 2 2
Britain 5 4 1

Austria 8 2 6
West Germany 7 3 4
G reece 3 1 2
Turkey 2 2
Cyprus 10 7 3
Holland 1 1

50 13 23
Source: The Economist
THE MIDDLE EAST 69

The jet had landed at Beirut on a the newspaper L'Aurore and the weekly
scheduled from Bombay to London.
flight Minute, it said they "have consciously
On seizing the plane, the hijackers first made themselves into instruments of
ordered the pilot to fly to Athens, but criminal actions by Israeli secret agents."
Greek authorities refused authorization to
land.
The guerrillas were said to have
identified themselves as members of the Strife Embroils Israel,
Palestine Liberation Army. The Palestine
Liberation Organization (PLO) in Beirut
Arab States & Commandos
March 3 disavowed any connection with
the hijacking. Israeli air-ground raid on Lebanon.
Amsterdam police reported March 6 Israeli forces carried out a major ground
that the two guerrillas had said under in- and air attack against Palestinian com-
terrogation that the arms and explosives mando bases southern Lebanon Sept.
in
for their operation were hidden in the 16-17, 1972. Some
3,000 troops, spear-
plane by accomplices before they boarded headed by about 50 tanks and other
it in Beirut. armored vehicles and with air support
A
Dutch court June 6 convicted the provided by about 25 jets, thrust 15
of air piracy and arms charges
terrorists miles across the border in the deepest
and sentenced them to five-year prison penetration of southern Lebanon.
terms. Israeli authorities reported that during
The British Airline Pilots' Association •the 33-hour operation "at least 60"
criticized the sentences as "ineffectual." It were
guerrillas killed, 16 Arab villages
favored the death penalty for hijacking. were searched for terrorists and more
than 150 houses believed to have quar-
tered the commandos were destroyed.
West Berlin frees 2 guerrillas. West
Israel placed its losses at three killed
Berlin authorities released two jailed
and six wounded. The Lebanese army
Arab terrorists June
1974 after10,
as well as the guerrillas put up strong
receiving threats that other guerrillas
resistance.
would attack at the World Cup soccer Lt. Gen. David Elazar, Israeli chief
matches in the city and in West Germany. of staff, Sept. 17 described the operation
The two men were flown to Egypt. They as "a major battle" in "our continuing
had been convicted April 22 of plotting to war against the terrorists." It followed
blow up the West Berlin office of El Al, the killing of two Israeli soldiers Sept.
the Israeli airline, and the city's police 15 by Arab raiders in the Golan Heights.
registration office for foreigners. Arab sources said the Israelis killed at
West German police June 13 reported least 35 guerrillas, 18 Lebanese soldiers
they had smashed a Palestinian terrorist and 23 Lebanese civilians. A Beirut
ring planning to launch raids during the communique Israeli jets had de-
said
World Cup matches that opened that day. stroyed major bridges over the
two
Five Palestinians were arrested, including Litani River, which cut across Lebanon
a student in Saarbrucken whose group, about 15 miles north of the Israeli
according to police, had plotted assaults frontier.
against the Israeli embassy in Bonn and Describing the ground action, tht
Israeli passenger planes. Lebanese said the Israeli troops and
armored units struck in the southeast
up to Adiesse and Taiybe in the direction
3 Paris offices bombed. Three car
of Marjioun and drove past Bin Jbail
bombs exploded outside the offices of two
up to Tibnine and Ghandouniye. In a
right-wing, pro-Israeli publications and a
second thrust to the west, the Israeli
Jewish welfare organization early Aug. 3, force pushed as far as Kana, 15 miles
1974. Two people were injured. The
south of the port of Tyre, according to
police defused a fourth bomb outside the
the report.
office of the national television network.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of
Palestine Aug. 5 took credit for the Beirut curbs commandos. In the after-
attacks. In a message to two publications, math of the Israeli foray, Lebanon
70 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Sept. 17 ordered the commandos to The new Israeli strategy was further
evacuate all villages in southern Lebanon. stated a broadcast by Chaim Herzog,
in
The Palestine Liberation Organization former chief of staff. He said: "We are
(PLO) was reported Sept. 20 to have not engaged in reprisal but a war against
acceded to the Beirut government's terror. The very presence of terrorists
demands. The agreement followed in the area between the border and the

mediation moves by Mahmoud Riad, Litani River is a provocation" and


secretary general of the Arab League, Israel, therefore, considered itself "free
who had arrived in the Lebanese capital to act against them."
on short notice Sept. 18. Premier Golda Meir said the attacks
According to the text of a Lebanese on Syria and Lebanon were carried out
directive released Sept. 17 by the Al because it was in those countries that
Fatah office in Cairo, the guerrillas the guerrillas had planned the Munich
were to remain confined to their camps killings, the Tel Aviv airport massacre
in where they had previously
sectors and the mailing of letter bombs to Jews.
been They were to carry
restricted.
arms and wear their battle dress only
after coordination between their com- Israelis strike deep in Lebanon and
mand and the Lebanese army. kill 3 Fatah leaders. An Israeli force
Al Fatah leader Yasir Arafat was re- struck deep into Lebanon April 10, 1973,
ported at first to have challenged the attacking Palestinian commando bases in
commando curbs in a meeting with Pre- the center of Beirut and in the coastal
mier Saeb Salam. town of Saida to the south. The raids
Shortly after the Israeli forces with- followed the terrorist attack on the home
drew from southern Lebanon, govern- of the Israeli ambassador to Cyprus and
ment troops moved back into the area to on an Israeli airliner there.
block guerrilla reoccupation of their Lebanese Premier Saeb Salam submit-
former bases. ted his resignation April 10 following the
Israeli raid.
Operating under cover of darkness, the
Rival commando factions clash. Two Israeli units drove into Beirut after
Al Fatah factions clashed Oct. 14, 1972 landing on the coast in small boats and
with machine guns and mortars in the
killed three prominent Al Fatah leaders in
Bekaa Valley region of eastern Lebanon
the capital. They were Abu Youssef
near the Syrian border.
(whose real name was Mohammed Yussef
The
clash occurred between a dis- Najjar), one of two Fatah representatives
sidentgroup that sought to defy the
on the PLO Executive Committee, Kamal
Lebanese government-commando agree-
Adwan, an organizer of Palestinian
ment curbing guerrilla raids into Israel
resistance in the occupied West Bank;
from Lebanon and the main faction of
and Kamal Nasser, former Jordanian
Al Fatah leader Yasir Arafat. The dis-
parliament member and official spokes-
sidents were said to number about 1,000
man of the PLO.
men and were led by Abu Youssef el
All three men and Youssef s wife were
Kayed.
shot to death in separate apartments in
two guarded houses that were entered by
Lebanon &
Syria bases bombed. Israeli the attackers. The buildings were located
planes bombed Al Fatah
bases in Syria in the Sabra refugee camp in the heart of

and Lebanon Oct. 15, 1972. This was Beirut, where most of the commando
the first time Israel attacked targets groups were headquartered. Other guer-
rilla targets struck in the city were the
in Arab countries without immediate
central offices of the Democratic Popular
provocation. In explaining the new
policy, an Israeli spokesman said "we
Front and workshops reportedly used to
are no longer waiting for them to hit
prepare explosives.
first.This is the operative phase of our In the operation at Saida, the Israelis
pledge to hit the terrorists wherever blew up a garage allegedly used to repair
they are, and they are in Lebanon and vehicles of guerrillas stationed in southern
Syria." Lebanon.
THE MIDDLE EAST 71

After coming ashore near Beirut, the One of the


captured men, Shehada
Israeli units were reportedly met by six Ahmed Mustafa, told a news conference
Israeli agents, who were said to have in Tel Aviv April 22 that he and his com-
entered Lebanon a week earlier as panions were on a "suicide mission to
tourists with false British, Belgian and sabotage the bus station, a restaurant and
West German passports. They drove the other public places" and were under or-
raiders into Beirut in automobiles they ders "to kill as many as we could and not
had rented earlier in the week. permit ourselves to be captured."
Lebanon said 12 persons were killed in
the Israeli attack —
four Palestinians, two
Lebanese, commandos clash in Beirut.
Lebanese policemen, two Lebanese ci-
vilians, three Syrians and an Italian Lebanese army troops, using planes and
woman. tanks, engaged in heavy fighting with
Palestinian commandos May 2-3, 1973.
APLO statement in Beirut charged
April 10 that the Israeli raiders had "re- The fighting began in Beirut and soon

lied on elements of American military in- spread to other parts of Lebanon.


telligence" provided by the U.S. embassy The fighting was halted briefly May 2
in Beirut. The U.S. State Department by a cease-fire agreed to by Al Fatah
denied the allegation in Washington. leader Yasir Arafat and Premier Amin
Lt. Gen. David Elazar,
Israeli chief of Hafez. However, the truce broke down
staff, told a news conference in Tel Aviv and the battle resumed May 3 following a
April 10 that the raid was carried out in guerrilla ambush of a Beirut police bar-
retaliation for "the intensification of ter- racks in which policemen were
three
rorist acts in Europe and other places in killed and seven wounded. Another cease-
the last months." He said that although fire was arranged May 3, but reports said
most of those commando raids had failed, was continuing.
the conflict
"we had to act." The latest outbreak was precipitated by
Elazar said that "there is no possi- a breakdown in negotiations for the re-
bility of honoring the sovereignty of lease of two Lebanese officers kidnapped
Lebanon and its capital as long as it is by guerrillas May 1 The two officers were
.

serving as a complete haven for ter- released after the first day's fighting. The
rorists." men had been held as hostages for the re-
lease of seven Palestinian commandos ar-
rested April 27 for carrying explosives at
Arafat takes political powers. The Iraqi the Beirut International Airport. The
news agency reported April 21 that Al fighting reflected the long-standing
Fatah leader Yasir Arafat had taken over dispute between the two sides com- —
the leadership of the combined commando mando demands for freedom of move-
movement's political and governmental ment in Lebanon to carry out operations
relations in the wake of the Israeli slaying against Israel.
of three Fatah leaders in Beirut April 10.
Arafat replaced Abu Youssef, one of the
The hostilities began May 1 near
Beirut's Shatila camp, which housed 5,000
slain men, as head of the political depart-
Palestinian refugees, and spread to the
ment of the Palestine Liberation Organi-
nearby Burj-al-Barajineh camp, which
zation. The department was responsible
housed 7,700 refugees. The fighting was
for relations with Arab and foreign
first confined to the camp areas but soon
governments.
extended to other parts of the city. Guer-
rilla rockets set fire to an army depot near

Israel thwarts Arab 'suicide' mission. Is- the Beirut airfield and struck army bar-
raeli troops April 21 captured three Pal- racks at Hasmiyeh along the highway
estinian from Lebanon who
guerrillas toward Damascus.
were have planned an attack on ci-
said to The clashes expanded to southern
vilians at a bus station at Safad, Israel. Lebanon May 3 and were particularly
Identified as members of Al Fatah, the fierce in the Arkub region, a commando
three were seized two miles south of the stronghold which had been used for opera-
Lebanese border and 14 miles northwest tions against Israel. Capt. Riad Awad,
of their intended target. guerrilla commander in the Arkub region,
72 POLITICAL TERRORISM

and three other commandos were re- and set up gun emplacements between
ported to have been killed when their Rasheiya and Massna, about 15 miles to
jeep attempted to run through an army the north. The guerrillas came under
roadblock at Hasbeya. Other clashes rocket and strafing attacks later in the
in the south raged in the Yanta and day by Lebanese planes.
Rasheiya areas between government Government jets May 10 bombed com-
forces and the Syrian-backed As Saiqa
mando positions in northern Lebanon
guerrilla group.
and in the Rasheiya sector in the south.
Two large groups of Palestinian forces An army communique said the raids fol-
crossed from Syria into Lebanon to join lowed commando assaults on three army
the combat. The first group, numbering positions on the eastern bank of the
several thousand men, entered Lebanon Hasbani River in the south and on a
May 3 and skirmished with government government checkpoint at Arida and on
soldiers, but withdrew to Syria after the an airbase at Klaitat, near the Syrian
May 4 truce was worked out. The second frontier in the north.
commando thrust into Lebanon occurred Lebanese security forces arrested 35
May 9. persons in Beirut May 12 on charges of
The collapse of a May 4 cease-fire stirring up trouble between the Lebanese
precipitated the resignation May
8 of army and the guerrillas. Among those
Premier Amin Hafez and his Cabinet. seized as "agents provocateurs" were a
Lebanese President Suleiman Franjieh number of West Europeans and citizens of
told Arab mediators in Beirut May 5 that other Arab states. During the fighting in
his government would not permit the Beirut both sides had claimed that a
guerrillas in his country to terrorize and "third force" was firing at govenment and
kidnap people "as if they were above the Palestinian forces to provoke more
official authority." Franjieh informed the clashes.
representatives of the presidents of Syria,
Egypt and Iraq that the Palestinian refu-
gee camps in Lebanon harbored illegal
arms and served as the headquarters of
subversive guerrilla organizations. He said Lebanon-commando accord. The Leb-
Beirut was opposed to giving the com- anese government and the Palestinian
mandos special privileges to organize commandos announced May 17 an
attacks against Israel from Lebanon. agreement that ended two weeks of
The hostilities in Beirut were largely fighting in which at least 250 persons were
curtailed by a new cease-fire negotiated reported killed. In another development
May 8, but incidents continued in that reflected a return to normal condi-
southern Lebanon. tions, Amin Hafez agreed May 19 to

Syria closed its border with Lebanon withdraw his resignation as premier and
May 8, accusing Beirut of complicity again head the Cabinet.
in an anti-Palestinian plot of "foreign The peace agreement was worked out
design." A government statement broad- in two days of talks between a team of
cast by Damascus radio threatened in- three Lebanese army officers and rep-
tervention, saying that Syria would resentatives of three major guerrilla orga-
"carry out its full commitment in con- nizations — Al Fatah, the Popular Front
fronting and foiling this conspiracy." for the Liberation of Palestine and the
Libya May 8 pledged to give the com- Popular Democratic Front. Terms of the
mandos its "entire potential" in their accord were kept secret, but according to
struggle with Lebanon. The offer was Lebanese press reports and diplomatic
contained in a cable sent by Col. sources in Beirut it was known to contain
Muammar el-Qaddafi to Al Fatah leader the following points:
Yasir Arafat. The Palestine Liberation Army's 5,-
A guerrilla force from Syria moved 000-man Yarmuk Brigade and other guer-
into Lebanon May 9 for the second time rillas who had entered Lebanon from
in eight days. The commandos, said to Syria at the height of the fighting were to
number several thousand, took up posi- leave the country. (Their withdrawal was
tions in the southeastern Rasheiya area completed May 18.)
THE MIDDLE EAST 73

The
15 camps housing 90,000 Pales- to "get those that advocate the liquidation
tinian refugees were brought under of Israel."
Lebanese sovereignty and their status as
"isolated zones" on Lebanese territory
was ended.
Syria vs. Fatah. Syria was seen as
Guerrillas were barred from carrying
cracking down on the Al Fatah movement
arms or wearing uniforms outside the
on its territory. The group's Voice of
refugee camps.
Palestine radio station at Deraa near the
The commandos were banned from Jordanian border was shut by Damascus
establishing roadblocks, making arrests
Sept. 14, 1973, and its six staff members
or conducting interrogations.
were arrested. The closure followed the
Joint Lebanese army and guerrilla in- station's attack the previous week on a
spection teams were to see to it that no Syrian-Jordanian-Egyptian agreement to
heavy weapons were stored in the refugee adopt a common policy at the U.N.
camps.
Syria's arrest of 16 more Al Fatah
Three guerrilla leaders denounced the
guerrillas was reported Sept. 18. The
accord May 20 and warned they would
Syrians also were said to have closed Al
not abide by the key demands that the
Fatah training bases and border trails
commandos withdraw from populated used to infiltrate supplies into Lebanon.
areas and that heavy weapons be pro-
hibited in the camps. The opponents of the
agreement were identified by the semi-
official Palestine News Agency as Salah
Jordan grants amnesty to commandos.
Khalef, Abu Maher and Yasir Abeid
King Hussein of Jordan declared an am-
Rahboh.
nesty Sept. 18, 1973 for 1,500 political
prisoners, including 754 Palestinian com-
mandos imprisoned after fighting with
Israelis force down Iraqi jet, Habash Jordanian forces in 1970 and 1971.
escapes. An Iraqi airliner en route from A
total of 347 guerrillas were let out of
Beirut to Baghdad was intercepted Aug. the Amman jail Sept. 19 and another 400
10, 1973 by two Israeli fighters 25 were released Sept. 20. Among those freed
miles north of Beirut and was forced Sept. was Abu Daoud.
19
to land at a military airfield in northern Hussein saidhis amnesty covered "all
Israel near Haifa. The plane was permit- convicts, detainees and wanted people
ted to continue its scheduled flight to within and outside the kingdom who had
Baghad after a two-hour security search committed political crimes against state
by Israeli authorities. security with the exception of murder and
The U.N. Security Council, meeting at espionage." He said the move was taken in
Lebanon's request, unanimously con- the interest of national unity "now that
demned the Israeli action Aug. 15. lifehas returned to stability and nor-
Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan mality" in Jordan. (The amnesty also ap-
said Aug. 11 that the purpose in forcing plied to 2,500 commandos outside Jordan
down the Iraqi plane was to capture who had been sentenced in absentia or
several commando including
leaders, were wanted for trial.)
George Habash, of the Popular
head
Front for the Liberation of Palestine
(PFLP), believed to be aboard. Dayan Gaza Arabs score terror. Gaza Arabs
called Habash a "master of murder." Feb. 15, 1973 had protested a recent out-

An Israeli military spokesman had con- break of Palestinian commando terrorism


ceded earlier Aug. 11 that the wrong plane in the Israel-occupied area.
had been intercepted. Six members of the Shatti refugee
Israel's chief of staff, Lt. Gen. David council resigned to protest the murder of
Elazar, warned Aug. 15 that Israel would the council chairman Feb. 11. Other
carry out further plane interceptions. He Gazans were circulating a petition calling
said Israel had the "right of self-defense" on Arab world leaders to persuade the
74 POLITICAL TERRORISM

commandos to halt their attacks in the Credit for the attack was claimed April
Gaza Strip. The petition followed an 11 by the Lebanese-based Marxist
unsuccessful attempt Feb. 13 to Popular Front for the Liberation of
assassinate former Gaza Mayor Rashid Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC).
Shawa. Shawa was ambushed by gunmen A photo showing the three terrorists was
but escaped with minor injuries. distributed by the PFLP-GC. They were
identified as a Palestinian, a Syrian and an
Iraqi.
Israel expels 8 Arabs. Israel Dec. 10, The PFLP-GC issued three communi-
1973 expelled eight Palestinians from the ques, apparently while the attack was in
West Bank and East Jerusalem and sent progress. The first said the attack was
them to Jordan in connection with an being carried out by a "suicide squad
upsurge of terrorist bombings the pre- based in Israel." It said hostages had been
vious week. seized and warned their lives would be in
The men were charged with incitement danger if Israeli forces attempted to
and atempting to undermine security, law, storm the buildings that were under siege.
order and normal life and with advocating A second communique demanded the re-
cooperation with Palestinian terrorist lease of 100 prisoners from Israeli jails.
groups. Among those ousted were Mayor (Israel denied that any hostages had been
Abed Salah Ita of El Birah in the West taken in the Kiryat Shmona attack.) A
Bank and Abed Abu Messager, a member final communique said shortly after the
of East Jerusalem's Supreme Moslem guerrillashad died that "Our men carried
Council, which administrated the city's
out their instructions. They set off explo-
Moslem community affairs.
sive belts they wore for the operation
In related actions, Israeli forces Dec. 9 when the enemy stormed the building they
had demolished the homes of five Arabs in were holding. They died along with their
the West Bank town of Abu Daif in con- hostages."
nection with a grenade attack in
A member of the PFLP-GC Politburo,
November. identifying himself as Abdul Abbas, said
Col. Eliezer Segev, the Israeli military
in Beirut April 12 that "thisoperation was
governor of Nablus (West Bank), and a
just the beginning of a campaign of revolu-
soldier were wounded Dec. 8 when their
tionary violence within Israel that is
car was hit by a grenade.
aimed at blocking an Arab-Israeli peace
Eight West Bank Arabs were wounded
settlement."
when a guerrilla threw a hand grenade
into a crowd at Hebron Dec. 12. Insisting that the guerrillas had in-
filtratedfrom Lebanon, Premier Golda
Meir warned April 1 that Israel regarded
1

the Lebanese government and its people


18 slain in Kiryat Shmona. Three Arab "who collaborated with the terrorists, as
guerrillas, apparently coming from Leba- responsible for these murders."
non, crossed the border April 11, 1974 into Lebanese Premier Takieddin Solh April
11 supported the commandos' claim that
the Israeli town of Kiryat Shmona, less
than a mile away, stormed a four-story they had launched their assault against
apartment building, forced their way into Kiryat Shmona from inside Israel. Solh
apartments and began shooting indis- repeated this view April 12 in a meeting
criminately, killing 18 persons, including with the ambassadors of the U.S., France,
eight children and five women. Two of the China, Britain and the Soviet Union.
dead were Israeli soldiers who had taken
part in the assault on the terrorists after Israelis attack 6 towns in Lebanon — In
the commandos attacked a second build- retaliation the Kiryat Shmona
for at-

ing in the town. All three infiltrators were tack, Israeli forces crossed into southern
killed when explosive-laden knapsacks Lebanon April 12 and raided the villages
they were carrying ignited after being hit of Dahira, Yaroun, Muhebab, Blida, Ett
by Israeli fire, according to Israeli ac- Taibe and Aitarun, west and north of
counts. Sixteen persons were wounded, Kiryat Shmona. An Israeli communique
mostly soldiers. said buildings in the towns were blown up
THE MIDDLE EAST 75

after their inhabitants were evacuated. children were killed immediately, and five
The communique said "the action was in- of 70 injured students died later. Israel
tended to harm villages whose residents claimed the children were shot by the
had given assistance to terrorists." guerrillas, all of whom were slain them-
A Lebanese communique said the Is- selves in the exchange of fire with the
raeli raiders had blown up 24 houses and a soldiers. One Israeli soldier was killed.
power station in Ett Taibe, kidnapped 13 Before taking over the school, the com-
civilians and killed two women in blowing mandos had burst into an apartment in
up a house in Muhebab. According to Maalot and killed a family of three. Police
reports from Ett Taibe, the Israelis had said that prior to arriving in Maalot, the
informed the villagers that the 13 hostages guerrillas had killed two Arab women and
they were taking would not be returned wounded several others after firing on a
until Lebanon freed the two Israeli pilots van carrying workers.
forced down in Lebanon after a raid on After the terrorists broke into the
Syrian forces April 8. school, they began to herd the students
Defense Minister Moshe Dayan said into classrooms. Seventeen children and
April 13 that the raid into Lebanon was three accompanying adults escaped by
"political, not military," that it had been jumping through windows. Later in the
purposely limited in size and damage as a morning, the commandos freed a woman
warning to the Beirut government that it officer with the group and sent her out
must prevent commandos from crossing with their ultimatum demanding the re-
into Israel if it wanted to be spared future lease of the 20 Arab prisoners by 6 p.m.
Israeli incursions. Dayan said "The By that time the freed prisoners were to
Lebanese villagers will have to abandon be in Damascus or Cyprus along with
their homes and flee if the people of Kiryat Francis Hure, French ambassador to Is-
Shmona cannot live in peace. All of rael, and Red Cross representatives.
southern Lebanon will not be able to The commandos threatened to blow up
exist." the school with wired charges unless the
The Israeli raid, Dayan explained, was deadline was met. Israeli officials said they
part of a new government policy to agreed to the demands.
pressure Lebanon to curb the com- Defense Minister Moshe Dayan and
mandos. "We are trying to explain that Lt. Gen. Mordechai Gur, army chief of
we are not the police of Lebanon," that staff, arrived on the scene to take com-

Lebanon was "responsible for what is mand of the rescue operations. The guer-
taking place inside its territory." rillas asked that Ambassador Hure and
Rumanian Ambassador Ion Covaci be
brought to the school to act as mediators.
Terrorists 25 in Maalot. Twenty-
kill The negotiators were to bring a code word
five Israelis, but four of them teen-
all to the terrorists signifying the arrival of
aged school children, died as a result of the freed 20 prisoners in Damascus or
an attack by three Palestinian commandos Cyprus, at which time half of the hostages
May 15, 1974 on the Maalot village, five were to be released. The others, Covaci
miles from the Lebanese border. and the three terrorists would depart in
The Beirut-based Popular Democratic another aircraft, with the release of the re-
Front for the Liberation of Palestine, maining youths contingent upon the ar-
headed by Nayef Hawatmeh, took credit rival of the plane in an Arab capital,
for the attack. The three guerrillas, who preferably Damascus. The code word
were said by Israel to have infiltrated from never arrived, and after the terrorists re-
Lebanon, burst into a high school at fused an Israeli demand to extend their
Maalot, where about 90 students from deadline, the Israelis decided to storm
other towns on an excursion were sleep- the building.
ing. Premier Meir vows protection —
Premier
Israeli troops stormed the building af- Golda Meir declared in a television
ter a breakdown in negotiations with the broadcast May 15 that the Arab raid on
guerrillas, who were seeking the release of Maalot was a "bitter day" for Israel and
20 commandos imprisoned in Israel in re- pledged to do everything possible to pre-
turn for the lives of the youths. Sixteen vent future attacks.
76 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Mrs. Mcir said: "I can't promise they nearby areas in searching schools, fac-
But I want to and
will let us live in peace. tories and other sensitive centers for
can promise that the government any — infiltrators.

government of Israel will do everything One infiltrator was killed near the
in its power to cut off the hands that want Lebanese border by Israeli forces May 22
to harm a child, a grown-up, a settlement, and the other six were slain May 23 after
they had moved across the Syrian-Israeli
1
a town or a village.'
lines into the Golan Heights. The interro-
Israeli jets attack Lebanon— \n reprisal
gation of two guerrillas captured in the
for the commando attack on Maalot, Is-
area earlier led to the interception and
raeli jets May 16 carried out two separate
clash with the six other commandos. Ac-
attacks in southern Lebanon, bombing
cording to the Israelis, the two captives
and strafing Palestinian targets from the
said they belonged to the Popular Demo-
foothills of Mount Hermon to the coastal
cratic Front for the Liberation of
cityof Saida. Initial casualty figures re-
Palestine and were on a mission similar to
ported by Lebanese and Palestinian com-
the May 15 Maalot massacre. They told
mando authorities said 21 were killed and
It was the heaviest Israeli
newsmen they were under orders to take
134 wounded.
civilian hostages at the kibbutzim of Ein
air attack ever carried out in Lebanon.
Gev and Haon near the Sea of Galilee in
A Lebanese Defense Ministry commu-
exchange for the release of 30 terrorists
nique said that severe damage was done
held in Israeli jails and the return of the
to the Ein el Halweh refugee camp, the
bodies of the three guerrillas killed at
largest in Lebanon, and that the Nabatieh
Maalot.
camp was hit.
The Defense Ministry said that at Israeli police reported June 4 they had

least five areas were attacked by the Is-


captured two Arab terrorists on a mission
raeli aircraft in the Mount Hermon sector, to kill persons at random in Haifa. The
which served as a hideout and staging area terrorists, Israeli citizens from Galilee, had
commandooperations against Israel's slipped across the Lebanese border June 3
for
northern border. and were seized after a suspicious taxi
driver tipped off the police.
Announcing the raids, an Israeli mili-
tary spokesman said they had been di-
rected at commando storehouses, work
shops and training camps largely in the Four Pal-
Arabs raid Israeli settlement.
Nabatiyah, Saida and Tyre regions. were killed after slaying
estinian terrorists
three women June 13, 1974 in a raid on
Shamir, a northern Israeli kibbutz.
crackdown on commandos. A se-
Israel The Popular Front for the Liberation of
was imposed on Jerusalem
curity alert Palestine-General Command claimed
and most of northern Israel May 22 to credit for the attack on Shamir.
prevent Palestinian terror attacks against According to the Israeli version of the
civiliantargets. The decision followed a incident: The four guerrillas entered
report of infiltration into Israel by a group Shamir after crossing into Israel from
of commandos from Lebanon. Six guer- Lebanon, six miles away. They shot to
rilla infiltrators were killed and two cap- death a woman volunteer worker from
tured in northern Israel May 23. New Zealand and wounded a man leaving
Troops and police were deployed on the a dining hall. Six armed men of the set-
streets of Jerusalem, particularly in Arab tlement gave chase and shot one com-
East Jerusalem. In a separate action, mando to death. The three other guer-
police announced destruction of a "ter- rillas took refuge in a factory building,
rorist" cell in East Jerusalem in which where they exchanged fire with the Is-
"considerable quantities of arms and raelis. The three men blew themselves up
sabotage material were found in pos- with their own grenades and explosives
session of threemembers of a gang." after shooting two more women to death
Several hundred armed volunteers were inside the building.
aiding police and troops in the northern The Israelis said the terrorists were car-
region around Nazareth and Afula and rying leaflets demanding the release of 100
.

THE MIDDLE EAST 77

guerrillas in Israeli prisons "within six The Israeli Foreign Ministry said June
hours" in exchange for hostages they had 20 that Israel would continue attacking
planned to seize. Palestinian groups responsible for "the
The guerrilla command in Damascus murder of Israeli civilians," while con-
said 3 1 Israeli hostages and four of its own tinuing to seek peace.
men had been killed in the Shamir attack, Israel had informed the United Nations
which it described as lasting 6^ hours. Security Council June 18 that it would
The statement said 15 Israeli soldiers also take all necessary measures to defend it-
had been killed or wounded by the ter- self against guerrilla attacks from
rorists. The command said the attackers Lebanon. The letter also rejected a Le-
came from within Israel, and not from banese complaint that Israel was using
Lebanon. Lebanon as a scapegoat for the com-
mando raids, which Beirut claimed came
from within Israel.
Israeli jets raid Palestinians. Israeli
Israeli Defense Minister Shimon Peres
planes carried out heavy raids June 18-20 urged Lebanon June 21 to "take construc-
against suspected Palestinian guerrilla tive steps toward sealing her frontier with
bases in southern Lebanon in retaliation Israel against the passage of terrorists
for the June 13 commando attack on setting out to commit murderous acts."
Shamir in northern Israel and for other Lebanese Premier Takieddin Solh had
terrorist assaults emanating from
said that his country had no intention to
Lebanon. curb the Palestinians, that Israeli at-
The raids,the heaviest on Lebanon
tempts to divide the Palestinians and the
since the October 1973 war, were directed Lebanese were bound to fail.
against commando near
installations
Libyan leader Col. Muammar el-
Mount Hermon and other Palestinian
Qaddafi cabled PLO leader Yasir Arafat
targets to the west, including at least a
June 24 that Libya "places all its ca-
dozen refugee camps and settlements.
pabilities at your disposal."
AnIsraeli spokesman said the targets
in the June 19 strike included a command
post of the Popular Front for the Lib-
eration of Palestine-General Command
near the coastal town of Saida. A U.S.S.R. linked to terror group. Antony
Jerusalem communique conceded that the Terry reported in the London Sunday
planes that day had bombed in the vicinity Times June 16, 1974 that "Western in-
of the Rashidya refugee camp in the Ras telligence sources [had] confirmed that
el Ein region but insisted that "all Russian secret service officers of the KGB
possible steps were taken to prevent and . . . GRU
have trained, equipped and
harming the residents of the refugee financed" the Popular Front for the
camps." Liberation of Palestine-General Com-
It was reported that the guerrillas fired mand. According to the article:
shoulder-carried SA-7 Strella missiles at The man behind the PFLP(GC) is Ahmed
Israeli planes attacking Saida June 20 but Jibril, a former Syrian army demolition of-
scored no hits. ficer who has been to Russia several times for
training.
Israeli government sources reported Soviet support for mm
dates back five years
June 20 that the latest series of raids on and he now has a base in Moscow as well as
Lebanon represented a new policy of pre- supply and communications centres in sev-
emptive attacks against the commandos. eral East European capitals, including Sofia
Its purpose was to disrupt the guerrilla
and East Berlin.
Many of his Palestinian recnaits have also
forces by striking at their headquarters gone through Soviet sabotage and subversion
and to pressure the Lebanese government courses run by KGB and GRU officers. . .

to curb the commando activities, the The master-minding of Jibril's organisa-


government sources said. tion is effected directly by Soviet diplomats
In a further move against guerrilla at- stationed in the Middle East who are also
tacks, the Israelis were building a security
KGB officers. One of these is Yuri Ivanovich
Starchinov, a 35-year-old officer who Joined
fence along the northern frontier to the Soviet embassy in the Lebanon as deputy
prevent infiltration. military attache three years ago
. .

78 POLITICAL TERRORISM

The guerrilla warfare and sabotage train- Palestinian state in the Israeli-occupied
ing of the Jibril terrorists by the Russians is
said in Western circles to be both thorough
West Bank and Gaza Strip.
and effective. The chain of command from
Moscow goes through the Soviet Ambassador
in Beirut, Sarvar Azimov. . .

Terrorist raid in Nahariya. Israeli


For some reason, the Russians have always
preferred to ship their arms supplies to Jlb- troops June 24, 1974 killed three Pales-
ril's guerrillas through Polish ports rather tinian commandos after the guerrillas
than direct from Bulgaria, where the organi- had slain three civilians in a raid on an
sation has its main headquarters in Eastern
Europe. apartment house in Nahariya, four miles
has been receiving Soviet consign-
Jibril south of Lebanon. An Israeli soldier was
ments of arms and equipment for the last killed and five were wounded in the clash.
four years. He has a "logistics and liaison of- The dead civilians were a woman and
ficer," Abu Umar, who, like Jibril himsejf,
her two children.
is a former Syrian army officer. . .

Al Fatah claimed credit for the attack


Palestinians get Syrian arms PLO — on Nahariya in a statement issued in
leader Yasir Arafat said Syria had Baghdad June 25. It was believed to be the
shipped "sophisticated weapons" to his first time that Al Fatah, regarded as one

forces in Lebanon in recent weeks and of the more moderate Palestinian com-
would continue to send the arms, the mando groups, publicly acknowledged
Beirut newspaper Al-Yom reported July responsibility for such a mission.
10. Western intelligence sources in Beirut According to Israeli accounts, the ter-
had reported July 4 that the Syrians had rorists apparently reached Nahariya by
sent the guerrillas shoulder-launched water from Lebanon. A small boat was
Strela SA-7 missiles. found beached just south of the coastal
town. As the gunmen made their way into
the center of Nahariya at night, they were
Palestinians clash in Lebanon. At least spotted by an armed volunteer guard who
20 guerrillas were killed and 17 wounded opened fire, alerting police and troops.
June 23 in several hours of fighting at The Israeli force quickly surrounded the
three refugee camps in and around Beirut apartment house the guerrillas had
between members of the Popular Demo- entered and then stormed the building,
killing the three Palestinians in an ex-
cratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine
(PDFLP) and the Popular Front for the change of gunfire and hand grenades. The
terrorists had killed the family of three
Liberation of Palestine-General Com-
after bursting into one of the apartments.
mand.
The clasheserupted at a camp at
first
The Israelis retaliated for the Nahariya
raid by firing artillery shells at Palestinian
Sabra, in a suburb of Beirut, and spread
targets in southern Lebanon June 25.
to the Shatila and Tal Zattar camps out-
Israel filed a complaint with the United
side the city. Al Fatah assumed control of
Nations Council June 25,
Security
security at the camps after the fighting
charging that Lebanon must be held
subsided.
responsible for the attack on Nahariya be-
The Palestinian news agency Wafa said
cause it continued to permit the terror
the clashes were "the result of a
groups to operate freely on its territory.
misunderstanding." A PDFLP spokes-
The Israeli letter charged that the com-
man charged that the violence had started
mando leaders held frequent meetings
when "suspect and seditious elements" of
with "the heads of the Lebanese govern-
the General Command fired a rocket at a
ment."
PDFLP office at the Shatila camp. The
statement said General Command mem-
bers had carried out "provocative and
suspect" acts the previous week, including Terrorists to
halt raids from Leb-
the abduction of some PDFLP men who anon. The PLO
was reported to have in-
were still being detained. formed Lebanese Premier Takieddin Solh
The two groups held conflicting views. June 30, 1974 that its forces would stop
The General Command favored all-out using Lebanon as a base for attacks
war against Israel to liquidate the state. against Israel to spare the country retalia-
The PDFLP advocated establishment of a tory Israeli raids. Solh had told Par-
THE MIDDLE EAST 79

liament members June 27 that Lebanon were "now using your fishing harbors,
would not act as a "sentry for Israel's se- your boats and were hiding behind your
curity," but said the Palestinians had dis- peaceful civilian activity to sow death and
played a readiness to work put "the best destruction." The leaflets noted that the
solutions in order to avoid further losses guerrillas who had attacked Nahariya had
in lives and property." "come from your harbors." The state-
Egypt and Syria were said by Pales- ment warned that if the Palestinians were
tinian sources July 1 to have pressured the permitted to continue to operate from
guerrillas to halt their forays across the Lebanese harbors, Israel would not allow
Lebanese-Israeli border in a move to the fishermen to conduct their activities
preserve the cease-fire with Israel. off the Mediterranean coast as in the past.
Israeli army authorities disclosed July 9
that the guerrillas had been undergoing
diving and sabotage training for several
Arabs to aid Lebanon, PLO. The Arab
League defense council was reported to years, that their supplies and weapons had
have agreed at a meeting in Cairo July 3-4 been kept in camps not far from the

to provide Lebanon and the Palestine


shore,and that fishing jetties and motor
boats had been used for attacks against
Liberation Organization (PLO) in
Israel.
Lebanon with assistance to
financial
strengthen their defenses against Israeli Israeli Information Minister Aharon

air and ground attacks. Yariv disclosed July 9 that some of the
boats destroyed in the Lebanese ports had
Cairo newspapers reported July 5 that
belonged to terrorists or to Arabs who
Lebanon had rejected a PLO plan submit-
cooperated with them.
ted to the council meeting July 4 that
would permit the Palestinian forces to
establish missiles and antiaircraft guns
in the 15 refugee camps in Lebanon. Israeli attacks continue. Israeli ground
Lebanese Premier Takieddin al-Solh and air forces attacked suspected Pal-
had declared at the opening session July 3 estinian guerrilla targets in southern
that the protection of Palestinians in his Lebanon July 18 and 23.
country was not the exclusive responsi- In the July 18 action, Israeli troops
bility of his country. The burden had to be crossed the border and blew up three
shared collectively by all Arab nations, he houses in Bustan, about six miles east of
said. the Mediterranean coast. The Israeli
command said the buildings were used by
"Arab terrorists."
Israelis raid Lebanese ports. Israeli Israeli military authorities did not
naval commandos raided the southern specify the targets struck by Israeli planes
Lebanese ports of Tyre, Saida and Ras July 23.
a-Shak the night of July 8 and sank 30 An Israeli spokesman said the raids
fishing boats in retaliation for the Pal- were part of Premier Yitzhak Rabin's
estinian guerrilla attack on the Israeli policy to attack the guerrillas "anytime,
town of Nahariya June 24. The raid also anywhere."
was aimed at forestalling future guerrilla
naval actions against Israel. Israeli planes bombed the towns of
The foray was carried out by divers Khreibe and Rachaya el Fakkhar Aug. 7,
brought in by missile boats that slipped in killing two civilians and wounding 17,
from the sea. The raiders landed on shore the Lebanese Defense Ministry reported.
in rubber rafts, blew up the fishing boats The Palestine news agency Wafa said 10
and returned to their ships undetected. guerrillas had been wounded in the second
The Israeli army July 9 published an attack.
English translation of warning leaflets left Israel reported the raids were against
behind by the naval force. They reminded "terrorist" targets.
the Lebanese fishermen that Israeli re- The air strikes followed the abduction
taliatory attacks against the Palestinian Aug. 6 of six Lebanese
civilians by Israeli
terrorists had caused great damage to troops that crossed the border. Their sei-
Lebanese villages and that these terrorists zure was in retaliation for the kidnapping
80 POLITICAL TERRORISM

that day of four Druse employed by Israel supply the Palestinians with defensive
to build a security fence between Lebanon weapons, including ground-to-air missiles
and Israeli-occupied areas in the Golan and anti-armor weapons.
Heights. The Popular Front for the Lib- Soviet policy in the Middle East had
eration of Palestine (PFLP) claimed credit been assailed by George Habash, leader
for the kidnapping. of the Popular Front for the Libera-
Israeli jets Aug. 9 bombed a tent en- tion of Palestine (PFLP), Lebanese news-
campment and two buildings at Rachaya papers reported Aug. 2. The PFLP, a
el Fakkhar, a town used by the guerrillas member of the PLO umbrella group, had
as a supply base and assembly point, the been excluded from the Moscow talks.
Israeli military command reported. Habash said: "There is an imperialist
An boat Aug. 9 sank a
Israeli patrol American scheme for the region but the
guerrilla motorized rubber dinghy in Is- Soviet line is ineffective because the Rus-
raeli territorial waters just south of sians base their policies on Israel's right
Lebanon, preventing a commando raid on to exist."
Israel, the Israeli command reported. A
Palestinian military spokesman Aug. 10
conceded the loss of the boat, but said be- Capucci accused. Israeli
Archbishop
fore sinking, the guerrilla craft scored a police Aug. 1974 arrested Archbishop
18,
direct hit on the Israeli patrol boat. Hilarion Capucci, leader of the Greek
Israeli gunboats Aug. 13 shelled the Ra- Catholic Church in East Jerusalem, and
shidieh refugee camp
near Tyre, killing charged him with smuggling arms and
one civilian and damaging a number of weapons to Palestinian guerrillas in the
houses, the Palestinian news agency West Bank and with serving as a link be-
reported. The report claimed that one of tween Al Fatah and guerrilla groups on
the Israeli boats was hit and set afire by the West Bank.
Palestinian guns. An Israeli military Capucci was seized at his home in
report on the operation said the principal Jerusalem as he was about to leave for a
target at the camp was a building used by religious conference in Beirut. Police
the guerrillas as their naval headquarters disclosed he had been under surveillance
from which the Palestinian boat had set since 1973. They said he had first been
sail Aug. 9. detained and then released Aug. 8 after
Lebanese Premier Takieddin Solh being intercepted by police as he was
disclosed Aug. 13 that guerrilla units were about to leave for Nazareth, in northern
being withdrawn from Rachaya el Fak- Israel. A search of his car turned up large
khar on orders of Palestine Liberation Or- quantities of weapons and dynamite. It
ganization (PLO) leader Yasir Arafat. was thought he had brought back the
The pullout had started Aug. 12 after weapons after a visit to Lebanon.
more than 300 villagers and their families, Capucci was indicted by an Israeli
in protest against the government for court in Jerusalem Sept. 3 on three
district
failing to provide them with protection counts of arms smuggling for terrorists.
from Israeli air strikes, closed their shops, Capucci was charged with maintaining
moved out of their homes and drove to contacts with foreign agents, carrying and
another village 20 miles away. possessing illegal weapons and performing
service for an unlawful association. Also
named in the indictment were the prelate's
PLO to open office in Moscow. The contacts, Abu Jihad, head of the Black
U.S.S.R. announced Aug. 4, 1974 that the September organization, and Abu Firas,
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) leader of Al Fatah operations in the West
had been granted permission to open an Bank. Demolition materials transported
office in Moscow. The disclosure was con- by Capucci from Lebanon in April, May
tained in a joint communique based on and July had been "used for sabotage
talks PLO leader Yasir Arafat had held activities in Jerusalem," the indictment
in Moscow with Soviet officials July 31- said.
Aug. 4. According to Israeli officials, Capucci
Pro-guerrilla newspapers in Beirut Aug. had told his interrogators that he had been
3 said the Soviet Union had agreed to forced into Al Fatah service through
THE MIDDLE EAST 81

blackmail, it was reported Aug. 23. The faced since the October 1973 war and
archbishop was said to have claimed that launched a terror campaign in the West
Al Fatah officials in Lebanon had Bank in March, it was reported. Accord-
threatened him with physical violence and ing to Israeli government officials, 896
with disclosure of actions that might West Bank Arabs had been arrested re-
jeopardize his position in the church. cently on security charges. Of the total,
549 had been tried and were serving jail
Israelis intercept guerrillas— An Israeli
terms; 314 were awaiting trial; and 33 were
patrol Sept. 4 clashed with a Palestinian being held under administrative detention.
guerrilla detachment it intercepted near
Israeli officials said the core of the PNF
the Israeli Arab village of Fasuta, three was the Jordanian Communist Party, out-
miles south of the Lebanese border, lawed by King Hussein. They said the
thwarting a plan to free Capucci. A com- PNF had decided to embark on a terror
munique said that two infiltrators and campaign before the October war, when
two Israeli soldiers were killed. the Soviet Union began to improve its
According to Israeli military spokes- ties with the Palestine Liberation Orga-
men, the infiltrators had entered from nization (PLO). The PNF's objective was
Lebanon for the purpose of seizing Israeli to assume the leading resistance role on
hostages in exchange for the release of the West Bank and thus place itself in the
Capucci and guerrillas in Israeli jails.
1 1
forefront in any future negotiations on the
The Popular Democratic Front for the territory, according to the Israelis.
Liberation of Palestine (PDFLP) claimed
credit, saying its forces had captured an
Israeli installation, taken hostages and
were negotiating through foreign dip- Militant group quits PLO. The militant
lomats, presumably the French and Fin- Popular Front for the Liberation of
nish ambassadors in Israel, for the ex- Palestine (PFLP) announced its with-
change. The statement said a number of drawal Sept. 26 from the Executive Com-
the hostages had been killed by attacking mittee of the Palestine Liberation Organi-
Israeli troops. The Israelis denied the
zation (PLO).
claim and said the clash was over in In making the announcement in Beirut,

minutes. Ahmed Yamani, PFLP representative in


the Executive Committee, accused the
Another PDFLP communique from
PLO of "deviation from the revolutionary
Damascus conceded that two of the
course" by joining in U.S. -sponsored
infiltrators were killed in the operation.
moves for political settlement of the
PDFLP leader Nayef Hawatmeh, Arab-Israeli conflict. He said he had "ac-
vowing Sept. 5 that the raids into Israel
curate information" of PLO contacts with
would continue, reaffirmed that the pre-
the U.S. through a third party. De-
vious day's foray was aimed at securing
nouncing the PLO policy of seeking to es-
Capucci's release and that hostages were West
tablish a Palestinian state in the
taken.
Bank and Gaza Strip and when those
if
The Israelis had intercepted a similar territories were given up by Israel,
Arab infiltration unit Sept. 2 at Hanita Yamani asserted that the PFLP would
near the western end of the Lebanese fron- all of Palestine
continue the struggle until
tier, killing two. destroyed and
was "liberated," Israel
West Bank terror group emerges The — King Hussein overthrown in Jordan.
emergence of a Palestinian terror group Yamani disclosed that two other PLO
seriously resisting Israeli rule in the West factions supporting the PFLP's decision,
Bank for the first time since Israel's occu- the Popular Front for the Liberation of
pation of the territory in 1967 was re- Palestine-General Command and the
ported by the New York Times Aug. 22. Iraqi-sponsored Arab Liberation Front,
The new movement, known as the Pal- had also decided to withdraw from the
estinian National Front (PNF), had sur- Executive Committee.
Latin America

Action Against Terrorism Urged struggles, instances have been reported


of international cooperation by Latin
Terrorism has a long history in American urban guerrilla groups that
Latin America. The North American share similar political orientation. In
epithet "banana republic" refers spe- 1973, it was reported, a mutual co-
cifically to politically and economically operation agreement was signed by the
insecure countries of old Central and Tupamaros of Uruguay, the ERP
South America in which U.S. pressure (People's Revolutionary Army) of
and domestic armed bands had found it Argentina, the MIR (Movement of the
not difficult to enforce their will on Revolutionary Left) of Chile and the
government and society. Beginning in ELN (National Liberation Army) of
the mid-1960s, the more traditional Bolivia.
terrorism endemic in Latin America
has been supplemented by the terrorism
of a new kind of revolutionary — the OAS assails political terrorism. The
urban guerrilla.
General Assembly of the Organization
Latin America in the 1960s was the
of American States June 30, 1970 unani-
home ground of several prominent mously adopted a resolution condemning
theorists of political violence—for ex- terrorism and political kidnapings as
ample, Ernesto (Che) Guevara, Carlos "common crimes whose gravity converts
Marighella, Gen. Alberto Bayo as — them into crimes against humanity."
well as the scene in which their theories In condemning "terrorist acts," the
were put into practice. In this period OAS assembly urged those states that
and in the years that followed, such de- had not already done so to adopt
velopments as attacks on diplomats "criminal legislation that prevent or
and hijackings of aircraft began to give punish such crimes." In addition, the
terrorism in Latin America an in-
Inter-American Juridical Committee
creasingly international coloration — was ordered to present a plan within
120 days on how the purposes of the
and made it increasingly a matter of resolution might be effected. The reso-
international concern. lution was unanimously passed when
Although most Latin American ter- Brazil dropped its proposal to define
rorists seem to be concerned almost terrorist acts as "a threat to peace and
exclusively with their own domestic security" in the hemisphere.

82
. )

LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 83

(The OAS Permanent Council had The current wave of Argentine terrorism
strongly condemned terrorism and kid- took form with the strengthening of the
naping June 15, leaving the adoption of movement for the return of Peron. It has
methods to deal with it to the General been characterized by terroristic activity by
Assembly. groups with often clashing ideology. Their
(Four Latin American embassies in political orientations range from far left to
Washington, D.C. were firebombed far right, but these often antagonistic groups
early July 2. No injuries were reported, frequently claim the same short-term goal —
and the bombings caused only minor originally the return of Peron, later the
damage to the embassies of Argentina, continuation of his presumed program.
Haiti, Uruguay and the Dominican Re- The ERP (Ejercito Revolucionario Pop-
public. A firebomb had been thrown at ular, or Ejecerito Revolucionario del
the Inter-American Defense Board Pueblo, People's Revolutionary Army), an
headquarters the previous day; a group allegedly Trotskyist organization, is the
identifying itself as "Revolutionary largest, best known, most active and best
Force Seven" claimed credit for the organized terrorist group in A rgentina. The
bombing, which left no injuries and little FAL (Frente Argentino de Liberacion, also
damage.) identified as Fuerzas Argentinas de Lib-
eracion, Fuerzas Armadas de Liberacion
and Argentine [or Armed] Liberation Forces
[or Front }) is a terrorist group formed by
ARGENTINA dissident Communist Party members and
described as both "Marxist" and "with no
Recent Terrorists &
Their Activities clearly defined ideology." Two terrorist
The current wave of terrorism in A rgen- groups, the Monloneros (which described
tina, which started in 1970, was preceded by itself as "Peronist and Christian") and

a shorter period of terrorism in 1958-60. the FAR (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucion-


The French leftist Regis Debray, a spe- arias, or Revolutionary Armed Forces t

cialist in revolution, analyzed this earlier


merged in November 1973 and kept the
wave briefly in the September-October name Montoneros. Another Trotskyist ter-
1965 issue of New Left Review. He de- rorist group is known as the Red Faction

scribed it as proof "that terrorism is not (Partido Revolucionario de los Traba-


just the 'spontaneity of the intellectual.'" jadores [Fraccion Roja]). A rightwing
Debray noted that: terrorist group was identified as MA NO
. .This terrorist outbreak erupted from the base,
.
( Movimiento Argentina Nacional Organi-
from the Peronist unions and youth organization. zado, or Argentine National Organized
. .

Between 1958 and 1960 there were at least 5,000 ter- Movement).
rorist incidents. The movement was of considerable
importance, but it was only the work of isolated
groups or even individual terrorists, without any com-
mon programme or
The movement
leadership.
first appeared in the form of support
Diplomats & Officials
for strike actions, at the time illegal. Militants would Become Kidnap/ Terrorist Targets
plant a bomb against an industrial establishment . . .

to force it to close down or as a reprisal. This spread


rapidly and became almost a daily occurrence, without
Paraguayan consul kidnaped. Joaquin
any very clear point: bombs in the road, underneath Waldemar Sanchez, Paraguayan consul in
vehicles, against the front of buildings, more or less the town of Ituzaingo in Corrientes Prov-
anywhere. Towards the end, some groups of young ince, was abducted in Buenos Aires March
workers managed to introduce some direction into
this wave of spontaneous protests, and bombs were
24, 1970 by a group of men who identified
placed at the various agencies representing imperialist themselves as members of the FAL (Ar-
interests. But the police had little difficulty in pick-
. . .
gentine Liberation Front). Sanchez was
ing up the terrorists who had no underground organi-
released by his kidnapers March 28 after
zation. and the movement was broken by the
. . .

adoption of the 'Conintes Plan' (a sort of siege. .); .


the Argentine government refused to re-
the terrorists were arrested and sentenced by emer- lease two political prisoners. Argentina
gency trials. Such terrorism obviously has nothing in became the first Western Hemisphere
common with the Venezuelan 'terrorism,' system-
atically directed against the imperialist economic
government to defy kidnapers' demands
infrastructure (pipe-lines, oil-wells, large warehouses, in a recent wave of terrorist kidnapings in
banks, the American military mission and so on). . . . Latin America.
In Argentina, terrorism led to a decline after 1960 in
The kidnapers had demanded the
working-class militancy and a marked falling off in
revolutionary combativity. release of two political prisoners— Car-

84 POLITICAL TERRORISM

los Delia Nave and Alejandro Baldu Argentine officials revealed March 30
inexchange for Sanchez. that a deputy federal police inspector,
However, in an apparent attempt to Carlos Benigno Balbuena, was one of the
force a showdown, the Argentine govern- three wounded kidnapers. The other two
ment announced March 25 that Baldu men, Guillermo John Jansen and Albert
was "a fugitive from justice" who had Germinal Borrell, were unconnected
not yet been captured and that Delia with the police, the government said.
Nave was being "processed for common Earlier, the right-wing Argentine Na-
crimes" and would not be released. tional Organized Movement (MANO)
The kidnapers replied that they would had claimed responsibility for the kidnap-
execute Sanchez "by firing squad" and ing attempt and described the three
"begin the execution of all managers of wounded men as "war heroes." (MANO
American business" if their demands had threatened March 27 to kill Soviet
were not met. They also announced that Ambassador to Argentina Yuri Volski
they were extending their deadline for and his family in reprisal for the Sanchez
Sanchez' execution, originally set for kidnaping.)
10 p.m. March 25.
Sanchez was released unharmed early
March 28 in a suburb of Buenos Aires. Aramburu kidnaped & slain. Lt. Gen.
His kidnapers said "humanitarian Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, 67, a former
reasons" were behind their decision to provisional president of Argentina, was
spare his life. In an earlier statement, kidnaped from his home May 29, 1970 by
the kidnapers had cited their organiza- four men, two of them wearing army offi-
tion's previous unwillingness to shed cers' uniforms. Aramburu's body was
unnecessary blood. "But now," they con- found July 16 in the cellar of an old farm-
tinued, "there has been killed, not in house near Timote, about 300 miles west
combat, but in cold blood, one of our of Buenos Aires. He had been shot twice
dearest comrades [Baldu]. This changes in the chest.
our position and obliges us to adjust to Following the abduction, at least a
circumstances." In a statement March dozen communiques had been received
28 they warned that they were prepared from political organizations claiming
to "undertake the execution of an unde- credit for the abduction, but the Juan Jose
termined number of police and offi- Valle-Montoneros Command, named for
cials." a Peronist army general executed in 1956,
Minister
Interior Francisco Imaz offered what was called convincing evi-
hailed Sanchez' release March 28 and dence that it held Aramburu.
maintained that the government's deci- A communique June 1 from the Valle
sion to reject the kidnapers' demands Command said Aramburu had been
"was the only position possible. Any found guilty and would be shot by a
other position would have been tremen- Peronist firing squad. The statement
dously dangerous for the future of the said it was "impossible to negotiate his
country." release."
A month-long search for Aramburu
and clues to the kidnapers reportedly
failed to turn up any substantial evidence
Soviet diplomat escapes. Right-wing kid- until a July terrorist raid on La Calera,
1

napers failed in an attempt to abduct a suburban town near Cordoba. Fifteen


Soviet diplomat Yuri Pivoravov March 29, terrorists claiming to be members of the
1970, when Pivoravov escaped from the Montoneros group took over the town for
getaway car as it was being pursued by about two hours, robbed a bank and
police. Pivovarov, assistant commercial occupied police and telephone offices.
attache at the Soviet embassy in Buenos In a shootout with police following the
Aries, apparently was not seriously hurt raid, several of the terrorists were seri-
in the incident. Police, alerted by the ously injured, among them Emilio Angel
screams of Pivovarov's wife, shot and Maza, 24, who died July 6. Maza was
injured three of the kidnapers, who were later identified as one of the Aramburu
later captured when the car crashed. kidnapers. More than 10 arrests were
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 85

made in connection with the La Calera guayans, were found with arms and ex-
raid, and these reportedly led to other plosives, according to police reports July
arrests and the discovery of Aramburu's 11. Police said a tank truck loaded with
body near Timote. gasoline was to have been exploded near
Fernando Abal Medina, 23, described the reviewing stand.
as having "received Communist training An attempt by 10 youths to kidnap
in Cuba," was identifiedby Argentine Julio Rodolfo Alsogaray, ex-commander
police July 11 as the mastermind of the in chief of the army, failed Aug. 17 in
abduction. Buenos Aires.
Inspector Osvaldo Sandoval, a key wit-
ness in the trial of five persons charged in
Blast leads to bomb factory. An ex-
connection with Aramburu's murder, was
plosion April 4, 1970 in Buenos Aires led
shot and killed in Buenos Aires Nov. 14.
A group that identified itself as the Argen- to what was believed to be a terrorist
tine Liberation Forces claimed responsi- bomb factory. Two persons were injured
bility for Sandoval's death. in the apparently accidental explosion.

(Carlos Raul Capuano Martinez, An address book found at the site led to
more than 100 arrests April 5.
sought for alleged involvement in the
The Parke Davis pharmaceutical
Aramburu kidnap-murder, was killed in a
plant near Buenos Aires was severely
shootout with Buenos Aires police Aug.
damaged by an explosion June 18; ac-
17, 1972.)
cording to unconfirmed reports three
employes were reported missing and
British consul kidnaped. Stanley feared dead. Nine bombs exploded June
Sylvester, honorary British consul in 27 in Buenos Aires, Rosario and Cordoba;
U.S.-owned firms were among the targets.
Rosario, was kidnaped May 23, 1971 by
ERP (People's Revolutionary Army)
members.
A message from the group said that Terrorism & counter-terrorism. Various
the kidnaping was carried out "in other acts of terrorism were reported as
homage" to Luis N. Blanco, a left-wing well as actions to counter terrorism.
university student killed in riots in The U.S. embassy said Nov. 27, 1970
Rosario in May 1969. The guerrillas that the Buenos Aires homes of three
said Sylvester would be "tried before a U.S. military advisers had been "entered
people's court of justice." simultaneously by three armed groups."
Sylvester was the director of a The three groups, who left leaflets
Swift Co. meat packing plant in Rosario, identifying themselves as the Peronist
Swift de la Plata. The firm had been the Armed Forces, "demanded U.S. cur-
target of considerable leftist criticism. rency, official documents, firearms and
A demand by the kidnapers for distri- uniforms," the embassy spokesman said.
bution of $62,500 in food to the poor The New York Times Aug. 9, 1971 re-
of Rosario was carried out by the de la ported estimates of Argentine authorities
Plata meat-packing plant May 29. that armed subversive groups in Argen-
Sylvester was released unharmed May tina had 6,000 active members. The re-
30. port said evidence indicated that, as in
Brazil and Guatemala, "death squads"
Assassination foiled. More than a linked to security forces had been re-
dozen young men and women were ar- sponsible for the killing of persons sus-
rested after police discovered a plot to pected of subversive activities.
kill both Argentine President Alejandro Members of a subversive command
Lanusse and Uruguayan President Jorge unit of the Revolutionary People's Army
Pacheco Areco while they reviewed a Aug. 18 raided an armory in Cordoba,
military parade on Argentine Indepen- fleeing with a large quantity of arms.

dence Day, July 9, 1971. A 27-year-old navy canteen maid


The youths, members of a self-pro- became the first Argentine to be sen-
claimed Revolutionary Peoples' Army tenced by a special military tribunal to
composed of both Argentines and Uru- combat rising left-wing guerrilla activity.
86 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Louisa Velosa, who told the tribunal ERP robs bank. Fifteen ERP members
that police had tortured her with elec- stoleperhaps $800,000 from the state-
tric shocks, was given a seven-year sen- owned National Development Bank in
tence Nov. 3 after being found guilty of Buenos Aires Jan. 30, 1972. It was called
participating in an armed attempt by the biggest bank robbery in Argentina's
guerrillas to seize weapons from the history.
Buenos Aires police July 20. According to newspaper accounts, the
guerrillas held 13 bank employes hostage
for eight hours while they bored a hole

Four
in the bank's vault. A
police report im-
'Third World' priests arrested.
bank employes.
plicated two
priests, members of the Third World
Notices distributed later in Buenos
Priests Movement, werearrested by the
Aires bars said the money was "exprop-
army in Rosario Aug. 3, 1971 with 13 riated for the people's cause, and will be
other suspects in a roundup of "terrorist used to continue the revolutionary war."
elements." The priests were Jose Maria
(Montonero members had robbed a
Ferrari, Nestor Garcia, Juan Carlos Ar-
Buenos Aires automobile company Jan.
royo and Ruben Dri. Army officials said
23, burning several vehicles in an adjacent
they had seized arms, explosives, sub-
lot.)
versive literature and narcotics in raids
on the priests residences.
In a related development, the perma-
nent commission of the Argentine Epis-
Wave of terrorist attacks. A wave of
political assassinations and kidnapings
copate in Rome issued a statement, re-
was sweeping Argentina, the New York
ported in the French newspaper Le
Times reported March 22, 1972.
Monde Aug. 19, affirming that the coun-
Participating in the terrorist campaign,
try's problems "have engendered vio-
the Times noted, were Peronist urban
lence on the attitudes, remarks and acts
[kidnapings, crimes, tortures and assas-
commandos, who defied a recent plea
absolutely unjusti-
from Gen. Juan Domingo Peron to his
sinations] that are
followers for a halt to violence.
and condemnable."
fiable
Among incidents reported:
The statement was understood as In early January, two bombs damaged
marking a schism in the Argentine
the headquarters of the women's branch
church, with the Catholic bishops con-
of the Peronist movement, where Isabel
demning bcth the violence of the "op- Martinez Peron, wife of Peron, had an
pressors" and that of the "oppressed."
office. Mrs. Peron had come from Spain
La Prensa of Buenos Aires reported to try to unify the Peronist movement in
Jan. 7, 1972 that naval authorities had ab- Argentina.
ducted from their homes businessman Four bomb disposal experts were
police
Ricardo Beltran and the Rev. Albert killed Jan. 14 a bomb they were de-
when
Fernando Carbone, a member of the fusing exploded in the Buenos Aires home
Third World Priests Movement, for ques- of former Justice Minister Jaime Perriaux.
tioning about an aborted Peronist plot to A communique issued later by the Armed
attack a coast guard post in the city of Liberation Forces (FAL) said the group
Zarate Jan. 3. had left the bomb in Perriaux's home be-
Beltran was reported active in Pero- cause he had introduced the death penalty
nist circles, and Carbone had previously and state of siege regulations during his
been given a two-year suspended sen- administration (July 1970-mid-1971).
tence in connection with the slaying of Members of the terrorist Revolutionary
former President Pedro Aramburo. Armed Forces (FAR) set off explosives in
Despite protests from Third World the Buenos Aires social building of the
Movement priests that Carbone had no Argentina Association of Hereford
knowledge of military tactics, federal Raisers Jan. 22, causing structural dam-
authorities were reported Jan. 11 to be age to the building.
holding the men custody in a Buenos Police arrested 43 suspected subver-
Aires jail. sives in Buenos Aires, Salta and Bahia
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 87

Blanca Jan. 13 and 14, confiscating arms, tions followed the explosion of 15 bombs
munitions, wigs and masks and discover- in Cordoba Aug. 18.
ingdocuments in which guerrilla attacks
were allegedly planned.
Six leftist guerrillas in Tucuman, 665 Fiat executive slain. Oberdan Sallustro,
miles northwest of Buenos Aires, com- 56, presidentof Argentina's Italian-owned
mandeered a milk truck Feb. 7 and deli- Fiat automotive industries, was kidnaped
vered its 1,000-gallon load of bottled by ERP terrorists March 21, 1972 as he
milk to poor people in two shantytowns. drove to work in Buenos Aires. He was
A policeman was killed and the owner found shot to death in a suburban house
of a refrigeration concern was seriously April 10.

wounded March 13 in Buenos Aires The body was found after a police
when about 10 terrorists fired on them. car searching for Sallustro discovered the
An executive of a leading wine com- ERP hideout. It was fired on by several
pany was kidnaped March 17 and re- guerrillas, and Sallustro was reportedly
leased after payment of $37,000 ransom. executed during the shootout that ensued.
The kidnapers identified themselves as One of the guerrillas was captured.
members of the Armed Forces of Libera- According to the New York Times*
tion. April 1, the ERP had sought a $1 million
1

A leader of the New Force party was ransom for Sallustro and the release of
killed by Monteros members March 18, 50 of the more than 500 political pris-
the same day that Montoneros set fire oners held in Argentina. Fiat had re-
to a New Force office in Buenos Aires. portedly been willing to pay the ransom,
At least 10 members of the Armed but President Lanusse had barred any
Forces of were reported
Liberation form of negotiations with the ERP.
March 19 to have blown up the clubhouse Nacional of Caracas reported April
El
of the exclusive Buenos Aires San Jorge 1 that Lanusse had also rejected a plea
1

Polo Club with three bombs. for negotiations with the ERP from Ital-
Alleged ERP terrorists attacked a police ian President Giovanni Leone. Lanusse
station in Rio Tala April two
27, killing had maintained that Sallustro's kidnap-
officers and seriously wounding the San ing was an internal Argentine matter.
Pedro police commissioner. After the government's refusal to allow
Seven youths disarmed two guards negotiations, the ERP had announced
and then blew up a coast guard installa- that it would execute Sallustro "at the
tion about five miles from Buenos Aires, appropriate moment."
the Miami Herald reported May 2.
The army announced April 18 that it
Terrorists set off explosives at the
had captured the eight-member ERP team
homes of several police officers in the
thathad kidnaped and murdered Sallustro.
northwestern city of Tucuman May 5.
No one was reported injured. Eighteen other alleged ERP members,
The offices of five U.S. companies in 15 of them women, were also arrested

Buenos Aires were bombed in apparent in connection with the case, and six
response to the U.S. escalation of the other accomplices were said to be at
Vietnam war, the Washington Post re- large.

ported May 12. Two of the men arrested in the Sallustro

Sixteen bombings were reported in case, Andres Ernesto Alsina Bea and
Ignacio Ikonicoff, charged in the Monte-
Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Rosario and
video weekly Marcha May 12 that they
Santa Fe June 9, on the 16th anniversary
of an abortive Peronist military coup.
had been tortured in Buenos Aires jails.
Among the sites bombed were the offices (Alsina Bea, a journalist for the Buenos
of the Buenos Aires newspaper La Opin- Aires newspaper La Opinion, said he
ion and a steel plant near the capital. was kicked severely and electric shock
A renewed outbreak of terrorist at- was applied to his genitals and mouth.
tacks in Buenos Aires, Rosario, La Plata, Ikonicoff, a journalist for Inter Press,
Salta, Sante Fe and several smaller com- was also beaten and claimed other
munities was reported Aug. 20. The ac- prisoners were burned with acid.)
88 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Three of the defendants were given life others to terms of nine and 1 1 years Feb.
sentences March 1973 for their roles
16, 9, 1973 for alleged participation in the
in Sallustro's kidnap-murder, and seven affair.
received terms of one to 12 years. (A
three-judge court agreed that two of the
defendants had been tortured.)
Torture reports grow. More than 50
persons reportedly had been tortured at
General assassinated. Gen. Juan Carlos prisons and military installations during
Sanchez, commander of the army's 2nd the past year, and accounts of political
Corps, was machine-gunned to death torture were growing in magazines and
April 10, 1972 as he rode to his office
newspapers, according to the Miami
in the city of Rosario. Unidentified at- Herald May 26, 1972.
tackers also seriously wounded Sanchez' The most publicized recent case of
chauffer and accidentally killed a news political torture involved Norma Morel-
vendor. lo, a RomanCatholic schoolteacher and
The People's Revolutionary Army rural organizer, who returned to her
(ERP) and the Revolutionary Armed home in Goya May 14 after being held
Forces (FAR) issued a joint communique without charge for nearly six months.
April 10 claiming responsibility for After her release, Miss Morello signed
Sanchez' death and promising further an affidavit saying she had been tortured
assassinations. The communique said for three days with electric devices, re-
Sanchez had been killed in reprisal for peatedly threatened with rape and de-
his anti-guerrillacampaign. nied sleep for 15 days while she was in-
(According to El National of Caracas terrogated at a military installation
April 1 1, the 2nd Corps had pursued ter- outside Rosario.
rorists vigorously, extending military Miss Morello said May 15 that she
repression over groups not directly con- had been tortured because police wanted
nected with urban guerrillas, such as her to link the Catholic movement in
progressive Roman Catholic priests. Goya to Argentina's guerrilla move-
Soldiers under Sanchez' command had ments.
been accused of torturing persons they Two other women, arrested in connec-
arrested, but authorities had dismissed tion with a kidnaping, claimed they had
the charges.) been tortured by federal police with an
The ERP-FAR document also de- electric needle, the Herald reported May
nounced President Alejandro Lanusse for 26. Police denied the charge.
"threatening a fascist coup" and for pro- The army issued instructions May 25
moting "an electoral farce" by declaring intended to prevent the mistreatment
general elections for March 1973. Nu- and torture of political prisoners.
merous sources said Lanusse's election
plan and his recent negotiations with ex- Members of the Third World Priests
President Peron had caused the latest movement charged at a press confer-

wave of terrorist attacks in Argentina. ence in Buenos Aires Jan. 10, 1973 that
The National Security Council, meet- Argentine political prisoners were sub-
ing late April 10, decreed that all trials jected to "inhuman treatment." Rev.
for kidnaping, violating the public peace Osvaldo Catena, a movement official who
and attacking institutions would hence- had been jailed for nine months, said he
forth be transferred to military tribunals. and all other prisoners had been
"underfed and deprived of medical care."
Authorities announced June 24 that Dr.
Luis Alejandro Gaitini, 27, had been ar- Hugo Norberto D'Aquila, chief of psy-
rested in connection with Sanchez' assass- chiatric services atBuenos Aires' Villa
ination. Gaitini, an alleged member of Devoto prison, was kidnapped Jan. 11 by
FAR, reportedly confessed participation members of the Liberation Armed Forces
in Sanchez' murder and other terrorist (FAL) and released unharmed Jan. 13.
activities. The FAL said D'Aquila had been inter-
Gaitani and two other defendants were rogated on conditions among political
sentenced to life imprisonment and two prisoners in Villa Devoto.
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 89

Trelew Prison Break & Killings In a radio and television


nationwide
message Aug. 25, Chilean President
16 killed after prison break, hijack. Salvador Allende said his government's
Sixteen suspected guerrillas, including at decision to grant the guerrillas political
least three women, were shot to death asylum and then send them to Cuba was
Aug. 22, 1972 in an alleged break-out motivated by "profound humanity and
from the prison at the naval air base morality" and followed "international
near Trelew, in the southern province of conventions and principles and the dis-
Chubut. Three other alleged subversives positions of our internal laws."
were reportedly wounded. Upon arrival in Havana Aug. 26,
According to police officials, all of the the 10 guerrillas told newsmen that armed
victims had been arrested Aug. 15 at the Marxist and Peronist groups in Argen-
Trelew airport, where they had helped tina would step up their offensive against
10 other alleged terrorists hijack an the government of President Alejandro
Austral Airlines jet with 96 aboard. Lanusse. ERP leader Roberto Mario
The hijacking was carried out in con- Santucho, whose wife was among the
junction with a mutiny at an army maxi- 16 killed at Trelew, accused Lanusse
mum security prison at Rawson, 15 miles of direct responsibility for the "assas-
from Trelew, during which a group of sination" of his fellow guerrillas.
inmates escaped. Some escapees were In Argentina, meanwhile, the govern-
reportedly among the hijackers, who ment reportedly gave two conflicting
commandeered the jet to Santiago, Chile, versions of the Trelew killings, one on
where they surrendered to police and re- an "off the record" basis to newsmen,
quested political asylum. and an official version released Aug. 25.
According to the London newsletter
News of the killings at Trelew caused
Latin America Sept. 1, journalists were
large demonstrations in several cities
originally told that the prisoners had
in which hundreds of persons were ar-
escaped from their cells early Aug. 22
rested. In the industrial city of Cordoba
and after seizing the second-in-command
600 protestors were arrested Aug. 22.
of the base, Capt. Luis Sosa, were pro-
Lawyers for the slain guerrilla suspects ceeding toward the armory when they
Aug. 22 denounced their clients' deaths were engaged in fierce combat by guards.
as "a virtual execution," charging it The later version, however, held that
would have been impossible for them to Sosa had ordered the prisoners out of
try to escape because they were held in their cells and was inspecting them in
separate cells under heavy guard. a narrow passage —
some five feet wide —
Those killed included 12 members of when he was seized by a guerrilla, who
the left-wing People's Revolutionary took his submachine gun and began
Army (ERP), one of the Revolutionary snooting at the guards. The weakest
Armed Forces and two of the Peronist part of the version, the newsletter noted,
Montoneros. They had surrendered to was that the guerrilla had missed his
military authorities after helping in the targets while Sosa alone had escaped
hijacking. Their deaths were widely as- unharmed from a fusillade that cut
sumed to be a retaliatory execution down 16 guerrillas and wounded three of
ordered by the government. their comrades.

Trelew hijackers reach Cuba. The 10 Assassinations


Argentine guerrillas who hijacked an & Kidnapings Continue
airliner from Trelew to Santiago were sent
to Cuba by the Chilean government Aug.
25.
Admiral assassinated. Rear Adm. Emi-
The Argentine government, which lio R. Berisso, plans and strategy officer
had demanded extradition of the guer- for the naval chief of staff, was shot to
rillas, angrily recalled its ambassador death near Buenos Aires Dec. 28, 1972.
from Santiago Aug. 26 and delivered The assassins escaped.
what it called a "very severe" protest to The FAR ( Revol utionary Armed Forces)
Chile Aug. 27. later claimed credit for Berisso's death.
90 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Berisso's position in the Navy report- lease from prison in 1945 under the pres-
edly linked him to the armed forces se- sure of popular demonstrations. The
curity network responsible for repression blasts, which disrupted train services in
of the country's guerrilla groups. His Rosario and damaged buildings and in-
assassination followed a number of other stallations throughout the country,
terrorist actions. followed the bombing Oct. 16 of the new
U.S. -owned Sheraton Hotel in Buenos
Terrorism preceding assassination— Aires. A Canadian woman was killed in
Three kidnaped businessmen were freed the blast and two other persons were in-
unharmed in Buenos Aires Sept. 6 after jured.
ransoms reportedly totaling $850,000 Buildings were damaged by bombs
were paid to their captors. Oct. 1 1 in Cordoba and Corrientes.
Jan J. Van de Panne, a Dutch citizen Ten Cordoba buildings had been
who headed the Philips Argentina elec- bombed Oct. 7.
tronics firm, was released by alleged An armed band blew up an exclusive
Peronist Montonero guerrillas after his social club in Santa Fe Oct. 13 after
company paid them $500,000. He had clearing the building. Bombings were
been held since Sept. 5. Two Argentine reported Oct. 12 in Buenos Aires and
businessmen— Adolfo Kaplun and other cities and at the farms of several
Eduardo Falugue, both abducted Sept. military officers.

4 were freed after their families re-
A guerrilla was shot to death in a gun-
portedly ransomed them for $150,000 and
fight with Buenos Aires police Oct. 18
$250,000. Police arrested nine "common
following the explosion of a bomb at the
criminals" in connection with Kaplun's
home of the father of a Cabinet minister,
kidnaping, La Prensa of Buenos Aires
according to police.
reported Sept. 15.
The wife of a leading radical Peronist
A wealthy landowner, Eden Ronald theoretician was seriously wounded Oct.
Bongiovani of La Pampa province was
19 by a bomb set off in their Buenos
reportedly kidnaped Sept. 6 and held for
Aires apartment. The Buenos Aires
$200,000 ransom.
office of a lawyer who defended left-wing
Felix Azpiazu, a Spanish industrialist
guerrillas was bombed the same day.
kidnaped Dec. 6, was freed unharmed
Fifteen bombs exploded in Argentina
Dec. 8 after his firm paid a reported
Dec. 22, damaging buildings used by the
$100,000 ransom.
armed forces, labor unions, political par-
Ronald Grove, managing director of ties, banks and businesses, but causing no
Great Britain's Vestey industrial group in casualties. Bombs were set off at six busi-
South America, was kidnaped in Buenos. nesses in Rosario early Dec. 20.
Aires Dec. 10 and released unharmed
(The government June 2 had reinsti-
Dec. 19 after Vestey paid a reported $1
tuted the death penalty, abolished in 1886,
million ransom.
for kidnaping and terrorism.)
Vicente Russo, an executive for a
Buenos Aires subsidiary of the Interna-
tional Telephone and Telegraph Corp., Peronists assassinated. An aide to Jose
was kidnaped in the capital Dec. 27 and Rucci, secretary general of the Peronist-
released unharmed Dec. 29. Company dominated General Labor Confederation,
officialsrefused to comment on local was shot to death in Buenos Aires Feb. 14,
newspapers reports that a ransom of 1973 by gunmen attempting to break up a
$500,000-$ million had been paid.
1
FREJULI (Justicialista Liberation Front)
(Police in La Plata announced Feb. 21, party meeting. This was the fifth
1973 that they had captured a seven-per- politically motivated slaying in four
son FAR
cell implicated in, among other weeks.
crimes, the kidnapings of Ronald Grove Gunmen in the Buenos Aires suburb of
and Enrico Barella. The group was said Lanus Jan. 22 had killed Julian Moreno, a
to be led by Francisco Urondo, a journal- Metallurgical Workers Union official and
ist and poet.) FREJULI candidate for Lanus municipal
A series of bomb blasts took place intendant, and fatally wounded his chauf-
Oct. 17, the anniversary of Peron's re- feur. FAR took responsibility for the
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 91

and for the earlier assassination of


killings an increase in killings, bombings and kid-
two other Peronists, Jose Alonso and napings by terrorist groups in the wake
Augusto Vandor. The FAR said its vic- of the March 11 round of elections.
tims— members of the labor sector that, Most of the violence was attributed to
led by Rucci, had sought to cooperate the Trotskyist People's Revolutionary
with the government — were traitors to the Army (ERP), which contended that
Peronist movement. election of a Peronist government would
delay Argentine revolution. The
an
ERP, it was
reported, was again
Policemen assassinated. Unidentified under the leadership of Roberto San-
gunmen two policemen in separate
killed tucho, who escaped from prison and fled
attacks in the Buenos Aires suburbs of to Chile and then Cuba in August 1972.
Lanus and San Justo Feb. 21 and 22. A He had reportedly returned to Argentina.
third policeman and a civilian were Peronist guerrillas were said to have
wounded in the second attack. halted most operations to insure that the
Separate attacks against five policemen armed forces transferred power to Cam-
and assaults on three police headquarters, pora May 25. However, the assassination
all attributed to the ERP, were reported of an army intelligence officer April 4 was
by the Miami Herald March 28. laid to the Peronist Montonero group.
Campora said April 8 that the popular
verdict in the March 1 1 elections
Peronists Return to Power rendered all terrorist activities "inad-
missible." He had appealed earlier to
guerrillas to "think and give us a sufficient
FREJULI sweeps elections. Ex-Presi- truce so that we can prove whether or not
dent Juan Peron's Justicialista Liberation
we are on the path of liberation."
Front (FREJULI) swept the first round of
general elections March 11, 1973 and the
runoff round April 15. FREJULI won the Adm. Aleman kidnaped. Retired Rear
presidency, a majority of provincial gov- Adm. Francisco Agustin Aleman, a
ernorships and control of both houses of former naval intelligence chief and mer-
Congress. The armed forces commanders chant marine under-secretary, was kid-
March 30 declared FREJULI candidate naped from his Buenos Aires apartment
Hector J. Campora president-elect for a April 1, 1973 by three ERP terrorists,
four-year term beginning May 25. including his own nephew.
Radical senatorial candidate Fernando An ERP communique April 3 said
de la Rua defeated FREJULI candidate Aleman was being held "as a prisoner of
Marcelo Sanchez Sorondo in the Buenos war" to further "the people's struggle for
Aires race. the liberation of all political and social
According the Washington Post
to prisoners."
April 17, the defeat of FREJULI in the Aleman's abductors painted a number
capital might be due to the recent wave of of ERP slogans apartment, in-
in his
terrorism by left-wing guerrillas, which cluding "Popular Justice forTrelew."
voters had come to associate with Pero- Aleman, held 68 days, was freed June 7
nism. Peronist guerrillas remained active after he admitted wrongdoing by the navy
despite a peace call by Campora. in the August 1972 killing of 16 impris-
According to the London newsletter oned revolutionaries at the naval air base
Latin America April 13, the continuation prison Trelew, Chubut Province.
near
of Peronist terrorism was intended to Aleman said in a statement released by
ensure the release of political prisoners the ERP that the killings "were a sad
and institution of revolutionary changes affair" and that the version presented by
by the new government, which could not his captors indicated the navy's role in
easily disavow its guerrilla supporters. them was "ignominious."
More than 100,000 soldiers had been re-
ported mobilized April 12 to forestall
possible guerrilla violence coinciding with Col. Iribarren Assassinated. Col.
the April 15 runoff. The move followed Hector A. Iribarren, chief of intelligence
92 POLITICAL TERRORISM

of the army's 3rd Corps, headquartered in U.S. -based Eastman Kodak Co., was kid-
Cordoba, was shot to death April 4 by napped in Buenos Aires April 2 and freed
two gunmen who crashed their truck into unharmed April 7 after Kodak paid a $1.5
his car. Iribarren, a key figure in anti- million ransom. The executive, Anthony
guerrilla efforts in the area, apparently R. DaCruz, reportedly was the first U.S.
was killed when he resisted an abduction businessman kidnapped in Argentina. His
attempt. abductors were identified as members of
The murder was later blamed by au- the Liberation Armed Forces.
on the Montoneros, according to
thorities The New York Times reported April 3,
the Miami Herald April 8. before DaCruz' release, that about 50
Terrorists in La Plata Feb. 16 set off business executives had been kidnapped in
bombs at the homes of a government
Argentina during the past two years, and
official, a former governor of Buenos
almost $5 million in ransom money had
Aires province and a Peronist candidate been paid for their release. Many ob-
servers asserted that a growing proportion
for Congress. Similar explosions were
reported in Santa Fe, Cordoba and
of the kidnappings were the work of com-
Tucuman Jan. 26. mon criminals interested only in money
rather than that of terrorists acting for
political motives.

Widespread terrorism. Among other re- Angel Fabiani, son of a Buenos Aires
ported incidents of terrorism during the businessman, was abducted April 2 and
early months of 1973: freed April 5 after payment of a "large
About 40 members of the left-wing ransom," according to press reports.
People's Revolutionary Army (ERP) tem- A
shootout April 4 between Cordoba
porarily occupied a military installation in police andtwo men attempting to kidnap
Cordoba Feb. 18, disarming 70 soldiers jeweler Marcos Kogan resulted in the
and officials and escaping with an army deaths of Kogan and the abductors, La
truck carrying arms and ammunition. Prensa reported April 5.
Other ERP guerrillas simultaneously oc- The daughter of one of the nation's
cupied a nearby police installation to most powerful army commanders, Gen.
prevent police from intercepting the com- Manuel A. Pomar, was kidnapped by
mandeered truck, which the guerrillas presumed urban guerrillas April 5, ac-
later burned. cording to military sources.
Naum Kacowicz, a prominent Buenos
Alberto Faena, a Buenos Aires textile
Aires businessman, was kidnapped Feb.
executive, was kidnapped by Liberation
16 and reported freed Feb. 21 after a
Armed Forces guerrillas April 6 and freed
record $ 1 .5 million ransom was paid.
April 10 after payment of a reported
Pinuccia Cella de Callegari, wife of a $500,000 ransom.
Zarate was kidnapped
industrialist,
Francis V. Brimicombe, a British to-
March and released three days later
19
bacco company executive kidnapped April
after payment of a $250,000 ransom.
8,was freed unharmed April 13 after his
Gerardo Scalmazzi, Rosario branch company paid a reported $1.5 million
manager of the First National Bank of ransom.
Boston, was kidnapped March 28 and Santiago Soldati, son of a Swiss busi-
freed April 4 after the bank paid a ransom nessman, was kidnapped in Buenos Aires
estimated at $750,OO0-$l million. April 29 and freed unharmed May 4. The
A bomb explosion killed one person newspaper Cronica reported the next day
and injured others March 30 in the that his family had paid a $1.5 million
Buenos Aires building housing the naval ransom.
commander's offices. The blast was one of
four that day in the capital and Rosario.
One Rosario explosion, apparently di- Col. Nasif abducted. ERP terrorists
rected against Peronist leader Ruben April 26, 1973 kidnapped Lt. Col. Ja-
Contesti, killed Contesti's mother. cobo Nasif, the third-ranking officer of the
The technical operations manager of Cordoba frontier guard, which had been
Kodak Argentina S.A., a subsidiary of the reorganized to combat guerrillas.
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 93

Nasif was freed June 5 after 40 days in tina's five guerrilla groups, seeking the
captivity. An ERP communique said he continued support of the Peronists among
had been released only after the guerrillas them and of the Peronist youth move-
determined that recently pardoned ment, which supported the guerrillas.
political prisoners were in good health. However, he was reported May 4 to have
assured the commanders he would not
tolerate guerrilla attacks on the armed
Adm. Quijada assassinated. Retired forces after May 25.
Rear Adm. Hermes Quijada was assassi- The state of emergency was ended by
nated April 30, 1973. the government May 19.
Quijada was shot to death by two
men disguised as policemen as he rode to
work in Buenos Aires. His chauffeur,who Terrorism continues. Incidents of ter-
was injured in the incident, fatally rorism continued both during the 19-day
wounded one of the assailants, later state-of-emergency period and after it was
identified as an ERP leader. lifted May 19, 1973.
Armed men in Buenos Aires May 1 kid-
The ERP sent a communique to the
press 30 taking credit for the
April napped the son of the Swiss chairman of
the Italo-Argentine Electric Co. After
assassination. Quijada had chaired the
joint chiefs of staff in August 1972, when
payment of $1.5 million, the youth was re-
16 guerrillas were killed at the naval
leased May 4.
prison near Trelew. The Buenos Aires businessman Jose
Marinasky, who had been kidnapped
May 14but who was freed May 18,
Emergency declared. The military was an uncle of Mario Raul Klachko,
government declared a state of emer- sought in connection with the 1972
gency in the Federal District and the five kidnap-murder of Fiat executive Oberdan
most populous provinces April 30 after Sallustro. Klachko's wife, Giomar
Schmidt, who had been accused of killing
Quijada's assassination.
Sallustro, had been acquitted of all
The decree placed the armed forces in
charges, La Prensa of Buenos Aires
direct control of the capital and the
reported May 16.
provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe,
Cordoba, Mendoza and Tucuman. It said About 20 guerrillas attacked a police
assailants of military or police personnel radio station near Buenos Aires May 20,
would be prosecuted in special military leaving one officer dead and three
courts and sentenced to death, without wounded. Some of the attackers also were
the right of appeal. It also decreed the reported wounded.
death penalty for persons making, selling Dirk Kloosterman, secretary general of
or possessing unauthorized arms, am- the powerful Mechanics Union, was killed
munition or explosives. by gunmen in La Plata May 22. He was
Military commanders took control of identified with conservative Peronist labor
the capital and provinces May 1, and sub- leaders who had been under attack by left-
sequently decreed other severe measures. wingers in and out of the Peronist move-
ment.
President Alejandro Lanusse cabled
In another shooting reported the same
President-elect Hector Campora soon
day, two Argentine executives employed
after Quijada's murder, urging Campora
by the Ford Motor Co.'s Buenos Aires
to return from Madrid, where he was
subsidiary were wounded by unidentified
conferring with his political mentor, ex-
gunmen in an unsuccessful kidnap at-
President Juan Peron. Campora com-
tempt. One of the injured executives, Luis
plied, returning to Buenos Aires May 2.
Giovanelli, died of his wounds June 25.
Campora met May Lanusse and
3 with Oscar Castells, president of the Coca-
the other armedcommanders, navy
forces Cola Bottling plant in Cordoba, was kid-
Rear Adm. Carlos Coda and air force napped May 22. After payment of
Brig. Carlos Alberto Rey. $100,000 ransom, he was released June 4.
It was well known that Campora pre- The ERP released Argentine business
viously had refused to condemn Argen- executive Aaron Beilinson June 3, after 10
94 POLITICAL TERRORISM

days' captivity, in payment for $1 million The ERP leaders reportedly denied
ransom. At a press conference, Beilinson their organizationhad kidnapped a British
read a statement in which the ERP businessman, Charles Agnew Lockwood,
pledged to use the money to "help finance held since June 6 for a reported $2 million
the revolutionary struggle." ransom. They also denied responsibility
for extortion threats against Ford Ar-
gentina and subsidiaries of the U.S. firms
Terrorism condemned. By May 1973
many Otis Elevator Co. and General Motors.
previously uncommitted political
figures had started tooppose the terrorism (Lockwood was freed July 29 after the
so prevalent in Argentina. payment of a ransom that he agreed was
Terrorism was also assailed by many "pretty close" to $2 million. He said he
Peronists. Former President Juan Peron did not know to which group his kid-
condemned guerrilla "provocations" in a nappers belonged.)
statement published May 31. President (According to the London newsletter
Hector Campora met June 14 with 20 Latin America June 8, the ERP was
recently pardoned guerrilla leaders and suffering from internal problems. There
told them he wanted peace in Argentina was an open split between the ERP ma-
by June 20, when Peron was scheduled to jority and the August 22 column, with the
return from Spain. latter reportedly supporting the govern-

The Peronist youth movement also at- ment and criticizing continued guerrilla
activities as rigid and sectarian.)
tacked the ERP, with one group vowing to
kill 10 guerrillas "for every Peronist that
falls."
The ERP, for vowed
Ford grants ERP demands. The Ar-
its part, on to fight
gentine of the Ford Motor Co.
affiliate
against "all injustice and postponements,
agreed May 23, 1973 to distribute $1 mil-
against the exploitation of the worker,
lion worth of medical items, food and
against all suffering by the people," until
capitalism was "definitely eliminated" and educational materials to prevent further
"workers' power" established. In a state- attacks on its employes by guerrillas of
ment May 29, the guerrillas attacked the the ERP's August 22 column.
government's attempts to reach a "na- Ford Argentina May 28 began payment
tional accord," and called on "progressive of $400,000 to be shared equally by two
and revolutionary Peronist and non- hospitals in Buenos Aires and Catamarca.
Peronist" groups tojoin them in attacking A company spokesman said construction
"imperialist firms and the army op- of ambulances for use in various provinces
pressors."
had begun in Ford factories, and $200,000
had been allocated for dried milk to be
The ERP and the major Peronist guer-
distributed in shantvtowns around the
rilla groups— the Montoneros and the capital. A further $300,000 would be
Revolutionary Armed Forces — held clan- spent on supplies for needy schools in the
destine conferences with selected
Buenos Aires area.
newsmen June 8. The Peronists issued a
statement afterwards vowing a continued The ERP had sent Ford and the press
battle against "the military imperialist
communiques May 22 claiming responsi-
bility for a machinegun attack earlier that
clique" but also pledging to destroy any
guerrilla group that opposed the Campora
day on two Ford executives, and warning
of further attacks if Ford did not provide
government.
$1 million in welfare donations.
Newsmen reportedly met four ERP
Edgar R. Molina, Ford's vice president
leaders, including Roberto Santucho. for Asian, Pacific and Latin American
Santucho said "the causes of social ex- operations, said at the company's U.S.
ploitation and the political-economic de-
headquarters May 23 that Ford believed
pendency of the country have not dis- "we have no choice but to meet the de-
appeared or even been touched by the new mands."
government," but he pledged that the
ERP would not attack the government or Campora inaugurated, prisoners freed.
the police "if they do not repress the Hector Jose Campora was inaugurated as
people." president of Argentina May 25, 1973.
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 95

Campora declared an immediate am- Peronists tried to mount the stage to place
nesty for political prisoners late May 25 guerrilla banners in full view of the crowd.
after 50,000 Peronists threatened to break They were blocked by conservative trade
down the gates of Buenos Aires' Villa De- unionists, who had played a key role in or-
voto prison and prisoners belonging to the ganizing Peron's homecoming. A trade
People's Revolutionary Army (ERP) oc- unionist reportedly fired a warning shot
cupied prison offices. into the air, and then volleys were un-
Prisoners began leaving the jail soon leashed from both sides.
after the decree was announced, but the Snipers and gunmen reportedly stalked
demonstration continued, resulting in each other and terrorized thousands of
clashes in which two persons were killed bystanders for more than an hour, and in-
and about 65 arrested. discriminate shooting continued even after
At least 375 prisoners from different ambulances began removing the dead and
jails were released early May 26, and wounded, according to the report.
some counts put the total at more than The left-wing Peronist Youth (JP) June
500. Those released included guerrillas 22 accused right-wing Peronists and U.S.
jailed in connection with the killings of Central Intelligence Agency infiltrators of
Fiat executive Oberdan Sallustro, ex- provoking the Ezeiza shootouts. It alleged
President Pedro Aramburu and army that retired Lt. Col. Jorge Osinde, who or-
Gen. Juan Carlos Sanchez. ganized the homecoming, had directed an
An amnesty bill for political prisoners "ambush" by "three hundred armed
was passed by Congress May 27 and mercenaries" to keep Peron from speak-
ing.
signed by Campora the same day. The
president also signed legislation dissolving
The JP asserted Osinde's men opened
the military regime's special "anti-subver-
firewhen one of its columns tried to join
the crowd near the stage. It also charged
sive" courts and repealing the ban on the
Argentine Communist party.
unnamed persons had tried to remove
wounded JP members from hospitals, and
The ERP issued a statement May 27 had tortured others at Ezeiza's interna-
saying that despite the amnesty, it would tional hotel.
continue to attack businesses and the Another group, the Peronist Working
armed forces. Youth, also blamed Osinde and other
homecoming organizers for the blood-
Shootouts greet Peron's return. At least shed.
20 persons were killed and 300 wounded Leonardo Favio, a movie actor and
near Ezeiza international airport June 20, director who witnessed the bloodshed,
gunfire in a crowd of nearly two million said at a press conference June 24 that
people awaiting the arrival of ex-President the shooting was begun by thugs hired by
leaders of the General Labor Confedera-
1973 when rival Peronists exchanged
tion and Osinde. Favio added that he
Juan D. Peron from exile.
had seen prisoners taken by the thugs
Machinegun and handgun fire broke beaten and tortured at the airport's
out shortly before Peron's plane landed, hotel. (Favio had said previously that the
and continued sporadically into the JP had started the violence.)
evening. Several reporters said the initial
fire came from snipers in woods near the
A government commission in-
special
vestigating shootouts had received
the
stage from which Peron was to speak.
Neither troops nor police were near the overwhelming evidence that the violence
scene, since security had been entrusted to
was initiated by right-wing Peronists, it
armed members of the Peronist youth was reported June 29.
wing.
According to the Washington Post June
22, much of the fire was exchanged be- ERP presents views. The People's
tween rival factions of Peronist youths, Revolutionary Army (ERP) charged at a
who had been bitterly divided over which news conference June 27 that the govern-
would direct security operations. ment was responsible for the Ezeiza
According to another report, the killings and that Campora was defrauding
shooting erupted when young left-wing the people who elected him.
96 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Roberto Santucho, the guerrilla somed July 5. Raul Bornancini, assistant


group's leader, told 22 selected newsmen manager of First National City Bank of
that fascist gangs organized by "the Social New York in Cordoba, was abducted July
Welfare Ministry under the immediate 2 and reported released July 13.
supervision of the torturer Osinde" had The government took a number of steps
carried out the "unexpected and ferocious to end the kidnapping wave, including es-
attack against revolutionary Peronists" tablishment of a special kidnapping unit in
near the airport. the federal police July 2.
Santucho denied that the ERP was The U.S.-based Coca-Cola Export
Trotskyist, as waswidely assumed. He Corp. began removing its executives and
asserted: "The ERP is Socialist, with a their families to Uruguay and Brazil
broad program attracting comrades of Aug. 11, after professed ERP guerrillas
distinct tendencies — Marxists, Peronists, demanded that the firm pay $1 million to
Catholics, but no Trotskyists." specified charities or face attacks on its
executives.
Santucho said the government should
be modeled after Cuba's socialism, but he
stressed that Cuba had given the ERP Tucuman police chief slain. The ERP
only moral support. appeared to be responsible for the ma-
The guerrilla leader noted that two fac- chinegun killing Aug. 5 of the Tucu-
tions had split off from the ERP but were man police chief, Hugo Tamagnini, ac-
still using that name. One of them, the cused by the guerrillas of torturing politi-
ERP-August 22, appeared to have se- cal prisoners. Before dying, Tamagnini
ceded because of the majority faction's reportedly identified one of his slayers
intransigence regarding Peronism. as ERP member Carlos Santillan. An
Santucho asserted the ERP had been in- ERP communique later claimed responsi-
correctly held responsible for several re- bility for the murder, according to press
cent kidnappings and extortions. He reports.
admitted his group had carried out kid-
nappings since Campora's investiture.

Peron & wife elected. Ex-President Juan


Kidnappings continue. John R. Thomp- Peron and his third wife, Maria Estela
son, president of the Argentine affiliate of (Isabel) Martinez, were elected president

the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., was and vice president of Argentina Sept. 23,
kidnapped June 18, 1973, then released 1973. They were inaugurated Oct. 12.
July 5. The ERP confirmed July 10 that it Peron, just short of his 78th birthday,
had abducted Thompson and that his firm had campaigned little, sending his wife on
had paid a record $3 million "revolution- provincial campaign tours.
ary tax" for his release. Peron vowed in a radio and television
It was reported that bargaining for address to use "emergency" measures to
Thompson's release had taken place combat any violence that might persist
openly at the Presidents Hotel in down- after the election.
town Buenos Aires. An undisguised ERP Peron attributed recent political and
negotiator was said to have haggled with criminal violence in Argentina partly to
Firestone officials there before the ransom "a political and economic disturbance" in
figure was agreed on. The ransom, in which he saw "the foreign influence of im-
bundles of 500-peso notes, was reported perialism, which has never stopped
to have filled an armored car provided working against freely elected govern-
by the ERP. ments."
At least 16 major kidnappings were re-
ported in different parts of the country
June 27-Aug. 7, and other abductees were ERP outlawed. The People's Revolu-
ransomed. HansGebhardt, a businessman tionary Army (ERP), the nation's strong-
kidnapped June 19, was ransomed for est guerrilla group, was outlawed by pro-
$80,000 July 2. Mario Baratella, an Italian visional President Raul Lastiri Sept. 24,
banker seized June 25, was reported ran- 1973.
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 97

A group of asserted ERP guerrillas had union news editor of the San Nicolas
captured military supply center in
a (Buenos Aires Province) newspaper EI
Buenos Aires early Sept. 6 and held it Norte, was shot to death by gunmen who
under police and army siege for five hours, invaded the paper's offices Oct. 3. EI
killing one officer before
surrendering. Norte's director said fliers distributed in
Police said guerrillas had been arrested
1 1
the city a few days earlier quoted the JP
at the scene and others detained as charging the newspaper employed
elsewhere. "Communists and Trotskyists."
Professed members of the ERP's There were several attacks on radical
breakaway August 22 column Sept. 9 kid- Peronists. Jorge Lellis, a JP leader in
napped a director of the Buenos Aires Rosario, narrowly escaped assassination
newspaper Clarin and held him until Sept. Oct. 4 when gunmen in a passing vehicle
II, after Clarin published documents by fired on him. In Cordoba the same day,
the guerrillas urging support for the two construction union members were re-
Peron-Peron ticket in the Sept. 23 elec- ported wounded when gunmen fired on
tions and sharply criticizing Lastiri and local headquarters of the General Labor
Social Welfare Minister Lopez Rega. An Confederation, dominated by left-wing
unidentified armed group threw firebombs Peronists.
and shot into Clarin's offices later. In Buenos Aires, offices of the JP maga-
zine Militancia were severely damaged by
a bomb explosion Oct. 9. JP headquarters
Rucci slain, other terrorism. Secretary in Formosa were fired on Oct 17, with no
General Jose Rucci of the Pcronist-dom- injuries reported. And in Mendo/a, a
inated General Labor Confederation bomb explosion Oct. 22 nearly destroyed
(GCT) was assassinated Sept. 25. the olfices of provincial Gov. Alberto
Martinez Baca, who had been criticized by
Rucci, his driver and a bodyguard were
conservative Peronists for not ridding his
cut down by unidentified gunmen as Rucci
administration of radical Peronists.
left the house of a relative in western
Buenos Aires. The government blamed Pablo M. Iredes, a leftist leader of the
the ERP for the attack, but there was also Transport Workers Union, was taken
speculation it might be the work of left- from his Buenos Aires home Oct. 30 and
wing Peronists, who had bitterly opposed shot to death by unidentified gunmen.
Rucci's conservative union leadership. Antonio J. Deleroni, a leftist lawyer,
The ERP Sept. 27 denied having killed and his wife, Nelida A ran a de Deleroni,
Rucci. were killed in Buenos Aires Nov. 27 by a
A left-wing Peronist, Enrique Grim- gunman later identified as a member of a
berg of the JP, was murdered Sept. 26, light-wing Peronist youth group and
causing fear of open warfare between con- former bodyguard for the Social Welfare
servativeand radical Peronists. Ministry.
Marcelino Mancilla, leader of the Mar A member of the left-wing Peronist
del Plata CGT and an orthodox Peronist, Youth (JP) was stripped and beaten by
had been murdered Aug. 27, apparently right-wing Peronists Nov. 2, and a leftist
by guerrillas of the EAR. member of the Transport Workers Union
Constantino Razzetti, a Peronist leader was kidnapped and tortured Nov. 21.
in Rosario, was shot to death Oct. 14, Following the first incident, leaders of the
presumably by right-wing Peronists. Raz- JP obtained an audience with Interior
zetti, a biochemist and vice president o\ Minister Benito Iambi and federal
I

the Rosario municipal bank, was killed Police Chief Miguel Antonio Inigue/ to
soon after delivering a speech at a Peronist protest the right-wing campaign against
luncheon severely criticizing the conserva- Peronist leftists, which included not only
tive Peronist labor bureaucracy. murders and torture but almost daily
Another conservative Peronist, Julian bombings of leftist offices.

Julio, leader of a bus drivers' union in In a related development. Sen. HipolitO


Mar del Plata, had been killed by un- Solari Yrigoyen, a member of the Radical
identified gunmen Oct. 9. party, was wounded Nov. when a bomb
I

In another apparently political murder, exploded in automobile. Solari li.ul


his
Jose Domingo Colombo, political and represented combative labor unions and
98 POLITICAL TERRORISM

political prisoners accused of guerrilla some 25 U.S. executives and their families
activities. out of the country Nov. 28-29.

Foreign executives kidnapped. Kidnap-


pings of foreign executives continued dur-
Action Against Terrorists
ing the latter half of 1973. Although most
perpetrators apparently were members of
terrorist groups, it was assumed that at
Terrorism curbs approved. The
least a few of the kidnappers were com-
mon criminals whose sole objective was Chamber of Deputies passed President
ransom. Juan Peron's controversial anti-terrorism
bill Jan. 25, 1974 less than a week after
David Heywood, an executive of No-
bleza Tabacos, a subsidiary of the British- an ERP attack on an army garrison.
American Tobacco Co., was kidnapped The bill, reforming the Argentine penal
Sept. 21 and freed by police Oct. 20. code, was approved 128-62, over the op-
Police said they arrested four of the position of virtually all non-Peronist
abductors, all "common criminals," and legislators and members of the leftist
recovered more than $280,000 in ransom Peronist Youth (JP).
money. The bill virtually doubled prison
David B. Wilkie Jr., a U.S. citizen and sentences for convicted kidnappers,
president of Amoco Argentina, a sub- conspirators and armed extremists, and
sidiary ofStandard Oil Co. of Indiana, turned over internal security functions to
was kidnapped in suburban Buenos Aires the federal police rather than local law
Oct. 23 and ransomed by his company enforcement It also outlawed
officers.
Nov. 11. The company said the payment associations and "incite-
"illicit" political
was "well below" the $1 million ment to violence," but defined the terms
reportedly demanded by the kidnappers. ambiguously.
Swissair said Nov. 29 that its Latin Peron and the right wing of his move-
American director Kurt Schmid, abducted ment had demanded swift approval of the
in Buenos Aires Oct. 22. was freed Nov. bill after 60-70 ERP members attacked

28 and immediately left the country. The an army tank garrison at Azul, 170 miles
airline refused to say whether it had paid a south of Buenos Aires, the night of Jan.
ransom. 19-20. The guerrillas occupied the gar-
rison and fought a seven-hour gun battle
with troops, leaving two guerrillas, a sol-
U.S. executive murdered. John A. dier, the base commander and his wife
Swint. general manager of a Cordoba sub- dead. The terrorists escaped with a hos-
sidiary of Ford Motor Argentina, was tage. Lt. Col. Jorge Ibarzabal.
assassinated Nov. 22. The Peronist Armed Peron appeared on nationwide tele-
Forces (FAP). one of several terrorist vision after the attack, wearing his army
groups supporting President Juan Peron, general's uniform, and called on the
later took credit. armed forces, police, labor unions and his
Swint and two bodyguards were killed Justicialista Party to unite "to annihilate
in an ambush in suburban Cordoba by as soon as possible this criminal terror-
about 15 gunmen. A third bodyguard was ism." He accused left-wing Peronists of
seriously wounded. Eyewitnesses said being "complacent" about terrorism
there was no attempt to kidnap the U.S. and indirectly criticized Buenos Aires
executive. Province Gov. Oscar Bidegain, a left-wing
The FAP claimed credit for the assassi- Peronist. by asserting terrorists were
nation in communique to newspapers
a "operating in the province with the
Nov. 28, and warned Ford headquarters in indifference of its authorities."
Buenos Aires that day that it planned to A majority of Peronist senators and
"knock off" other foreign executives and deputies demanded Bidegain's resignation
their families "one by one." and to blow late Jan. 21. and the governor acceded
up the main Ford plant in suburban Jan. 23. He was replaced Jan. 26 by the
Buenos Aires. Ford reportedly moved vice governor, Victorio Calabro.
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 99

Police and soldiers carried out (The government May


28 created a spe-
widespread raids in search of the Azul at- cial industrial police force to guard Ar-
tackers, and announced the arrest of 13 gentine and foreign factories against guer-
suspects Jan. 23, including several persons rilla attacks.)
allegedly wounded at the garrison.

ERP,
Latin guerrillas unite. Leaders of
$14.2 million ransom for Samuelson. the ERPsaid at a clandestine news
Victor Samuelson, manager of the Esso
conference in suburban Buenos Aires Feb.
Argentina oil refinery at Campana, north
14 that they would step up their attacks
of Buenos Aires, was kidnapped Dec. 6,
on the Argentine military and form a
1973 by ERP members. He was freed
"common front" with leftist guerrillas of
April 29, 1974, seven weeks after his em-
Chile, Bolivia and Uruguay.
ployer had paid a record $14.2 million
ransom. One of the leaders, who identified
himself as Enrique Gorriaran, said: "We
An ERP communique Dec. 8 had said consider that to halt or diminish the fight
Samuelson would be "submitted to trial" against the oppressor army would allow it
on unspecified charges. A subsequent to reorganize and to pass over to the
message Dec. 11 demanded a $10 million offensive."
ransom.
Another of the leaders, identified as
The $10 million was demanded in food, Domingo Mena, said the ERP and the
clothing and construction materials to be Revolutionary Left Movement of Chile,
distributed in poor neighborhoods across the National Liberation Army of Bolivia
Argentina "as a partial reimbursement to and the Tupamaro guerrillas of Uruguay
the Argentine people for the copious were "prepared to do combat under a
riches extracted from our country by jointcommand." A joint declaration by
[Esso] in long years of imperialist ex- the four groups pledged to overthrow
ploitation." "imperialist-capitalist reaction, to annihi-
The company announced March 13, late counterrevolutionary armies, expel
1974 that ithad actually paid a $14.2 mil- Yankee and European imperialism from
lion ransom. The terrorists had also Latin American soil, country by country,
demanded that a communique they issued and initiate the construction of socialism
on the kidnapping be printed by 12 news- in each of our countries ."
. .

papers in Buenos Aires and some 30 in the The ERP


June 12 made public docu-
provinces, but all but three papers in the ments asserting that it had distributed $5
capital declined in fear of reprisals from million among the other members of the
the government. Latin American guerrilla "Revolutionary
The ERP communique said Esso had Coordination Board," the coordinating
agreed originally to pay $4.2 million in organization set up by the Argentinian,
supplies to victims of recent floods in Ar- Bolivian, Uruguayan and Chilean ter-
gentina, plus $10 million in cash as "in- rorist groups. The ERP documents, signed
demnization" for "the superprofits that by Mario Roberto Santucho, reported
Esso has obtained in the country, thanks that the money was part of the Samuelson
to the exploitation of its workers." ransom. The ERP said the guerrillas were
However, the message stated, "existing using the money to finance "a new stage of
obstacles" had made distribution of the military development," the establishment
supplies unfeasible, so the entire $14.2 of rural guerrilla movements to mobilize
million had been paid in cash. and organize the masses and complement
Esso repatriated its remaining U.S. the operations of the existing guerrilla
executives March 14-15 to avert any new units.
kidnappings. Fear of abduction or murder
had caused more than 500 U.S. business
executives to leave Argentina during the Peronists assassinated. Intra-Peronist
past few months, the Miami Herald violence continued.
reported March 22. The estimated 300 Rogelio Coria, former secretary
U.S. businessmen who remained in the general of the national Construction
country reportedly headed small con- Workers Union, was shot to death in
cerns. Buenos Aires March 22.
100 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Luis A. David, a supporter of Peron shoulder when he resisted abduction. They


and head of the right-wing Nationalist released him that evening, apparently for
Liberation Alliance, had been found shot fear he would die in captivity.
to death March 21 near San Nicolas Laun underwent surgery in a Cordoba
(Buenos Aires Province). The adjunct sec- clinic, and was reported "out of danger"
retary of the San Nicolas Construction April 15. He was flown to Panama for fur-
Workers Union, Roberto Jose Kusner, ther treatment April 17.
had been shot dead the day before. Shortly after the kidnapping, the ERP
Another right-wing Peronist, Miguel sent a message to a Cordoba
radio station
Angel Castrofini, of the Nueva Argentina claiming credit the abduction. The
for
university faction, was assassinated guerrillas said Laun would be "inter-
March 8. rogated on counterrevolutionary activities
Juan Manuel Abal Medina, ex-sec- in Vietnam, Santo Domingo, Brazil and
retary of the National Justicialista Move- Bolivia, and for his active participation as
ment and an organizer of radical Peronist a liaison in the fascist military coup
youth groups, was wounded in the arm in against our brother people in Chile. He
an assassination attempt in Buenos Aires will also be interrogated on his ties with
March 23. Presumed rightists fired on the Central Intelligence Agency."
him from a passing car and threw two (The U.S. embassy in Buenos Aires
grenades into the apartment building into denied Laun had ever worked for or with
which he retreated. the CIA, or served in Brazil or Bolivia. It
Maria Liliana Ivanoff of the leftist also denied he had participated in any
Peronist Youth (JP) was kidnapped and activities connected with Chile. Laun pre-

shot to death by presumed Peronist viously had served in the Dominican Re-
rightists outside Buenos Aires April 26. public, South Vietnam and Thailand.)
Carlos Mugica, a leader of the Third
World Priests Movement with close ties
Anti-guerrilla offensive. Hundreds of
to the JP, was gunned down as he left his
persons were arrested in Tucuman
church in the capital May 11.
Province May 18-21 as federal police
The government news agency TELAM mounted a campaign against the ERP.
charged May 14 that Mugica had been
killed by the Peronist Montoneros guer-
The action followed further violence by
rilla group, presumably for his recent ap-
the ERP and by members of the opposing
peals to leftists to moderate their attacks
Peronist political factions and a warning
on the orthodox Peronist leadership and by President Juan Peron that Argentina
remain loyal to President Peron. How- faced civil war. Peron was quoted May 16
ever, the London newsletter Latin Amer-
as saying that because of "revolutionary
ica noted May 17 that Mugica had first
infantilism," Argentina might have
gained prominence by defending two dead "reached a situation of unavoidable
Montoneros, and that the guerrillas never confrontation."
killed a person for making appeals such as The Tucuman anti-guerrilla hunt was
Mugica's. abandoned May 25. Security forces said
JP leader Carlos Castelacci was killed that bad weather had enabled the guerril-
May 10 in a gun battle with other leftist las to escape encirclement.
Peronists over possession of one of the task force of more than 1,000 po-
The
JP's Buenos Aires offices. licemen and soldiers reportedly captured
only 27 alleged guerrillas, none of them
major ERP leaders. The failure of the
U.S. diplomat attacked. ERP guerrillas was dramatized May
anti-guerrilla effort
April 12, 1974 wounded and kidnapped 31 when more than 40 ERP members
Alfred A. Laun III, director of the U.S. briefly occupied the town of Acheral,
Information Service in Cordoba. The first which had served as a center of operations
U.S. diplomat kidnapped in Argentina, for the campaign.
Laun was freed within hours. ERP members had assassinated Jorge
The guerrillas invaded Laun's home Quiroga, a former judge of the disbanded
outside Cordoba in the morning and anti-subversive court, in downtown
wounded him in the head, abdomen and Buenos Aires April 28. Quiroga had inter-
LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 101

rogated and sent to prison the 16 ERP and unconditional support for Mrs. Peron
Peronist guerrillas who were killed by au- June 29, and the Montoneros guerrilla
thorities at the Trelew naval air base group, also on the Peronist left, said it
prison in August 1972. backed the vice president "as long as Gen.
Buenos Aires police claimed May 6 that Peron is not in the physical condition to
the ERP was also responsible for the continue exercising the presidency." Both
murder of Manuel R. Garcia, a moderate groups previously had criticized Mrs.
Peronist labor leader, outside the capital Peron for favoring her husband's most
May 4. conservative advisers, including Social
Claudio Alberto Luduena, sought in the
Welfare Minister Jose Lopez Rega, whom
the Peronist left called a "fascist."
ERP's recent kidnapping of U.S. In-
formation Service official Alfred Laun, It soon became clear that Peronist
guerrilla factions were prepared to mount
was killed in Cordoba April 28 as he at-
terrorist actions in opposition to Mrs.
tempted unsuccessfully to kidnap Antonio
Minetti, a business executive. Peron.
An alleged Montoneros internal
document disseminated among journalists
New security unit. Bombings, political Aug. 3 said the guerrillas should restruc-

assassinations and kidnappings continued ture their ranks for a "resistance stage"
in Buenos Aires and other cities, leading because there was no longer any "reason"
President Juan Peron to set up a new to support Mrs. Peron. A
"formal break"
committee to command all security with her government would "depend on
operations. The committee, reported June circumstances," the document stated.
7, 1974, consisted of Peron, the ministers
Montoneros leader Mario Firmenich
of defense, interior and justice, and the asserted Aug. 12 that Mrs. Peron was not
armed forces commanders. Its orders the "heir" of her late husband because
would be carried out by a new security "the leadership of the masses cannot be
secretariat headed by Brig. Gen. Alberto inherited."
Cacercs, the frontier police chief who had
served as federal police chief under the
Former Interior chief slain. Arturo
supplanted military dictatorship.
Mor Roig, who organized the March 1973
presidential elections when he served as
interior minister under the supplanted
military dictatorship, was shot to death in
Terrorism After Peron s Death
suburban Buenos Aires July 15, 1974.
Mor Roig had been in office in August
Peron wife assumes presidency.
dies,
1972, when officers at the Trelew naval air
base in Patagonia killed 16 leftist guer-
President Juan Domingo Peron died of a
heart attack July 1, 1974.
rillas, many of them members of the
ERP.
The presidency was assumed by Peron' s
At least six persons were killed and 28
widow, Maria Estela (Isabel) Martinez de
arrested as police mounted an intense
Peron, who became the first woman chief
search for Mor Roig's assassins.
of state in the Americas.
Police in Buenos Aires reported July 16
Mrs. Peron had assumed executive
that two men and a woman had been
powers June 29, when doctors ordered
killed when they exchanged gunfire with
Peron to take "absolute rest" while they
officers seeking to search their automo-
treated him for what they said was in-
bile.
fectious bronchitis with heart complica-
tions. Interior Minister Benito Llambi an-
Most groups and military
political nounced July 18 that four suspects had
leaders had pledged their support for Mrs. been killed and 28 arrested since the
Peron June 29-30, citing the Consti- assassination, and all were members of
tution's provisions for the vice president the ERPor of other left-wing extremist
to rule if the president was incapacitated. groups. However, the ERP denied
The 250,000-member left-wing Peron- responsibility for Mor Roig's death in a
ist Youth Organization announced its press communique July 18.
102 POLITICAL TERRORISM

(Ex-President Alejandro Lanusse, in wing Peronist newspaper Mayoria, which


whose Cabinet Mor Roig had served, asserted the Montoneros were now out of
charged the Peronist Montoneros organi- the Peronist movement, and by the inde-
zation had committed the assassination, pendent daily La Opinion, which said the
the French newspaper Le Monde reported guerrillas were out of touch with reality.
July 21.) The strongest support for the Monto-
Two more suspects were killed July 20 neros came from leftist students at
in a shootout with police. Buenos Aires University, where Peronist
youths had occupied all but one of the
faculties since Aug. 14. The University's
Montoneros resume guerrilla warfare. interim rector, Raul Laguzzi, openly
The Montoneros went underground again backed the Montoneros. Laguzzi and his
as violence by feuding Peronists and ERP wife were seriously injured and their four-
members mounted. month-old son was killed Sept. 7 when
Hundreds of bombings and numerous their home was bombed by presumed
assassinations occurred throughout Ar- right-wing Peronists.
gentina Aug. 13-Sept. 18, seriously President Peron met with the com-
threatening the ability of President Maria manders of the armed forces and leaders
Estela Martinez de Peron to govern. Ter- of anti-guerrilla operations Sept. 7 in an
rorist attacks had claimed one victim apparent effort to devise a strategy
every 19 hours since Aug. 1, according to against the Montoneros and militant
the New York Times Sept. 18. students.
Montoneros leader Mario Firmenich Meanwhile, bombings and assassina-
said at a clandestine press conference tions of Peronist leaders continued. An
Sept. 6 that his movement had begun a estimated 50 bomb explosions were
"people's war" against the government, reported in Buenos Aires and other parts
which, he claimed, had been "captured by of the country Aug. 22, the second an-
imperialists and oligarchs" since the death niversary of the killing of 16 leftist guer-
of President Juan Peron July 1. Mrs. rillas at the naval air base at Trelew, and
Peron's administration had made it im- more than 100 bomb blasts were reported
possible for leftists to operate legally, Sept. 16-17. Other bombings occurred
leaving armed warfare as their only al- daily, many at dealerships of IKA-Re-
ternative, Firmenich charged. nault, an automobile company involved in
Firmenich said the Montoneros had a bitter labor dispute.
assassinated two anti-guerrilla security Four members of the left-wing Peronist
officers, kidnapped an engineer and car- Youth organization were killed in suburbs
ried out a number of machinegun and of Buenos Aires Aug. 22-23. At least
bombing attacks against automobile seven Peronists were killed in a wave of
dealerships and other targets in recent assassinations Sept. 16-18.
days. Montoneros in Tucuman claimed
credit for the murder of sugar executive
ERP-Montonero collaboration. It was
Jose Maria Paz Sept. 7.
reported that the ERP and Montoneros
Firmenich said the Montoneros were
had agreed at least to coordinate their
not yet strong enough to battle police and
terrorist strikes.
military units, but he expected they would
The ERP magazine The Combatant an-
be strong enough "in several weeks." He
nounced Sept. 26 that the ERP was "pre-
did not rule out the possibility of joining
pared to collaborate with the Montoneros
forces with the ERP. which was leftist but
in the military field, to stage joint attacks
not Peronist. "There is no need to confuse
against the armed forces, the police and
political ideologies," he said. "We will
the repressive forces in general, and the
have to see what their policy is ... if it is
." imperialist corporations." However, the
like ours, we can act together . .

ERP said the two groups could not form a


The Montoneros' decision to resume "joint military force" because the Monto-
guerrilla warfare was supported by the neros were not a "revolutionary organiza-
other organizations of the Peronist left, tion" but a group with "erroneous popu-
although they chose to remain above- list concepts at the service of a bourgeois
ground. It was denounced by the right- illusion."

LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 103

ERP leader Roberto Santucho had said more leftists, including ex-President
Sept. 18 that his group would stage "indis- Hector Campora, former Buenos Aires
criminate executions" of army officers in University Rector Raul Laguzzi and
retaliation for the alleged execution by the Congressman Hector Sandler. A report in
army of 14-16 guerrillas captured during El Nacional of Caracas Sept. 28 said the
an ERP on an infantry post in Cata-
raid AAA had a "black list" of 49 persons to
marca Province in August. be assassinated, most of them left-wing
(The ERP had acknowledged Aug. 28 Peronists.
that it had suffered a "serious defeat" at The AAA communique said Troxler
the hands of police and soldiers in Cata- had been killed because he was "a commie
marca Province earlier in the month, after and a bad Argentine." It added: "Five are
guerrillas attacked an infantry post out- down and the lefties will continue to fall
side the city of Catamarca. Combined se- wherever they are."
curity forces pursued a guerrilla column The AAA was
held responsible for the
in the province's mountains Aug. 13-15,
murders of a construction worker
leftist
killing or arresting at least 27 insurgents.
in Bahia Blanca Sept. 22; a magazine
Police in a suburb of Buenos Aires editor, a television employe and a third
claimed Sept. 9 to have found and person in Buenos Aires Sept. 26; and two
confiscated the printing press on which relatives of former President Arturo
the guerrillas allegedly printed 80% of Frondizi Sept. 27. Silvio Frondizi, brother
their propaganda. TheERP continued ter- of the ex-president, was dragged from his
rorist attacks despite these setbacks, Buenos Aires home and later found dead
blowing up a police station in suburban outside the city. His son-in-law, Luis
Buenos Aires Aug. 16). Mendiburu, was killed trying to prevent
The Montoneros killed two persons the abduction. Frondizi was a Marxist
Sept. 19 in kidnapping Juan and Jorge lawyer and essayist; his brother ran a
Born, directors of Bunge &
Born Co., one small political party that, according to the
of the largest international trading con- newsletter Latin America Sept. 27, was
glomerates in Latin America. A Monto- near a break with the government.
neros communique later demanded $50 Several people who were on the AAA's
million in ransom for the Born brothers death list or feared they might eventually
and said they would be "tried for the acts appear on it fled Argentina. Rodolfo Puig-
committed against the workers, the gros, the liberal former rector of Buenos
people and the national interest by the Aires University, took asylum in the
monopolies to which they belong." The
communique said the two persons killed
Mexican embassy Sept. 24 an unusual —
step since he was not being sought by the
the Boms' chauffeur and the manager of

one of their companies had tried to
government — and was flown to Mexico
City the next day. Laguzzi, who had
prevent the kidnapping. recently been wounded in a terrorist at-
tack, fled to Mexico Sept. 28. (The cur-
rent rector of Buenos Aires University,
Rightists form AAA. Right-wing ele-
Eduardo Ottalagano, a rightist, survived
ments in September threatened armed
an assassination attempt in Villaguay
violence to counter the leftist terrorism.
Sept. 23. Ottalagano was unharmed, but
A right-wing group calling itself Argen- his assailant and a local hotel owner were
tine Anticommunist Alliance threatened
killed and two policemen were wounded in
Sept. 5 to "execute" 10 liberal and leftist
the incident. The assailant's political
federal deputies for "infamous treason was not revealed.)
affiliation
against the fatherland."
Two prominent actors, Norman Briski
The AAA's terrorists assassinated and Nacha Guevara, fled to Peru Sept. 28,
Troxler,
Julio a leftist former deputy two days after the AAA threatened to kill
Buenos Aires, Sept. 20. In a
police chief of
them and three other well-known per-
communique Sept. 21, the group said it formers. The Argentine Actors Associa-
was responsible for the murders of four tion struck Sept. 27 to protest the threat.
other prominent leftists, including Atilio
Lopez, former vice governor of Cordoba
The AAA
then added several more
persons to death list Sept. 30-Oct. I,
its
Province, and that it intended to kill 12
threatening to kill each if he did not leave
104 POLITICAL TERRORISM

the country. Army Gen. Juan Carlos President Maria Peron and backed by
Sosa, leftist union leader Armando Cabo the armed forces. The law provided stiff
and former Bishop Jeronimo Podesta prison terms for persons who dissem-
were threatened by the AAA
Sept. 30. inated subversive propaganda or tried
The next day the rightists threatened to change the nation's political struc-
three legislators from the Radical Party- ture "by means not laid down by the
Deputy Mario Amaya and Senators Hi- Constitution," and it restricted news
polito Solari Yrigoyen and Humberto reporting of activities by illegal groups.
Perette —
and a dean and three professors Observers said the wording of the bill
at the state university in Rosario. With indicated it was designed primarily to fight
these the AAA had passed "death leftist guerrillas, although the government
sentences" on 61 persons, 19 of whom had said Sept. 27 that it would also be used
been killed in the past two months, ac- against rightist assassins.
cording to El Nacional of Caracas Oct. 2. Mrs. Peron had charged Sept. 26 that
According to the London newsletter leftist guerrillas were trying to provoke a
Latin America Oct. 11, it was generally military coup, and she pledged to the
assumed that AAA
members included armed forces that her government would
soldiers and police, with the police in ulti- press a full battle against subversives.
mate control. Montoneros leader Ro- In an attempt to gather support amid
berto Quieto charged at a clandestine the increasing violence, Mrs. Peron held a
press conference Oct. 4 that the AAA
was rally in Buenos Aires Sept. 20. Only 30,-
"organized by the federal police chief, 000-50,000 persons attended even though
Alberto Villar," and that its "inspiration the huge General Labor Confederation
and political orientation" came from the called an eight-hour nationwide strike to
government itself. enable workers to see the president. The
Quieto said Oct. 4 that the Montoneros crowd, composed almost exclusively of
were prepared to negotiate a truce with conservative Peronists, chanted slogans
the government if it would grant against the Montoneros as Mrs. Peron
emergency wage increases, end its inter- denounced "those who only know how to
vention in the trade unions, restore kill, . .those who obstruct the road to
.

freedom of politicalexpression, repeal liberation and national pacification."


repressive security legislation, stop the
AAA assassination campaign and fire
Villar and his deputy chief, Luis Mar- Terrorist actions. Among other inci-
garide. The ERP offered a truce of its own dents of terrorism during 1974:
Oct. 6, asking the government in return to Douglas Roberts, administrative di-
free all political prisoners, repeal the new
rector of Pepsi-Cola S.A., local affiliate of
anti-subversion act and restore the ERP
the U.S. firm PepsiCo, was abducted in
to legality.
suburban Buenos Aires Jan. 4 but re-
The government ignored these offers leased Feb. 2 on the payment of a ransom
and the bloodshed resumed Oct. 7 with of undisclosed size. Some of the kid-
the assassination of army Maj. Jaime Gi- nappers were arrested by the police, who
meno. had followed them after they picked up
The AAA killed two more persons Oct. the ransom.
8— Rodolfo Achem, administrative sec- A bomb explosion Jan. 7 seriously
retary at La Plata National University, damaged the Buenos Aires printing works
and Carlos Miguel, director of the that produced El Mundo and the
university's planning department. Army semiofficial Peronist organ Mayoria.
Lt. Juan Carlos Gambande was as- Unknown terrorists attacked a police
sassinated in Santa Fe Oct. 11. Two station Rosario Jan. 16, seriously
in
newsmen were found shot to death outside wounding one officer before setting fire to
Buenos Aires Oct. 13, and a Peronist the building.
leftist, Juan Carlos Leiva, was murdered
in La Plata Oct. 14. The ERP announced the release of Julio
Baraldo, director of the local affiliate of
Italy's Bereta arms factory, in exchange
Anti-terrorism bill. Congress Sept. 28 for an undetermined quantity of arms, it
passed an anti-terrorism bill submitted by was reported Jan. 19.
.

LATIN AMERICA: ARGENTINA 105

Nineteen separate bombings of offices somed for $200,000 June 1 1


and homes of leftists were reported early The personnel manager at the Fiat-
Jan. 26. Police said bombs exploded in Concord automobile plant Cordoba, in
Buenos Aires at seven JP offices, the office Roberto Francisco Klecher, was shot to
of a JP-dominated union, and a cafe fre- death on a downtown street April 4. The
quented by leftists; a woman was seriously Peronist Armed Forces later claimed
injured by the last explosion. Other bombs credit.
exploded at the homes of leftist militants Antonio Magaldi, secretary general of
in suburban Buenos Aires and Rosario the regional General Labor Confederation
and at offices of the Communist Party and in San Nicolas (Buenos Aires Province),
the Young Socialist Movement in Bahia was shot to death April 4. The next day a
Blanca. leftist Peronist organizer, Fernando Quin-
U.S. engineer Charles Hayes was freed teros, was dragged from his Buenos Aires
Jan. 31 after a month in captivity, when home and shot dead by two men claiming
his A. G. McK.ee construction company to be policemen.
reportedly paid a $1 million ransom. Three young members of the Socialist
Enrique (Henry) Nyborg Andersen, Workers Party were kidnapped from a
Danish regional manager of the Bank of meeting in suburban Buenos Aires May 30
London & South America, kidnapped in and later found shot to death. The
Buenos Aires Nov. 17, 1973, was released unidentified abductors, who were armed
Feb. 19, 1974 after payment of a ransom with machine guns, also kidnapped, beat
estimated at $1,145,000. and later released three other party mem-
Mario Reduto, a retired naval petty bers, all women.
officer kidnapped Feb. 22, was found dead More than 20 bombs exploded in
in a garbage dump in Zarate (Buenos Buenos Aires May
29-30, most at au-
Aires Province) March 14. The ERP tomobile dealers, according to the Miami
admitted "executing" Reduto, whom it Herald June 1. At least 10 bombings were
had accused of heading a parapolice group reported the same days in Cordoba.
that allegedly attacked and tortured
leftists.
A bomb had blown up the Buenos Aires
headquarters of the General Labor Con-
Members of the ERP Feb. 23 kid-
federation May 28. Other explosions had
napped Antonio Vallocchia, an executive
damaged a department store and two
of Swift & Company in Rosario, whom
branches of the Bank of Commerce in the
they held responsible for the "unjustified
capital May 25.
dismissal of 42 workers demanding decent
salaries." Swift said Feb. 26 that it would Gregorio Manoukian, president of the
reinstate the 42employes and pay them Tanti supermarkets, was killed in a kid-
for thedays they were out of work, in ac- nap attempt in Buenos Aires June 7.
cordance with ERP demands. Police authorities in Buenos Aires
ERP members stole firearms in attacks announced June that Remo Crotta,
11
staged on police stations in Ciudadela head of the paper industry union, and
(Buenos Aires Province) March 8, Resis- Francisco Oscar Martinez, of the
tencia (Chaco Province) March 15 and Peronist Youth organization in La Plata,
Melincue (Santa Fe Province) March 23. had been found dead. Both had been
The guerrillas killed a police officer in the reported kidnapped earlier.
Resistencia raid and freed two imprisoned
Herbert production manager of
Pilz,
comrades in the Melincue attack.
the Argentine of Mercedes Benz,
affiliate
The French-based Peugeot auto firm
was kidnapped in suburban Buenos Aires
announced March 18 that its Argentina
June 17 and released July 12 for what a
production manager, Yves Boisset, had Mercedes spokesman called a large ran-
been released by kidnappers who had held som.
him since Dec. 28, 1973. French sources
in Buenos Aires said the abductors had David Kraiselburd, chairman of the
demanded a $4 million ransom. Jose board of the news agency Noticias Ar-
Chohelo, a Peugeot representative in the gentinas and publisher of the La Plata
capital, was kidnapped June 3 and ran- newspaper El Dia, was shot to death July
106 POLITICAL TERRORISM

17 as police closed in on the house in La be staged by Chilean or U.S. rightists.


Plata where he was held by kidnappers.
Police wounded and captured one
abductor, identified as Carlos Starita, an
BOLIVIA
alleged member of the left-wing Peronist
University Youth. Kraiselburd had been Che Guevara Slain as
kidnapped June 25, but his captors had Guerrilla Campaign Fails
not contacted his family nor made a
ransom demand.
The death of Che Guevara while leading
Jorge H. Ferrari, an official in the
a guerrilla campaign in Bolivian mountains
Economy Ministry, was assassinated by in 1967 was said to have had a profound
unidentified persons in the Buenos Aires
effect on revolutionary movements in Latin
suburb of San Justo July 20. America and elsewhere. Since he was so
More than two dozen persons were prominent a supporter of the theory that
killed July 31-Aug. 12 as intra-Peronist guerrillas must first win in the countryside,
violence increased and the ERP stepped the defeat of his campaign strengthened
up its attacks on military and police in- the argument of those who urged revolu-
stallations. tionaries to become urban guerrillas and to
Rodolfo Ortega Pena, the leading left- employ such weapons as terrorism in the
wing Peronist congressman, was assas- cities.
sinated in Buenos Aires July 31. Martin
Salas, a young right-wing Peronist, Guevara Falls in Clash. The Bolivian
was shot to death in La Plata Aug. 5, and army high command confirmed Oct. 10,
four leftist Peronists in that city were 1967 that Maj. Ernesto (Che) Guevara
killed in apparent retaliation Aug. 6-7. de la Serna, 39, Argentine-born Cuban
A group calling itself "Montoneros Sol- revolutionary leader who had been lead-
diers of Peron" claimed responsibility for ing Bolivian guerrillas, had been fatally
Ortega Pena's murder in a communique wounded Oct. 8 during a clash with army
to the press Aug. 3. A United Press troops near Higueras and died Oct. 9.
International report Aug. 3 said the group Gen. Alfredo Ovando Candia, Bolivian
was an offshoot of the left-wing Peronist armed forces commander, said that
Montoneros guerrillas, but the London Guevara had admitted his identity be-
newsletter Latin America reported Aug. 9 fore dying from his wounds and that
that the group was right-wing Peronist further identification had been provided
and had no connection with the Monto- by fingerprints. (Guevara's fingerprints
neros. Another communique to the press were on file in Argentina and had been
Aug. 7 claimed Ortega Pena had been taken when he received a passport in
assassinated by a rightist group calling it- 1952.) Later medical examinations, how-
self "Argentine Anti-Imperialist Action." ever, indicated that Guevara could not
persons were injured Aug. 4
Eleven have survived for 24 hours with his
when bombs exploded at the Buenos Aires wounds but had apparently been cap-
headquarters of the left-wing Peronist tured alive and, possibly, executed the
Youth, the Communist Party and the following day. According to Ovando's
Communist Youth. report, Guevara told his captors: "I am
Retired Gen. Carlos Prats Gonzalez, Che Guevara, and I have failed.'"

the former Chilean Army commander,


and his wife were killed early Sept. 30 Guerrillas Were Losing. There was
when a bomb exploded in or under their evidence that the Guevara-led guerrillas,
car as they drove to their Buenos Aires after some initial success, were on the
home. brink of defeat even before Guevara's
Aclose friend of Prats, quoted by the death. Guevara, who had arrived in the
Washington Post Oct. 1, said Prats had rebel area Nov. 7, 1966, reportedly had
said recently that he had received in- complained of the indifference of the
formation of a plan to kill him. Prats had local peasants to the revolution he was
said the assassination would be made to leading. Ill with arthritis and chronic
look like the work of the AAA but would asthma and often in pain, Guevara was
LATIN AMERICA: BOLIVIA 107

reported to have been making plans to Sept. 22 news conference that the guer-
try to escape from Bolivia but was rillashad been scattered in recent weeks
blocked by the stepped-up army counter- because of heavy pressure from Bolivian
insurgency campaign in which he was army He said that since the pre-
patrols.
finally killed. vious enemy
contact Sept. 2, the patrols
A 16-man U.S. Special Forces (Green had been pursuing several guerrilla units,
Berets) training team from the Panama each having no more than 4 persons, and
Canal had come to Bolivia to train the that Guevara was in charge of the prin-
Bolivian 2d Ranger Battalion in counter- cipal group.
insurgency techniques, and 600-1,000 Ovando said that Guevara and 7 Cu-
Bolivian troops had been operating in the bans with him had been "virtually Fidel
southeast area against an estimated 60- Castro's general staff' during the early
100 guerrillas. days of the Cuban revolution. He said
The Bolivian army scored its first Guevara, Cmndr. Juan V. Acuna and
major battle success against the guerrilla Capt. Eliseo Reyes Rodriguez of the
forces Aug. 31 when a patrol ambushed Cuban army and the other Cubans had
and wiped out a 9-man guerrilla group. entered Bolivia in November-December
The action took place near Masiguri 1966. Ovando reported that the Bolivian
Bajo in the southeast. The dead in- army as of then had suffered 35 killed
cluded 2-3 Cubans including the band's and 13 wounded during the 5-month-old
guerrilla campaign. He said that 19 rebel
leader, known as Joaquin. Also killed
was a Bolivian girl, Laura Gutierrez, bodies (13 Bolivian, 5 Cuban and Ar- 1

known as Tania. The earlier reports in- gentine) had been recovered and that
dicated that a prisoner, Jose Carillo, about 20 other guerrillas had been killed
taken during the action, had disclosed by then. (The army announced Sept. 27
that 3 more rebels, including Roberto
that Guevara had been instructing the
rebels. [Coco] Peredo, had been killed Sept. 26.)
Following Guevara's death, Bolivian
It was reported mid-August that
in military sources said Oct. 16 that the
Bolivian army had found 4 jungle
units number of Bolivian guerrillas had been
caches of guerrilla arms in the Nanca- reduced to 6 following a battle with arm>
huaza River area. This loss of arms was units Oct. 14 in which 4 rebels (2 Boliv
said to have seriously crippled the guer- ians, 1 Cuban and Peruvian) were
1

rilla campaign. killed. The 6 were said to consist of 3


The Bolivian government announced Cubans and 3 Bolivians and to be led by
Sept. 18 that it had arrested 15 people Guido(Inti) Peredo.
accused of aiding the guerrillas. The 15
included university teachers in La Paz
and Loyola Guzman Lara, 25, a philos- Debray Trial. A military trial of Jules
ophy student at La Paz' San Andres Regis Debray, 27, French Marxist
University. Miss Guzman, who called writer who had been captured Apr. 20
herself a Moscow-leaning Communist, after spending Wz months with the Bo-
was accused of being a key figure in livian guerrillas, began in secret Aug. 18
supplying materiel and moral aid to the in the southern town of Camiri. The trial
rebels. was opened to the press Sept. 26 but
Bolivian Pres. Rene Barrientos Ortuno then adjourned indefinitely Sept. 27 to
said at a press conference Sept. 22 that await a decision as to whether the 5-
Guevara had entered Bolivia to "estab- officer military tribunal was competent
lish the guerrilla center of South Amer- to try Debray and 6 co-defendants. De-
ica" and "to create a focus that was later bray was charged with entering Bolivia to
to be extended." Speaking at a news assist the guerrillas and with "rebellion,
conference in La Paz, Barrientos insisted murder, robbery, assault and other
that the guerrilla movement was an "ad- crimes" during his stay in Bolivia.
venture financed, inspired and led from The was resumed Oct. 10 after
trial
the outside." the tribunal was declared competent.
Gen. Alfredo Ovando Candia, the But Debray, in tears, abandoned his de-
armed forces commander, said at the fense Oct. 1 1 after hearing of Guevara's
108 POLITICAL TERRORISM

death. He announced to the tribunal a book published in New York Aug. 6 by


Oct. 12 that he wished to be regarded as Stein & Day, Inc., revealed that 13 guer-
equally responsible— "politically and rillas killed in Bolivia while members of
morally''' — as Guevara for guerrilla acts Guevara's band were Cuban army offi-
in Bolivia although he had done no cers and that 4 were members of the
fighting. Cuban Communist Party's Central
Committee. The 4 committee members
Debray had told newsmen July 20 that were identified as (aliases in parentheses):
Guevara had come to Bolivia to organize Maj. Juan Vitalio Acuna (Joaquin), Maj.
the guerrillas but had since left. Debray
Antonio Sanchez Diaz (Marcos), Maj.
said Guevara's mission was "to say no
Alberto Fernandez Montes de Oca
to the oppression and humiliation which
(Pachungo) and Capt. Eliseo Reyes
confront the people because of the power
Rodriguez (Rolando).
of the United States." Debray, who
had supported Fidel Castro and had
taught at the University of Havana, in- CIA's Aid Confirmed. President Bar-
sisted that he had entered Bolivia only to rientos April1, 1969 confirmed reports that
get material for a journalistic account of U.S. Central Intelligence Agency person-
the guerrilla movement. nel had been sent to Bolivia in the guise of
Debray told a group of foreign cor- army officers to train units fighting guer-

respondents Aug. 20 that 90% of the rillas led by Che Guevara.


guerrillas he had seen in Bolivia were
Bolivians and that during his interroga- Barrientos asserted, however, that
tion he had been questioned by U.S. "All these things which are now becoming
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) offi- known are a surprise to me." He added,
"I never met these gentlemen as members
cers.
of the CIA but as officers present to train
Debray was given a 30-year sentence
Nov. 17 on his conviction of having been our troops. I never gave any documents
to CIA agents."
an active member in the guerrilla band.
(He was freed under an amnesty decree Barrientos' comments came in re-
Dec. 23, 1970.) sponse to disclosures contained in a series
of articles in Presencia, the La Paz
Guevara's Diary. Guevara's Bolivian Christian Democratic newspaper. A Lon-
war diary was published photo-
in 1968. A don Times account April 3 said that the
graphic reproduction of the diary, cap- articles were based partly on informa-
tured by the Bolivian army Oct. 9, tion from Gen. Joaquin Zenteno Anaya,
1967, had been sent secretly to former commander of the army division
Havana by Bolivian Interior Min. that captured Guevara. Zenteno, who
Antonio Arguedas. The text of the diary had become Ambassador to Lima, re-
was published July 1 in Cuba and the ported that the CIA agents included two
following day in the U.S. by Ramparts former Cuban army captains, Felix
magazine, which had acquired the pub- Ramos and Edguardo Gonzalez, both of
lishing rights from the Castro govern- whom possessed credentials from Bar-
ment. rientos on the basis of an agreement
reached "at high level." Zenteno's in-
The diary had been kept by Guevara
formation was given in testimony to a
from his arrival in Bolivia Nov. 7,
military tribunal investigating the case of
1966 until Oct. 7, 1967. Initially opti-
Antonio Arguedas, who had admitted
mistic, the diary reflected Guevara's CIA agent while serving as inte-
being a
growing disillusion with the political rior minister and who had sent Guevara's
apathy, and even hostility, of the Boliv- diaries to Cuba.
ian peasants and the alleged hindrance
of the Moscow-leaning Bolivian Com- (True magazine March 9 had pub-
munist Party. Guevara's secret papers lished an article by Andrew St. George
also revealed that he had kept in radio charging that Guevara's capture was the
contact with Cuban Premier Fidel Castro. result of a top-secret plan formulated by
The Complete Bolivian Diaries of Che White House advisers and approved by
Guevara and Other Captured Documents, President Lyndon B. Johnson.
LATIN AMERICA: BOLIVIA 109

Guevara Associates Identified. In the guerrillas captured in Bolivia arrived in


first official identification of Cuban army Chile Nov. 11.
regulars who fought in Bolivia with Chato Peredo said: "The guerrilla has
Che Guevara, Havana Oct. 8, 1969 not died in Latin America: on the

identified the Cubans— 12 army


13 contrary, the movement continues grow-
officers and one civilian — who had been ing. Conditions are propitious to push
the fight on all fronts."
killed in Bolivia fighting with Guevara.
The announcement from Havana listed (The Bolivian government exiled five

three majors (the highest officer rank in prisoners to Chile Feb. 13, 1971. The five,

the Cuban armed forces), three captains said to have led guerrilla activities in
and six Majors Antonio
lieutenants. and around Santa Cruz, included Oscar
Sanchez Diaz Pinares and Juan Vitalio Zamora Medinacelli, head of the Peking
Acuna Nunez and Capt. Eliseo Reyes branch of the Bolivian Communist party.)
San Luis, three of the 13 named, had been
Central Committee members of the Hostages Used to Free Prisoners. The
Cuban Communist Party. ELN successfully used hostages in July
1970 to win the release of imprisoned
guerrillas.
Struggle Continues
ELN guerrillas had invaded the
town of Teoponte, 95 miles north of La
Guerrilla Leader Slain. Interior Paz, July 19. Occupying the town for sev-
Minister Eufronia Padilla announced eral hours, they burned the offices of the
Sept. 10, 1969 that Guido (Inti) Paredo, U.S. -owned gold mining firm South
who reportedly had assumed the lead- American Placers, Inc., stole $5,000 and
ership of the Bolivian guerrilla fled into the jungle with two West German
movement following Guevara's death, technicians as hostages.
had been killed in a police raid Sept. 9. In a letter delivered to a radio station
Padilla said that Peredo was fatally in- July 21, the ELN warned that the two
jured when a grenade exploded in his technicians —
Gunter Lerch and Eugene
hand. Schulhauser would — be shot unless
Peredo had proclaimed the resump- Bolivian authorities released 10 prisoners
tion of guerrilla warfare throughout within 48 hours. The Bolivian govern-
Latin America Sept. 4. In a statement ment yielded to the guerrillas' demands
broadcast by six Bolivian radio stations July 22 and flew the 10 prisoners to Arica,
and published in newspapers, Peredo Chile. The two technicians were set free
vowed that the "guerrillas are going to at Teoponte July 23.

resume the movement. The war will be The 10 freed prisoners included per-
long and cruel and more violent than in sons arrested and jailed for participation
1967." He added that the battle would in guerrilla warfare with the late Ernesto

not be finished until "Bolivia and the Guevara. They were Loyola Guzman, the
continent are free from oppression." In only woman in the group, Enrique Ortega,
the wake of Peredo's manifesto and an Gerardo Bermudez, Felix Melgar Antel,
upsurge of terrorist bombings in La Paz Oscar Busch, Victor Cordoba, Roberto
and other major cities, the Bolivian gov- Moreira, Rodolfo Saldana, Juan Sanchez
ernment had mobilized troops Sept. 6. and Benigno Coronado. They were re-

Le Monde of Paris reported Sept. 17 ported to have reached Cuba by way of


that the ELN
(Ejercito de Liberation
Mexico Aug. 30.

Nacional, or National Liberation Army)


had vowed to continue the fight despite
Peredo"s death. Padilla said that the En\oy in West Germany killed. Former
group was now led by a former Guevara Bolivian Consul General to Hamburg
lieutenant from Cuba, Harry Villegas Roberto Quintanilla was shot and killed

Tamayo. also known as Pombo. in the Hamburg consulate April 1, 1971.

The army Oct. 21, 1970 announced the The ELN issued a communique April
capture of Inti's younger brother, Osvaldo 2 claiming responsibility for Quintan-
(Chato) Peredo. Chato and seven other ilia's death. The ELN charged that
110 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Quintanilla, who had retired as consul in Chile are receiving military and sub-
general but was remaining in Germany versive instruction with the consent of
until his replacement arrived, was re- the [Chilean] government and with the
sponsibile for the death of guerrilla support of Cuba and ... the countries
leader Inti Peredo in 1969. behind the Iron Curtain." Officials were
said to believe the guerrillas would re-
Alberto Larrea Humerez, economic
turn to Bolivia to commit acts of urban
minister under former President Rene
terror and to foment labor uprisings
Barrientos, was assassinated April 19.
in the nation's economically vital tin-
mining regions.
Selich escapes assassins.Col. Andres As evidence subversive prepara-
of
Selich, who became interior minister in tions, the government
cited the presence
the rightist government formed by Col. in Chile of known revolutionaries and
Hugo Banzer Suarez Aug. 22, 1971, after enemies of the regime of Hugo Banzer
the forcible overthrow of leftist President Suarez (including deposed President
Juan Jose Torres, escaped assassination Gen. Juan Jose Torres) and the forma-
twice within a month. A
bomb was tion in Santiago of the Bolivian Anti-
thrown Aug. 22 into a room where Selich imperialist Revolutionary Front.
was holding a meeting, but Selich emerged
unhurt. The Interior Ministry then re-
ported Sept. 15 that a woman had de- Guerrillas slain. Interior Minister
livered a package asking that it be handed Mario Adett Zamora announced March
to Selich. Aides discovered a bomb inside 25, 1972 that the police had killed two
the package, dismantled it and arrested members of
the National Liberation
the woman. In questioning the woman, Army (ELN), arrested six other alleged
officials said they had uncovered an ELN guerrillas and found a large supply of
conspiracy. arms and explosives in the central city
Selich was reported Nov. 2 to have ac- of Cochabamba.
cused Cuban Premier Fidel Castro of in- Adett Zamora said one of the slain
tervening in Bolivian affairs. Oscar Nunez Reyes, was the
guerrillas,

Selich announced the discovery of a


ELN regional commander in Cocha-
bamba, which he said was the group's
"guerrilla arsenal" and the arrest of a
most important area of operations after
number of persons linked to "extreme
leftist organizations."
La Paz. Adett Zamora claimed police
had wiped out 90% of the extremists in
"We are engaged in a war to the death
against Castro-communism," said Selich,
Cochabamba and 80% of those in La
Paz.
"and that war has not yet ended."
Selich also accused the Torres govern-
ment of having hired "between 250 and ELN's leaders. Interior Minister Adett
300 foreigners to organize extremist Zamora April 8, 1972 revealed the names
fighting groups." of the three men who, along with Osvaldo
The Bolivian government restored the (Chato) Peredo, allegedly commanded
the ELN.
death penalty for terrorism, kidnaping,
attempts against the lives of "state dig- They were: Lisimaco "Guillermo" Gu-
nitaries," and the organization of ur- tierrez, a former university professor;
ban or rural guerrillas, it was reported Pedro "Adrian" Morant Saravia, a
in the London newsletter Latin America university student; and Gerardo "Mi-
Nov. 12. The death penalty had been seria" Bermudez Rodriguez, a Marx-
abolished in 1967. ist theorist.
Adett Zamora claimed that 120 "ex-
Bolivian guerrillas believed in Chile. tremists" had been arrested in recent
The Bolivian government believed that days, foiling plans for an urban guerrilla
hundreds of exiled citizens were being uprising, the Times of the Americas
trained as guerrilla fighters in Chile, reported April 12.
the Miami Herald reported Feb. 17, 1972. The French newspaper Le Monde re-
Interior Minister Mario Adett ported June 25 that Gutierrez and two
Zamora charged that "Bolivian exiles other guerrillas had been shot to death a
LATIN AMERICA: BOLIVIA 111

few weeks earlier while "attempting to vent about 45 miles from La Paz. One
escape." policeman and one guerrilla were re-
The ELN had virtually been elimi- ported killed.
nated as an effective threat to the gov- Archbishop Clemente Maurer, head
ernment, according to the London news- of the Bolivian church, had accused the
letter Latin America June 9. Recent ar- government May 1 of confusing any
call for social justice with leftist ex-
rests and killings of suspected guerrillas
and the tone of current government tremism. Maurer attributed the de-
propaganda suggested the group was in- terioration of church-state relations to
filtrated and informed upon at all levels, the government and police.
the newsletter said. Msgr. Luis Rodriguez, bishop of the
eastern city of Santa Cruz, had warned
Soviet diplomats ousted. Bolivia an- April 26 that attempts were being made
nounced April 19, 1972 that 62 Soviet to divide and discredit the church. Rodri-
diplomats and dependents had left the guez, who had protested the recent ar-
country on orders of Bolivian President rest in Santa Cruz of a Belgian priest,
Banzer after Bolivia accused the embassy had been severely criticized by the pre-
of promoting Castroite subversion. fect of the city, who warned that any

The government claimed April 13 priest suspected of aiding revolutionaries

that captured ELN documents showed would be "treated as he deserves."


embassy Igor Sholokov
First Secretary Three Colombian nuns were arrested
and Third Secretary Aleksei Smirnov May 16 on charges of cooperating with
were in contact with the guerrilla move- the ELN. The arrests followed a shootout
ment. between security forces and suspected*
guerrillas at a convent in the highland
'Death Squad' appears. A com- town of Achacachi. The nuns were later
munique issued in Santa Cruz March 23 deported.
announced that a Brazilian-style political MaryElizabeth Harding, a U.S. citizen
"death squad" had been formed to elimi- and former nun arrested Dec. 5, 1972
nate subversives, and that "for every for alleged guerrilla activities, was
nationalist killed, 20 traitors will die." released from jail Jan. 13, 1973 and
Adett Zamora declared the death deported Jan. 15. Adett Zamora said
squad "outside the law" April 20 after thatMs. Harding had confessed belonging
it claimed its fifth victim. to ELN and had supplied the
the
government with information which
2 women quit ELN. The Interior Min- "proved valuable for learning the plans of
1973 released letters in which
istry July 14, the extreme left and the guerrillas with
two women announced that they were respect to Bolivia."
breakingwith the ELN. The women Loy- —
ola Guzman, reputedly the guerrilla
group's top female leader, and Sonia Guerrilla 'plot' reported. Interior

Montano Virreira had both been ar- Minister Mario Adett Zamora claimed
rested April 4 in a gun battle in which Dec. 20, 1972 that exiled Bolivian
Guzman's husband was killed. guerrillas had plotted to assassinate
President Hugo Banzer Suarez and
In her letter, Guzman admitted that
"Vietnamize" Bolivia. He said more
recent government operations had hurt
than 30 persons had been arrested in
the ELN badly, virtually eliminating the
connection with the plot, which allegedly
leaders with whom she had fought.
had Cuban financial backing and support
from guerrilla movements in Chile,
Priests & nuns accused. Interior Min-
Argentina and Uruguay.
ister Mario Adett Zamora charged May According to Adett, exiles under the
16, 1972 that certain priests were aiding
leadership of Ruben Sanchez, a former
subversive organizations.
army major living in Chile, had planned
Adett Zamora's claim followed a gun to invade Bolivia from Chile, Argentina
battleMay 16 between security forces and Brazil to sabotage mining centers
and alleged ELN members at a con- and organize peasants against the
112 POLITICAL TERRORISM

government. The plan was supported by a New plots alleged; Selich killed. The
number of exiled Bolivian politicians, government claimed have broken up
to
including ex-President Hernan Siles, two subversive plots in April and May
Adett charged. 1973. An alleged leader of the second
The plotters allegedly also had planned conspiracy, ex-Col. Andres Selich, was
to Banzer during his visit
assassinate beaten to death by security officials.
to a town near Cochabamba Dec. 20.
Selich was reported arrested May 14
Adett said four would-be assassins, all along with seven army colonels said to
members of National
the left-wing
have conspired against President Hugo
Liberation Army (ELN), had been ar-
Banzer Suarez. Other military officers
rested in Cochabamba Dec. 20 after
and prominent politicians also were
killing a soldier.
reported detained.
The government said May 16 that four
New leftist plot alleged. The gov-
of Selich's co-conspirators had escaped
ernment claimed Jan. 1 1, 1973 to have dis-
from custody earlier in the day in the
covered a new subversive plot and ar- southern town of Tarija, near the Ar-
rested its principal leaders. The alleged gentine border. Officials said the plotters,
conspiracy, the latest of a series reported members of "the extreme right," had
by the regime since it seized power in sought to seize power May 25, while
August 1971, was supposedly directed by Banzer was in Argentina for its pres-
two leftist groups—the ELN and the Revo- idential inauguration. They
also allegedly
tionary Left Movement— and aimed at planned to "execute a series of violent
infiltrating the armed forces. acts to drench the country in blood."
Selich, a leader of the 1971 military
According to Interior Minister Mario coup that brought Banzer to power, had
Adett Zamora, the plot was discovered in lived in Argentina since May 1972, when
documents found in raids on "guerrilla he was dismissed as Bolivia's ambassador
hideouts" in La Paz. The documents to Paraguay and accused of plotting
allegedly revealed that a leftist agent against the president.
named "Vicente" was "operating in mili- Selich's death coincided with the killing
tary circles" in an attempt to "break the in La Paz of two ELN members. Authori-
ironlike unity of the armed forces." Adett ties said Oswaldo Ucasqui, an Argentine
said "Vicente" still had not been citizen, and Monica Ertl, the alleged killer
identified, but "the principal ringleaders of a Bolivian consul in West Germany in
of the conspiracy are under arrest." 1971, were killed in a shootout with police
May 13.
Adetfs announcement followed a series
of arrests in La Paz and Cochabamba.
About 60 persons reportedly were ar-
Valverde plot. The government said
rested in Cochabamba Jan. 10, including a
Aug. 18, 1973 that it had crushed a
number of teachers accused of belonging
planned uprising by right-wing Bolivian
to the Communist party and of having met
Socialist Falange (FSB) dissidents led by
secretly to "prepare actions to disrupt the
ex-Health Minister Carlos Valverde.
public peace and ... the security of the
Interior Minister Walter Castro said
government."
the revolt was planned to take place dur-
In a related development, the chief of ing a visit by President Hugo Banzer
staff of the second army based at Oruro, Suarez to Santa Cruz. He linked the plot
Col. Humberto Cayoja Riart, was to Bolivian exiles in Chile and Peru.

relieved of his command and appointed Valverde, a guerrilla leader during the
military attache in Washington only hours last MNR government, was reported
after flatly denying there were any guer- Aug. 18 to have dug in at a farm outside
rillas in his area, the London newsletter Santa Cruz with some 190 armed
Latin America reported Jan. 19. His followers. Troops were sent from La Paz
denial conflicted with repeated statements to the area, and the subversives reportedly
by Adett about guerrilla activity between fled the next day. Valverde was reported in
Oruro and La Paz. Paraguay Aug. 21.
LATIN AMERICA: BOLIVIA 113

'Leftist plot' crushed. The government Torres and of French radical journalist
announced Sept. 23, 1973 that it had Regis Debray.
crushed an alleged left-wing plot against Pereda said Torres had given Ovando
President Banzer and that 89 political and money he allegedly received from the
labor union leaders had been arrested in People's Revolutionary Army, an Ar-
La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz and gentine Marxist guerrilla group, which
Oruro. recently had collected millions of dollars
Interior Minister Walter Castro said in ransom money for foreign businessmen
the alleged conspiracy, by exiled Bolivians it had kidnapped.

and radicals from Cuba, Chile, Argentina Ovando, who lived in Spain, denied
and other countries, was "a desperate Pereda's charges "categorically" July 5.
action by the extreme left to try and
regain ground on the continent" following
the overthrow of the late Chilean Pres- BRAZIL
ident Salvador Allende Gossens.
Castro claimed the conspirators in-
cluded ex-Presidents Hernan Siles Assassinations & Kidnappings
Zuazo — to
have been installed as presi-
dent after Banzer's ouster and Juan — The major short-term objective of ter-

Jose Torres, as well as labor leader Juan rorists in Brazil during the late 1960s and
Lechin Oquendo and ex-guerrilla leader early 1970s appears to be the overthrow of
Oswaldo "Chato" Peredo, all currently in the country's military government, long
exile. accused of oppression, the torture of politi-
Officials said Salustio Choque, a cal prisoners and other excesses. Assassina-
conspirator and former member of the tions and kidnappings have been the most
Bolivian guerrilla group led by the late widely publicized actions of the terrorists,
Ernesto "Che" Guevara, had been ar- who also claim credit for numerous rob-
rested Sept. 22, and arms were found in beries, raids on military and police installa-
his house. tions, bombings and acts of sabotage.
The best-known of the terrorist groups is
Castro held a second press conference
Sept. 26 to give more details of the alleged
the ALN (Acao Libertadora Nacional,
National Liberation Action or National
plot. He said the government had obtained
Liberation Alliance), founded in 1967 by the
from a Communist party member, at a
late urban guerrilla leader and theorist
"high" cost, a 13-page "operating plan"
Carlos Marighella. Other terrorist /urban
that included projected subversion in La
guerrilla groups include MR-8 (Movimiento
Paz and other cities, simultaneous inva- Revolucionario-8, Revolutionary Move-
sions from Chile and Argentina, and flying
ments or Revolutionary Movement of
in arms to Santa Cruz and Beni depart-
of
October)*, Molipo (Movimiento Libertador
ments in planes with Cuban registrations. Popular, or People's Liberation Movement)
Castro asserted the plotters, including and the VPR (Vanguardia Popular Revo-
members of Argentina's outlawed lucionaria, or Popular Revolutionary Van-
People's Revolutionary Army, had guard).
founded the Nationalist Left Liberation
Alliance, with headquarters in Santiago
and in Salta, Argentina. He said they Assassinations. U.S. Army Capt. Charles
planned to make Siles interim president of Rodney Chandler, 30, was killed Oct. 12,
Bolivia and then to remove him and in- 1968 by two gunmen as he was leaving his
stitute socialism in the country. Sao Paulo home. The assassins, who had
used machineguns, sped away in a car
after leaving pamphlets describing
Another 'plot.' Interior Minister Juan Chandler as a "Vietnam war criminal"
Pareda Asbun said July 4, 1974 that a who had come "to Brazil to train war
criminals and show them the most ad-
guerrilla group calling the Black
itself
Condor was preparing attack the
to
Banzer regime under the leadership of ex- •Signifying Oct. 8. 1967, the date on which Ernesto
Presidents Alfredo Ovando and Juan Jose (Che) Guevara was killed in Bolivia.
114 POLITICAL TERRORISM

vanced techniques of torture and cruel- American Ambassador Kidnapped. U.S.


ty." The leaflets termed the killing "a Ambassador to Brazil C. Burke Elbrick
warning to all his followers who one day was kidnapped by Brazilian terrorists
or another will answer for their actions in Rio de Janeiro Sept. 4, 1969 but re-
to the revolutionary tribunal.*" Chandler,
leased Sept. 7 after the Brazilian govern-
who had served a year in Vietnam, had ment yielded to his captors* demands by
been in Brazil "strictly on civilian status,"
publishing a revolutionary manifesto and
the U.S. consul said, to study Portuguese
releasing 15 political prisoners.
language and Brazilian history at the Uni-
Elbrick had been returning to the U.S.
versity of Sao Paulo. Embassy in his limousine following lunch
Brazilian police Oct. 14 arrested Jose
at his residence when he was taken
Luis Andrade Maciel, a Sao Paulo den-
captive Sept. 4 by four armed men. He
tist, on charges of masterminding Chand-
had been accompanied only by his
ler's killing.
Brazilian chauffeur, an embassy employe
The Rev. Henrique Pereira Neto, 28, for four years, who was left behind.
aide to Archbishop Helder
left-wing
Camara, was found murdered May 28, In a manifesto left in Elbrick's
1969 in a remote area of the Recife Uni- limousine, the kidnappers gave two condi-
versity campus. A professor of sociology hands of the dictatorship," the kidnappers
at the university, Pereira Neto had car- tions for his release: publication and
ried out liaison between Archbishop broadcast of their manifesto throughout
Helder and student organizations. Arch- Brazil, and the release of 15 political
bishop Helder charged May 28 that prisoners and their transfer to asylum in
Pereira Neto had been lynched by right- another country. Asserting that "the life
wingers who planned to murder other and death of the ambassador are in the
priests and student leaders as well. warned that if the demands were not met
Valter Lino de Matos, brother of the within 48 hours they would "be forced to
leader of the opposition Brazilian Dem- carry out revolutionary justice"" and
ocratic Movement in the state of Sao "execute Ambassador Elbrick."
Paulo, was murdered May 28. The manifesto stressed that Elbrick's
kidnapping was "not an isolated act. It is
Sao Paulo Attacks. Terrorists de- another one of the innumerable revolu-
stroyed installations at three radio and tionary acts already carried out: bank
television stations in Sao Paulo July 13- holdups, where funds for the revolution
16, 1969. Officials asserted that the at- are collected, returning what the bankers
take from the people and their employes;
tacks, part of a wave of recent terrorist
raids on barracks and police stations,
activities, were the work of leftist ter-
where arms and ammunitions are ob-
by Carlos Marighella, head of
rorists led
tained for the struggle to topple the
the ALN, and
Carlos Lamarca, head of
dictatorship; invasions of jails when
MR-8, a former army captain specializing revolutionaries are freed to return them
in anti-terroristmeasures. When Lamarca
to the people's struggle; the explosion of
deserted to the guerrillas, he brought them
buildings that signify oppression; the
70 light machine guns. execution of hangmen and torturers."
The note continued: "With the kidnap
of the ambassador we want to demon-
strate that it is possible to defeat the
Increase in Terrorism. Government dictatorship and the exploitation if we
sources reported a significant increase arm and organize ourselves. We
show up
in terrorist activities during 1968-69, where the enemy least expects us, and we
particularly in Sao Paulo and Rio de disappear immediately, tearing out the
Janeiro. In more than 60 holdups since dictatorship, bringing terror and fear to
January 1969, hundreds of thousands of the exploiters, the hope and certainty of
dollars had been stolen. In addition, the victory to the midst of the exploited. Mr.
number of bombing attacks, attacks on Elbrick represents in our country the in-
arms supplies depots and attacks on terests of imperialism, which, allied to
radio and TV stations had also increased. the great bosses, the big ranches and the
LATIN AMERICA: BRAZIL 115

big national bankers, maintain the regime lieved that violence was the only workable
of oppression and exploitation." political alternative in Brazil. "They
The note was signed by the National seemed to ascribe all the troubles and
Revolutionary Movement of October difficultiesthey saw in Brazil to what they
(MR-8), two of the 10 or more guerrilla called North American imperialism," he
and terrorist groups said by government said.

authorities to be operating in Brazil.


(Brazilian government spokesmen had Prisoners Granted Asylum. Arriving in
announced July 27 that it had dismantled Mexico City Sept. 7, the 15 political
the MR-8 with the arrest of 29 of its key prisoners were immediately granted asy-
members. Seven more MR-8 members lum by the Mexican government.
were reported arrested Aug. 7, and the In a statement Sept. 8, the group called
arrests of several dozen more terrorists the kidnapping a "natural act of resis-
were announced Aug. 10.) tance" to the "imprisonments, tortures
Following an emergency meeting of and violences" committed by the Brazil-
key military and cabinet officials Sept. 4, ian government. They charged that the
the government announced Sept. 5 that it Brazilian military had created a "climate
would meet the kidnappers' demands. of tension and anxiety, insecurity and
Foreign Minister Jose de Migalhaes violence, extending to all levels of so-
Pinto confirmed Sept. 5 the govern- ciety" and that Brazil's 90 million people
ment's decision to "order the transfer consequently lived in a "police state."
overseas of the 15 prisoners whose names The 1 5 freed prisoners were:
are to be furnished to it." Two hours Gregorio Bezerra, 70, a leading member of the
later, the kidnapers placed the 15 names clandestine Communist Party, who had been in prison
in a suggestion box at a suburban super- since 1964, when he had been arrested in Recife and

market. Their message said Elbrick would dragged by army troops through the streets.
Wladimir Palmeira, 24, former president of the
be released when the prisoners were safely Metropolitan Student Union in Rio, arrested in 1968
in Mexico. Mexico announced the same and sentenced in August to three years imprisonment
day that it would grant asylum to the 15 for leading student demonstrations against the gov-
ernment; Flavio Tavares, a newspaperman charged
prisoners. (Chile also offered asylum in 1966 with organizing guerrilla activities and re-
Sept. 5.) cently arrested on charges of membership in a
terrorist group called the Revolutionary Movement
of July 26 (the anniversary of the Cuban revolution);
ABrazilian air force transport plane
Ricardo Zarattini, former National Student Union
with the prisoners aboard left Rio Sept. officer, jailed for subversive activities among pea-
6, after a delay of several hours beyond the sants;Luiz Travassos, former National Student
deadline set by the kidnappers. The gov- Union president who was also active in the radical
movement of the Roman Catholic Church; Jose
ernment attributed the delay to a dif- Dirceu de Oliveira e Silva, also a former president
ficulty in rounding up the prisoners. of the National Student Union; RicardoVillas Boas
Reports indicated, however, that radical de Sarego and Maria Augusta Carneiro, both stu-
dent leaders arrested May 1 for allegedly firing at a
military officers had objected to the gov-
policeman who was attempting to prevent them from
ernment's decision to meet the kidnap distributing anti-government literature; Onofre Pinto,
demands and had made efforts to hold up a former air force sergeant, arrested and charged
the prisoners' release. In addition, a with murder in the killing of U.S. Army Capt.

group of about 200 navy men was reported Charles R. Chandler: Ivens Marchetti, a Sao Paulo
architect, also charged in connection with Chandler's
to have surrounded the airport in an at- murder; Jose Ibrahim and Rolando Prattes, labor
tempt to block the plane's takeoff at the leaders in the Sao Paulo area; Argonauto Pacheco da
last minute. A
captain in the navy group Silva, labor leader and former Sao Paulo legislator;
Joao Leonardo da Silva Rocha, a Sao Paulo lawyer;
called the prisoners' release a "national
Mario Galgardo Zanconato, 22, former medical
disgrace" but said that the men let the student, who said in Mexico City Sept 8 that he had
plane depart when they "received orders organized eight bank robberies in Minas Gerais to
." raise funds for the revolutionary movement.
from above. . .

Following the arrival of the plane in Thirteen of the freed prisoners flew to
Mexico City Sept. 7, Elbrick was released Cuba Sept. 30.
inRio.
At a news conference Sept. 8, Elbrick
said that his captors were "all young, very Government Restrictions. The military
determined, intelligent fanatics" who be- government announced Sept. 8 that it was
116 POLITICAL TERRORISM

preparing restrictive measures to stem the Archbishop Vicente Scherer of Rio


tide of urban guerrilla activities. "The Grande do Sul said Nov. 17 that th« gov-
nation is now aware that the process of ernment had not proved anything against
revolutionary and subversive war is now in the priests but added that "whoever
full evolution, " the government state- participates in a common program with
ment asserted. "At all costs, order and terrorists who kill innocent people in
tranquility will be preserved." cold blood, assault and rob, becomes an
The measures were not im-
restrictive accomplice to such crimes and partici-
mediately made The government
public. pates in their responsibility."
announced Sept. 9, however, that it had
reinstituted the death penalty for acts of Bishops denounce terrorism. Brazilian
subversion and terrorism. (Capital pun- bishops, gathered in Brasilia for their
ishment had been abolished in Brazil, 11th general assembly, adopted a resolu-
except during periods of foreign wars, tion May 27, 1970 denouncing torture and
since 1891, according to Brazilian law-
terrorism. Adopted by a vote of 159-21,
yers.) The decree, which amended the
the statement was a compromise between
constitution to permit capital punish-
liberal and conservative bishops.
ment, was issued as Institutional Act No.
14 and was dated Sept. 5; it was signed
by the ruling military triumvirate and
'Anti-terrorist' activities. The London
Times said Feb. 1970 that an Opera-
Justice Minister Luis Antonio Gama e
4,
tional Center for Internal Defense had
Silva.
Act No. 13, issued Sept. been established in Rio de Janeiro to
Institutional
coordinate the government's fight against
5, had authorized the banishment of any
Brazilians considered "manifestly harm-
"Communist subversion." The center,
headed by First Army Commander Gen.
ful and dangerous to national security,"
Syseno Sarmento, incorporated the se-
while a complementary act that day had
curity and intelligence activities of the
banished the 15 prisoners.
three armed services and the political
police.
Marighella Killed. Brazilian police am- The Second Army headquarters in

bushed urban guerrilla leader Carlos Sao Paulo announced Jan. 28 that a
Marighella in Sao Paulo Nov. 4, 1969 and special military police unit had ended a
shot him to death. five-month anti-terrorist campaign with
In announcing Marighella's death, arrest of 320 persons, the discovery of 66
police charged the Catholic Church's terrorist cells and the confiscation of a

Dominican order with involvement in large of weapons. Officials


quantity
his terrorist activities and announced claimed the National Liberation
that
that several Dominican priests had led Alliance and the Palmares Armed Rev-
security forces to the spot where Marig- olutionary Vanguard had been almost
completely dismantled in the campaign.
hella was killed.

Archbishop Felicio Cesar da Cunha


Vasconcelos of Ribeirao Preto in Sao Japanese consul abducted. Nobuo
Paulo State excommunicated the city's Okuchi, 56, Japanese consul general in
police chief and his assistant for being Sao Paulo, was kidnapped March 11, 1970
"directly responsible for the violence and held for four days until the govern-
committed against members of the ment met the abductors' demand for the
clergy and religious of the archdiocese," freeing of five prisoners.
Le Monde reported Nov. 16. The arch- The kidnappers, who identified them-
bishop specifically cited the arrest and selves as members of the Popular Revo-
alleged torture of Sister Maurina Borges lutionary Vanguard, announced March
da Silveira, the mother superior of a 12 that Okuchi would be freed following
convent in Ribeirao Preto. (Ribeirao the release and transportation out of
Preto authorities had previously an- Brazil of five political prisoners held in
nounced the arrests of 40 persons in the Sao Paulo. The abductors also demanded
dissolution of 22 "terrorist cells," the that the government pledge to take no
Miami Herald reported Nov. 16.) retaliation against remaining political
LATIN AMERICA: BRAZIL 117

prisoners after Okuchi's release and that rorists June 11,1970. He was freed June 16.
the government call off a massive search Von Holleben was abducted from his
for the kidnappers and Okuchi. car in Rio de Janeiro June 11 by ter-
The Brazilian government March 12 rorists who killed a Brazilian security
called off the massive search it had un- agent protecting the ambassador and
dertaken to find the kidnappers and an- wounded two others during the incident.
nounced that it would release and grant The kidnappers left a note demanding a
asylum to five political prisoners in ex- halt to the torture of political prisoners.
change for Okuchi's freedom. "We regret we have once more to resort
The prisoners, whose names were sent to methods which we have always tried to

to thegovernment March 13, arrived in avoid," the note said. "However, as long
as patriots are being tortured and killed
Mexico City March 15. They were: Sister
in the prisons we will not have any other
Maurina Borges da Silveira, mother
choice, even knowing that the physical
superior of a convent in Ribeirao Preto
integrity and the lives of people not di-
who had been charged with aiding ter- rectly involved in the revolutionary strug-
rorists; Mrs. Damaris Oliveira Lucena,
gle are at risk." The kidnappers, identify-
wife of a guerrilla leader who was re-
ing themselves as members of the Popular
portedly killed Feb. 20 by Sao Paulo
Revolutionary Vanguard and the Na-
police; Shizuo Ozawa, a member of the
tional Liberation Alliance, also warned
Popular Revolutionary Vanguard who
that "all search for and attempted im-
had been arrested Feb. 26 for bank rob-
prisonment of revolutionary combatants
bery; Otavio Angelo, a mechanic arrested
should cease immediately."
Dec. 20, 1969 in what the government
In a June 12 letter, the kidnappers de-
called a raid on a terrorist arms factory;
manded release of 40 political prisoners
and "Diogenes" Jose Carvalho de
in exchange for the release of von
Oliveira, about whom the government
Holleben.
gave no details, although a man of the
The Brazilian government announced
same name had been arrested in 1969 on
June that it would release the 40
13
charges of murdering U.S. Army Capt.
political prisoners and publish a revolu-
Charles R. Chandler. (Four of the freed
prisoners flew to Cuba March 27. Only tionary manifesto, meeting the ransom
Sister da Silveira decided to remain in demands set by the kidnappers for the
Mexico.) release of von Holleben. The kidnappers'
Okuchi was released unharmed March manifesto, made public by the presiden-
15, about 10 hours after the five prison- tialpalace and published in daily news-
ers had arrived in Mexico^ papers June 13, called for a "fight to the
death" to overthrow the Brazilian gov-
ernment. "Only revolutionary war,
U.S. consul attempt. Cur-
in Brazil foils guerrilla actions and rural guerrilla war-
tis C. Cutter, 41, U.S. consul in Porto fare will lead the Brazilian people to
Alegre, foiled a kidnapping attempt in free themselves," the declaration read.
that city April 5, 1970. Cutter, his wife The goals stated by the kidnappers in-
and a friend were driving home after a cluded expropriation of all foreign firms
late dinner when four or five armed men and large landholdings in the country,
blocked his car in an apparent attempt an independent and anti-imperialist
to kidnap him. However, Cutter foreign policy and guarantee of human
stepped on the accelerator and sped off, rights and civil liberties.
hitting at least one of the would-be ab- prisoners were gathered from
The 40
ductors. Cutter was shot in the back various prisons June 14 and flown to
when the men opened fire, but his in- Algeria June 15. The prisoners— 34 men,
juries were not serious. The terrorists six women and four children— included
reportedly fled with their wounded
four accused in the kidnapping of Am-
comrade.
bassador C. Burke Elbrick. They were
listed as Fernando Paulo Nagle Gabeira,
German envoy kidnapped. West Ger- a former newsman who had pleaded guilty
man Ambassador to Brazil Ehrenfried to the charge; Cid de Queiroz Benjamin,
von Holleben, 61, was kidnapped by ter- a student; Daniel de Arao Reis Filho, a
118 POLITICAL TERRORISM

student leader; and Vera Silvia de Araujo fered when he fell into police hands Oct.
Magalhaes, a student. A spokesman for 23. Ferreira had taken command of the
the" prisoners, former army officer ALN after Carlos Marighella died.
Apolonio de Carvalho, said in Algeria Following Ferreira's capture, police
that the kidnappings would continue since announced that they had discovered a
it was "the only way to get political
master plan for future terrorist activities.
prisoners freed."
Juarez Guimares de Brito, head of the
Popular Revolutionary Vanguard in Rio
Swiss envoy kidnapped. Swiss Am- and assistant to Carlos Lamarca, had
bassador Giovanni Enrico Bucher was committed suicide May 3 as he was on
kidnapped in Rio de Janeiro Dec. 7, 1970 the point of being captured by police.
but freed Jan. 16, 1971 in exchange for Yoshitama Fujimori, a chief lieutenant of
the government's release Jan. 14 of 70 Lamarca, was shot and killed by police
political prisoners, who were flown
to
Dec. 5.
Chile.
Jose Raimundo da Costa, suspected of
(Bucher's bodyguard, Hclio Carvalho
being a national leader of the Popular
de Araujo, who' "had been shot during Revolutionary Vaneuard, w as reported by
the kidnaping Dec. 7, died Dec. 10.) shot
the police Aug. 8, \91\ to have been
Among the prisoners released was the and killed while resisting arrest.
Rev. Tito de Alencar Lima, a Dominican Security officials announced Jan. 13,
priest who reported that he was arrested de
1972 that guerrilla leader Jeova
and tortured for a period of 15 months. Assis Gomes had been killed by
police

in the interior state of Goias


when he
resisted arrest and tried to set off
a hand
Ransomed rebels return. Military
sources said that at least half of the grenade.
prisoners released by Brazil in exchange
for the freedom of kidnapped
diplomats,
Vanguard reported smashed. Authori-
had returned secretly to the country to ties announced Jan. 10, 1973 that
carry out anti-government activities, it security forces had virtually "dis-
was reported Feb. 9, 1971. One ex-pris- mantled" the Popular Revolutionary
oner, Aderval Alves Coqueiro, released Vanguard, an urban guerrilla movement
in July 1970 with 39 others in exchange once considered the best-organized in
West German Ambassador Ehrenfried Brazil.
von Holleben, was killed by police Feb. 6 Security sources said six alleged Van-
when he reportedly resisted arrest. ALN guard terrorists, including two foreign
member Carlos Eduardo Fleury, freed women, had been killed in shootouts in
with Coqueiro, was reported Dec. 10 to Paulista, eight miles north of Recife.
have been killed by police in Rio de The Vanguard movement, they said, had
Janeiro. been preparing for a national congress
at Paulista, where a guerrilla training
Lamarca by police. One of the
killed center reportedly had been set up.
major leaders of the Brazilian revolu-
tionary movement, Capt. Carlos
Lamarca, 33, leader of the Popular Revo-
lutionary Vanguard, a group composed of CHILE
three far-left revolutionary factions, was
killed Sept. 17, 1971 in a shoot-out with Unrest & Terrorism
police in Bahia.
Bombings, assassinations and other
inci-

dents of terroristic violence


marked the
Police kill terrorists. Police Oct. 24, 1960s and early 1970s in Chile.
1970 revealed the arrest and death
of Joaquim Camara Ferreira, head of
the clandestine terrorist National Lib- Terrorism precedes elections. Authori-
eration Alliance (ALN). Ferreira was ties expressed alarm at an upsurge of ter-
said to have died of a heart attack suf- rorism preceding the 1970 elections.
LATIN AMERICA: CHILE 119

In a speech to the nation June 28, In- ganization and had arrested 12 alleged
terior Minister Patricio Rojas blamed members of the party. Among those ar-
the violence on "militants of the Socialist rested was Pablo Rodriguez, leader of
Party" and the Movement of the Revolu- Fatherland and Liberty.
tionary Left (MIR). Citing 11 incidents Del Canto said the raid had netted
of terrorism since June 20, Rojas as- pamphlets, Molotov cocktails, firearms,
serted that the "escalation of violence" clubs, gas masks, fire extinguishers and
was a "coordinated and systematic vials of sulphuric acid. Calling Father-
action . designed to upset the institu-
. .
land and Liberty members "a group of
tional order and create a psychological crazy fascists," Del Canto said "it is an
climate of insecurity and confusion" evident fact that they intended and still
before the Sept. 4 national elections. intend to act against the security of the
country."
Allende elected; Schneider killed. A joint The Washington Post reported March
session of Congress elected Salvador 27 that a Santiago judge had formally
Allende Gossens president of Chile Oct. charged Rodriguez and another leader of
24, 1970. The election was preceded Fatherland and Liberty with violating
by the shooting Oct. 22 of Army Com- Chile's internal state security.
mander in Chief Rene Schneider Cher- Del Canto further charged March 28
who died Oct. 25. that right-wing conspirators had planned
eau,
to assassinate President Allende, free
Schneider, 57, was shot at least three
Gen. Roberto Viaux (who awaited trial
times by an unknown assailant after
three cars halted his limousine as he was on charges of complicity in Gen. Rene
being driven to work. Schneider's kidnap-murder) and seize
power March 24-26.
Schneider had taken a strong stand of
politicalneutrality by the armed forces Del Canto said the main instigator of
during the current left-right tensions in the plot was retired army Major Arturo
Chile and had pledged to honor Congress' Marshall Marchesse, whom he claimed
choice of president. Speculation in Chile had close links with Fatherland and Lib-
indicated that his assassination may erty. A warrant was issued for Marshall's

have been part of a right-wing plot to arrest. Retired Gen. Alberto Green
prevent Allende from assuming the Baquedano, also accused of participating
in the plot, was detained March 27.
presidency.
An army judge June 16 sentenced Gen.
Ex-minister assassinated. Edmundo Viaux to 20 years in prison for complicity
in Schneider's assassination. (Schneider's
Perez Zujovic, 59, former Interior min-
ister and head of the rightist wing of
attempted kidnapping and assassination
the Christian Democrat party, was assas-
were described as part of a right-wing
plot to keep Allende from taking office.)
sinated June 8, 1971. He died of bullet
Thirty-three others were sentenced to
wounds in a car ambush outside his
prison terms ranging from three years to
home by three men firing submachine
life or to expulsion from the country in
guns.
connection with the assassination. But the
Police announced June 8 that they had
Military Tribunal Dec. 7 unexpectedly
implicated Ronald Rivera Calderon, 24,
reduced the prison sentences of all those
in connection with the slaying. Rivera
convicted in the Schneider case. Viaux'
Calderon was identified by Perez Zu-
sentence was reduced from 20 to two
jovic's daughter, Maria Angelica
years, but he was ordered to serve a one-
Perez, who was with her father at the
year sentence for leading a 1969 military
time of the attack. Rivera Calderon was
rebellion and, after that, to leave Chile
a member of the extremist Marxist
for a minimum of five years.
group, the Organized People's Vanguard.

Rigntists arrested. Interior Minister Del Canto impeached. Interior Minis-


Herman Canto announced March 24,
del ter delCanto was suspended by the Cham-
1972 that police had raided offices of the ber of Deputies July 5, 1972, then cen-
right-wing Fatherland and Liberty or- sured and dismissed by the Senate July 27.

'[
mm
120 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Charges against Del Canto, initiated President Salvador Allende had warned
by the right-wing National party and April 3 that MIR activists were planning
supported by the liberal Christian Demo- assaults on private and state food dis-
crats, included abetting violence by tributors, and that strong measures would
extreme leftists. be taken against such actions. MIR
Del Canto denied the charges before militants surrounded the warehouse of the
the Senate July 27, saying the proceed- private distributor CENADI the next day
ings against him were "political" and but were dispersed after a battle with
not constitutional. police.

Opposition charges increase— De\ Santiago merchants April 5 praised the


Canto's impeachment came amid grow- government's action against the MIR.
ing opposition charges that the govern- The MIR denounced it as "police
ment tolerated illegal activities by repression", and asserted occupations of
armed extreme leftist groups. factories and food distributors were not
In a special Senate session July 26, provocations but attempts by the people
Christian Democratic Sen. Rafael "to defend themselves against inflation
Moreno exhibited a suitcase containing and the shortage of essential articles."
a pistol, ammunition and several urban The MIR urged formation of "commando
guerrilla manuals, which he called groups in each factory, farm, village
"proof of government tolerance of and school" to combat government
subversion. Right-wing Sen. Victor repression.
Garcia added a tape recording of an
alleged conversation between the So-
Rightist 'plot.' About 40 or 50 members
cialist civil police chief and a man ac-
of the right-wing Fatherland and Liberty
cused of killing a worker.
party were arrested May 11, 1973 in
The Senate debate followed the arrest
July 20 of 18 members of the extremist connection with an alleged plot against
July 16th National Liberation Move- the government. Most were released after
ment, including two Nicaraguans, a questioning. Vergarasaid May 13 that the
Brazilian and a Mexican, for violation arrests were ordered for violation of the
internal security and press laws. He said
of the state internal security law. Presi-
dent Salvador Allende ordered a full arms and ammunition held by detainees
investigation into leftist terrorist ac- had been confiscated in Concepcion,
tivities July 21. Osorno and Chilian.
The alleged plot was reported in the
left-wing press after two Fatherland and
'Extremist' plan charged. Santiago riot Liberty leaders, Walter Robert Thieme
police were placed on alert April 10, 1973 and Miguel Juan Sessa, were detained in
against what the government called a plan Mendoza, Argentina, where they had
by the extreme right and left to block flown in a private plane.
roads and occupy factories.
La Prensa of Buenos Aires reported
Earlier in the day, members of the ex-
May 9 that Thieme and Sessa had ad-
tremist Revolutionary Left Movement mitted to Argentine officials that they had
(MIR) had led residents of Constitucion, plotted against Allende. They reportedly
on the coast south of Santiago, in blocking produced documents and plans for action
the roads and railway into the town to de- against the government to begin May 15.
mand government solutions to local Thieme said at a Buenos Aires press
housing and food problems.- conference May 12 that if "the price of
Government Secretary General Anibal liberation [in Chile] is civil war, we will
Palma charged extremists planned the have to pay it."

Santiago occupations to disrupt food dis- (The of Fatherland and


president
tribution, create a climate of agitation and Liberty's Valparaiso organization,
embarrass the government, which they Claudio Fadda Cori, had been arrested
would then criticize for lack of authority. June 4 on charges of possessing various
The plan had been originated by the ex- arms, Prensa Latina reported.)
treme right, which had duped the MIR Fatherland and Freedom members were
into cooperating, Palma asserted.
accused of complicity in an abortive mili-
LATIN AMERICA: CHILE 121

tary coup that was crushed easily June 29. A four-man military junta seized con-
A truck-owners strike, accompanied trol of the government and declared a
by acts of terrorism, added to growing state of siege, imposing censorship and a
unrest in Chile in August. Fourteen mem- round-the-clock curfew. The junta mem-
bers of the Fatherland and Liberty party bers were the army commander, Gen.
were reported arrested Aug. 22, and seven Augusto Pinochet Ugarte; the air force
others, including Thieme, were reported chief, Gen. Gustavo Leigh Guzman; the
seized Aug. 26. The Santiago police chief acting navy commander, Adm. Jose
said that with Thieme's arrest "we have Toribio Merino Castro, and the national
accounted for nearly all recent terrorist police chief, Gen. Cesar Mendoza.
acts." Pinochet was sworn in as president of
Thieme had admitted that his men had Chile Sept. 13.
staged numerous terrorist attacks
recently, including the dynamiting of a
Altamirano in Cuba. Ex-Sen. Carlos
pylon which interrupted a nationwide ad-
Altamirano, the leftist most sought by the
dress by Allende, it was reported Aug. 27.
junta, appeared Jan. 2, 1974 in Havana,
Their purpose, Thieme said, was to "ac-
where he attended celebrations marking
celerate the country's chaos and provide a
military takeover as soon as possible." "If
the 15th anniversary of the Cuban revo-
lution.
we have to burn this country to save it
from [Allende], then we'll do that," Altamirano said at a press conference
the next day that he had not taken
Thieme asserted.
political asylum in Cuba. He asserted he
Strike-related terrorism and sabotage
had left Chile with the approval of leaders
continued at an apparently diminished
of his outlawed Socialist Party and would
rate after the arrest of Thieme. Bombings
return when the anti-junta resistance
of private homes in Santiago and elec-
needed him.
tricity installations in the southern town
of Temuco were reported Aug. 28; an Altamirano said that since the Sep-
army lieutenant was murdered Aug. 30; tember 1973 coup two-thirds of the So-
cialist national and regional leadership
and two oil pipelines were reported
dynamited Sept. 4. Interior Minister had been killed or imprisoned, but the
Carlos Briones said Aug. 30 that there party remained alive and committed "to
fight until the complete defeat of the
had been more than 500 terrorist attacks
and eight related deaths since anti-govern- fascist military junta." He added,
ment strikes had begun July however, that until now the different
26.
groups opposed to the junta had been
unable to unite.
Allende murdered.
aide President Altamirano charged that since the
Salvador Allende's naval aide-de-camp, coup, more than 15,000 persons had been
Capt. Arturo Araya, was assassinated by "assassinated," more than 30,000 arrested
unidentified gunmen at his home in for political reasons, thousands tortured,
Santiago early July 27, 1973. more than 200,000 dismissed from their
jobs and more than 25,000 expelled from
universities.
Military coup, Allende dies. The armed He charged that many priests had been
forces and national police ousted the killed or imprisoned and 175 had been
Popular Unity government Sept. 11, 1973 deported.
after months of strikes, unrest and ter-
rorism.
Police officials in Santiago said Pres- Resistance continues. Le Monde Jan. 5
ident Salvador Allende Gossens had com- reported a number of acts of resistance
mitted suicide rather than surrender against the military government, in-
power. A newspaper photographer al- cluding the bombing of a factory in the
lowed to see the body, and a military com- northern city of Calama Jan. 2, which
killed one person and injured another.
munique Sept. 12 confirmed that the
president was dead, but there was some The junta leader, President Augusto
confusion over whether he had taken his Pinchot, said Feb. 6 that 45 home-made
own life. grenades and enough material to assemble
122 POLITICAL TERRORISM

76 other grenades had been found in a Carmen Castillo, a MIR militant and
house in Santiago. He said a "gigantic" daughter of Fernando Castillo, former
explosives factory allegedly discovered in rector of the Catholic University, was
the Santiago suburb of Maipu a week be- wounded in the action and captured. Her
fore was "one of at least five arms and ex- ex-husband, Andres Pascal Allende, a
plosives deposits of terrorists." member of the MIR central committee
A spokesman for the junta said May 25 and nephew of the late President Salvador
that it had broken up a subversive group Allende, was wounded but escaped.
of priests and members of the outlawed Enriquez' death reportedly left the
Revolutionary Left Movement who armed resistance to the military junta in
allegedly received coded orders from disarray. Enriquez was the only major
Moscow. The junta said the next day that leftist leader not in jail or exile, and he had

a leader of the group, Deacon Mario Irar- devoted himself since the September 1973
razabal, had been arrested and expelled military coup to organizing militant op-
from Chile, and four other priests, all position. A number of MIR members
members of a group called "Christians for took asylum in the Italian embassy in
Socialism," had been ordered seized and Santiago after his death, the government
deported. reported Oct. 1.1

Security forces claimed to have found



Extremists executed Authorities Jan.
Enriquez' hideout while searching for the
19 announced the execution of six extre-
mists for their part in an armed attack the
MIR militants who robbed a branch of
the Bank of Chile in Santiago Oct. 1.
day before on a military jeep outside the
Most of the stolen money was found in the
northern city of Quillota.
San Miguel hideout, and the rest was
Six other alleged extremists, being recovered with the arrest of two MIR
transported in the jeep from one prison to members Oct. 1 1, according to officials.
another, were allegedly killed in the at-
Security officers also claimed to have
tack, and two prisoners, identified as
found in Enriquez' hideout 26 Soviet auto-
lawyer Ruben Cabezas and former
matic weapons, six submachine guns and
Quillota Mayor Pablo Gac, both So-
a "great quantity" of hand grenades and
cialists, allegedly escaped.
ammunition.
Other executions, torture and political
arrests were reported by refugees from
Chile arriving in Cuba, according to the
Cuban press agency Prensa Latina Jan. 3. COLOMBIA
Two members of the outlawed Socialist
Party were sentenced to death by a Terrorist-Government Clashes
military court in Osorno. the Cuban news-
paper Granma reported March 30. The Frequent clashes between terrorist-
charges against them were violation of the guerrilla forces and Colombian authorities
arms control law and "terrorism and took place during the late 1960s and early
political activism." 1970s. The main terrorist-guerrilla groups,
generally described as leftist, were the
Death penalty expanded—The military ELN (Ejercito de Liberacion Sacional, or
junta July 11 decreed that the death
Saiional Liberation Army), the EPL
penalty henceforth could be ordered in
(Ejercito Popular de Liberacion, or
cases of kidnapping, terrorist acts, illegal
People's Liberation Army and the I FARC
trafficking in arms and explosives, and in-
(Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de
citing sabotage against production and
Colombia, or Revolutionary Armed Forces
public services.
of Colombia}. A fourth group, the pro-
Peking MOIR Movimiento Obrero lnde-
I

pendiente Revolucionario was reported to


MIR leader killed. Miguel Enriquez, >,

engage in clandestine subversion as well as


secretary general of the Revolutionary
to participate in elections.
Left Movement (MIR), died Oct. 5, 1974
in a shootout with police and soldiers uho
surrounded the house where he was hiding 6 die in mountain clash. The Co-
in the Santiago suburb of San Miguel. lombian army reported Jan. 31, 1968
LATIN AMERICA: COLOMBIA 123

that troops had killed six ELN


guer- army troops in Antioquia department
rillas in the Santander mountains. The Feb. 20, 1974.)
report claimed, erroneously as it later Military sources reported Feb. 27 that
proved, that the army thus had virtually a second priest, the Rev. Gilberto Rueda
eliminated the ELN. One of the dead Angarita, had joined the ELN after
was identified as Jose Angel Gomez leaving his parish in eastern Colombia.
Leon, a leader in the hijacking of a (Both Lain and Rueda were reported to
Colombian airliner to Cuba Aug. 6, 1967. be members of the Golconda Group, a
The army reported that about 12 guer- group of radical priests whose views had
rillas were still active in the mountains. brought them into open conflict with the
Catholic hierarchy and the Colombian
government; the Golconda Group was
Arenas Surrenders. Le Monde reported currently urging a boycott of the nation's
Feb. 27, 1969 that Jaime Arenas Reyes, an April 19 presidential elections.)
ELN leader, had surrendered to the au-
thorities in the department of Santander,
north of Bogota. Arenas, who was slightly
wounded, was reported to have said that Pre-election deaths. Several killings
he had killed several fellow guerrillas in were reported prior to the 1970 election.
self defense. According to military au- A group of about 35 armed men killed
thorities, he recounted that other libera- four civil servants in Santa Fe March 18
tion army leaders had been killed by after ordering the townspeople to ab-
guerrilla commandos; Victor Medina stain in the April presidential elections.
Moron was among those reported killed.
Luis Fernando Uribe Bernal, son of
(Arenas, who had ultimately taken an the Belgian consul in Medellin, and his
Education Ministry job, was shot and fiance, Gloria Piedrita Diaz, were found
killed by unidentified gunmen outside his shot to death March 18 in Medellin.
home in Bogota March 28, 1971.)

'Death squad.' A release given March


Venezuelan agreement. The govern-
20, 1970 to the Colombian press an-
ments of Colombia and Venezuela were nounced the formation of a "death
reported to have reached a formal agree- squad" for the execution of "undesirable
ment on a joint campaign to combat elements ir the Colombian society."
guerrilla infiltration on their common Such elements, according to the group,
border, according to the London publi- included "priests who betray divine
cation Latin America Feb. 13, 1970. principles, students with no patriotic
spirit, political demagogues, false in-
tellectuals, Communists, terrorists, ac-
ELN cuts Cuba The
tie, enlists priests.
tivists who sell their country, thieves."
ELN, led by Fabio Vasquez Castano, was
reported in early 1970 to have broken its
tieswith Cuba because of decreasing aid
Guerrilla leaders' deaths reported. The
from the Castro government.
London newsletter Latin America re-
The ELN announced Feb. 15, 1970 Co-
ported Jan. 7, 1972 that the
that the Rev. Domingo Lain, a Spanish
priest expelled by the government in 1969 lombian army claimed to have de-
for "subversive activities," had joined its
stroyed one of Colombia's three major
guerrilla groups, the Popular Libera-
ranks. In a statement released over his
tion Army (EPL) by killing two of its
signature Feb. 16, Lain said: "I have
leaders. They also claimed to have
taken the road of armed struggle because
killed Joaquin Aroca, top leader of the
in the face of reactionary violence of the
guerrilla group Revolutionary Armed
system in force in Colombia and Latin
is no alternative to rev-
Forces of Colombia (FARC).
America there
olutionary violence." Violence, Lain Luis Carlos Hernandez Catano, an
added, "is a right to escape from ex- ELN leader, was reportedly killed May 23
ploitation." (Lain, who became an ELN in a gun battle with soldiers in the state
leader, was reported killed in a clash with of Antioquia.
124 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Guerrillas raid towns. Some 200 guerril- Peasant leader killed. Miguel Suarez,
las identified as ELN
members seized a Communist and one of the major
the mountain town of San Pablo Jan. 7, leaders of Colombia's peasant move-
1972 and held it for several hours, ment, was reported shot to death in the
killing two policemen, wounding four town of Yacopi March 24.
others and fleeing in stolen trucks with According to Le Monde April 5, a
four hostages. group of rightist commandos opened
According to a report in the Buenos fire on Suarez and several companions
Aires newspaper La Prensa, guerrillas as they entered the Yacopi mayoralty
also took $400,000 from public offices, building to request permission to hold
safes at the city hall, the farm credit a campaign rally.
office and the telephone company.
The assault was reportedly carried
out by ELN members Ricardo Lara Guerrillas reported captured. Police
Parada and the Rev. Domingo Lain had arrested between 80-100 persons
under the direction of ELN leader allegedly connected with leftist terrorist
Fabio Vasquez Castano. activities, further weakening Colombia's
(In early 1971 the army had said that guerrilla movement, according to reports
ELN deserters had reported that Vasquez July 12, 1972.
Castano had been killed by his colleagues.) The arrests followed the capture July
Three people were eight
killed and 5 of eight alleged leaders of the small
wounded Jan. 16 in simultaneous guer- left-wing Popular Liberation Army, in-
rilla raids on the northeastern towns of
cluding two of its founders, in Cordoba.
Remedios, Santa Isabel, El Tigre and Yali.
According to the New York Times
Jan. 23, ELN members had opened the Swedish diplomat killed. The first secre-
Remedios jail, robbed banks and set tary of the Swedish embassy, Kjell R.
several fires. They were also held re- Haeggloef, was shot to death by
sponsible for the murder of Oscar unidentified gunmen in Bogota July 17.
Saldarriaga Velez, vice president of the
Colombian Industrial Bank, at his farm.
As they had in many of their raids, the 'Swedish-Soviet spy' caught. Colombian
guerrillas assembled townspeople to
security authorities asserted July 22, 1972
lecture them on their plans to seize po-
that Karl Staf, expelled from Colombia
liticalpower in Colombia.
July 18, was a "Soviet-Swedish reporter
The Times reported that since the and spy" who had met with FARC
leader
beginning of 1972 guerrillas had killed Tiro Fijo (real name: Manuel Marulanda
a dozen persons and kidnaped four others Velez) in the town of La Cima and had
and stolen the equivalent of $500,000 in given the guerrilla $70,000, which Staf
food, medicine and cash.
had brought with him when he entered
Seven soldiers and two civilians were Colombia illegally from Ecuador May 5.
killed April 20 when ELN members am- The statement said that according to docu-
bushed a military patrol in the north- ments found on Staf, the alleged spy "pro-
west state of Antioquia. The patrol was posed to evaluate the power and the true
accompanying a public works truck. strength of the FARC and the .[ELN]
. .

About 100 ELN guerrillas occupied in order to obtain Moscow's support."


the town of Vengache in Antioquia May
6-
Two persons, one a Catholic priest, Urban guerrilla network discovered. The
were May 7 when a group of ELN
killed army said Sept. 13, 1972 that it had un-
commandos attacked a government covered a vast urban guerrilla network
building in San Jeronimo in Antioquia. which had infiltrated schools and uni-
Ina related development, authorities versities to foment disturbances similar to
claimed May 23 that a group of ELN those in Mexico and France in 1968. The
terrorists had executed seven peasants network was said to consist of members of
in the coastal town of Santa Marta. the Maoist Popular Liberation Army, the
LATIN AMERICA: COLOMBIA 125

Castroist National Liberation Army The governors of the nation's 22 de-


(ELN) and the pro-Moscow Colombian partments (states) were authorized to set
Revolutionary Armed Forces. rewards for persons who provided in-
The announcement followed a military formation detailing crimes and leading to
report Aug. 25 claiming that 16 ELN the capture of criminals.
urban guerrillas had been captured along Special groups were formed within the
with documents detailing plans to create armed forces to pursue guerrilla bands
disturbances to gain international at- operating in rural areas.
tention. Gen. Alvaro Herrera Calderon,
army commander, the guerrillas
said The mass media were warned that the
imitated the of
style Uruguay's government would "regulate in-

Tupamaros, infiltrating the government formation" wherever accounts and ru-


and planning kidnapings and assassina- mors did not "conform to reality" and
tions of prominent foreign and Colombian tended to create alarm and anxiety.
industrialists. The measures were set at a Cabinet
According to Herrera, the chief of meeting called late Jan. 26, only hours
after Alvaro Caicedo, a wealthy Cali in-
technical assistance in the government's
dustrialist and publisher, was wounded in
Planning Department, Camilo Cardenas
a thwarted kidnapping attempt.
Giraldo, and department engineer
Fernando Chacon Castillo were both ELN The day before, an estimated 50 guer-
rillas had taken temporary control of the
leaders. Another government official and
village of San Pedro de Uraba, in the
guerrilla leader, Hernan Mahecha, had
been hindering judicial procedures against northern department of Antioquia,
captured guerrillas, Herrera said. sacking stores and granaries, robbing the
local bank and killing four policemen.
Guerrillas in the Santa Barbara
Kidnappings. The ELN was reported to
emerald region of eastern Boyaca
have raised large sums by kidnapping ambushed a police patrol Jan. 25, killing

wealthy men for ransom. five officers and wounding another 10,
police reported.
Jairo Duque Perez, ex-dean of law at
Guerrillas belonging to the Castroite
the University of Antioquia, was abducted
National Liberation Army (ELN) clashed
by presumed guerrillas from his farm in
with soldiers in the department of
the northern municipality of Maceo Dec.
Santander Jan. 25. First reports said two
6, 1972. A wealthy rancher, Guillermo soldiers had been killed, several guerrillas
Castro, had been freed after a month in wounded and one subversive, Maria
captivity, following payment of $250,000 Teresa Echeverria, had been killed. Eche-
in ransom, it was reported Dec. 6.
verria reportedly was the first female
ELN members killed one person and guerrilla to die in combat. Later reports
kidnapped six others in Antioquia and from the Defense Ministry said Luis Jose
Cordoba Jan. 6-8, 1973. All of the cap- Solano Sepulveda, second in command of
tives, was reported, were ultimately
it the ELN, had also been killed in the clash.
ransomed. The army was reported March 9 to have
captured Jesus Ariza Gomez, an impor-
tant EPL leader in Antioquia.
Emergency measures adopted. The
The army claimed to have discovered a
government adopted a series of
emergency measures Jan. 26, 1973
large cache of ELN arms in Santander,
and to have captured an important ELN
following a number of bloody guerrilla ac-
urban guerrilla leader near Cali, Latin
tions and the attempted kidnapping of a
America reported March 16.
prominent Cali industrialist and pub-
lisher. Among the provisions:
All persons convicted by military au-
thorities of kidnapping, extortion and re- Guerrilla cooperation reported. There
lated crimes would serve their sentences was strong evidence the country's three
in the island prison of La Gorgona, in the main guerrilla groups were trying to co-
Pacific Ocean, considered the most secure ordinate their activities in the face of the
in the country. government's determined anti-guerrilla
126 POLITICAL TERRORISM

campaign, the London newsletter Latin lated Osma may have been killed by other
America reported March 9, 1973. ELN guerrillas, according to the Miami

Elements of the three groups the pro- Herald.
Cuban National Liberation Army (ELN),
the pro-Soviet Colombian Revolutionary
Armed Forces and the pro-Chinese ELN leaders slain or seized—The com-
People's Liberation Army (EPL) had— mander of the army's 4th Brigade, Col.
Alvaro Riveros Abello, said Oct. 19 that
staged a joint attack March 2 on Florian,
the brigade's 48-day campaign against the
a small township in the eastern depart-
ment of Santander.
ELN in Antioquia had resulted in the
Two guerrillas were reported killed at capture of 32 guerrillas and the death of
Florian. Despite this and heavy ELN 42 others including Antonio and Manuel
casualties in February, the guerrillas were Vasquez Castano, brothers of ELN
making considerable progress, Latin founder Fabio Vasquez Castano.
America reported. They were said to be The brothers reportedly were killed in a
active in contiguous territory, instead of clash with troops Oct. 19. (Earlier reports
isolated areas, and to be concentrating on of Antonio's death apparently were erro-
agricultural areas in the north and north- neous.) A
third ELN
leader, Ricardo Lara
west, where peasant discontent was hieh. Parada, was reported arrested Nov. 25.
The army claimed that the ELN
had been
reduced to one small group led by Fabio
Vasquez Castano.
Guerrillas kill Liberal leader. German
Gomez Pelaez, a landowner, journalist
and Liberal party leader in the depart-
ment of Cordoba, was kidnapped May 6,
FARC 'only' terrorists still active.

1973 and then killed by members of the


Army sources said that the FARC
remained relatively untouched by
People's Liberation Army (EPL), a
recent military operations, continuing to
Maoist guerrilla group, according to a
control territory in the south where they
military communique May 11.
had established two "independent repub-
lics." The army had admitted in May that
a recent FARC raid on the township of
Guerrillas reported smashed. Army Colombia in Huila department had been
Commander Gen. Alvaro Herrera led by FARC chief Manuel (Tirofijo)
Calderon said Oct. 10, 1973 that recent Marulanda, whose death the army had
military operations had all but destroyed announced previously.
two of the nation's three left-wing guer- (Tirofijo was pardoned Sept. 27 by a
rilla groups, the EPL and ELN. court in Popayan, Cauca department,
Herrera said the EPL had lost 25
guer- which reversed a 21-year prison sentence
rillas by troops and 68 captured
killed in absentia against the guerrilla leader for
since the beginning of 1973. He alleged the allegedly heading a FARC
attack on the
group was "practically wiped out, and town of Inza, northeast of Popayan, in
only its chief and a small band of com- 1965. The guerrillas had killed some 20
batants" remained at large. persons, looted the local bank and several
The ELN, Herrera said, had been partly stores, and burned down the court
destroyed by an army offensive begun building where insurgents were pros-
Aug. 25 against the guerrillas' main ecuted.)
column in the mountainous Anori region
of Antioquia department.
Military sources had claimed July 22 Guerrillas seized. Army spokesmen an-
that an estimated 60-75 deserters from nounced the capture of three guerrillas of
the ELN and EPL had surrendered to the Communist Colombian Revolutionary
troops fighting the guerrillas in the Alto Armed Forces (FARC) and of two mis-
Sinu region of Cordoba department. tresses of FARC leader Manuel Maru-
In a development reported July 6, the landa, was reported Jan. 4, 1974.
it

army confirmed the death of Celso Osma, Government sources in Medellin le-
a reputed ELN leader. Officials specu- vealed that Jose Manuel Martinez, a
LATIN AMERICA: CUBA 127

founder of the National Liberation Army Jan. 9, 1968; 5 postal workers were injured.
(ELN), had surrendered after a battle in Nine Cuban exiles were arrested in New
which soldiers killed three ELN guerrillas, York Oct. 23, 1968 and charged with 6
the Miami Herald reported Feb. 8. bombings of offices of countries that
traded with Cuba. The arrest of the exiles
and the police seizure of a supply of arms
CUBA in Johnsonburg, N.J. Aug. 13 followed
about 17 bombings and bombing attempts
Exile A Hacks in major cities. All the blasts occurred in
front of offices of nations trading with the
Castro regime, and leaflets found at some
Cuban exiles mounted several ineffectual
of the scenes proclaimed "Cuban Power"
attacks in Cuba as well as terrorist strikes
or "United Cuban Power."
at Cuban diplomatic targets abroad.
The most spectacular exile terrorist effort Among major bombing incidents in-
was the firing of a bazooka-type shell that volving offices of countries trading with
exploded harmlessly in the East River in New Cuba:
York about 200 yards from United Nations —
New York Mexican Consulate and
headquarters Dec. 11, 1964. Argentine-born Spanish Tourist Office Apr. 22; Spanish
Cuban revolutionary Ernesto (Che) Guevara Tourist Office May 30 and June 21; Cana-
was addressing the UNGeneral Assembly dian Tourist Bureau July 4; Japanese
when the shell exploded. Three anti-Castro National Tourist Office July 7 (2 passers-
Cubans, arrested Dec. 22, reportedly said by were slightly injured by flying glass);
that they had deliberately missed hitting the Bank of Tokyo Trust Co. Aug. 3. A bomb
UN and had tried merely to divert public was dismantled July 15 in front of the
attention from Guevara. French Government Tourist Office 2
Cuba was accused repeatedly of aiding minutes before it was set to explode.
terrorist /guerrilla movements in Latin —
Chicago Mexican Government Tour-
American countries. istOffice July 14.
Cuba was the goal of many aircraft hi- Newark, N.J. —A
bomb was deacti-
jackers, but Cuban authorities quickly found vated July 16 outside the Mexican Consu-
that the hijackers often were criminals or late and the offices of Aeronaves de Mex-
demented people rather than useful sup- ico, the Mexican national airline.
porters of the Castro revolution. Cuba ulti- —
Los Angeles Mexican National Tour-
mately signed a series of agreements de- istCouncil, Mexican Travel Agency, Air
signed to curb hijackings. France, Shell Oil Building and Japan Air
Lines July 19; British Consulate-General
July 30.
Bombings & Other Attacks. A bomb Miami — A bomb blast seriously dam-
exploded in front of the Cuban embassy in aged a cargo ship, Caribbean
British
Venture, in Biscayne Bay Aug. 8. A
Ottawa Sept. 22, 1966, splintering its door
and shattering windows. Later Sept. 22, spokesman for an organization named
Felipe Rivero, head of the Cuban National-
Cuban Power announced afterwards that
ist Association, a Miami-based exile group,
a mine had been planted by the group.
claimed that his association was responsi- The 9 Cubans arrested Oct. 23 were
ble for the blast. After the Cuban Na- charged with the New York bombings,
tionalist Association threatened in 1967 to with plotting to assassinate Cuban offi-
bomb the Cuban pavilion at Montreal's cials and embassy personnel and to invade
Expo 67 fair, Rivero was arrested by U.S. Cuba, and with arson, reckless endanger-
immigration authorities in Miami May 12 ment, criminal mischief and the illegal
and ordered deported July 11. possession of weapons and explosives.
Nicolas Rodriguez Astiazarain, 30, The 9 arrested, said to be members of the
acting chief of Cuba's UN
mission in Cuban Power organization: Carlos Fer-
New York, was burned April 3, 1967 nandez, 24, Oscar L. Acevedo, 38, Ga-
when a package in the mail exploded briel Abay, 49, Guillermo Miguel, 38,
as he was opening it. Arturo Rodriguez Vives, 25, Jose' Rodone,
A package allegedly mailed from New 55, Ivan Acosta, 24, Ramiro Cortez, 18,
York exploded in a Havana post office and Edgar Rivas, 21.
128 POLITICAL TERRORISM

In the raid on the Johnsonburg farm, The "Cuban Secret Government" Dec.
13 miles east of the Delaware Water Gap, 12,1972 said it had placed bombs that had
early Aug. 13, the police found V2 ton of destroyed a travel agency and three office
dynamite, automatic weapons and crates handling packages for Cuba in Miami,
of ammunition. They also found a uni- New York and Montreal. No persons
form of the 2506th Cuban Assault Bri- were injured by the explosions, but the
gade of the Bay of Pigs, an anti-Castro group warned of further attacks against
secret military organization. The farm's persons and concerns doing business with
owner, Michael A. DeCarolis, 32, was Cuba.
arrested. In New York, a pro-revolutionary
9 Cuban exiles were found guilty by Cuban political and cultural exposition
federal court Miami Nov. 15, 1968
in begun July 26, 1973 was closed July 28,
of conspiring to damage ships of coun- a day ahead of schedule, because of
tries that traded with Cuba. One of the day-long demonstrations, a late-night
defendants. Orlando Bosch, 41, a
Dr. bombing, egg and brick throwing and
Cuban Power leader, was also convicted repeated bomb threats by anti-Castro
of sending threatening telegrams to the Cuban exiles.
heads of state of Spain, Mexico and Brit- A Cuban embassy spokesman in Lima
ain. Bosch, Barbaro Balan and Jose Dfaz said Feb. 5, 1974 that a package bomb had
Morejon were convicted of firing on the exploded in the embassy the day before,
Polish freighter Polanika Sept. 16 in wounding a woman attache and damaging
the port of Miami. The other 6 con- the building. Stamps and postmarks on
victed: Aimee Miranda, Andrew Gonza- the package indicated the bomb was sent
lez, Marco Rodriguez Ramos, Jorge Luiz from Mexico.
Gutierrez Ulla, Paulino Gutierrez and
Jesus Dominguez Benitez. Bosch, also
convicted of sending bomb threats to the
Cuban refugee leader slain. Jose de la
heads of state of Spain, Britain and
Torriente, 69, former Cuban minister of
Mexico, received a 10-year sentence Dec.
agriculture, was fatally wounded by a
13. The other 8 were given terms ranging
sniper's bullet in his Miami home April
from one to 6 years.
13, 1974. A leader of Cuban exiles
Three Cuban exiles were indicted by living inMiami, Torriente had been ac-
a federal grand jury in Newark, N.J. cused by Cuban Premier Fidel Castro of
June 4, 1969 on charges of conspiring to working for the U.S. Central Intelligence
bomb Cuban government property in Agency (CIA). A Cuban group calling it-
Montreal. FBI officials said that the three self "Zero" took responsibility for Tor-
Cuban National Movement members riente's killing April 17.
had conspired to blow up the Cuban
Consulate, the Cuban Trade Commis-
sion and Cuban steamships. Indicted Action in Cuba. The Cuban government
were Guillermo Novo Sampol and announced Dec. 16, 1968 the capture
Felipe Martinez y Blanca, arrested May of 5 armed Cuban exiles Dec. 4, 2 days
20, and Hector Diaz Limontes, arrested after theyhad landed at the northwestern
June 3. port of Cabanas, 38 miles southwest of
Two bombs exploded Apr. 4, 1972 at Havana.
the Cuban Trade Commission offices in The announcement said the men had
Montreal. The blasts killed a Cuban arrived in a launch "of a type used by
guard and damaged the building. the CIA in its incursions against our
The Washington Post reported the country." Havana said that 2 of the cap-
following day an anonymous caller had tured exiles— Ernesto Diaz Rodriguez
informed United Press International in and Emilio Nazario Perez Sargent were
Miami that the bombings had been car- members of Alpha 66 and the 2d Front of
ried Out by a group called the Young Escambray, 2 anti-Castro exile organiza-
Cubans "in the name of Alejandro Del tions that had merged their operations.
Valle, who died in the [1961] Bay of Pigs A Miami-based Cuban exile group,
invasion." the Cuban Representation in Exile
LATIN AMERICA: CUBA 129

(RECE), reported that one of its military istrypoliceman were killed in the raid.
leaders had been captured in Cuba after Havana Radio said the "mercenaries
landing in Oriente Province with a group immediately fled out to sea, heading
of anti-Castro infiltrators, the Miami north" after machine-gunning the town.
Herald reported June 14, 1969. The RECE In New York, Guillermo Martinez
identified the leader as Angel Luis Cas- Marquez, a spokesman for a Miami-
tillo, a former captain in Castro's army. based exile organization headed by Jose
(The Herald report cited rumors that a de la Torriente, claimed responsibility
10-man infiltration team led by Amancio for the raid, called it a success and said
[El Yarey] Mosqueda Fernandez had it was the beginning of a series of actions

been crushed by Cuban forces shortly by the group "to free Cuba from its
after its arrival in Cuba in May; all of the Communist yoke."
team's members were reported killed, (The Miami Herald reported Oct. 20
wounded or captured.) that the Cuban exile group had claimed
Radio Havana announced Dec. 7, 1969 that it had seized the small fishing vil-
that four Cuban exiles had been executed lage for more than an hour during the
by a firing squad the previous night. The raid. The head of the Cuban Liberation
executed, including El Yarey Mosqueda Front claimed its goal had been a mili-
Fernandez, were said to have been among tary installation outside the town and
a group of "10 enemy agents who infil- that the commandoes had torn down
trated Cuba from the United States May telephone lines and sabotaged the village
3" with "instructions to sabotage eco- electrical plant.)
nomic installations" in Oriente Province.
The other members of the group were
given 20-year prison sentences. (In an-
nouncing the arrests of the 10 exiles Oct. A ction Against Hijackings
18, the government had identified them as
members of the RECE.)
Antihijacking law. The Cuban govern-
Radio Havana said Feb. 23, 1970 that
ment Sept. 19, 1969 announced a new law
Jose Antonio Quesada Fernandez,
that would provide for the extradition
leader of the 2d Front of Escambray, had of persons who hijacked planes or boats.
been executed by a firing squad; Que- However, in announcing the law, a com-
sada Fernandez had led a small military munique explained that it "will be ap-
expedition to Cuba in September 1969 to plied in accordance with the attitude as-
establish contact with the Cuban anti-
sumed by other nations and on the basis
Castro underground. of equality and reciprocity."
Alpha 66 claimed Nov. 7, 1970 that one Under the new law, Cuba reserved the
of the two of its infiltration groups
right todetermine whether a hijacker
that had invaded Cuba in September was a common transgressor or a political
had reached its destination in Oriente refugee and maintained that it would
province. The Cuban government had grant asylum to "those persons, who, for
claimed Sept. 23 it had killed or captured political reasons, arrive in our country
all the members of a nine-man invasion
having found themselves in the necessity
party, but Alpha 66 reported Sept. 28 of using this extreme means to elude a
that two separate groups of infiltrators real danger of death or grave repres-
had landed. sion." In addition, the communique in-
Cuba charged Oct. 14, 1971 that dicated that hijackers would be extra-
U.S-backed commando "mercenaries" dited only to those nations that "bilater-
had attacked a small fishing village on ally agree with Cuba on the application of
the northern coast Oct. 12, killing two
an equal policy." The announcement
persons and injuring four others. added that Cuba was "unwilling to abide
Radio Havana, in a broadcast moni- by multilateral agreements adopted by
tored in Miami, said the night attack was international organizations."
carried out by two boats and blamed it
on "the government of the U.S. and its
accomplices." The broadcast said a Agreement proposed. Cuban Foreign
border patrol guard and an Interior Min- Minister Raul Roa said Sept. 26, 1970
130 POLITICAL TERRORISM

that Cuba would enter into an agreement "for the offense punishable by the most
with the U.S. for the joint extradition of severe penalty" or extradite them.
all sea and air hijackers if no exceptions The accord also permitted both nations
to the accord were made. to grant political asylum to hijackers
In a speech broadcast on Radio Ha- under carefully defined terms but com-
vana, Roa said: "If the U.S. government mitted each to punish anyone who used its
really wishes to discuss in a serious and territory to organize attacks against the
definitive way that problem [hijacking], other. The latter provision was of
the Cuba government is willing to sub- particular importance toCuba because
scribe right away." He added: "We also U.S. -based Cuban exile groups had
wish to express in a final and categorical conducted raids against their former
way that we do not accept and we do not homeland, and had committed random
respect any international agreement violence against Cuban citizens.
about the hijacking of planes, unless it The agreement stated that each
concretely includes all piracy forms and country would promptly return stolen air-
violations without any exception." planes or vessels and protect innocent
In an address before the U.N. General persons and goods on board, and would
Assembly Oct. 2, Cuban representative send back "without delay" any ransom
Ricardo Alarcon de Quesada repeated collected by the hijackers. Cuba pre-
Roa's offer to negotiate agreements with viously had not returned hijacking ransom
individual countries. "We reject any mul- money.
tilateral accord but reiterate our willing- Similar antihijacking accords were
ness to conclude bilateral treaties that signed by Cubawith Canada Feb. 15,
provide strict reciprocity" on the joint 1973, Mexico June 7, 1973, Venezuela
return of hijackers, Alarcon said. July 6, 1973 and Colombia July 22, 1974.
(A U.S. State Department official had
disclosed March 9 that the U.S. had con-
tacted Cuba regarding the possibility of
negotiation of a bilateral agreement on
hijackers.)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Cuba returns hijacker —
Cuba, for the
Unrest & Terrorism
firsttime, directly returned a hijacker to
the U.S. Sept. 24. Cuban authorities
allowed U.S. officials to fly to Varadero, The Dominican Republic continued to
Cuba and pick up Robert Labadie, an suffer recurrent unrest and incidents of
Army private who had hijacked a Trans terrorism in the years following the 1965
World Airlines jet to Havana. crisis and the U.S.-OAS intervention.
In his Sept. 26 radio statement, Roa Organizations accused of terrorism in-
had pointed out that Labadie's return cluded the PRD (Partido Revolucionario
was negotiated through secret diplomatic Dominicano, or Dominican Revolutionary
channels and was initiated by the U.S. Party), the leftist PSP (Partido Social is ta
Aug. 27. Popular, or Popular Socialist Party) and
the MPD (Movimiento Popular Domini-
cano, or Dominican People's Movement).
Antihijacking accords signed. The U.S.
and Cuba Feb. 15, 1973 signed a five-year
agreement, effective immediately, to curb Cuba accused. President Joaquin Bala-
the hijacking of aircraft and ships between guer charged May 9, 1967 that terrorist
the two countries. activities in his country were the work of
The agreement, officially a "memo- "hundreds of well-trained Communist
randum of understanding" rather than a agents" who, with Cuban support, were
formal treaty requiring Senate con- attempting to overthrow the government.
firmation, was signed simultaneously by During the previous week, one terrorist
U.S. Secretary of State William P. had been killed in a clash between army
Rogers Washington and Cuban Foreign
in units and a rebel band. Sen. Rafael
Minister Raul Roa in Havana. It commit- Casimiro Castro had been severely
ted both countries to either try hijackers wounded May 4 by a terrorist fire bomb.
LATIN AMERICA: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 131

Fresh terror wave. As terrorism again high schools in Santo Domingo and San-
flared, President Joaquin Balaguer April tiago were closed. At least three persons
21, 1969 dismissed two cabinet were reported to have been killed in
officials— national police chief Gen. terrorist incidents.
Braulio Alvarez Sanchez and Education
Minister Luis Alfredo Duverge Mejia.
Alvarez' dismissal followed a resur- U.S. officer kidnapped. Lt. Col. Don-
gence of terrorism in which at least seven ald J. Crowley, U.S. air attache in the
persons were killed. Two of the dead were Dominican Republic, was abducted by
followers of former Gen. Elias Wessin y Dominican terrorists March 24, 1970. He
Wessin, right-wing leader. Balaguer was held until March 26 when his release
blamed the terrorism on "violence was granted in exchange for the govern-
preached by the radio and press." Leon ment's release of 20 political prisoners.
Bosch, son of former President Juan Crowley was abducted by six armed
Bosch, was arrested in connection with men early March 24 on the grounds of
the shootings. As a result, Bosch's PRD, the Embajador Hotel. The kidnappers
the Dominican Revolutionary Party, had identified themselves as members of the
boycotted Congress and called for Braulio Unified Anti-Re-election Command, an
Alvarez' dismissal. organization seeking to prevent the re-
Francisco de los Santos, a leader of election of President Balaguer.
PRD, and Francisco Cartagena, a pro- Threatening to take Crowley's life if
vincial leader of the ruling Reformist their terms were not met by March 25
Party, were shot to death by unknown as- at 10 a.m., the kidnappers demanded the
sailants Sept. 20. release of 21 prisoners in a public cere-
Antigovernment demonstrations and mony in downtown Santo Domingo. The
terrorist attacks against police continued kidnappers later increased their ransom
in Santo Domingo and spread to other to 24 prisoners, but the government
cities inNovember. agreed to release only 20. In addition,
At two people were killed in
least the government refused to release the
terrorist attacks in Barahona the week prisoners in Santo Domingo, insisting
of Nov. 16-22. that they be flown out of the country.
President Balaguer Oct. 29 banned Police used tear gas to disperse crowds
PRD demonstrations. In a national ad- which had gathered in downtown Santo
dress, he charged that the PRD espoused Domingo early March 25 to await the
theories of "civil disobedience and col- release of the prisoners.
lective subversion" and attacked PRD Crowley was freed March 26, shortly
leaders who had "pleaded for the over- after the 20 prisoners had boarded a jet
throw of the government and for an airliner at the Santo Domingo airport.
armed rebellion to take over the coun- The plane left for Mexico City after
try's rule." Crowley's release had been verified.
Army Maj. Edmundo Cuello was as- The prisoners, most of whom were
sassinated Nov. 20 by unknown terror- under arrest for common crimes but who
ists in Santo Domingo. were also identified with radical anti-
government organizations, included
Maximiliano Gomez, secretary general
of the left-wing Dominican Popular
Student unrest & terrorism. Students Movement (MPD). In Mexico, Gomez
clashed with police in Santo Domingo expressed his intention to return to the
Jan. 28-29, 1970 following pro- Dominican Republic to "help whatever
tests over the disappearance of three faction or candidate who will lead the
youths from Hato Mayor in early Janu- fight against Balaguer."
ary. Demonstrations over the unex- Otto Morales, an MPD
leader and a
plained disappearances also took place in suspect in the kidnapping, was shot and
Santiago and San Francisco de Macoris. killed by police July 16.
Student unrest accompanied by terror-
ist incidents continued for the next two
weeks. More than 200 students were re- Unrest continues. Violence continued
ported arrested Feb. 2 and 3, and most to plague the Dominican Republic follow-
"

POLITICAL TERRORISM
132

ing the elections of May 16, 1970, in rightwho are against the Balaguer gov-
which President Joaquin Balaguer was ernment, because any type of alliance
reelected to a second term. At least 10
with those forces is against the struggle
for national liberation."
persons were killed in terrorist attacks
the week of June 8-14, and an unsuccess- (Maximiliano Gomez, 28, exiled MPD
ful attempt was made against the
life of secretary general, was found dead in
Balaguer June 13. In addition, another Brussels May 23. Le Monde reported May
20 persons were reported to have been 27 and June 4 that Gomez' friends in Pans
killed in attacks during the first two weeks thought he had been murdered by killers
of July. sent by political allies of President Bal-
In response to the violence, the govern- aguer.)
ment July 3 promulgated a law imposing
a maximum sentence of 30 years imprison-
ment for authors and accomplices of Wessin coup fails. After police sealed
terrorist acts. At the same time, Balaguer off Santo Domingo June 27, 1971
signed a law increasing the sentences because of the death of five persons in a
for of regulations governing
violation wave of unrest, President Joaquin Bala-
a speech
possession of firearms. In
guer announced June 30 that his govern-
reported bv the Miami Herald July 17, ment had put down an attempted right-
Balaguer warned that the government wing coup headed by former General
would "adopt whatever measures the Elias Wessin y Wessin who was
im-
people and the circumstances warrant. mediately placed under arrest.
He added that it was necessary to continue Balaguer made the announcement in
intensive police searches of homes and

an unprecedented television speech


in

autos in an attempt to locate suspects. Wessin appeared at his side. At


which
Amin Abel Hasbun, a leader of the least 41 military men were
reported to
outlawed Dominican Popular Movement, be under arrest, accused of taking
part
was shot to death by police during a raid in the conspiracy. A court-martial
on his home, it was reported Sept. 26. decided July I to deport the former gen-
Jose Florencio, a militant leftist, was eral, who arrived in Spain July 5.

sentenced to the maximum penalty of


30 years' imprisonment Dec. 6. Floren-
cio, found guilty of the murder of a
policeman in 1969, received the most La Banda kills leftists. The New York
severe penalty imposed in the country Times reported Aug. 28, 1971 that
in 1970. at least 50 leftists had been
murdered
and others jailed and beaten since the
formation in April of an anti-Commu-
Leftists unite. Two leftist groups terrorist organization known as
nist
allegedly signed an agreement pledging
to (the Band).
La Banda
the overthrow of the
work together for Although President Joaquin Balaguer
government. According to a
Balaguer had denied the existence of such a group,
in the
text of the agreement, published which appeared similar to the "death
Caribe Feb.
Santo Domingo paper El
squads" of Brazil, Uruguay and Guate-
25 1971, the Dominican Popular
Move- that
mala, the Times reported Sept. 1

ment (MPD) and the April 24 Revolu- La Banda was organized by National Po-
tionary Movement agreed to
"work to- Perez y
lice Chief Maj. Gen. Enrique
revolu-
gether to achieve the unity of all Perez, on instructions from President
progressive
tionary organizations and Balaguer, to conduct an offensive against
and anti-imperialist groups and persons the extreme left and eradicate the Com-
throughout the country." The MPD,
how-
munist leadership in the country.
of the
ever, stressed that "the sectors
contradiction with The main targets of the right-wing ter-
right which are in
could participate in the orists were reported to be the Marxist
the government"
while the Popular Dominican Movement and the
struggle as "tactical allies,"
union smaller Maoist Communist party, al-
April 24 Movement rejected any
"pro-imperialist forces of the though other more moderate government
with the
LATIN AMERICA: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 133

opponents had been targets of La Banda's University occupied. 10 persons were


campaigns. wounded and more than 150 were ar-
The Times quoted political sources as rested April 4, 1972 as police and soldiers
stating that had 400
the organization seeking a guerrilla leader occupied
members Santo Domingo under the
in the Autonomous University of Santo
command of Lt. Oscar Nunez Pena, a Domingo (UASD) and fired on students
close friend of Gen. Perez y Perez. Mem- and teachers.
bers were described as youths in their According to the Miami Herald April
late teens and early 20s who were trained 6, authorities said they had learned early
in the use of arms. The movement had April 4 that Tacito Perdomo Robles,
reportedly spread to interior cities. leader of the extremist Dominican Popu-
lar Movement (MPD), was hiding in the
In a surprisemove, the Miami Herald
university. Police invaded the campus
reported Sept. 14, the government ar-
rested 250 members of La Banda. Bal-
after demanding that UASD
rector Jotin
aguer also forced Lt. Nunez Pena's resig-
Cury produce Perdomo. Cury, who re-
fused to allow the police to enter the uni-
nation.
was reported Sept. versity, was detained along with the vice
It 17 that about 100
members of La Banda had been rector, Tirso Mejia.
released
by police due to lack of evidence.
Five students aged 16-21 were shot and
killed Oct. 9 as they were celebrating the
200 arrested. More than 200 people
were arrested by policemen and sol-
death several days before of a member of
La Banda. Initial reports diers following terrorist attacks in which
blamed La
Banda for the killings. one policeman was killed and four
wounded, the Miami Herald reported
In response to intensifying public de-
mands end the terrorism plaguing the
to
June 4, 1972.
country, President Balaguer Oct. 15
Government authorities July 9 dis-
covered a cache of weapons that, they
switched the positions of his two top
said, had been collected for a leftist revolt.
military officers, naming Gen. Neit Ni-
var Seijas, commander of the 1st Bri-
gade, to succeed Gen. Enrique Perez y
Perez as national police chief. PRD leader wounded. Arturo Guzman,
secretary general of the Santiago
According to observers, Gen. Nivar
construction workers union and a leader
quickly ended La Banda's activities.
of the PRD labor faction, was shot and
wounded by unidentified assailants Jan. 2,
1973. This was the second attack on Guz-
12 die as police battle guerrillas. A day-
man in less than three months.
long battle between police forces using
bazookas and mortars and a band of left-
ist guerrillas wanted in a $50,000 rob- Guerrilla invasion fails. A small band
bery from the Royal Bank of Canada of guerrillas landed on the southern coast
in November 1971, was reported to have Feb. 4, 1973 and moved quickly into the
resulted in the deaths of eight police- central mountain range. The group was
men and four guerrillas Jan. 12, 1972. spotted by an army patrol Feb. 6 and a
A Communist lawyer accused of series of clashes ensued. By the end of
leading the band, Plinio Matos Moquete, March, according to Dominican authori-
and an associate, Harry Jiminez Castillo, ties, all the guerrillas had been killed or

escaped. President Joaquin Balaguer captured.


promised them an impartial trial if they Tanks and armored cars moved into
surrendered. Santo Domingo Feb. 8 as the government
The battle, which began at a guerrilla instituted a series of strict security mea-
hideout 14 miles east of the capital, sures following the guerrilla landing.
touched off riots in Santo Domingo. The measures, amounting to a state of
Students supporting the terrorists took emergency, included tight military sur-
to the streets, throwing rocks and smash- veillance of the major cities, censorship of
ing windows. broadcasting, raids on hundreds of homes
134 POLITICAL TERRORISM

and the detention of "suspicious" persons. The government, which had denied
The French newspaper Le Monde Casado safe-conduct before, acceded
reported Feb. 10 that hundreds of persons when Casado threatened to use a gasoline
were arrested. Other sources reported cache and a grenade to blow up the room
that the raids on homes were ordered to in which he held the boy. Casado released

insure the capture of ex-President Juan the boy unharmed at the Santo Domingo
Bosch and Jose Francisco Pena Gomez, airport. He arrived in France Sept. 28.
leaders of the opposition Dominican Revo- In a development, police in
related
lutionary party (PRD), who were in Santo Domingo announced the arrest
hiding. Nov. 2 of Plinio Matos Moquete, leader of
Bosch issued a message late Feb. 7 the outlawed leftist "January 12" move-
denying that he or any other PRD leader ment, the Cuban press agency Prensa
knew anything of the alleged guerrilla Latina reported Nov. 4. Matos was
operation and demanding that the sought on charges of bank robbery, illegal
government publish alleged documents possession of arms, and "political subver-
implicating the PRD in the operation, sion." His brother Manuel had been ar-
which the government claimed to have rested in June on similar charges, ac-
found in the boat in which the guerrillas cording to Prensa Latina.
were said to have landed.
In Santo Domingo, meanwhile, news-
papers received a communique Feb. 10 in Terrorists free U.S., Venezuela aides.
which an organization calling itself Com- A U.S. official and six other hostages held
mandos of the Resistance took credit for by left-wing guerrillas for two weeks in
the guerrilla operation, which it claimed the Dominican Republic were freed Oct. 9,
was led by former Col. Francisco 1974 when the terrorists accepted a gov-
Caamano. ernment offer of safe-conduct to Panama.
According to the army, Caamano was The seven insurgents, who claimed
by soldiers in the central mountains
killed membership in the January 12th Libera-
Feb. 16 and buried there Feb. 17. tion Movement, had kidnapped U.S. In-
formation Service Director Barbara
Hutchison outside her office in Santo
Editor slain. Gregorio Garcia Castro, Domingo Sept. 27 and taken her to the
editor of the Santo Domingo newspaper
nearby Venezuelan consulate, where they
Ultima Hora and a critic of the govern- took control of the building and seized
ment, was shot to death by unidentified seven more hostages— the Venezuelan
persons as he left his office March 28,
consul and vice consul, a Spanish priest,
1973. and four Dominican employes of the con-
Garcia Castro, one of the most widely sulate.
read columnists in the country, was said Radhames Mendez Vargas, the guerril-
to have sharply criticized not only the las' leader, told reporters over the tele-
government but most political groups. He phone that his group would kill the hos-
had reportedly warned Balaguer that tages one by one unless the U.S. paid them
there was a police plot to kill him, ac- $1 million in ransom and the Dominican
cording to the London newsletter Latin government released 38 political prison-
America April 6. ers. He said his men had mined the con-
sulate and would blow it up if police tried
to storm it.
Leftist abductor reaches France. Left- Security forces cordoned off the area
wing Manfredo Casado,
revolutionary and began the long siege, allowing two
who took asylum in the Mexican
political daily deliveries of food to the terrorists
embassy in Santo Domingo in 1972, was and their hostages. The deliveries were cut
given safe-conduct to travel to France to one a day Oct. 1 on orders of President
Sept. 27, 1973 after he seized the 12-year- Joaquin Balaguer, who, with the support
old son of Mexican Ambassador Fran- of the U.S., Venezuelan and Spanish gov-
cisco Garcia and threatened to kill himself ernments, refused to meet the guerrillas'
and the boy. demands.
"

LATIN AMERICA: GUATEMALA 135

Mendez Vargas, a convicted airplane hi- May 20, 1971 edition of the New York Re-
jacker released from prison earlier in 1974, view of Books that:
said Sept. 27 that the terrorist action was . only a part of the [counterinsurgency] killing
. . . . .

a response to the government's rejection has been done by the government's official forces. In
1967 more than 20 right-wing para-military terrorist
of "demands for democratization" and an
groups went into action with weapons supplied
attempt "to free patriots who are rotting
. . .

under the U.S. military aid program. . They first


. .

in jail under the Balaguer dictatorship." circulated leaflets carrying the names and sometimes
The only political prisoner Mendez Var- the photographs of their announced victims, whose

gas named was Plinio Matos, his move-



corpses and those of many others — were later found
grotesquely mutilated
ment's leader; the guerrillas later issued
Gall quoted Mario Sandoval Alarcon,
a list of 32 other prisoners whose release
they demanded.
secretary-general of the right-wing MLN
(Movimiento de Liberation National, or
At least and the
10 of those prisoners
National Liberation Movement) as telling
Dominican left, including
entire organized
him in 1967:
the Dominican Popular Movement, of
We of the Liberacion were the vanguard group that
which Matos' group was supposedly an got this started. The army was demoralized by the
offshoot, condemned the guerrilla action, guerrillas last year [1966] until we organized the
according to press reports. White Hand. ... In the systematic elimination of the
guerrillas a series of injustices apparently have been
Intermittent negotiations were held committed. Several hundred persons have been killed,
among the guerrillas, government repre- but between January and March [1967] the guerrillas
sentatives and U.S. Ambassador Robert have almost been completely eliminated from the
Guatemalan Oriente. The terrorism of the guerrillas,
Hurwitch. The terrorists dropped the $1
which has resulted in the death of many of our [MLN]
million ransom demand Oct. 3 and asked people, has forced the government to adopt a plan of
for release of the political prisoners and complete illegality, but this has brought results.
safe-conduct for all to either Mexico or Georgie Anne Geyer, who had visited the
Peru. This was rejected by Balaguer and FAR (Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes, or Rebel
reportedly by the Mexican and Peruvian A rmed Forces) in the Sierra de las Minas in
governments. Balaguer made an "abso- 1966, "right at the height of the FAR's pop-
lutely final" offer of safe conduct out of ularity and effectiveness," reported in the
the country Oct. 7, and the guerrillas ac- July 4, 1970 issue of the New Republic that,
cepted this the next day. after the counterinsurgency campaign, "the
Panama agreed to grant the terrorists FAR has become a fractured, blood-let
asylum to help the Dominican govern- group of urban guerrillas to whom terrorism
ment "end this unfortunate case," accord- has largely become an end in itself." "They
ing to Panamanian Ambassador Alejan- —
have decentralized reorganized into cells
dro Cuellar Arosemena Oct. 9. The offive persons, which barely know the other
guerrillas were flown to Panama City im- cells" —
in accordance with Carlos Mari-
mediately after they freed the seven hos- ghella's prescription, she reported, and thus
tages. were left to act "without any real leader.

2 U.S. Aides Slain. 2 U.S. military


GUATEMALA attaches of the U.S. embassy in Gua-
temala were shot to death and 2 other
Terrorism & Repression embassy aides were wounded Jan. 16,
1968 during an upsurge of terrorism.
Guerrilla violence and terrorism have The Rebel Armed Forces (FAR), the
flared repeatedly in Guatemala in the 1960s major Communist group operating in
and 1970s. Such activity has been fought by Guatemala, announced in leaflets distrib-
U.S. -aided counterinsurgency methods that, uted Guatemala City later Jan. 16
in
according to some critics, have resulted in that was responsible for the slaying of
it

wholesale repression and in "blood-baths" Col. John D. Webber Jr., 47, head of the
that in the Oriente in the 1967-68 period U.S. Military Advisory Group, and of
took the lives of at least 2,000 Guatemalans, Lt. Cmndr. Ernest A. Munro, 40, head
of whom relatively few were guerrillas. of the mission's naval section, and for
(Some estimates of the deaths were as high the wounding of Sgt. Maj. John F.
as 6,000.) Norman Gall reported in the Forester, 42, of Salem, Ore. and Chief
136 POLITICAL TERRORISM

Petty Officer Harry L. Greene, 41, of ville, 38, and his brother, the Rev.
Omaha. Arthur Melville, 35. The Melvilles and
The Americans had been returning by Sister Peter were suspended (the priests
car to Guatemala City from the Gua- were deprived of the right to celebrate
temalan Air Force headquarters when mass and hear confession). The 3 had
another auto pulled up alongside, and boarded a plane in Dec. 1967, ostensibly
its occupants opened fire. to return to New York, but had disap-
In its announcement of the slayings, peared on arriving in Miami and were be-
the Rebel Armed Forces said they were lieved to be in Mexico at the Gua-
in retaliation for the killing by rightists telan border. All 3 had admitted
Jan. 12 of Rogelia Cruz Martinez, Miss contacts with the guerrillas. But they
Guatemala of 1950, who had been sus- insisted that their purpose was to attempt
pected of leftwing guerrilla sympathies. to direct the revolutionary fervor of the
The Rebel Armed Forces accused the rebels into more peaceful directions.
U.S. mission of assisting in the organiza-
tion of Guatemalan army killer teams, an
apparent reference to rightwing coun- Archbishop seized. The Catholic
terterrorist groups that had been com- archbishop of Guatemala, the Most. Rev.
batting the leftwing forces since the Mario Casariego, 58, was kidnaped by
spring of 1967. members of a rightwing dissident ter-
In other shootings in Guatemala City rorist group Mar. 17, 1968, then freed
Jan. 16: (a) leftwing lawyer and ex- Mar. 20.
mayoral candidate Alejandro Silva Falla Casariego and his chauffeur had been
and his bodyguard were shot to death; (b) seized in Guatemala City while driving
ex-labor Min. Manuel Villacorta (in the from the papal nuncio's home after re-
rightwing government of Carlos Castillo turning that day from a trip to Mexico.
Armas) was fired on in his auto but According to an account of the incident
escaped. A soldier guarding the Gua- given Mar. 21 by national police chief
temala City home of Col. Carlos Arana Col. Manuel Sosa Avila: The archbishop
had been shot to death by guerrillas Jan. and his driver were stopped, taken from
15. Arana had been the military chief of
their car and driven in another vehicle to
counterinsurgency operations in Zacapa. a house at Quinta Olga, 135 miles from
Conservative businessman Alfonso Alejos, the capital. (The house belonged to Dr.
80, was shot to death in Guatemala City Carlos Cifuentes Di'az, 1954-6 presi-
Jan. 17. His slaying was attributed to the dential press chief in the rightist regime
Rebel Armed Forces. of Col. Carlos Castillo Armas.) The ab-
ductors' car was driven by Raul Estuardo
Lorenzana, leader of a rightwing ter-
U.S. Clerics Linked to Rebels. A U.S. rorist group that was conspiring to over-
Roman Catholic missionary order operat- throw the regime of Pres. Julio Cesar
ing in Guatemala the — Maryknoll Me'ndez Montenegro. He was accom-
Fathers— said Jan. 21, 1968 that 7 of its panied by 2 other plotters identified as
missionaries in the country —
3 priests Otto Thiel Cobar and Gilberto Valen-

and 4 nuns had been ordered back to zuela. Police Mar. 20 seized the kidnap
Maryknoll headquarters in Ossining, car in nearby Quezaltenango with 3 other
N.Y. in Dec. 1967 because 3 of them had members of the gang (who had been
been involved in FAR's activities. guarding Casariego) as they were fleeing
A spokesman for the order, the Rev. Quinta Olga.
Donald J. Casey, managing editor of The government Mar. 18 had suspend-
Maryknoll magazine, charged that one of ed constitutional guarantees for 30 days
the 3 accused, Sister Marian Peter, 39, in the wake of Casariego's abduction.
was the "ringleader" and had attended Casariego, considered socially and politi-
a meeting in Escuintla, Guatemala in cally progressive, had been accused by
Dec. 1967 with 5 priests and 4 nuns and a the rightists of being a "guerrilla
leader of the guerrilla force to map plans bishop."
for smuggling arms into the country.
The 2 other missionaries linked with Siege State Ends. The Guatemalan
the rebels were the Rev. Thomas Mel- government was reported June 20 to have
LATIN AMERICA. GUATEMALA 137

lifted the nationwide state of siege, in terrorist bombingsand assassinations


effect sinceMar. 18, and to have restored led President Julio Cesar Mendez Mon-
constitutional rights, suspended since tenegro Jan. 29 to suspend constitutional
Jan. 16. rights for 15 days.
The government's action reflected an Among the incidents reported: Justo
easing of terrorist activities that had Lopez Castanaza, head of the nation's
prompted the restrictions. intelligence service, was killed by
The slackening of rightwing terrorism machine gun fire Jan. 13 in Guatemala
was believed attributable to Pres. City.
Mendez' dismissal in March of 3 top Seven leaflet bombs expoded
Jan. 22
military officials: Rafael Arriaga
Col. in different of Guatemala City;
parts
Bosque, defense minister; Col. Carlos the bombs contained chlorate and leaflets
Arana Osorio, commander of the Zacapa of the clandestine Guatemalan Labor
area east of Guatemala City, a strong- Party and the Rebel Armed Forces.
hold of Communist guerrilla movement; Isidoro Zarco, associate editor of the
Col. Manuel Sosa Avila, national police pro-government newspaper Prensa Libre,
chief. All 3 were given diplomatic posts was shot to death Jan. 28 in Guatemala
abroad. They had all been popularly iden- City. Constitutional guarantees were
tified with rightist terrorist groups. suspended Jan. 29 following his death,
and security forces were authorized to
make arrests and inquiries without a
U.S. Envoy Slain. John Gordon Mein, warrant.
54, U.S. ambassador to Guatemala since The Christian Democratic presidential
Sept. 1965, was killed Aug. 28, 1968 candidate, Jorge Lucas Caballero, was
by terrorists who had stopped his car and fired on the same week but escaped un-
who opened fire when Mein ran. Mein's harmed, the New York Times reported
chauffeur was not hurt. A statement Feb. 1.
issued Aug. 29 by the Rebel Armed Col. Oscar Giron Perrone, who had
Forces (FAR) said FAR members had participated in the coup overthrowing
planned to kidnap Mein in retaliation President Jacob Arbenz Guzman in
for the Aug. 24 capture of Camilo San- 1954, was found shot to death Jan. 30
chez, an FAR leader, by the Guatemalan outside of Guatemala City. Giron Per-
government. rone had supported Col. Carlos Arana
According to several reports, Mein's Osorio, presidential candidate supported
limousine was forced to stop by 2 cars by the National Liberation Movement
as the ambassador was riding to the and the Institutional Democratic Party.
embassy after attending a luncheon. In a related development. President
Several armed youths jumped from the
Mendez Montenegro requested the
cars and ordered Mein to leave the
Organization of American States to
limousine. Mein was hit with machine-
send observers to supervise the March 1
gun and pistol fire as he tried to escape elections, the New York Times reported
from the attackers. Mein was the first Ruling Revolutionary Party
Feb. 4.
U.S. ambassador murdered at his post.
candidate Mario Fuentes Pieruccini
Guatemalan Pres. Julio Cesar Mendez had asked the government to request
Montenegro imposed a 30-day state of observers in order to "assure the liberty
siege throughout Guatemala Aug. 29.
and purity of suffrage."

MLN leader slain. Mario Lopez Villa-


toro, a leader of the anti-Communist Na- Arana wins presidency. Col. Carlos
tional Liberation Movement (MLN), was Arana Osorio, 51, won a plurality — 42<~
f

shot and killed June 1, 1969 while cam- of the valid votes cast in Guatemala's
paigning for the party's presidential presidential election March 1, 1970, and
candidate, Col. Carlos Arana Osorio. Congress March 21 declared him pres-
(The leftist FAR had "condemned" ident-elect.
Arana to death.) With armed police guarding the polls
March I, the voting was orderly. The
Violence increases. As the March 1, election concluded a tense, violence-torn
1970 elections approached, increased campaign in which 20 persons were re-
138 POLITICAL TERRORISM

ported to have been killed in political Sean M. Holly and threatened to execute
assassinations and urban guerrilla clashes. him if the Guatemalan government did
Arana, who pledged during the cam- not release four imprisoned members
paign to rid Guatemala of rural guerrillas of the guerrilla group within 48 hours.
and urban terrorism, had gained national Holly, a political secretary in the U.S.
notoriety in 1966-68 as leader of an anti- embassy, was released unharmed March
guerrilla campaign in the eastern area of 8, following the government's release of
Zacapa. In a victory speech March 2, he three of the guerrillas; the fourth was al-
vowed to act "with energy and without ready in Mexico.
restraint" in pacifying the country. "We In response to the kidnapping,the Gua-
have a program which does not contain temalan government March 7 released
stop-gap measures," he said. "The stage two of the guerrillas Jose Antonio —
of speeches is finished and the stage of Aguirre Monzon and Vidalina Antonieta
action has begun . Whoever steps
. . —
Monzon into the custody of the Costa
outside the law will suffer the full weight Rican embassy, where they were granted
of the law." political asylum. Aguirre Monzon, who
Sporadic violence had continued to had been arrested March 4, was re-
mar the election campaign during its ported to have served as an intermediary
final weeks. Foreign Minister Alberto
between the FAR and the government
Fuentes Mohr was kidnapped Feb. 27 by in the Fuentes Mohr kidnapping. The

four persons who identified themselves as government reported March 7 that the
FAR members. The terrorists, who pulled third prisoner whose release had been
Fuentes Mohr from his car at gunpoint, —
demanded Jose Antonio Sierra, a bak-
announced that he would be killed unless ery workers union organizer had been —
the government, within 24 hours, pub- freed earlier in the week and allowed to
lished an FAR policy statement and go to Mexico. However, the police
turned over Jose Vicente Giron Calvillo, denied that the fourth member Mario —
an imprisoned FAR leader, to the Mexi- —
Leonel del Cid Garcia could be found
in prison.
can embassy with a safe conduct autho-
rization for travel to Mexico. Del Cid appeared at the Costa Rican
embassy March 8. The three freed pris-
Fuentes Mohr was released unharmed
oners flew to Mexico City that day, where
Feb. 28 after Giron Calvillo had been
Del Cid reported to newsmen that
delivered to the Mexican embassy. Mexi-
police had shifted him from one place
can Ambassador to Guatemala Delfin
to another while denying that he was
Sanchez Juarez acted as an intermediary
imprisoned.
in the exchange. Following his arrival in
Mexico City March I, Giron Calvillo
said that the FAR
was a nationalist German envoy slain by FAR kidnappers.
rather than Communist organ and had Count Karl von Spreti, West German
20,000 active members in Guatemala. ambassador to Guatemala, was kid-
He expressed hope that they could pro- napped March 31, 1970 by armed men in
voke U.S. intervention "to unite the Guatemala City. He was found slain
people of Guatemala behind us and April 5 after the' Guatemalan government
start a full-scale revolution." had refused to meet his kidnappers' terms.
Among otherpre-election develop- The kidnappers, identified as members
ments: Walfred Orlando del Valle. presi- of the Rebel Armed (FAR),
Forces
dent of the National Electoral Registry, had demanded April 1 that Guatemala
was shot and wounded by terrorists as he release 17 prisoners in exchange for the
was driving through Guatemala City Feb. freedom of von Spreti.
24; the driver of the car was also slightly In reply to the government's intran-
wounded in the shooting. sigence, the kidnappers increased their
demands April 3. The new terms for free-
ing Count von Spreti were the release
of 22 political prisoners and payment of
U.S. envoy kidnapped. The Rebel $700,000. The West German government
Armed Forces (FAR) said March 6, 1970 issued a strong protest April 3 against
that it had kidnapped U.S. diplomat the Guatemalan refusal to meet the
LATIN AMERICA: GUATEMALA 139

kidnappers' terms. Revenge for von Spreti death. Mem-


In a statement released April 2, the bers of a right-wing group called La
Guatemalan government announced that Mano (The Hand) claimed responsibility
it was "impossible legally to accede to for the April 8 murder of Cesar Mon-
the demands" since some of the pris- tenegro Paniagua, a member of the out-
oners named had already been con- lawed Guatemalan Labor (Communist)
victed and sentenced and could not be Party. La Mano stated that Montenegro
freed by executive orders. The govern- Paniagua's death was only "the begin-
ment also decreed a state of siege. ning of retaliations against revolutionary
(A delegation of foreign diplomats to groups" responsible for von Spreti's
Guatemala met with Guatemalan For- kidnap-murder and other leftist violence.
eign Minister Alberto Fuentes Mohr Francisco Barreno, 40, was found
April 3 to protest the government's defi- dead April 26 south of Guatemala
ance of the kidnappers' demands and to City. Attached to his clothing was a
request better protection for themselves. note that said he had been killed for
The government agreed to provide them "belonging to the Guatemalan Labor
with armed guards.) Party [Communist Party] and diverse
William Hoppe, special West Ger- labor organizations, for kidnapping and
man envoy sent to Guatemala to mediate assassinating honorable citizens, for
in the case, conferred with Guatemalan traveling to Cuba, Russia and other
President Julio Cesar Mendez Monte- Socialist countries. .An eye for an
. .

negro April 4 in an attempt to persuade eye." Eligio Rodas, 30, was found dead
the government to grant the kidnappers' April 27 on the same road. note at- A
demands. West German Chancellor Willy tached to body declared: "Thus will
his
Brandt made a similar plea. die all the members of the Rebel Armed
Reacting to the news of von Spreti's Forces [FAR]."
death, Chancellor Brandt April 5 de- Guatemala police announced May 5
nounced the Guatemalan government the assassination by right-wing terrorists
for the "infamous murder," charging of three victims— Rogelio Zermeno,
that it had "shown itself unable to give Rigoberto Ramirez and Lisandro Or-
the accredited diplomatic representative tega. On each body a note was found
the necessary security." He added that stating that he had been "executed" for
the German government had been will- belonging to FAR and the Guatemalan
ing to pay the $700,000 in ransom de- Labor Party; the notes were signed "Eye
manded by the kidnapers. for eye."
A Guatemalan government spokesman
said April 6 that four of the prisoners
on the kidnappers' list had confessed to
complicity in the August 1968 killing of
Yon Sosa killed in Mexico. The Mexi-
U.S. Ambassador John Gordon Mein,"
can government announced May 19 that
Guatemalan guerrilla leader Marco An-
and "we could not let those go."
tonio Yon Sosa and two of his followers
an interview in the West German
In
had been shot to death May 16, 1970 by
magazine Der Spiegel April 14, Papal
Mexican soldiers on the Mexican side of
Nuncio Gerolamo Prigione, who served
the Guatemala border.
as an intermediary between the kid-
According to a Mexican government
nappers and the government, charged
spokesman, "a routine army patrol,
that much time had been lost in the ef- which was investigating reports of the
fort to save von Spreti by the "very in- presence of armed persons in the area,
flexible" attitudes of both the govern- Saturday encountered a cabin which, at
ment and the kidnappers. Prigione cited first view, appeared unoccupied. But
Foreign Minister Fuentes Mohr's asser- when the soldiers approached it, they
tion that Guatemala had to risk von were received with small-arms fire. They
Spreti. "For our government it is a responded to the fire." Several of the
matter of survival. If we yield, we will guerrillas were reported to have es-
sign our death warrant," Fuentes Mohr caped. Yon Sosa, a lieutenant in the
was quoted as saying. Guatemalan army until 1960 when he
140 POLITICAL TERRORISM

joined the rebellion against President injury in an attempt to assassinate him.


Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes, had headed the Two of three dynamite charges which had
Maoist MR- 13 (Movimiento Revolu- been placed in his car exploded.
cionario de 13 Noviembre, or Revolu- Julio Caney Herrera, a law professor
tionary Movement of Nov. 13). and left-of-center politician was shot to
death Nov. 16 while driving to work in
Guatemala City.
Other terrorist action. Among other Three Guatemalans were found shot
1970 terrorist actions: to death in a canyon north of Guatemala
Rudy Weissenberg Martinez, 60, City, it was reported Dec. 10. The three
one the nation's most important
of persons, missing since Nov. 28, included
coffee exporters, was released by kid- the owner of the nation's largest radio
napers April 26 after payment of a station, a businessman and a secretary.
large ransom. Weissenberg had been National Liberation Movement Dep-
abducted April 23 by members of the uty Arnaldo Otten Prado was shot and
Revolutionary Movement of Novem- killed Dec. 18 while driving in his car in
ber 13 (MR-13). Guatemala City.

A policeman was killed and a body- Jaime Monge Donis, secretary-general


guard of President-elect Carlos Arana of the Guatemalan Labor Federation and
seriously wounded in a terrorist attack an official of the National Social Security
April 29. Arana's bodyguard was driving Institute, was shot and killed Dec. 23 as
in his car when two youths in another car he was leaving his home in Guatemala
opened fire; Col. Arana was not present. City.

Marco Antonio Marroqui, mayor of


Jocotan, Chiquimula, was shot in an
ambush, it was reported May 6; he was Arana takes office. Col. Carlos Arana
the secondmayor in the area to be killed was sworn in July 1, 1970 as president
by unknown assailants. of Guatemala and pledged to the nation
Rafael Horacio Sanchez, an active that he would end terrorism.
supporter of President-elect Arana, was In his inaugural speech to Congress,
machine-gunned to death May 11 in President Arana noted that Guatemala
Guatemala City. had been faced with "an internal war
The British publication Latin America that sometimes confronts fathers and
reported June 12 that about 30 people sons" and promised to bring about
had been warned to leave Guatemala or "political pacification" in the nation.
face death by right-wing terrorist or- Arana also called for a "national
ganizations. crusade" towards social reform. "If the
peasant masses continue without land,
Victor Rodriguez, active supporter of
without technical assistance and without
Arana during his election campaign,
sufficient credit, with misery and sick-
was assassinated by a group of armed
ness as their only birthright, we will all
men in Chiquimula, Le Monde reported
suffer the consequences of their frustra-
July 8.
tion," he said.
Aldana Sanchez, mayor of Zacapa,
was shot to death July 12; he had re-
ceived several threats from the FAR. State of siege. President Arana imposed
The home of Uruguayan Ambassador a 30-day state of siege Nov. 13, 1970
to Guatemala Atilio Arrillaga was in response to recent acts of terrorism.
bombed Sept. 10. The ambassador was In a nationwide radio address, Arana ex-
not at home when the incident occurred. plained that the measure was taken due
Two Guatemalan police and a civilian, to the "manifest abuse of personal guar-
an alleged FAR deserter, were shot and antees established in the constitution and
killed Sept. 24. the wave of violence." He cited kid-
Mario Sandoval, leader of the right- napings, murders and bombings during
wing National Liberation Movement the previous two months as examples of
and president of the Guatemalan assem- the violence. Four policemen were re-
bly, was reported Oct. 23 to have escaped ported killed Nov. 9-12, presumably by
LATIN AMERICA: GUATEMALA 141

members of the terrorist Rebel Armed were assassinated when assailants in a


Forces (FAR). passing vehicle shot the two near Hur-
Under the state of siege, or modified tarte's home, it was reported Sept. 14.
martial law, Arana assumed virtual
dictatorial powers for a month. All
political activities were suspended, and Killings assailed abroad. The World
police were turned over to the
duties Confederation of Labor, meeting in Brus-
army, which was authorized to enter and sels, charged in a statement Feb. 9,
search homes and arrest persons without 1971 that "since individual and collective
warrants. In addition, newspapers were guarantees had been suspended in Gua-
prohibited from publishing any but offi- temala Nov. 13, 1970, the 'forces of or-
cial statements, and a 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. der' had assassinated by their own hands
curfew was set. more than 600 persons." The labor group
Arana extended the state of siege for said that a "climate of terror" existed in
another 30 days Dec. 13. Terrorist vio- the country.
lence was reported to have caused 15 Guatemalan Ambassador to Vene-
deaths during the initial 30 day state of zuela Francisco Consenza Galvez re-
siege period. (The curfew was lifted Jan. signed in disagreement with the regime
30, 1971 although the state of siege was of President Carlos Arana, it was re-
continued until Nov. 23, 1971.) ported March 2. "I am unable to defend
the current regime," Consenza Galvez
said. "The government should not
FAR leaders get Mexican asylum: adopt the same tactics used by the [left-
Julio Eduardo Mendez Agualar, said ist] terrorists."
to be a FAR leader, received politi-
Jurists denounce terror — The Inter-
cal asylum in the Mexican embassy in national Commission of Jurists, in a
Guatemala City, Guatemalan officials communique reported in the French
announced Nov. 18, 1970. Mendez newspaper Le Monde July 29, denounced
Aguilar had been sought by the police. what it called "the reign of terror in
Another FAR leader, Jose Antonio Si- Guatemala, where, after five years,
erra Gonzalez, was reported Nov. 26 to more than 8,000 persons have been as-
have also been granted asylum in the sassinated." According to the Commis-
Mexican embassy. sion, more than four assassinations
were committed each day by rightist
terrorist groups.
Assassinations. Opposition leader Adolfo
Mijangos Lopez was shot and killed by
gunmen Jan. 13, 1971. Mijangos was the
Alejos kidnapped. It was reported
leader in Congress of the opposition
Aug. 4, 1971 that Roberto Alejos, 46,
coalition group composed of the Demo-
wealthy Guatemalan businessman and
cratic Revolutionary Union and the
honorary chairman of the Fidelity Na-
Christian Democratic party.
tional Bank of South Miami, Fla., had
Labor leader Tereso de Jesus Oliva
been kidnapped from his car in Guate-
was shot and killed in Guatemala City
mala City.
Jan. 17. Oliva was head of the Confed-
Alejos had the government-
been
eration of Guatemalan Workers.
backed candidate in 1963
presidential
Terrorists entered the British con-
but the elections were never held because
sulate in Guatemala City Jan. 20 and
of a military coup. The Alejos plantation
shot and killed the consul's bodyguard.
in Guatemala had been used to train the
Opposition Congressman Jose Luis CIA-directed 1961 exile Bay of Pigs
Arriaga Arriola was shot and killed near brigade for the invasion of Cuba.
his home July 6. Arriaga Arriola, 36, a Alejos was reported to have been re-
member of the opposition Revolutionary leased by his kidnappers Dec. 23.
party, was the third member of the cur- An unidentified official was quoted by
rent congress to be killed. Le Monde Dec. 26 as saying that Alejos
The second in command of the secret had been exchanged for 60 political
police, Rudy Hurtarte, and his assistant prisoners. A family spokesman denied
142 POLITICAL TERRORISM

reports that a $500,000 ransom had been border,the London newsletter Latin
paid to the kidnappers, believed to be America reported June 23. The army
members of the Revolutionary Armed reportedly claimed to have found an
Forces (FAR). important guerrilla base and arsenal in
the region.
The police had announced Aug. 27 that
two policemen and a student who had Francisco Lopez, reportedly the sec-
been searching for Alejos had been ond in command of Guatemala's
assassinated on the outskirts of Guate- guerrillas, was captured in the Mexican
mala City. A blind student who had ac- border state of Chiapas, it was reported
companied the three was abducted by the Aug. 4.
killers. At least five persons were killed in a
In a related development, it was re- gun battle Oct. 15 as security forces
ported Aug. 6 that Guatemalan security rescued a kidnapped businessman in
forces had freed Victor Kaire, an im- Guatemala City. Police said the busi-
portant Guatemalan bank director who nessman, Rodolfo Rosenberg, escaped
had been kidnaped in July. Kaire had unharmed.
been found in a small store outside Gua-
temala City. He was freed after an in-
tense shoot-out, in which three kid- Murder of Communists reported. The
napers, members of the National United Cuban press agency Prensa Latina said
Revolutionary Front, were reportedly Guatemalan guerrillas had kidnapped a
killed by armed troops. policeman, Abel Juarez Villatoro, and
forced him to reveal the fate of the eight
leaders of the Communist Guatemalan
Castaneda assassinated. Olivero Cas- Labor party (PGT) who disappeared in
taneda Paiz, a leader of the governing September 1972, the newsletter Latin
Movement for National Liberation and America reported March 2, 1973.
first vice president of Congress, was shot
Juarez reportedly said the PGT lead-
to death in Guatemala City June 25,
1972.

ers six men and two women —
had been
arrested by police, tortured for 48 hours,
Castaneda had reportedly been ac- and then thrown into shark-infested
cused of being a leader of The White Pacific waters from an air force plane.
Hand, a right-wing terrorist organization. The government had denied any
His assassination ended a period of knowledge of the victims' disappearance.
relative political peace among the The government's move against the
country's various terrorist groups. PGT leaders baffled the victims' relatives
and other politicians, who considered the
PGT membership moderate, the Times of
Other 1972 incidents. Among other inci- the Americas reported April 4. The party
dents involving terrorists or terrorism in reportedly had survived the government's
Guatemala during 1972: 1971 anti-leftist campaign by pledging not
to practice or advocate violence against
The army announced Jan. 10 that a
authorities.
group of guerrillas had killed six mem-
bers of a military patrol in Peten, es-
caping with arms seized from the dead Deputy Hector Solis Juarez, sec-
killed.
soldiers. retary of Congress, was shot to death by
Authorities claimed that Augusto unidentified gunmen June 5, 1973.
Flores Rodriguez, reputedly second in
command of a left-wing guerrilla group,
Election controversy, violence. The gov-
had been killed in a clash with soldiers in
ernment apparently used fraud to secure
the Peten region, the Miami Herald
the victory of its presidential candidate in
reported May 30.
elections March 3, 1974, causing wide
One soldier was killed and five guer- protests and a renewal of political vio-
rillas were arrested when an army patrol lence.
clashed with a guerrilla detachment High government, military and diplo-
in the Peten region, near the Mexican matic sources had admitted the victory of

LATIN AMERICA: GUATEMALA 143

retired Gen. Efrain Rios Montt of the Na- Four Guatemala City newspapermen
tional Opposition Front (FNO), according had been threatened by a "death squad"
to numerous press reports. However, the and eight radio stations in the capital had
government announced March 6 that re- received government notice of cancel-
tired Gen. Kjell Laugerud Garcia of the lation of their right to broadcast, it was
ruling Nationalist Coalition was the win- reported Feb. 23.
ner. The Guatemalan Newspapermen's
Official results gave Laugerud 260,313 Association had reported shortly before
votes, 41.2% of the total; Rios Montt the assassination that right-wing ter-
225,586 votes, or 35.7%; and Col. Ernesto rorists calling themselves the "Death
Paiz Novales of the Revolutionary Party Squad" had sent it a series of threatening
145,967 votes, or 23.1%. Since no candi- letters, one of which read in part: "This is
date won an absolute majority, the our final warning. Any further attacks in
outgoing Congress, dominated by the the press against the government, Pres-
government, proclaimed Laugerud the ident [Carlos] Arana or President-elect
winner March 12. [Gen. Kjell] Laugerud mean death
The FNO claimed Rios Montt had won starting with the officers of [your] associa-
44.8% of the vote, Laugerud 33.6% and tion."
Paiz Novales 2 1 .6%, according to a report Mario Monterroso Armas, a Guate-
March 7. Its claim to victory had been mala City radio newscaster who had sup-
bolstered March 4 by official returns from ported the opposition Christian Demo-
373 of 493 precincts in Guatemala City, cratic Party in the March 3 vote, was
which gave Rios Montt 56% of the vote murdered March 27.
and Laugerud 28%.
Leonel Bojorges Gallardo, a former na-
Thousands of peasants armed with tional police chief of detectives under
clubs and machetes were trucked into President Arana, was shot to death by
Guatemala City March 4 by members of unidentified men in Guatemala City April
the right-wing National Liberation Move- 26. Col. Juan de Dios Aguilar, a wealthy
ment of the ruling coalition, to beat up landowner and PID presidential candidate
students and journalists who supported in the 1966 election, was held March 27-
Rios Montt. In the interior, four op- April 23 by kidnappers who at one point
position members were murdered: FNO demanded the return to Guatemala of re-
mayoral candidate Victor Manuel tired Gen. Efrain Rios Montt, the op_-_
Monterroso was killed in the southern position candidate in the March pres-
provincial capital of Cuilapa, and three idential election. Aguilar said his family
students belonging to the FNO's Chris-
had ransomed him.
tian Democratic Party were found dead
The "Death Squad" claimed 10 more
beside a highway in Zacapa Department.
victims, most presumably killed for being
Edmundo Guerra Theilheimer, a leftist petty criminals,according to reports
leader unaffiliated with any of the pres- April 16-May Fifteen other persons
24.
idential candidates, was machine-gunned were killed for apparently political rea-
to death by unknown rightists in Guate- sons, some after being tortured, according
mala City March 11. Guerra, a lawyer to the French news agency Agence France-
who gave free legal advice to the poor and Presse May 4.
to the Committee of Relatives of Disap-
peared Persons, which held authorities
responsible for the death or disappearance
of hundreds of persons in recent years,
HAITI
had said before the election: "It doesn't
make any difference who wins. Violence
and repression will continue."
The Guatemalan Labor Party, eight of
Repression & Exile Activity
whose leaders had been murdered in 1972,
had charged in February that rightist OAS Report Charges Terrorism. A
"death squads" had murdered at least 12 report by the Organization of American
persons in January and February, the States' Inter-American Commission of
Cuban Press agency Prensa Latina Human Rights charged the Haitian
reported Feb. 23. government with sanctioning a reign of
POLITICAL TERRORISM
144

country, Rene J.Leon said that the Democratic


terror and assassination in the Patriots "has
Movement of Haitian
Reuters reported Aug. 2, 1969.
placed its forces on Haitian soil." The
The report, sent to governments of the statement did not reveal where or how
in July, was prepared from
reports
OAS an invasion had taken place, and there
submitted by individual Haitians and was no confirmation from Haitian or
It described arbitrary
ar-
associations. U.S. sources that exile forces had landed
rests, disappearance of Haitian citizens on the island. (The Miami Herald re-
and elimination of whole families. The ported June 6 that an exile force, includ-
OAS commission was not allowed to enter ing at least two Americans, had left
Haiti to verify the charges. Florida during the last week of May
bound for Haiti. The group of 20 was re-
Exiles Cleared in Bahamas Murder. portedly headed by Leon.)
The death sentences of four Haitian A plane thought to be the one used in
exiles were voided April 8, 1969 by the the Haitian raid made an emergency
Bahamas Appeals Court. The exiles had landing June 4 at a U.S. missile tracking
base in the Bahamas. There were reports
been convicted of murdering Haitian Con-
that it had been forced to land because of
sul Joseph Antoine Dorce June 7, 1968
bullet holes in the fuel tank. The 10 per-
on orders of the Haitian Coalition, a New
sons aboard were charged with illegal
York-based anti-Duvalier organization.
entry by Bahama authorities June 5.
The Haitian Coalition Feb. 8 denied Nine of them were returned to the U.S.,
any role in the murder, though it ad- and eight— six Americans and two Hait-
mitted that the defendants were mem- ian exiles— were charged June 9 in U.S.
bers of the organization. District Court in Miami with violation
of the U.S. Neutrality Act in connection
with the Port-au-Prince bombing. Those
Exile Camp Uncovered in Florida. Ten charged included Leon, who had gone
Haitians and two Americans were ar- into exile in 1962 and had been sen-
rested in Florida March 12, 1969 on
the
tenced in 1967 in connection with an
a abortive Haitian invasion attempt, and
of what appeared to be secret
discovery
military training base for Haitian exiles. Gerald Smith, a Haitian who was ar-
rested last March for involvement
with
The two Americans, thought to be in
camp discovered in the
charge of the camp, were reported to be the exile training
former members of the Green Berets, Florida Everglades.
the U.S. Army force specializing in
guerrilla warfare.
U.S. emov held, ransomed. U.S.
Am-
(The Haitian ambassador to the U.S.,
Arthur Bonhomme, said that his gov- bassador Clinton E. Knox was seized by
ernment knew of another training camp three armed Haitians in Port-au-Prince
from the one Jan. 23, 1973 but released the next
day
in Florida, about 60 miles
discovered, the New York Times re- in exchange for the release of 12 Haitian
ported March 14.) prisoners, safe conduct to Mexico and a
$70,000 ransom.
Knox's captors were reported to have
Port-au-Prince Bombed. A four-engine
links with exile groups that had opposed
Lockheed Constellation aircraft dropped the Haitian government for years. They
homemade bombs over Port-au-
six
said the persons released were political
Prince June 4, 1969. The bombs— large oil prisoners. The abductors and freed
drums filled with gasoline— started fires prisoners were flown to Mexico, where
that resulted in three deaths, according they were denied asylum Feb. 1. They
to government reports. One bomb, which then continued on to Chile, whose govern-
did^not ignite, fell inside the grounds of ment gave them transit visas.
Francois "Duvalier's presidential palace.
An anti-aircraft gun fired on the plane, Washington, a State Department
In
spokesman said Knox's captors had de-
which made two passes over the city.
A communique issued June 4 in Miami manded a $500,000 ransom, but this had
over the name of Haitian exile leader been refused by Secretary of State
LATIN AMERICA: HAITI 145

William P. Rogers. The spokesman said Among Mexico's guerrilla-terrorist


he did not know who paid the final groups were the MAR (Movimiento de
ransom, but newspapers reported the Accion Revolucionaria, or Revolutionary
$70,000 had been offered by French me- Action Movement, also called Movement
diators during the tense all-night negotia- for [or of] Revolutionary
Action}, the FUZ
tions that preceded Knox's release. (Frente Urbano Zapatista, Zapata [or
Zapatist] Urban Front) and the presumably
Knox was seized as he drove to his
Trotskyist FRA P (Fuerzas Revolucionarias
residence in Port-au-Prince Jan. 23. He
was forced at gunpoint into another car, in Armadas del Pueblo, or People's Revolu-

which he and his captors entered the tionary A rmed Forces).


residence grounds. Knox then telephoned
the U.S. consul general in Port-au-Prince,
Ward L. Christensen, who joined him at 5 Soviet diplomats expelled. The Mexi-
the residence and was held until the final can regime March 18, 1971 declared
agreement was reached with the kidnap- five members of the Soviet embassy in
pers. Mexico persona non grata and ordered
In New York, a Haitian exile group
them to leave the country "as soon as
possible." The diplomats were Charge
called the Coalition of National
d'Affairs Dimitri Diakonov; Fir