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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 1 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

REVISION CONTROL PAGE


MAIN DOCUMENT
REV. DATE DESCRIPTION COMMENTS
01 12-Nov-2013 Second Issue

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PREPARED: REVIEWED: APPROVED:


B. García M. Carrasco J.R.Ferrer

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 2 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

INDEX

1. INTRODUCTION 3
2. PROCESS OVERVIEW 3
3. PROCESS DESCRIPTION 5
3.1 RAW MATERIAL SECTION 5
3.2 WET SECTION 5
3.2.1 Liquid raw material reception 5
3.2.2 Acid preparation section 6
3.2.3 Ammonia preparation section 9
3.2.4 Ammonia recovery 11
3.2.5 Dust recovery 12
3.2.6 Effluent system 13
3.3 DRY SECTION 14
3.3.1 Solid raw material handling 14
3.3.2 Reaction and granulation section 15
3.3.3 Solids handling section 19
3.3.4 Fluidized bed cooler air conditioning 23
3.3.5 Product conditioning 24
3.3.6 Dust collecting system 25
3.4 GASEOUS AND LIQUID EFFLUENTS 26
3.5 CHANGE–OVER PROCEDURE 26
4. RAW MATERIAL CONSUMPTION PER TONNE 28
5. SPECIFICATION OF FEEDSTOCKS AND UTILITIES 28
6. COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS, LIQUID AND SOLID WASTES 29

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 3 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

1. INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this document is to summarize the process description, including an


explanation of the main features, machinery and equipment, of the ESPINDESA technology
offered for the DAP/NPK Plant (D-Train) Project at SIKKA Unit of GSFC. The following
process description must be read in accordance with Process Flow Diagrams A1-08170-F-
202-1, A1-08170-F-202-2 and A1-08170-F-202-3.

2. PROCESS OVERVIEW

The plant will produce three specific grades of granular fertilizer NPK (10:26:26, 12:32:16,
14:35:14) and granular di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer (18:46:0). The plant will be
capable to produce NPK or DAP products as required, according to a changeover procedure;
pipe reactor operation will be adjustable to both NPKs or DAP grade, giving the system a
great flexibility.

The ESPINDESA process for the production of DAP and NPK fertilizers is based on the
ammonization of phosphoric acid (36% – 40%w of P2O5 content). The neutralization between
the gaseous ammonia and diluted liquid phosphoric acid as raw materials proceeds
according to the following reactions:
NH3 + H3PO4 → NH4H2PO4 (MAP) + Heat
NH3 + NH4H2PO4 → (NH4)2HPO4 (DAP) + Heat

These reactions are instantaneous and strongly exothermic, and the released heat of
reaction is used to vaporize part of the water content of the phosphoric acid fed as raw
material to the plant. Excess ammonia is used in the pipe reactor.

To avoid sudden vaporization and ammonia bubbles in the pipe reactor, ammonia is sent to
the pipe reactor in gas phase.

The neutralization of phosphoric acid to DAP/NPK is performed in a single pipe reactor with
unique pipe design, at 120 – 135ºC (maximum 150ºC) and under pressure (in the range 4 –
7 kg/cm2g), and the concentrated melt of DAP/NPK is sent to the granulator where melt is
brought in contact with the recycle material from the downstream sections, consisting of
spray oversize product, product fines and dust, being wetted particles together to form
granules. Additional solid raw materials required to help grade adjustment are fed to the
granulator together with the recycle.

To facilitate granulation when high content of impurities are present in the merchant
phosphoric acid, a sparger system is also included to reduce reaction in pipe reactor and
finalize the reaction further on the granulator bed.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 4 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

Inside the granulator the ammonium phosphate melt is sprayed over the bed of solids and
leads to the manufacture of round and hard granules. This wet material is discharged to a co-
current rotary drier to reduce its moisture content to 1%w for NPK production or 1.5%w for
DAP production; drying is performed with hot air. Dry solids are screened to separate proper
sized product from the oversize and fine material, and the on-size solids are cooled with air
in a fluidized bed cooler, and coated before being sent to storage, while the oversize
granules are crushed, mixed with the undersize granules and recycled to the granulator.

The main process parameters to control the production / granulation process are the
ammonia flow rate to the reactor, the phosphoric acid flow rate to the reactor and phosphoric
acid concentration and density.

The main advantages of the ESPINDESA technology are the following:


– The design of the reactor, which is proprietary equipment, allows the neutralization
to be achieved in one-step in a single pipe reactor.
– Higher solubility of P2O5 due to the short residence time in the reactor.
– Low recycle ratios:
The reaction takes place in the pipe reactor and finalizes over granulation bed in a
very short time. The most part of the heat of reaction is evolved inside the pipe and
consequently most of the water is vaporized at the reactor discharge. The
concentrated melt produced inside the pipe reactor has a low water content,
remains fluid in the moment of the discharge, and the temperature of the melt as it
emerges from the discharge nozzle is considerably above its boiling point at
atmospheric pressure, so part of the moisture flashes off in the granulator, the
remaining water in the melt is low and the recycle ratio can be therefore reduced.

– High N/P ratios for NPK production:


The neutralization of phosphoric acid with ammonia leads to some spillage of
ammonia, the amount depending on the specific NPK formulation being
manufactured. Most of pipe reactor in the market allows only reaching an N/P ratio
in the order of 1.5. Above this ratio spillage is too high and the operation becomes
troublesome.

The D-Train process for the production of NPK/DAP can be divided in three sections or
areas, as follow:

1. Raw material section, which is considered from the storage of solid raw materials
supply up to the discharge to the different raw material hoppers of the D-Train. The
feeding system from storage area to the raw material hoppers is out of ESPINDESA
scope.

2. Wet section, comprising the following systems or subsections:


• Liquid raw material reception.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 5 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

• Acid preparation section, including defoamer package.


• Ammonia preparation section.
• Scrubbing sections: dust and ammonia recovery
• Effluent system (plant and effluent sumps, condensate tank)

3. Dry section, comprising all of the systems not included in previous raw material or
wet section, such as:
• Solid raw material handling.
• Reaction and granulation.
• Solid handling section: drying and screening.
• Fluidized bed cooler air conditioning.
• Product conditioning, including coating package.
• Dust collecting system.

3. PROCESS DESCRIPTION

3.1 RAW MATERIAL SECTION

DAP/NPK grades will be manufactured in the D-Train plant without using urea as solid raw
material. Nevertheless, several solid raw materials with different purposes are required to
be supplied:
– Potash, to help grade adjustment regarding to potassium content.
– Filler, to help grade adjustment ensuring not to exceed the required nutrient
content.
– Micronutrients (Zn, B) to improve fertilizer quality according to specific crops.

For DAP manufacturing only filler is needed as solid raw material. For NPK producing,
potash and micronutrients, depending on the NPK grade, shall be added. No additional
source of nitrogen is needed as raw material.

The D-Train plant is provided with a solid handling and transport system to deliver the
solid raw materials from the storage area to the raw material hoppers. As the solid raw
material reception system is common for all the solid raw materials, supply to NPK/DAP
plant has to be done independently.

3.2 WET SECTION

3.2.1 Liquid raw material reception

The main raw materials for the manufacture of DAP/NPK (phosphoric acid and
ammonia) are received as liquids from battery limit. Liquid sulphuric acid is also
received from battery limit to be used to control the molar ratio and solubility in the
recirculation tank D-V-201, or to correct any unexpected raise in the pH of the

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 6 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

phosphoric acid solution at the bottom of the scrubber D-J-202 if required, and also
contributes as filler to help grade adjustment in the fertilizer product. No sulphuric acid
addition will be made to the granulator.

A defoamer and a coating agent are chemicals required to be supplied for the
production process, to avoid foam formation in phosphoric acid solutions due to the
organic matter content in the merchant acid, and to prevent caking during the storage.
Both chemicals will be received as liquids in supply bags.

3.2.2 Acid preparation section

The purpose of this section is to reduce the concentration of the merchant phosphoric
acid coming from battery limit to the required concentration to suit pipe reactor
performance.

It is necessary not only to dilute but for to maintain an accurate control of the acid
concentration in order to perform a controlled reaction leading to on-spec production.
The dilution of merchant phosphoric acid is achieved in D-J-202 while dust is scrubbed.
Further ammonization of the acid is achieved in the system comprising the recirculation
tank D-V-201 and the ammonia scrubber D-J-201, from where the diluted and partially
neutralized acid is sent to the reaction system.

3.2.2.1 Dust scrubbing system


This section will cover the dust scrubbing system from the point of view of the
merchant phosphoric acid dilution as part of the acid preparation operations. A
complete explanation of the scrubber, including the dust recovery, can be found in
section 3.2.5.

Flow rate of merchant grade (50 – 54% P2O5) fresh phosphoric acid coming from
battery limit is measured, totalized and the acid is sent in a flow control loop
FIC/FV-0102 to the bottom of the dust scrubber D-J-202, where its P2O5 content is
adjusted in order to avoid an uncontrolled heat release during the ammonization
reaction. Merchant phosphoric acid is diluted in the bottom of D-J-202 by mixing
with the following streams:

– A mixture of process water and scrubbing liquor from the fluorine circulation
tank D-V-204. This liquor flows through the fluorine scrubber D-J-203 to D-J-
202 where acts as scrubbing solution to remove entrained dust in scrubbing
gases and to adjust the P2O5 concentration.

– Part of the hot water from the contact condenser D-E-201. The flow rate of this
stream is controlled by the liquid level in the contact condenser via LIC/LV-
0302.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 7 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

– Drains (partially ammoniated solution) from effluent sump D-TK-201, as


sporadic make-up stream that will only be sent to the dust scrubber under
certain conditions, depending on dilution requirements at the scrubber, drains
composition and availability.

Ammoniated phosphoric acid from the bottom of D-J-202 is recirculated by the


pumps D-P-204 A/B back to the upper part of the scrubber, to be used as
scrubbing liquid, and a small flow rate is also sent to the recirculation tank D-V-
201.

As the scrubbing liquid contacts the gases flowing upwards the dust scrubber, it
gets partially ammoniated as the acid fixes most of the ammonia evolved in the
dryer and also dissolves the dust of DAP/NPK entrained from dryer cyclones. This
partially ammoniated scrubbing solution falls by gravity to the bottom of the
scrubber where is mixed with fresh phosphoric acid coming from battery limit, hot
water from the contact condenser, drains from the effluent sump and the scrubbing
liquor from the fluorine circulation tank.

The P2O5 content of phosphoric acid in the dust scrubber is density – controlled.
Density is measured by the nuclear type analyzer AT-0103 in the recirculation line
from the bottom to the top of the dust scrubber, and the controller AIC-0103
commands the flow rate of scrubbing liquor from the fluorine tank D-V-204 to the
bottom of D-J-202, changing the opening of the control valve AV-0103.

This density control allows maintaining a steady P2O5 concentration in the


ammoniated phosphoric acid, which is sent to the top of the dust scrubber D-J-202
and to the ammonia scrubber recirculation tank D-V-201.

During normal operation, the liquid at the bottom of D-J-202 will be a partially
ammoniated phosphoric acid solution with a concentration of in the range 36 –
40%w P2O5. Density of this acid will be normally in the range 1440 – 1490 kg/m3;
however it depends on quality of the merchant phosphoric acid.

There is a constant process water make-up to the fluorine scrubber tank D-V-204
to ensure enough availability of fresh water to dilute the phosphoric acid in the
dust scrubber D-J-202 and to contribute with the scrubbing liquor which is sent to
the fluorine scrubber D-J-203. This make-up allows also maintaining the level in
the fluorine scrubber tank. The addition of fresh process water to the fluorine
scrubber tank is controlled by the level in D-V-204, in a single control loop LIC/LV-
0701.

The flow rate of ammoniated phosphoric acid from the dust scrubber to the
recirculation tank D-V-201 is measured by FT-0103 and regulated by the level
controller LIC-0102 (level at the bottom of the dust scrubber) commanding the

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 8 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

level control valve LV-0102, in order to maintain the level at the bottom of D-J-202
above the minimum operating level.

The normal operating molar ratio N/P in the bottom of D-J-202 is between 0.1 and
0.3.

3.2.2.2 Ammonia scrubbing system and recirculation tank


In the same way as explained in previous section, this section will cover the
ammonia scrubbing system from the point of view of the phosphoric acid
preparation prior to be sent to the reaction system. A complete explanation of the
scrubber, including the ammonia recovery, can be found in further section 3.2.4.

The recirculation tank D-V-201, which operates at atmospheric pressure and 75ºC
(maximum 95ºC), receives ammoniated phosphoric acid solution from the bottom
of the dust scrubber D-J-202, the second section (horizontal section) of the
ammonia scrubber D-J-201, and occasionally from the plant sump D-TK-202 or
the effluent sump D-TK-201.

The mixture of the above mentioned streams, with a normal operating density in
the range 1440 – 1460 kg/m3 (depending on phosphoric acid quality), is used as
scrubbing solution in both sections of the ammonia scrubber D-J-201. The partially
neutralized phosphoric acid from the first section of the scrubber is fed to the pipe
reactors D-PR-301 and D-PR-302 through the pipe reactor feed pumps D-P-201
A/B/C.

The normal operating molar ratio N/P in the recirculation tank D-V-201 is between
0.5 and 0.6.

The molar ratio in the recirculation tank is regulated by mixing the solution from the
ammonia scrubber with the solution coming from the bottom of the dust scrubber,
which has a lower N/P ratio.

Moreover, a small amount of sulphuric acid can be fed to D-V-201 to control the
molar ratio and solubility, also contributing as filler to help grade adjustment in the
fertilizer product. The exothermic reaction between sulphuric acid and ammonia is:

H2SO4 + 2 NH3 → (NH4)2SO4 + 2165 kcal/kg NH3(l)

Sulphuric acid can also be fed to the bottom of the dust scrubber D-J-202, when
required, to correct any unexpected increase in the pH of the phosphoric acid
solution at the bottom of the scrubber.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 9 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

Sulphuric acid coming from battery limit is measured by FT-0401 and totalized.
The addition to D-V-201 and/or D-J-202 is flow controlled by FIC-0401
commanding the control valves FV-0401A and B.

A defoamer agent is also added to the recirculation tank D-V-201 as a method of


inhibiting foam production during the aqueous phosphoric acid handling. Defoamer
is stored in the atmospheric tank D-V-202 and addition is performed by the
defoamer dosing pumps D-P-208 A/B.

3.2.3 Ammonia preparation section

Liquid ammonia feed from battery limit is split into three streams. The most part of the
liquid ammonia is to be vaporized prior to the neutralization reaction in the ammonia
evaporator D-E-202. Part of the liquid ammonia from battery limit is sent to the
ammonia separator D-V-203 to feed the FBC air chiller D-E-301 for cooling the intake
air prior to be sent to the Fluidized Bed Cooler. The air partially vaporizes the liquid
ammonia flowing through the chiller. A small part of the liquid ammonia from battery
limit can also be sent to the granulator sparger to complete the ammonization reaction
up to the final required N/P ratio for the product.

The ammonia evaporator D-E-202 is a kettle type evaporator with two bundles that
operates at 7.3 kg/cm2g in the ammonia gas side. In this equipment part of the liquid
ammonia coming from battery limit is vaporized using hot water. This heating medium
comes from the contact condenser D-E-201, where the steam entrained in the
granulator gases from the pipe reactors D-PR-301/302 condenses and is further used
to vaporize the liquid ammonia in D-E-202.

Liquid ammonia at -33ºC is fed to the first bundle tube side of the ammonia evaporator
D-E-202 at 7.5 kg/cm2g; flow rate of ammonia is controlled by the valve LV-0201
commanded by the signal of the evaporator level controller LIC-0201. This control loop
in the liquid ammonia inlet to the evaporator keeps steady the level of the liquid inside
the equipment.

In the first bundle of the evaporator, liquid ammonia flowing by the tubes is to be
heated up to 5ºC by the ammonia gas present in the shell around the external surface
of the liquid ammonia tubes. This small amount of ammonia gas in direct contact with
the liquid ammonia tube sheet condensates and afterwards vaporizes when is heated
up by the hot water coming from the contact condenser that flows through the tube side
of the second bundle.

Liquid ammonia at 5ºC is sent to the second bundle, where is heated up to 19.2ºC and
vaporized at the equilibrium operating pressure of 7.3 kg/cm2g. Hot water is used as
heating medium in the second bundle.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 10 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

The contact condenser D-E-201, proprietary equipment with a venturi type


configuration, is an energy-saving system where the heat from the steam evolved in
the reaction is recovered and used to warm up the cool water coming from the
vaporizer, thus regenerating the heating medium to this equipment.

Gases from the ammonia scrubber D-J-201, at 92.2 – 94.2ºC (depending on the
fertilizer grade being produced), are sent to the contact condenser D-E-201, that
operates under vacuum (from -450 to -660 mmwc). The steam entrained in the process
air is condensed by removal of the latent heat, transferring this heat to the cooled water
coming from the ammonia evaporator D-E-202 and producing a hot water stream which
is sent back to D-E-202 as heating medium to vaporize ammonia. The excess of water
(condensed steam) is sent to the dust scrubber D-J-202.

The temperature of the water at the inlet and outlet of the contact condenser depends
on the fertilizer grade being produced; the temperature difference is 24ºC for all
grades.

The air and the non-condensed steam leave the contact condenser through a
centrifugal radial type demister. During start-up, steam is sent to the contact condenser
in order to preheat the water once the condenser is filled.

At the ammonia evaporator D-E-202 there is no possibility of achieving a full


evaporation of all the liquid ammonia due to the displacement of the ammonia – water
equilibrium. In order to vaporize the residual ammonia and minimize the water
accumulation, avoiding an excessive enrichment of water in the liquid ammonia at the
bottom of the evaporator, a small vessel D-E-203 is provided.

The ammonia evaporator D-E-202 is sporadically drained to the auxiliary ammonia


vaporizer D-E-203, a vertical vessel with steam coils working at the same pressure (7.3
kg/cm2g) and higher temperature (90.2ºC) than the ammonia evaporator. The higher
operating temperature allows the vaporization of the residual ammonia using steam as
heating medium.

The auxiliary vaporizer also receives the discontinuous purge from the ammonia
separator D-V-203. The ammonia – water solution that accumulates in the bottom of
the auxiliary vaporizer, containing approx. 85%w of H2O, is periodically drained to the
ammonia collector and further sent to the ammonia blowdown pot, where gaseous
ammonia is disengaged from the aqueous medium.

The vaporization of ammonia depends on the duty entering in the process through heat
exchangers D-E-202 and D-E-203. The duty in D-E-203 is regulated with the steam
control valve TV-0204 depending on the temperature in D-E-202 shell, which is
measured by TT-0204.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 11 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

The duty involved in D-E-202 is regulated with a pressure control loop, split range type.
Pressure of the gaseous ammonia leaving D-E-202 is measured by PT-0204, and the
pressure controller PIC-0204 acts on the two hot water control valves PV-0204A and B
to control the vaporizer operating pressure by controlling the ammonia evaporation
rate. If pressure increases downstream D-E-202 the duty must be reduced in order to
evaporate less ammonia; hot water by-pass to D-E-202 shall be increased.

Accordingly, if pressure decreases downstream D-E-202 the duty must be increased in


order to evaporate more ammonia. If there is not enough ammonia evaporation in the
ammonia separator D-V-203 (i.e. if the temperature or the flow rate of atmospheric air
in the cooling battery is not enough to evaporate the required ammonia gas quantity)
D-E-202 must evaporate more ammonia in order to feed the required design flow rate
to the reaction system. The pressure controller PIC-0204 reduces the opening of the
by-pass valve PV-0204A to increase the hot water to the evaporator and thus the duty
in D-E-202.

Ammonia gas coming from the evaporator D-E-202, the auxiliary vaporizer D-E-203
and the ammonia separator D-V-203 is sent to the pipe reactors D-PR-301/302 for
NPK/DAP production.

3.2.4 Ammonia recovery

The gases coming from the granulator D-D-301 of the dry section pass through the
ammonia scrubber D-J-201 to recover the ammonia prior to be sent to the contact
condenser D-E-201. D-J-201 is a two-stage scrubber, provided with a venturi type
section and a second horizontal section, that operates under vacuum (-450 mmwc).

Ammoniated phosphoric acid from the recirculation tank D-V-201 is pumped by the
ammonia scrubber pumps D-P-202 A/B to both sections of D-J-201, to be used as
scrubbing liquor, allow recovering the most part of the ammonia entrained in the gases
coming from the granulator.

Granulator gases are sent to the first section (venturi type) of D-J-201 to be scrubbed
with ammoniated phosphoric acid coming from the recirculation tank. As the liquid acid
retains most of the ammonia entrained in the gases coming from the granulator, it gets
partially neutralized, and is sent to the pipe reactors D-PR-301 and D-PR-302 for
NPK/DAP production.

Ammoniated phosphoric acid is also pumped from D-V-201 to the second section of
the ammonia scrubber where partially de-ammoniated gases from the first part of the
scrubber, less rich in ammonia, are scrubbed and the acid retains almost all the
ammonia not absorbed in the first section. The acid from the second section of D-J-201
is sent by gravity flow back to the recirculation tank D-V-201.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 12 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

Gases from the second section of the D-J.201 leave the scrubber at 92.2 – 94.2ºC and
are routed to the contact condenser D-E-201, where steam is condensed to be used as
hot water in the ammonia evaporator D-E-202, as explained in previous section 3.2.3.

3.2.5 Dust recovery

The exhaust gases from the set of dedust and dryer cyclones D-F-301 and D-F-302
(and from the FBC cyclones D-F-303 when required) of the dry section, and the ex-
gases from the contact condenser D-E-201, are blown to the dust scrubber D-J-202
and then through fluorine scrubber D-J-203 for dedusting and cleaning prior to be
discharged to atmosphere (safe place).

The dust scrubber D-J-202 is a single-pass countercurrent spray tower that operates at
150 – 200 mmwc at the bottom of the gas zone and 100 – 160 mmwc at the top. The
operating temperature range is 51.8 – 53.1ºC for the bottom liquid and 71.5 – 75.1ºC
for the gas mixture.

Dusty gases enter tangentially through the lower side of the tower, flow upwards and
leave the scrubber through the central opening located on the upper part, where they
immediately enter the fluorine scrubber D-J-203. Exhaust gases from the dryer D-D-
302 and the dust recovery system (and from the FBC system when required) enter
directly to the equipment while gases from contact condenser enter through a venturi
system to catch all the remaining ammonia.

In this scrubber, the dust carried with the gases is removed by spraying a scrubbing
liquor (partially ammoniated phosphoric acid solution in the range 35 – 50% P2O5
concentration, 36 – 40%w under normal operating conditions) in countercurrent with
the gases. Gases flow upwards and the scrubbing solution flows downwards. The
scrubbing solution contacts the gases flowing upwards the scrubber and dissolves the
dust of NPK/DAP entrained in the exhaust gases, and also gets partially ammoniated
as the acid fixes most of the ammonia evolved in the dryer.

Merchant grade (50 – 54% P2O5) fresh phosphoric acid coming from battery limit is
sent to the bottom of the dust scrubber, to adjust its P2O5 content as explained in
previous section 3.2.2., by dilution at the bottom with a mixture of fluorine scrubbing
liquor and process water from the fluorine circulation tank D-V-204, hot water from the
contact condenser D-E-201 and, if required, also drains (partially ammoniated solution)
from effluent sump D-TK-201. The scrubbing liquor is partially recycled from the bottom
of the dust scrubber to the upper part by the dust scrubber pumps D-P-204 A/B.

The liquor from the fluorine scrubber D-J-203 contributes to the dilution of the
phosphoric acid solution in D-J-202 and also acts as scrubbing solution in D-J-202,
increasing the washing performance at this scrubber.

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 13 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

A second washing of the exhaust gases is performed in the fluorine scrubber D-J-203,
a single-pass packed bed countercurrent spray tower which is mounted attached to the
top of the dust scrubber D-J-202, that operates at 100 – 160 mmwc at the bottom (gas
inlet from D-J-202) and 20 – 90 mmwc at the top (exit to stack D-ST-201). The
operating temperature range is 50 – 56ºC for the scrubbing liquor and 67.6 – 69.9ºC for
the gas mixture.

Gases enter directly from the dust scrubber through the central bottom part of the
fluorine scrubber and leave centrally through the top, where they enter the stack D-ST-
201 prior to be discharged to atmosphere. The scrubbing liquor, an aqueous solution of
process water with max. 1%w H2SiF6 from the fluorine circulation tank, is sprayed
either above or below the floating-spheres packing. This washing allows the removal of
the fluorine carried by the exhaust gases and thus the gaseous emissions at stack can
fulfill the dust, ammonia and fluorine limits required according to Indian regulations.

A cowl is fitted in the bottom of the fluorine scrubber to prevent fluorine scrubbing liquor
from passing to the gas scrubber; the scrubbing solution is sent to the atmospheric
tank D-V-204, to be pumped back to the top of the fluorine scrubber D-J-203 and also
directly to the bottom of the dust scrubber D-J-202 for density control, via fluorine
scrubber pumps D-P-203 A/B.

3.2.6 Effluent system

When the NPK/DAP Plant is operating under normal design condition, with utilities and
raw materials under specification, the plant shall produce zero industrial liquid effluents.
The wet section of the plant will be provided with a plant sump D-TK-202, fitted with a
vertical sump pump D-P-209 and an agitator D-N-203, and a separate equalization
pond or effluent sump D-TK-201. This pond will be fitted with two compartments with
one agitator (D-N-201 and D-N-202) installed in each one. Also independent pumping
facilities (D-P-205 and D-P-206) are provided to both compartments of this pond.

All the liquid drains from piping, equipment and other components will be collected in a
drainage network and sent to the plant sump to be pumped to the effluent sump or to
the recirculation tank D-V-201. Transfer from small plant sump to bigger effluent sump
is achieved by gravity flow. The ammonia blowdown pot will also be manually drained
to the plant sump D-TK-202.

The effluent sump D-TK-201 collects the drains from plant sump D-TK-202 and the
storm water from the area, and pumps the sump content into the process, to the dust
scrubber D-J-202 or to the recirculation tank D-V-201 if required, and thus effluents are
treated in the plant itself.

During normal operation, dosing flow rate of ammoniated phosphoric acid solution from
plant sump to the recirculation tank D-V-201, and from effluent sump to the dust

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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 14 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

scrubber D-J-202 or to D-V-201, shall be limited to 5 m3/h maximum, in order to avoid


runaway process parameters like moisture or P2O5 content. Flow rate from plant and
effluent sump are measured and indicated by FT/FI-0107 and FT/FI-0108.

Steam condensate will be recovered in the plant and routed to a condensate tank D-V-
206, from where will be normally pumped to the soft water tank of the Owner’s boiler
house.

3.3 DRY SECTION

3.3.1 Solid raw material handling

The dry section of the NPK/DAP plant is provided with a raw material storage and
distribution system with the following components:

– A dedicated hopper for the management of solid raw materials: a potash


hopper of 150 m3 of capacity (D-V-301), a filler hopper of 60 m3 of capacity (D-
V-303), a micronutrient hopper of 3 m3 (D-V-305), and a spillage hopper (D-V-
304) of 30 m3 of capacity. Spillage hopper can also be used as spare. No lump
breakers are to be provided for these hoppers as raw materials are assumed
to be supplied from OSBL under specification.

– A dedicated continuous weighing feeder for each solid raw material hopper (D-
H-315, D-H-317 and D-H-318) excepting the micronutrients, which are dosed
by the screw conveyor D-H-319 instead of a weighing feeder because the
dosing quantity is lower than the required dosing of the other solid raw
materials.

– A transport system (recycle belt conveyor D-H-301, granulator diverter D-H-


302 and granulator bucket elevator D-H-303) to the reaction / granulation
section.

The operating philosophy of the solid raw material filling and storage is to keep all raw
material hoppers filled between 50% and 70% of capacity and make the hoppers filling
independently.

The raw material feeding system (by HDO) delivers the raw material to the
corresponding hopper, depending on the raw material being transported, or to the
spillage hopper if there has been some kind of deviation from the required raw
materials specifications and material is found to be off-spec. This hopper can also
collect spillages and off-quality product, which can be added to the granulation circuit if
required through the raw material system. Micronutrient hopper is filled directly from
bags.

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 15 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

Raw materials are sent from each hopper to the recycle belt conveyor D-H-301 by a
dedicated feeder (weigher type or screw conveyor). These continuous equipments
allow the dosing of the solid raw materials in the required ratio according to a product
analysis of fertilizer grade produced. The potash, filler, spillage and micronutrient
weight dosed is indicated and recorded for all the hoppers by the weigh scales WT-
1002, WT-1004, WT-1005 and WT-1001.

The recycle conveyor D-H-301 also handles the solid recycle to the granulator, which
comprises off-spec product or overflow product from different sources of the process
(fines from the process screens D-S-301 to D-S-304 and/or the oversize pulverizers D-
A-302 to D-A-305, overflow product from hoppers D-V-306 and D-V-307, dust from the
cyclones screw conveyors D-H-306, D-H-307 and D-H-308, and fines from the
polishing screen D-S-305).

From D-H-301 the solid raw materials and the recycle solids are fed to the granulator
D-D-301 by a system comprising a bucket elevator D-H-303 and a solid diverter D-H-
302 that drives the material to the granulator towards a chute or to battery limit if
material is not found under specification.

3.3.2 Reaction and granulation section

In the pipe reactors D-PR-301 and D-PR-302, with a unique design based on an
excellent corrosion-resistant pipe to which phosphoric acid and gaseous ammonia are
simultaneously added through a special piping configuration, takes place the
ammonization of the partially neutralized phosphoric acid coming from the first section
of the ammonia scrubber D-J-201, for both NPK and DAP grades. Pipe reactor
operation will be adjustable to both NPK or DAP grade, giving the system a great
flexibility. Different nozzles and venturis will be provided to allow the operation at
different grades.

Ammonia is fed to the reactor at 29ºC and maximum 7.3 kg/cm2g, while partially
neutralized phosphoric acid is normally fed at 87.8ºC – 90.5ºC (minimum 60ºC,
maximum 100ºC), depending on fertilizer grade, and maximum 7.5 kg/cm2g.

As pipe reactors can operate in parallel mode or in duty / standby mode, the ammonia
and acid supply to the reactors is controlled independently.

The ammoniated phosphoric acid is sent to the pipe reactors from the feeding pumps
D-P-201 A/B/C via two independent pipes from two different pumps. Three pumps are
installed for acid supply to the reaction system, to increase operating flexibility (two
duty / one standby when both reactors are operating in parallel, or one duty / two
standby in case only one reactor is under operation). Ammonia is fed via two
independent pipes coming from one common pipeline.

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 16 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

Both raw materials are fed to each reactor in a cascade flow control loop. Prior to the
inlet to a reactor, both the ammonia gas and the phosphoric acid flow are measured
(by the flow meters FT-0203 / FT-0105 for D-PR-301, and FT-0204 / FT-0106 in the
case of D-PR-302). Coriolis-type mass flow meters are installed for ammonia gas
measure, and magnetic-type volumetric flow meters to measure the acid flow rate.

The reagents are fed under an accurate cascade control of the ammonia/acid molar
ratio in order to achieve the optimum performance in the reactor, keeping steady
granulation conditions, minimizing ammonia losses and avoiding feed disturbances
leading to an uncontrolled reaction.

Ammonia gas is fed to the reactors by independent flow control loops FIC/FV-0203 and
FIC/FV-0204 according to the flow set point of the ammonia controllers. This set point
is fixed by the operator and depends on fertilizer grade; the normal operating set point
will be 5193 kg/h for NPK10-26-26, 6233 kg/h for NPK12-32-16,7180 kg/h for NPK 14-
35-14 and 7738 kg/h for DAP.

A ratio station (FFY-0105 and FFY-0106) regulates the phosphoric acid flow according
to the ammonia fed to each pipe reactor. Each ratio station receives the ammonia gas
flow rate fed to the reactor and the measured acid flow rate, and calculates the
ammonia / acid molar ratio.

In the case of pipe reactor D-PR-301, acid flow rate can be controlled acting either over
the control valve FV-0105 or over the speed of the pipe reactor feed pump (D-P-201 A,
B or C) supplying acid to the reactor. The selector HS-0105 allows the operator to fix
whether the acid flow rate shall be controlled by the flow control valve or through the
pump frequency inverter. The calculated ratio from the ratio station FFY-0105 is sent to
the selector and further to the flow controller FIC-0105 or to the speed controller SIC-
0105. These controllers also receive the required ammonia /acid ratio as set point
input, fixed by the operator. The normal operating set point of the molar ratio ammonia
/ acid will be 2 for fertilizer production without liquid ammonia supply to granulator
sparger, and1.85 when liquid ammonia is fed to the granulator sparger.

The acid flow is then fixed according to the calculated ammonia / acid ratio and the
ratio set point, and controlled either by changing the opening of the acid flow control
valve FV-0105 or the rotation speed of the acid feeding pump (D-P-201 A, B or C) in
order to feed the ammoniated phosphoric acid flow rate required to meet the ratio set
point.

Acid supply to D-PR-302 is only regulated by the control loop FIC/FV-0106; no action
over the speed of the pipe reactor feed pumps D-P-201 A/B/C is allowed in order to
avoid control disturbances and/or interferences with the feeding control loop of the pipe
reactor D-PR-301 when reactors are operating in parallel mode.

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 17 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

The phosphoric acid neutralization takes place in the pipe reactor, where ammonia and
phosphoric acid react under pressure. The normal operating backpressure shall be
between 4 and 7 kg/cm2g. Due to the ammonization reactions, the normal operating
temperature increases up to 120ºC (maximum150ºC). Temperature in the pipe reactors
D-PR-301 and D-PR-302 is measured and indicated by TI-1301 and TI-1302
respectively, while pipe reactors back pressure is indicated by PI-0124 / PI-0126 / PI-
0212 / PI-0214 and PI-0125 / PI-0127 / PI-0213 / PI-0215 respectively. Heat released
by the exothermic chemical reaction allows evaporating most of the water content in
the relatively diluted phosphoric acid feed, and thus a great amount of steam is
released by the reaction.

The mixture of di-ammonium phosphate and water forms a melt that discharges from
the opposite end of the pipe, located inside the granulator D-D-301. The melt from the
reactor is sprayed over the bed of the material inside of the granulator. A uniform
distribution of the melt on the top of the rolling bed of material existing inside the
granulator (product and recycled fines) is achieved. By a combined effect of
temperature, moisture of the melt and rotating movement, the mixture of melt and fines
becomes granulated in D-D-301.

The steam evolved from the vaporization of water and the un-reacted ammonia are
entrained in the air flowing through granulator; this gaseous stream is sent to the first
section of the ammonia scrubber D-J-201 to perform ammonia recovery.

At the outlet of the granulator drum, the temperature and moisture of the solids are in
the order of 85 – 100ºC, depending on fertilizer grade (normally 85 – 90ºC for NPKs
and 95ºC for DAP), and 2.7 – 3.0%w. To prevent the buildup of solids, the granulator
walls are lined with self cleaning rubber panels which also minimize heat losses.

An ammonia sparger is provided in the granulator to perform the ammonization in


granulator when required. Ammonization in granulator depends on the MgO content in
the phosphoric acid; for quantities higher than 1%w it is recommended the use of an
ammonia sparger to ensure product quality and proper granulometry, hardness,
roundness, etc.

Ammonia addition to the granulator ensures the completion of the phosphoric acid
ammonization up to the final required N/P ratio for the fertilizer being produced. Liquid
ammonia is fed in the bottom of the bed in order to minimize the ammonia losses; the
sparger with metallic flexible hoses and rigid pipes offers minimum resistance to the
bed. Flow rate of ammonia to the granulator sparger is controlled by the single control
loop FIC/FV-0205.

Steam for flushing purpose is provided for each pipe reactor, as is required to warm up
the equipment during start-up and to perform sporadic cleaning of the equipment
during operation or in case of plugging. The steam pipelines must be closed under

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 18 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

normal operation and when the pipe reactor is out of service. The steam on-off valves
(XV-0502, XV-0505 and XV-0506 for D-PR-301, and XV-0503, XV-0504 and XV-0507
for D-PR-302) allow feeding and cutting the steam supply to the reactors, and can
either be automatically open/closed by the interlock system or manually open/closed by
the operator via push button. Steam will be supplied to the reactors via ammonia gas
circuit and phosphoric acid circuit.

The steam flushing of the pipe reactors will be automatically enabled from PLC by the
interlock system, in case of reaction shut-down caused by one of the reaction trip
initiators such as equipment failures (pipe reactor pumps D-P-201 A/B/C, ammonia
scrubber pumps D-P-202 A/B, condenser pumps D-P-207 A/B, ammonia scrubber fan
D-K-201 or granulator D-D-301), or levels, pressures or flow rates that are above or
below the trip points, i.e., very low pressure of instrument air, very high ammonia level
in the ammonia evaporator or very low flow of reagents feeding the reactors.

Automatic opening of valves shall be provided with permissives ensuring the feeding of
reagents to the reaction system is closed prior to the opening of steam valves, and a
timer shall be implemented for the automatic closing of the steam valves once flushing
has been completed.

Steam flushing can also be manually enabled by operator if required after other
process disturbances, i.e., when backpressure in the reactor is higher than 7 kg/cm2g.
Operator shall also ensure the feeding to the reaction system is closed prior to start the
steam flushing sequence.

Once reactors have been properly cleaned, the steam flushing shall be closed, the pipe
reactors started and flows to plant restored.

The granulation control must be checked by operating personnel. As granulation


depends on the product inlet temperature, the liquid/solid ratio and the rotating system,
operating personnel shall check the granulator operation moving the reactor charge.
The recycle quantity shall also be controlled according to the fertilizer grades avoiding
any variation that can adversely affect the granulation process. The granulation
temperature shall be checked, assuring is kept between 85 and 100ºC; moisture, pH
and size of the solid coming from the granulator shall also be checked.

The wet product leaving the granulator is sent to the dryer D-D-302 by a direct short-
length chute. Distance between granulator and dryer shall be minimized to avoid build-
up of wet product.

3.3.2.1 Turn – down


The scrubbing loop and the solid handling loop are linked through the reaction and
granulation step. As both loops are able to work with a very low production load,

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 19 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

the turn-down ratio of the plant is limited by the pipe reactor and granulator. Each
pipe reactor is expected to operate in a turn-down ratio of 80% to 110%, and as
the unit is provided with two pipe reactors, each one for half production load, the
overall unit has an expected turndown ratio from 40% to 110%.

In the event of running the plant at 40% load, it would be better to use only one
pipe reactor at 80% load rather than two pipe reactors at 40% load.

3.3.3 Solids handling section

From the granulator, a conventional process scheme is developed for the handling of
solids, which can be described as follows:

3.3.3.1 Drying
The drying of the granulated product is done in one step. The granulated product
falls from D-D-301 into the rotary dryer D-D-302, which operates in the
temperature range 88 – 95ºC (88 – 90ºC at the outlet, and 90 – 95ºC at the inlet,
depending on the fertilizer grade), where it gets in contact with a co-current flow of
air at 150ºC coming from the combustion chamber D-U-301, and the product is
dried to the desired moisture content (1%w H2O for NPK, 1.5%w H2O for DAP).
The rotary dryer is fitted with a lump crusher D-A-301.

The temperature at the outlet of the rotary dryer D-D-302 shall be controlled while
optimizing the excess of combustion air to D-U-301 for fuel efficiency. If drying
operation does not proceed properly, i.e., if the temperature of the hot gases from
the combustion chamber to the dryer is too high or too low, off-specification
product (in terms of water content, stability, particle size distribution, etc.) will exit
the dryer.

As a minimum, the combustion chamber control loop shall achieve the functionality
outlined in this section; the control philosophy summarized in this section is
preliminary and intended as a reference, as the control design is to be confirmed
by vendor of combustion chamber.

The combustion chamber consist in a horizontal air heater, direct – fired and
forced draft type, supplied with fuel (natural gas) coming from battery limit (at 35ºC
and 4 kg/cm2g) and atmospheric air as combustion medium, to produce hot air
that will be used in the rotary dryer D-D-302. Atmospheric air can be also fed to
the combustion chamber by an independent system, as dilution medium to reduce
the combustion temperature when required. Recycled hot gases coming from the
fluidized bed cooler D-FB-301 can be also fed to the chamber, contributing to
increase the overall energy saving.

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PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 20 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

Natural gas to the combustion chamber will be supplied through two (2) lines, one
primary line for normal operation and a secondary line to be used during start-up
operations, while atmospheric air will be supplied through two (2) different
systems. Primary air (combustion air) will be supplied from the combustion air fan
D-K-301 and secondary air (dilution air) is supplied from the dilution air fan D-K-
302. During normal operation, also dedusted hot air coming from the fluidized bed
cooler of the NPK/DAP Plant is also supplied by the FBC outlet fan D-K-303. Prior
to the inlet to the combustion chamber, both the natural gas and the primary air
flow rates are measured by the magnetic-type volumetric flow meters FT-0601 and
FT-0801.

The combustion process is controlled by both the temperature at the dryer outlet
and the temperature at the combustion chamber outlet.

The control philosophy is designed to optimize the excess air for fuel efficiency, in
such a way that, when an increase in duty is required, air flow rate is increased
before increasing the fuel flow rate. Accordingly, when a decrease in combustion
chamber duty is required the fuel flow rate is reduced prior to the air flow rate
being reduced.

The temperature of the exhaust gases at the outlet of the dryer D-D-302
commands both the natural gas flow rate and the primary atmospheric air flow rate
in cascade control loops. Combustion air flow rate is speed controlled by SIC-0801
through the frequency inverter of the combustion fan D-K-301 drive, while natural
gas supply is flow controlled by FIC-0601 by changing the opening of the control
valve FV-0601.

Firing demand is set by the temperature of the ex-dryer gases, measured by


transmitter TT-0810, and it is used for regulating the fuel and combustion air flow
rates by sending it to a pair of signal selectors TY-0810A and B. Low temperature
signal (i.e. increase in firing or fuel demand) will increase air flow rate prior to
increase fuel flow rate, and high temperature signal (i.e. decrease in fuel demand)
will first decrease natural gas supply to the combustion chamber.

The hand-controlled block HC-0801 is included with the purpose of enabling the
operator to manually manipulate the operating air / fuel ratio, depending on the
excess air desired to be used. This ratio is used to calculate the natural gas flow
rate as a function of the atmospheric air flow rate, or vice versa, depending on the
temperature at the outlet of the dryer.

The high signal selector TY-0810A governs when temperature at the dryer outlet is
low and will control the primary air flow rate, to increase combustion air flow rate
before increasing fuel supply to the combustion chamber. This selector compares
the firing rate demand from the controller TIC-0810 against the measured natural

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 21 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

gas flow rate from FT-0601 and selects the higher value. The fuel flow rate signal
of this selector is further multiplied with the air / fuel ratio set by the operator, thus
obtaining the required combustion air flow rate, which is the set point of the
controller SIC-0801. This controller also receives the measured flow rate of
combustion air from FT-0801 and changes the speed of the combustion fan D-K-
301 to control the combustion air to be sent to D-U-301.

The low signal selector TY-0810B governs when the temperature at the dryer
outlet is high, and will control the decrease of the natural gas flow rate that shall be
performed prior to decrease the combustion air to D-U-301. This selector
compares the firing rate demand from TIC-0810 against the fuel signal obtained by
dividing the measured flow rate of combustion air from FT-0801 by the air/fuel ratio
set by the operator. This required fuel flow rate is to be further compared with the
measured natural gas flow rate from FT-0601, and the set point of the flow
controller FIC-0601 will be changed to meet the required fuel demand. This flow
controller governs the natural gas flow rate to the combustion chamber by
changing the opening of the control valve FV-0601.

Moreover, the temperature of the hot gases from D-U-301 to D-D-302 controls the
flow rate of dilution air (secondary air) to the combustion chamber. Transmitter TT-
0807 measures the temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and
commands the draught of the fan D-K-302 in a single temperature – speed
cascade control loop over SIC-0802.

Flow rate of dedusted dryer gases from the set of cyclones D-F-302 to the dryer
fan D-K-304 is controlled by the pressure at the inlet of the dryer. Pressure is
measured by the transmitter PT-0811 and used to control the draught of D-K-304,
located downstream the cyclones where the dryer gases are sent, by governing
the opening of the vane damper D-DVM-304 located at fan suction.

3.3.3.2 Screening
Product leaving the dryer D-D-302 is collected in the product belt conveyor D-H-
305 and lifted by the bucket elevator D-H-309 up to the top of the screen package
D-S-301 to D-S-304, for a size-classification.

Each couple of process screens (D-S-301/302, and D-S-303/304) is provided with


a common product hopper (D-V-306 and D-V-307) and a pair of dedicated
crushers (D-A-302/303 and D-A-304/305). This dual hopper system will increase
operational flexibility in product handling system and avoid operational problems
due to chocking and downtime.

The product from the bucket elevator D-H-309 is sent to the static distributor D-H-
310 that diverts the product to the selected screen (D-S-301, D-S-302, D-S-303 or

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PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 22 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

D-S-304), where the solid is segregated into three fractions: the coarse (> 4 mm),
the product (1 – 4 mm) and the fines (< 1 mm). Inlet bulk size distribution depends
on the fertilizer grade, while outlet bulk size distribution will be 90% minimum for
on-spec particles (1 – 4 mm) and 5% maximum for fines (< 1mm), under normal
operating conditions, for any fertilizer grade.

The on-size fraction (≥90% 1 – 4 mm) from the screens D-S-301 and D-S-302 falls
into the product hopper D-V-306 while the on-size fraction from the screens D-S-
303 and D-S-304 falls into the second hopper D-V-307.

The coarse fraction leaving the screens is sent to the corresponding oversize
pulverizer (D-A-302 to D-A-305) for a size reduction before reprocessing. Crushed
materials from the mills and the fines from the screens fall directly to the recycle
conveyor D-H-301.

Part of the product stored in the product hopper D-V-306 is discharged to the
adjustable speed belt conveyor D-H-330 while D-V-307 discharges product to the
adjustable speed belt conveyor D-H-331.These independent and dedicated belt
conveyors allow to deliver the product from each hopper to the feeding system of
the cooling and coating area, comprising the cooler feed belt conveyors D-H-313
and D-H-314.

The rest of the on-size fraction from the product hoppers is sent to the
corresponding crushers D-A-302/303 or D-A-304/305 via diverters D-H-311 and D-
H-312, to be further sent to the recycle conveyor D-H-301 after size reduction.
Both product hoppers will also be provided with a damper to allow the overflow of
product directly to the recycle conveyor D-H-301 by-passing the pulverizing
system.

In the recycle belt conveyor a weigh scale is provided to measure the recycle ratio.
The overflow of the product bins D-V-306/307 is required to allow speed variations
in the product belts D-H-330 and D-H-331 and thus the possibility of adjusting the
production rate in these belts and the recycle to D-H-301. Recycle ratio is
controlled by increasing or decreasing the on-size product overflow from the
product hoppers to the recycle conveyor. The solid overflow rate depends on the
granulation performance. Under normal operation the recycle rate shall be steady
in order to avoid disturbances on granulation performance. The weight meter
indicator WI-1006, located in the recycle conveyor, shall be continuously
monitoring the recycle rat; normal operating values are 225 t/h for DAP, 187 t/h for
NPK 12-32-16, 178.5 t/h for NPK 10-26-26 and 195.2 t/h for NPK 14-35-14.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 23 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

3.3.4 Fluidized bed cooler air conditioning

To reach the desired temperature of product to storage (40ºC) the on-size product is
cooled in the fluidized bed cooler D-FB-301, which is fed with air conditioned. The
temperature and relative humidity of atmospheric air to be used in the FBC must be
adjusted depending upon ambient conditions and critical relative humidity (CRH) of the
NPK and DAP products. This property is used as an indicator of the degree of likely
interaction of the fertilizer with the atmosphere and shall be taken into account in the
design of the fertilizer drying process and the air conditioning of the drying air.

CRH is the value of the relative humidity of the ambient surrounding air below which a
material losses moisture to the atmosphere and above which the material absorbs
moisture from the atmosphere. The CRH of a material decreases with increasing
temperature.

The atmospheric air temperature must be conditioned and air moisture reduced, even
more during raining season, prior to be fed to the fluidized bed cooler to effect cooling
without wetting of the product, maintaining always the moisture of the product below its
critical relative humidity.

The air conditioning system is required to cool down and condition (dehumidify) the
atmospheric air prior to be supplied to the fluidized bed cooler D-FB-301 and will
consist in the following equipment: air cooling battery (comprising an air intake filter,
FBC air chiller D-E-301, air droplets separator D-H-324 and the ammonia separator D-
V-203), and air heating section (FBC air heater D-E-302). The air intake filter, the
droplets separator and the heat exchangers D-E-301 and D-E-302 are to be located in
one casing.

3.3.4.1 Air cooling section


The air cooling battery will use liquid ammonia to cool down the air to be further
sent to the fluidized bed cooler D-FB-301.

Atmospheric air at 41ºC and 60% moisture (80% for design case) is sucked and
sent to a filter element fitted with a protective antibird screen, to remove any
foreign material. Filtered air is cooled to 23.9ºC in the fluidized bed air chiller D-E-
301, single-pass finned tube type, with liquid ammonia coming from the ammonia
separator D-V-203, and liquid ammonia is partially vaporized as the atmospheric
air temperature decreases. An excessive cooling of the air must not be achieved
as could result in the absorption of atmospheric moisture by the material and could
finally lead to caking.

The ammonia separator D-V-203 is a vertical liquid-vapor separator that operates


at 7.3 kg/cm2g and equilibrium temperature (19.2ºC). The separator is

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 24 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

continuously fed with part of the liquid ammonia coming from battery limit; the level
at the equipment is measured by the transmitter LT-0206 and the controller LIC-
0206 commands the opening of the level control valve LV-0206, thus controlling
the liquid ammonia flow rate to D-V-203 and keeping a steady liquid level inside
the equipment. From the bottom of this vertical vessel, liquid ammonia flows to
the FBC air chiller D-E-301 and the liquid-vapor stream from the chiller is sent
back to the separator, where liquid ammonia is disengaged from ammonia gas.

Liquid from D-V-203 is returned to D-E-301 for further air cooling while the
overhead gas is sent to the reaction system. Natural circulation of ammonia
between D-V-203 and D-E-301 governs the performance of the system.

Moreover, the ammonia separator D-V-203 is periodically purged by the dosing


pumps D-P-211 A/B to the ammonia auxiliary vaporizer D-E-203, to avoid an
excessive enrichment of water in the liquid at the bottom of the separator.

Downstream the air cooler D-E-301, a droplet separator D-H-324 is provided to


condense and remove from the air stream part of the water contained in this air,
avoiding condensed water reaching the perforated plate of the fluidized bed
cooler. Saturated air coming from the droplet separator at 23.9ºC is sent to the
heating section.

3.3.4.2 Heating section


Dry and cool air from D-H-324 is heated with condensing steam in the fluidized
bed air heater D-E-302, finned tube type, up to the temperature required at the
fluidized bed cooler inlet (30ºC). The temperature at the outlet of D-E-302 is
measured by the transmitter TT-0818 and sent to controller TIC-0818, that
governs the stem supply to the tube side of the FBC air heater via the temperature
control valve TV-0818, thus controlling the heating rate.

3.3.5 Product conditioning

Belt conveyors D-H-313 and D-H-314 send the on-size product from hoppers D-V-306
and D-V-307 to a double-stage fluidized bed cooler D-FB-301, where it is cooled down
to the required storage temperature of 40ºC.

Conditioned air from the FBC heater D-E-302 is blown by the FBC inlet fan D-K-306
through the second section of the fluidized bed cooler, the exhaust gases from this
section are sucked by the FBC recirculation fan D-K-307 and blown to the first section
of the fluidized bed cooler, passing through the bed. The exhaust gases of the first
section, with an operating temperature of 66.1 – 68.0ºC (depending on fertilizer grade),
are sent to the set of cyclones D-F-303 of the dust collecting section.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 25 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

The cool product from the fluidized bed cooler is lifted by the bucket elevator D-H-321
up to the polishing screen D-S-305 for a removal of fines before being sent to the
coating section. The separated fines fall to the recycle belt conveyor D-H-301 and the
product from the screen D-S-305 fall into the coater drum D-D-303, spraying type,
where it is coated by an amine-based liquid agent or paraffinic oil agent to prevent
caking during the storage. The dosages and coating agent type depends on the NPK
grades and type of coating agent; coater drum is required to be by-passed during DAP
production as DAP fertilizer will not require to be coated. This by-pass is enabled by
the diverter D-H-320.

Product from the coater drum, or by-passing the coater drum in the case of DAP
production, is finally sent OSBL to storage through the product belt conveyor D-H-323.

A coating package will be provided to supply coating agent to D-D-303. This package
comprises two (2) dosing pumps D-P-301 A/B and a coating tank D-V-308. Dosing is
performed by ratio control. Flow rate of coating agent is measured by FT-1201,
magnetic-type flow meter located at the discharge of the dosing pumps, and adjusted
by changing the opening of the flow control valve FV-1201 depending on the amount of
product sent to storage, given by the weigh scale WT-1301 of the product conveyor D-
H-323. This conveyor is also fitted with a temperature transmitter TT-1306, to check the
temperature of the product to storage, and a continuous sampler D-H-322. Finished
product is assumed to be sampled hourly to perform all the required analysis to assure
product quality and specifications.

3.3.6 Dust collecting system

A dust collecting system is provided for all the plant area; contaminated air is sent to a
dedusting system in order to reduce air emissions. The dust collecting system
comprises a network of dust capture points located in any solid handling equipment
and ducts, e.g. two or more dust extraction points fitted to the enclosure of belt
conveyors, one extraction point at the head and bottom of each bucket elevator,
extraction points at crushers, hoppers and screens, any transfer solid point, etc.

The exhaust gases from the dryer D-D-302, at 91ºC (maximum 128ºC) and the dust
recovery system, at 50 – 55ºC (maximum 70ºC, depending on fertilizer grade), are sent
to high efficiency multiple-cyclone separators D-F-301 (dedust cyclones) and D-F-302
(dryer cyclones) respectively, where the most part of the dust content is removed, and
the exhaust gases, air with dust particles and traces of ammonia, are discharged to the
dust scrubbing system D-J-202 of the wet section by the dedust fan D-K-305 and the
dryer fan D-K-304.

Moreover, as explained in previous section 3.3.3., hot air at 66.1 – 68ºC (maximum
86ºC) coming from the fluidized bed cooler D-FB-301 is dedusted in the high efficiency
multiple-cyclone separator D-F-303 to be further used in the combustion chamber as

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 26 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

dilution air, thus contributing to the overall energy saving. There is also the possibility to
send this dedusted air to the dust scrubber D-J-202 of the wet section if required.

The dust collected by cyclones D-F-301, D-F-302 and D-F-303 is discharged from the
cyclone hoppers to the screw conveyors D-H-306, D-H-307 and D-H-308 respectively,
and further to the recycle conveyor D-H-301. The discharge through screw conveyors
is beneficial from the sealing point of view.

Due to the process conditions the fine product will flow though the screw conveyors;
these conveyors allow emptying the cyclones.

3.4 GASEOUS AND LIQUID EFFLUENTS

The plant has a stack (D-ST-201) for the total gases leaving the scrubbing system. The
contents of this flow to atmosphere shall fulfil with the required emission levels in NH3,
dust and fluorine. When the NPK/DAP Plant is operating under normal design condition,
with utilities and raw materials under specification, the gaseous emissions at stack will
met the following limits:

Gaseous emissions at stack Limits


Dust – Particulate matter ≤ 50 mg / Nm3
Ammonia (NH3) ≤ 50 mg / Nm3
Fluorine ≤ 10 mg / Nm3

When the NPK/DAP Plant is operating under normal design condition, with utilities and
raw materials under specification, the plant shall produce zero industrial liquid effluents.

3.5 CHANGE–OVER PROCEDURE

The changeover of the formulation allows adapting the production line in response to
market demand. Changeover takes place according to production planning. The design of
the plant is well adapted to switch production between different fertilizer grades quickly
and efficiently. Changeover time cannot be controlled, thus in the following description
only typical times expected for changeover activities are provided. These time values can
only be taken into account for reference and information.

Several important issues have been considered to make changeover feasible:

– Pipe reactors:

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 27 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

Special-design venturis for NPK grade and for DAP grade are to be provided as
the sizing of the venturis is different depending on the product and thus this
special parts of the pipe reactors need to be changed when changing the
production.

– Other plant equipment:


Several equipment of the process scheme, such as diverters, product conveyors
and the ex-dryer, are included and designed to give plant flexibility and a rapid
changeover capability, making feasible to carry out unloading operations and
partial or total plant emptying in a relatively short period of time. The raw material
handling system sends this product to the plant for reprocessing.

– Seed:
The seed, either NPK or DAP, has to be selected previously in raw material silo.
From NPK to DAP it is necessary to unload the plant and load the plant with DAP
seed. It is also needed to simultaneously change the special parts of pipe reactors.

The following switches can be done in the production line of the plant:
– Switch from DAP to NPK (any grade):
• No partial or total plant emptying is required.
• Recycle ratio shall be decreased to start with NPK grade.
• Required shutdown of pipe reactors to change installed DAP venturis to
NPK venturis.
• It will take around 2 hours to complete the changeover procedure, even if
the venturis change is already done. This period of time is mainly required
for maintenance and cleaning operations, inspection of chutes, and others.
• In case that DAP venturis of the pipe reactors would remain in the position,
there would not be a shutdown, and the production could be adjusted with
DAP venturis, one at 100%, and other one at 80% without stopping the
plant for 100% plant load. This changeover could take around 40 min, and
the formulation adjust will take between 2 – 3 hours.

– Switch from NPK (any grade) to DAP:


• Plant shall be unloaded due to the potash content and loaded with DAP
seed.
• If NPK venturis are installed in pipe reactors, these venturis shall be
replaced by DAP venturis during the emptying process.
• This changeover might take between 3 – 5 hours, including emptying and
loading the DAP seed.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA
PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 28 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

– Switch between different NPK grades:


• Pipe reactors shall remain in the current position.
• It will take around 30 minutes to complete the changeover procedure
(comprising mainly a properly adjustment of the recycle to the value
required to achieve target grade).

4. RAW MATERIAL CONSUMPTION PER TONNE

The following table summarizes the specification and normal expected consumption of raw
material, chemical, utilities and product once the plant is operating at design conditions,
100% load, with utilities and raw materials under specification. Guaranteed values are
indicated in document No. 08170-D-690-ES-0001 (“Design Basis”), while expected
consumption figures will be as follows:

SPECIFIC CONSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIAL, UTILITIES AND CHEMICALS

Product
Raw material, 18-46-0 14-35-14 12-32-16 10-26-26
chemical, utility
P2O5 (acid) 100%, kg/t 460.1 352 321.0 260.8
Potash (wet basis) 60% K2O, kg/t --- 234.5 268.0 435.5
Ammonia 100%, kg/t 218.9 168.1 145.9 121.6
Filler (dry base 100%), kg/t 0.02 6.9 49.5 5.4
Sulphuric Acid, kg/t 5.47 --- --- ---
3
Process Water, m /t 0.3 0.3 0.25 0.25
Steam, kg/t 25 25 25 25
Natural Gas, kg/t 3.0 4.5 4.5 4.5
Defoamer (fatty oil), kg/t 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Coating agent (fatty / amine oil), kg/t --- 6 6 6
Power, kWh/t 35 34 34 34

5. SPECIFICATION OF FEEDSTOCKS AND UTILITIES

Specification of feedstocks and utilities are provided in document No. 08170-D-690-ES-0001


(“Design Basis”). Also details about tolerances in input quality specifications are provided in
the referenced document.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 29 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

6. COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS, LIQUID AND SOLID WASTES

The plant is provided with high efficiency cyclones to dedust the gases coming from the
dryer, the dust recovery system and the fluidized bed cooler. The gases coming from the
granulator are rich in ammonia and are sent to a two-stage ammonia scrubber for ammonia
recovery.

Dedusted gases from FBC are used under normal operation as dilution air in the combustion
chamber of the dryer. Dedusted gases from the dryer and the dust recovery system, and the
ammonia – poor gases from the ammonia scrubber and contact condenser are sent to the
dust scrubber and further to the fluorine scrubber, where gases are cleaned prior to be
discharged to atmosphere (safe place) through the stack. Clean gases discharged to
atmosphere shall fulfil with the required emission levels in NH3, dust and fluorine.

When the NPK/DAP Plant is operating under normal design condition, with utilities and raw
materials under specification, the following effluents will be produced:

– Gaseous emissions at stack: these emissions will have the following composition:

NPK NPK NPK DAP


Composition (kg/h)
12-32-16 14-35-14 10-26-26 (18-46-0)
P2O5 --- --- --- ---
N --- --- --- ---
K2O --- --- --- ---
H2SO4 --- --- --- ---
Filler / Others --- --- --- ---
H2O 34884 37558 30807 38779
F 1 1 1 1
NH3 14 15 11 14
Dry air 347275 341102 333756 319608
Dry fertilizer (dust) 5 5 5 5
Fuel --- - --- ---
Normal flow (kg/h) 382178 378682 364579 358414

– Liquid effluents: the plant shall produce zero industrial liquid effluents during
normal operating conditions. All the liquid drains are collected and pumped into the
process, and thus treated in the plant itself. The recovered steam condensate will
be collected in a condensate tank D-V-206 and pumped OSBL, to the Owner’s
boiler house.

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total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
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PROJECT: DAP/NPK PLANT AT SIKKA UNIT OF GSFC PROJECT: 08170

PROCESS DESCRIPTION PAGE 30 OF 30

DOCUMENT CODE: 08170-D-690-ES-0002 REV.: 01

– Solid wastes: solid wastes will not be generated on continuous basis during normal
operating conditions. Waste oil is sporadically drained and sent to waste
management. Quantities will fulfill the limits according to applicable GPCB norms.
Also product spillages are expected to occasionally happen, and these spillages
are recovered to be reprocessed.

This document and its information are property of TECNICAS REUNIDAS/ESPINDESA, any reproduction or use of its content,
total or partial, including any of its characteristics patented or able to be patented, is forbidden and it cannot be reproduced or
used without the permission of TECNICAS REUNIDAS and ESPINDESA