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 Gate to gate?

"The `gate-to-gate' scope is considered to start at the moment

the user first interacts with ATM and ends with the switch-off
of the engines, including also the processes of charging users
for ATM services. The scope does not encompass ATM
processes only."(ATM strategy for the years 2000+,
Eurocontrol, ed. 2003)

This short definition given by the EUROCONTROL ´s

document doesn´t clarify the real scope of the concept.

Gate to gate is one fo the main goals for the future ATM.
The-state-of-art and his evolution aim to such concept,
developing the technology which will make it possible.

The implementation is predicted to be between the years

2015 and 2020 and the question whether finally it will be
made or not will try to be answered in this chapter.

The neccessity of a change in the air traffic system is evident

and anowadays big efforts are made by the international
community to fin out a solution. Nowadays a lot of resources
are invested in that concept in particular and in the
improvement of ATM services in general.

Three points should be discussed to assess the feasibility of

Gate to gate concept and they are:

 Technology; a seamless system of navigation, a

reliable way of communication for data and voice, a
surveillance system with a high level of safety for all
phases of flight, a software which supports pilots and
airtraffic controllers tasks, are some examples of the
neccessities which have to be solved by the new

 Definition; it means to coordinate all technology and

human resources to define clearly the gate to gate
concept; how it exacly will work, what need each user
of the ATM, which will be the new tasks for the crew
and the air traffic controllers.

 Implementation; to apply the concept and make it

works, it is the last step but the most difficult of them
because has to consider the pecualirity of every place
and adapt to the situation.

The satellite systems described all project long can support

the neccessities of the gate to gate concept. GNSS will
provide an almost seamless navigation system till CAT-1 in
all phases of flight, but with the use of the augmentation
systems based on ground and on airborne could replace the
ILS and MLS. However the installation of Surface Movement
Guidance and Control System are needed to a complete gate
to gate (GtG) service. Coummunications, data link or voice,
are other fundamental part which can be provided by satellite
systems, INMARSAT mainly with IRIDIUM, GNSS and
VDL technics as well they play and important role in ADS.

A reliable network of information has to be achieved for a

correct management the flights. In that scope, VSAT
technology, even provided by private companies, could be
the solution in such areas with a low ground
telecommunication infrastructure.

The current state of the art and programmes like ARTES

which describes the technology in researching an developing
in the next years, aims to the technology for GtG operations
will be ready in 2015.

Nowadays some scenaries have been prepared to test the

feasibility of the appliccation of that concept. An instance
about the different parts of a flight under GtG and all
elements involved are showed in the following table.
a X means it takes part directly and a ? just supports in that

In summarize, two are the points to improve, a reliable flight

management system which could solve make changes in time
and an efficient route planning therefore the application of
free flight concept is also neccessary. The technology to
support such concepts already exists but his implementation
presents the biggest problem due to the big differences
between the countries. However its applicatio in the european
space shouldn´t present a unaffordable problem because his
proximity in technology, legislation and cooperation.

 New system beyond 2020

From 2020 on a totally new system of ATM will be working,

the management of the if the disponible airspace will be more
efficient, safety and with more capacity without forget the
rate cost-effectiveness which is indispensable for the correct
implementation and acceptance in the private sector.
However new problems will appear, some of them due to the
new requirement in air traffic market and others because the
inherent errors of the new systems and its prediction suppose
a big problem.

In the future, the demand for air traffic services will not only
increase but also will likely shift from scheduled operations
towards more unscheduled operations for air taxi, charter,
fractional ownership, and on-demand small low-cost aircraft.
As the metropolitan areas continue to grow, the satellite
airports around major hubs will provide a wide range of flight
options for people to fly between their homes and places of
business or pleasure.

Furthermore the satellite systems are liable to suffer attacks

to their signals because they are weak and there is not
redundant system. In addition the primary radar surveillance
(PSR) cannot disapeared totally because is the only one
pasive surveillance system and in high latitudes not all the
satellites can provide service. For those reasons the feasibility
of GNSS and other satellite systems is debatable.
The navigation will be widely covered by GNSS. This is a
cheap system with a seamless coverage and with the correct
augmentations can reach the navigation performances defined
by ICAO. It looks to be the perfect solution for a free flight
system. However, how was aforementioned, the weakness of
their signal and his lack of redundance make difficult his
implementation as sole system.

In oceanic areas aims to be the real sole system because the

impossibility to place other systems but in continetal areas,
specially in high density ones, other chances are possible.

DME-VOR and DME-DME can also provide a free flight

service, although the navigation features of the first one are
very poor the DME-DME system provides a good
performance and aims to be the redundant system for GNSS.
And may be ILS, or with a higher possibility MLS, the
redundant system for approaching operations. The rest of
ground systems, for instance NDB, LORAN and might be
VOR, will be dismantled between the years 2015 and 2020,
as in the ICAO previsions is said.

The saturation of the VHF band and the searching of a global

system will make satellite systems play an important role in
communications, data link or voice. Although the advantages
of VHF over satellites communication and its importance for
GBAS will avoid the implementation as the sole system,
VDL mode 4 will be essential in this part of the ATM

Private companies will be able to offer services to passengers

or even aeronautical services to aircompanies. Nowadays
communications are fundamental in bussiness this tendency
is increasing, services during flight as internet access or data
and voice transmission will open a new market for
communications. In addition the neccesity of a reliable global
net of information for a 4D gate to gate system and the
possibility for other systems as IRIDIUM, EUTELSAT or
INTELSAT to make navigation functions will promote the
participation of the private sector in ATM functions, specially
in coummnication ones.

To provide surveillance ADS will be the main system. It will

be neccesary a new distribution of tasks between pilot and air
traffic controller bur this technic will enhance the safety and
reduce the horizontal and vertical separation between
aircrafts. Besides VDl and data link satellite will start to play
a role in this element of the ATM. However PSR will be
always neccesary and radar mode S will complement ADS in
high density areas.

Concepts as free flight and gate to gate will be fully

implemented so a reliable management of flight will be
feasible. Using the new system of navigation and surveillance
each company will be able to choose the best path according
to the performances of their aircraft. The new system of
communication will allow the creation of a net so instant
changes in flight plans and a gate to gate management will be

AMSS will play an important role in the future ATM

concept. These systems present a lot of advantages over the
current ones and in the following years it is predicted the
incorporation of private companies in the mobile subnetwork.
Possible applications are presented below:

 Services to passengers as internet access, fax and

telephony. Due to the importance of communication
in current bussiness and the high improvement of
such sector, it is foreseen a great quality of that kind
of services with a low cost for users.

 Broadcast of weather and other traffic information.

Not only INMARSAT and GNSS can provide this
service. IRIDIUM constellation with a global
coverage and other private companies will be able to
offer this service with guarantee and assure a best
reliability of information.

 To enhance the navigation performance delivering the

GPS or GALILEO signal in order to increase the
coverage, accuracy and integrity.

 Using the VSAT technology ans satellites from

private companies, for instance IRIDIUM,
INTELSAT or EUTELSAT, create a net for data link
between all the air traffic control stations, air
companies and aircrafts to allow a gate to gate
management in real time and even to participate in
surveillance tasks.

 Comparison with the current ATM system

The changes in the following years will transform completely
the current system of air traffic management. The neccesity
of a change because the big increase of the worlwide air
traffic and the limitations of the present exploitation of the
airspace have forced to the international community to make
a revolution in order to enhance the capacity of the ATM

The system of navigation aims to be seamless and with global

coverage supporting by the GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO
constellations. Such systems with the adecuated
augmentations can provide the required service in every
phase of flight and implementing the free flight concept.
Nowadays the system is not very flexible and the safety
separation between aircrafts big. The routes are planned
following point to point paths, normally indicated by
VOR\DME system. There are big areas where is not possiblle
to set any kind of conventional air navigation aid. In
instrumental approaching ILS is the most extended, it
presents some limitations which will be solved by satellite
systems. ILS only allowed the approaching following one
path, it means big problems of noise contamination and the
impossibility of choose the best route depending on the
charateristics of each flight.

Communications are stablished through VHF and HF band.

Nowadays the VHF band is almost saturated and only
allowed communication in line of sight. HF offers voice
communications with a very low quality but a big coverage
and are only used in oceanic and high latitudes areas. VDL
mode 2 is the solution in short range for the present problems
but it is not enough. The incorporation satellite systems in
combination with VDL mode 4 will offer a global coverage
even in polar circles and oceanic areas with a high reliability.

PSR, SSR and more recently Radar mode S are the only
systems in use. As in the aforementioned system its coverage
is limited to continental areas and the charge of work to air
traffic controller is reaching its limit. The solution is given by
the ADS system based on a continuous communication
between ATC to aircraft, aircraft to ATC and aircraft to
aircraft. They deliver all the information about each airplane
to create in every cockpit and ATC a represention of the
surrounding air traffic. However that is an active technic and
the presence of PSR and at least Radar mode S will be always
The conclussion is that the satellite system are the solution to
solve the lacks of the present system but it cannot be the sole
system as it was predicted because the neccesity of a
redundant system, therefore at least DME, MLS and PSR will
coexist with satellite systems.

However the implementation of gate to gate,rnav, 4D free

flight it is unthinkable without these systems due to their
worlwide coverage, high performance and as a very
important reason nowadays their rate cost-effectiveness.

In addition the private companies will be able to offer

aeronautical services.

 Acronyms

AAC Airline Administrative Communication

ABAS Aircraft-based Augmentation System
AES Aeronautical Earth Station
AAIM Aircraft Autonomous Integrity Monitor
ACARS Aircraft Communications, Adressing and Reporting System
ADS Automatica Dependant Surveillance
ADS-B Automatica Data Surveillance- Broadcast
ADS-C Automatica Data Surveillance-Contract
AES Aeronautical Earth Station
AMSS Aeronautical Mobile satellite System
ATC Air Traffic Controller
ATM Air Traffic Management
ATN Air Telecommunications Network
ATS Air Traffic Service
B-RNAV Basic- Random Navigation
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDTI Cockpit Display of Traffic Information
CNS Communication, Navigation and Surveillance
CPDLC Controller-Pilot Datalink Communication
CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access
CTS Command Tracking System
DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access
DGPS Differential Global Position System
DME Distance Measurment Equipment
DOD Departament of Defense
ECAC European Civil Aviation Conference
EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System
ETG European Tripartite Group
EUROCONTROL European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment
FANS Future Air Navigation System
FUA Flexible Use of Airspace
GBAS Ground-based Augmentation System
GCS Ground-based Control Complex
GEO Geostationary Orbit
GES Ground Earth Station
GLONASS Global Orbiting Navigation Systems
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPS Global Position System
GRAS Ground-based Regional Augmentation System
GSS Galileo Sensor Stations
GtG Gate to Gate
HP high precission
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation
IFR Instrument Flight Rules
ILS Instrument Landing System
JCAB Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
LAAS Local Area Augmentation System
LEO Low Earth Orbit
MASSAO Management and Supervision System for Special Aircraft O
MCS Master Control Station
MEO Medium Earth Orbit
MLS Microwave Landing System
MTSAS MTSAT Satellite-based Augmentation System
MTSAT Multi-functional Transport Satellite
NDB Non-Directional Beacon
NM Nautic Miles
NOTAM Notice to Air Men
Optimised Procedures and Techniques for the Improvement
Approach and Landing
PPS Precise Positioning Service
P-RNAV Precission Random Navigation
PSR Primary Surveillance Radar
RAIM Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RAIM-DR RAIM-Dead Reckoning
RAIM-FD RAIM-Fault Detection
RAIM-FDE RAIM-Fault Detection & Exclusion
RIMS Runway Incursion Monitoring System
RNAV Random navigation
RNP Required Navigation Performance
RTCA Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics
RTK Real-Time Kinematic
SA selective availability
SBAS Satellite based Augmentation System
SCC system control center
SCPC Single Channel Per Carrier
SDLS Satellite Data Link System
SP standard precission
SPS Standard Positioning Service
SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar
STDMA Self-organizing Time Division Multiple Access
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TDMA Time Division Multiplexing Access
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
VDL VHF Data Link
VDR VHF Digital Radio
VHF Very High Frequency
VOR VHF Omni Range
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System

 Bibliography
 webpages



























 documents (all of them are in internet)

"Telemedicine via Satellite Services"

Ms. Eli Larsen, EL, National Centre of


Ms. Tove Soerensen, TS, National Centre of


Mr. Erik Otto Evenstad, EOE, Telenor

Research and

Developement (ESA report)

"An overview of the IRIDIUM low earth

orbit (LOW) satellyte system"

Carl E. Fossa, Richard A. Raines, Gregg H.

Gunsch, Michael A. Temple

2950 P St, Bldg. 640 Wright-Patterson AFB,

OH 45433-7765

Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, Air Force Institute of

"ISA project (Ipv6 - Satellite - Atm for ATN)

satellite prspectives for CNS/ATM"

L. Crouzard,G. Gawinowski,C. Musson

"OPTIMAL State-of-the-art Deliverable

OPTIMAL Project Co-ordinator Daniel


"C-ATM High-Level Operational Concept

Deployable From 2012 Version 1.31"

Michel Stirnemann, Volker Rothmann, Robert

Graham, Ray Dowdall, Ros Eveleigh,

"Guidelines for Navigation using GNSS"

civil aviation safety authority australia

"The modernization of GPS: Plans, New

Capabilities and the Future Relantionship to

Keith D. McDonald; Navtech Consulting,

Alexandria, VA USA

"GNSS sole service feasibility study"

France Développement Conseil (Vincennes,


"Integrated Free Flight and 4-D Gate-to-gate

Air Traffic Management, Possibilities,
Promises and Problems"

F.J. Abbink

National Aerospace Laborator y NLR

"Nominal scenario NO 1 (GATE-TO-GATE)

- 2011"

OCD/OATA ConOps Development

"Air Traffic Management strategy beyon the

years 2000+ vol 1 y 2"

ed 2003 eurocontrol
"The galileo satellite system and its security

Gutsav lindström, Giovanni Gasparini

"GALILEO : Satellite System Design And

Technology Developments"

J. Benedicto, S.E.Dinwiddy, G. Gatti, R.

Lucas, M. Lugert

European Space Agency

"Communication Navigation Surveillance /

Air Traffic Management (Cns / Atm) Beyond

Arjun Singh
Airport Authority of India

"European aeronautics: a vision for 2020"

Pedro Argüelles, Manfred Bischoff, Philippe

Busquin, B.A.C. Droste, Sir Richard Evans,
Walter Kröll, Jean-Luc Lagardère, Alberto
Lina, John Lumsden, Denis Ranque, Søren
Rasmussen, Paul Reutlinger, Sir Ralph
Robins, Helena Terho, Arne Wittlöv

"Overview of Civil Aviation Satellite

Communications & Spectrum Requirement

Phil Platt - QinetiQ, Philippe Renaud, Geoff



"Performance, Capacity and Limitations of

AMSS Communications"

Claudio Ripamonti, Vijay K. Konangi, Robert

J. Kerczewski

"Joint board on communication satellite

programmes ARTES-1 workplan for 2005"
European Space Agency (ESA)

"The nees for a new ATM operational

concept a strategic necessity?"

Steve Zerkowitz, Assistant Director

Operations and Infrastructure - Europe, IATA

"Link 200+, controller- pilot data link

communications ready for 2007 and beyond"

Alex Wandels, LINK 2000+ Programme


 Appendix

 Techniques of modulation

ð Asynchronous Time Division

Multiple Access (A T D M A)

Asynchronous TDMA (cf. TDMA).

ð Code Division Multiple Access (C D

M A)

CDMA uses "pseudo-random code

sequences"; they are used by both the
mobile station and

the base station to distinguish between

conversations. CDMA uses these code
sequences as

a means of distinguishing between

individual conversations. All users in
the CDMA system

use the same carrier frequency and

may transmit simultaneously. CDMA
is a driving

technology behind the rapidly

advancing personal communications
industry. Because of its
greater bandwidth, efficiency, and
multiple access capabilities, CDMA is
becoming a leading

technology for relieving the spectrum

congestion caused by the explosion in
popularity of

cellular mobile phones, fixed wireless

telephones, and wireless data
terminals. Since

becoming an officially recognized

digital cellular protocol, CDMA is
being rapidly

implemented in the wireless

communications networks of many
large communications


ð Frequency Division Multiple Access

(F D M A)

FDMA divides radio channels into a

range of radio frequencies and is used
in the traditional

analog cellular system. With FDMA,

only one subscriber is assigned to a
channel at a time.

It is the oldest and still one of the most

common method for channel
allocation. In this

scheme, the available satellite channel

bandwidth is broken into frequency
bands for different

earth stations. This means that guard

bands are needed to provide separation
between the
bands. Also the earth stations must be
carefully power controlled to prevent
the microwave

power spilling into the bands for the

other channels.

ð Time Division Multiplexing (T D M)

Technique in which information from

multiple channels can be allocated
bandwidth on a

transmission system based on time.

ð Time Division Multiple Access (T D

M A)

A shared channel access mechanism

based on time division multiplexing.
TDMA divides

conventional radio channels into time

slots to obtain higher capacity Global
System for GSM

(Mobile Communications). No other

conversations can access an occupied
TDMA channel

until the channel is vacated.

 Standards and recommended

practices in annexes 1,6 and 11

This presentation will introduce the

language proficiency requirements that
are contained in Annexes 1, 6 and 11
and in the PANS-ATM. However and
because most of the new Standards are
contained in Annex 1, the majority of
the presentation will be devoted to
Annex 1.

Annex 1 - Basic principles

The language proficiency Standards
contained in Annex 1 are fairly
comprehensive and, different
Standards and Recommended Practices
apply in different ways to each specific
licences. However, all of them are
based on the same following basic

 1. They are limited to

communication: The scope of
the new Standards are limited
to radio communication and
they do not address issues
related to language used in the
cockpit or communication on
the ground between flight crew
and ground personnel.

 2. They cover all languages

used in radio communication:
The Standards cover all
languages used in radio
communication and not only
English. The reason is that any
person should be reasonably
fluent in a language if she/he
chooses or is required to use
that language for radio
communication. Nevertheless,
it remains a fact that most of
the implementation challenges
are related to English
proficiency as (1) English is the
only language available on a
worldwide basis and (2) when
another language is used, it is
generally done between persons
who are at the expert level.

 3. The “speak and

understand” Standard:
Because the Standard is limited
to radiotelephony
communications, it only
involves oral communication
and can be described as a
“speak and understand”
Standard. It does not include
reading and writing abilities.
This has some important
consequence when it comes to
testing because most of the
commercially available tests
focus on reading and writing
abilities and they are not
appropriate in this context. This
is a point that will be covered
in some detail during the

 4. Assessment using a rating

scale (Level 4): A significant
aspect of the Standards is that
the proficiency level is defined
in a precise and scientific way
by a rating scale and holistic

 5. Progressive
implementation: The Air
Navigation Commission and
the ICAO Council recognized
that the implementation of the
new language proficiency
Standards and in particular the
rating scale would be
challenging. It therefore agreed
on a progressive
implementation of the language
Standards as it is outlined in the
chart. Generally speaking, the
basic “speak and understand”
Standard became applicable on
5 march 2004 and the rating
scale will have to be used to
assess the “speak and
understand” Standard as of 5
March 2008. There are some
small variations depending on
the licence, which are
addressed in this presentation.
Annex 1 - Details of the Standard

The licences contained in Annex 1 can

be divided in three different groups as
far as language proficiency Standards
are concerned. The first groups is made
of the three levels of aeroplane and
helicopter licences (PPL, CPL and
ATPL) and the Air Traffic Controller
and Aeronautical Station Operators
licences which have to meet the
following Standards:

 1. They shall demonstrate the

ability to speak and understand
the language used for
communications (Standard; and

 2. After 5 March 2008, the

ability to speak and understand
the language used for
communications shall be
demonstrated to Level 4 of the
ICAO rating scale (Standard and Appendix). In
addition, recurrent testing will
be required for those below
Level 6.

The second group covers Flight

Engineer, Free Balloon and Glider
pilots licences. For this second group,
the new requirement is a
Recommendation to the effect that the
licence holder should be able to speak
and understand the language used for
radio communication.

The third group is made of the Flight

Navigator licence. The case of the
Flight Navigator is specific and taking
into account that some of the
navigators are tasked with the handling
of radio communication. As a result,
the ICAO Council decided that the
basic “speak and understand” Standard
would apply to flight navigators when
they are required to use radio
telephone on board. However, the
rating scale will not apply to them in

Annex 1 - Implementation

Application of Language Proficiency

Standards to existing licence holders

 1. All Air Traffic Controllers

and Aeronautical Station
Operators, i.e. existing and new
licence holders have to meet
the “speak and understand”

 2. All holders of an aeroplane

and helicopter pilot licence
issued after 5 March 2004 have
to meet the “speak and
understand” Standards.

 3. Holders of an aeroplane and

helicopter pilot licence issued
before 5 March 2004 do not
have to meet the “speak and
understand” Standard until 5
March 2008. Therefore, on this
date, they will have not only to
meet the Standard but they will
have to be assessed in
accordance with the rating
scale. I would like to stress out
that even though compliance
with the Standards is not
required until 2008 for that
group of pilots, one shall not
forget the safety reasons for
which they were developed and
I would encourage States and
individuals to consider earlier
compliance. I would add that
for pilots who are working in
public transportation there is
another Standard that is
applicable and that requires the
operator to ensure that the
flight crew speak and
understand the language used
for radio communication.

Application to domestic flight

The language proficiency Standards

are ICAO Standards and as such they
only apply to pilots who are engaged in
international flights and ATCO/ASO
providing services to international
flights. Hence, States are encouraged
by ICAO to use the ICAO Standards
for domestic operations.

In which language(s) a pilot or a

controller must be tested

 • For pilots, English is

sufficient but if he/she wants to
use other language during
international flights, he/she will
also have to be tested in that

 • For Air Traffic Controllers

and Aeronautical Station
Operators, they will have to
demonstrate proficiency for
each of the language(s) offered
in the airspace in which they
are providing services.

Consequences of non-compliance with

the language proficiency Standards

 • For pilots: Article 33 of the

Chicago Convention makes the
international recognition of a
flight crew licence conditional
to full compliance with all
relevant ICAO Standards
including language proficiency.
As a result, a pilot that does not
meet the language requirements
will only be able to fly
internationally with the
authorization of each of the
States whose airspace is used.
States would certainly be
reluctant to give such an
authorization and for practical
purposes pilots will have to
meet the language requirements
to fly internationally. That does
not necessarily mean that flight
crew have to meet the language
proficiency in English to fly
internationally. For instance,
you can fly in most of South
and Central America speaking
only Spanish but in such a case,
you have to demonstrate
language proficiency in
Spanish. Therefore, English
proficiency remains a
requirement for most of the
international flights, as it is the
only language available on a
worldwide basis for the
provision of air traffic services.

 • For Air Traffic Controllers

and Aeronautical Station
Operators: If an Air Traffic
Controller or Aeronautical
Station Operator providing
service to international flights
do not meet the language
proficiency Standard, the State
will have to notify a difference.
Any person or operator flying
into that State's airspace will
have to assess the situation and
decide whether they want to
continue that operation in view
of the safety and resulting
liability aspects.
Language proficiency provisions
contained in the other Annexes

Annex 6 requires operators to ensure

that flight crew speak and understand
the language used for radiotelephony

Annex 11 requires air traffic service

providers to ensure that air Traffic
Controllers speak and understand the
language used for radiotelephony
communications. Annex 11 also
contains a Standard dealing with the
language to be used in communication
between air traffic control units. That
language shall be English except when
another language is mutually agreed.

Procedures for Air Navigation

Services - Air Traffic Management
(PANS-ATM): The provisions
contained in PANS are complementary
to the Standards and Recommended
Practices contained in the Annexes.
The requirements state that ATS and
other ground personnel will be
expected to use plain language to the
level specified in the ICAO language
proficiency requirements contained in
Annex 1. This applies in particular to
the personnel providing information
services in uncontrolled airspace and at
uncontrolled aerodromes.

 Data link services defined by ICAO