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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No.

2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE


Sulawesi: a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia

Kehadiran Sulfida Nikel yang berkaitan dengan Serpentin di Latao,


Sulawesi Tenggara: suatu Frontier Baru Eksplorasi Nikel di Indonesia

Robby Rafianto, Frans Attong, Alan Matano, and M. Erwin Syam Noor

Mines and Exploration Department PT. INCO Tbk.,


Sorowako, South Sulawesi 92984, Indonesia

ABSTRACT
Along the history of nickel exploration and mining in Indonesia, there was no nickel sulfide deposit
reported and relatively unknown. All known nickel deposits in Indonesia are lateritic deposits
as a weathering product of ultramafic rocks. The major nickel sulfide deposit types in the world are
under category of komattites associated, basal and stratabound in mafic-ultramafic intrusions, as-
trobleme associated (Sudbury type), and few others reported hosted in black-shale deposits, epigenetic
hydrothermal or serpentine-related deposits. The latter type is discussed in this paper that potentially
related to nickel sulfide occurrences in PT. INCO’s Latao Contract of Work concession. At the begin-
ning, the exploration in Latao was taken during 1970 - 1975 and 1980 to confirm the occurrences of
podiform chromite deposits. The Exploration Department conducted a modern exploration in 2007
- 2009 in order to get basic information for chromite potentials. The preliminary results showed that
the podiform chromite is relatively small potential. However, some findings were surprising during
detail geological mapping programs. Some series of silica alteration, rich magnetite rock bodies, altered
serpentinized ultramafic rocks related to Ni – Co mineralizations (0.5% to 2% Ni; 0.05% - 0.2% Co)
were found. During a 2008 drill test program, four holes intersected unusual Ni-Co mineralizations
at certain depths and related to the silica alterations. These mineralizations could not be explained by
a traditional nickel laterite theory as normally applied in Indonesian geological setting. The visual
sulfide minerals are difficult to observe. However, the petrographic and EPMA mineralogical analyses
from some surface rock samples showed the occurrences of pentlandite, Co-pentlandite, and millerite
as representing the nickel sulfide minerals. The Ni-Co mineralization is interpreted to have relation-
ships with serpentine and mainly epigenetic nickel-sulphide type. Due to serpentinization of olivine,
the nickel in the olivine was released and nickel bearing sulfides were formed depending on sulfur
availability. The 2011 detail IP geophysical survey and further test drilling program are required to
validate further this unique mineralization type. The large tonnage-low grade nickel sulfide deposits
(+ 200 Mt @ 0.1% Ni) that can produce high grade nickel concentrate like Ronnbacken serpentinite
deposit in Sweden is a current major exploration target. This is a potential new frontier of nickel
exploration in Indonesia.
Keywords: nickel sulfide, serpentine, lateritic, ultramafic, new frontier, nickel exploration, Latao,
Sulawesi

SARI
Sepanjang sejarah eksplorasi dan penambangan nikel di Indonesia, laporan mengenai cebakan
sulfida nikel tidak pernah ada, sehingga keberadaannya relatif tak diketahui. Semua cebakan nikel
yang diketahui di Indonesia berupa cebakan lateritis hasil pelapukan batuan ultramafik. Di dunia,
tipe cebakan nikel sulfida utama hadir dalam kategori yang berasosiasi dengan komatit, basal, dan
lapisan yang berada dalam intrusi mafik-ultramafik, asosiasi astrobleme (tipe Sudbury), dan beberapa
lainnya yang terdapat dalam endapan serpih hitam, hidrotermal epigenetis atau cebakan yang terkait
dengan serpentin. Tipe terakhir yang didiskusikan dalam makalah ini adalah yang berpotensi berkaitan

Naskah diterima: 11 Oktober 2011, revisi terakhir: 26 Juli 2012, disetujui: 06 Agustus 2012 87
Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

dengan kehadiran sulfida nikel di daerah konsesi Latao, PT.INCO. Eksplorasi awal di Latao dilak-
sanakan pada 1970 – 1975 dan pada 1980 ditemukan keberadaan cebakan khromit podiform. Untuk
mendapatkan informasi dasar potensi kromit, pada 2007 – 2009, Departemen Eksplorasi melak-
sanakan sebuah eksplorasi modern. Hasil awal memperlihatkan bahwa kromit podiform potensinya
relatif kecil. Namun, selama program pemetaan geologi terperinci ditemukan sejumlah seri alterasi
silika, batuan yang kaya akan magnetit, serta batuan ultramafik terserpentinkan dan terubah yang
berkaitan dengan mineralisasi Ni-Co (0,5 – 2 % Ni; 0,05 – 0,2 Co). Dalam program pengeboran
uji 2008, pada kedalaman tertentu, empat lubang menembus mineralisasi Ni-Co yang tidak lazim
dan berkaitan dengan alterasi silika. Mineralisasi ini tidak dapat diterangkan dengan teori laterit
tradisional seperti yang biasanya diterapkan dalam tataan geologi Indonesia. Secara visual, mineral
sulfida ini susah diamati. Namun, analisis petrografi dan mineralogis EPMA terhadap percontoh
batuan permukaan menunjukkan keberadaan pentlandit, Co-pentlandit, dan milerit sebagai repre-
sentasi kehadiran mineral sulfida nikel. Mineralisasi Ni-Co diduga mempunyai hubungan dengan
serpentin dan terutama tipe sulfida nikel epigenetis. Akibat proses serpentinisasi terhadap olivin,
nikel dalam olivin terlepaskan dan sulfida pembawa nikel terbentuk bergantung pada ketersediaan
sulfur. Survei geofisika IP terperinci 2011 dan program pemboran uji yang lebih lanjut diperlukan
untuk memvalidasi lebih jauh tipe mineralisasi yang unik tersebut. Cebakan sulfida nikel yang besar
(+ 200 Mt @ 0,1 % Ni) yang dapat menghasilkan konsentrat nikel kualitas tinggi seperti cebakan
serpentinit Ronnbacken di Swedia adalah target eksplorasi utama saat ini. Hal ini merupakan suatu
eksplorasi nikel new frontier yang potensial di Indonesia.
Kata kunci: : sulfida nikel, serpertin, lateritik, ultramafik, new frontier, eksplorasi nikel, Latao,
Sulawesi

INTRODUCTION The major nickel sulfide deposit types


in the world are under categorized into
The Latao (Contract of Work) CoW located komatiites associated, basal and stratabound
in the western coast of the southeastern in mafic- ultramafic intrusions, astrobleme
arm of Sulawesi Island. Administratively associated (Sudbury type) and few others
fall under in Batuputih subregency, Kolaka reported hosted in black-shale deposits, epi-
Utara Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Prov- genetic hydrothermal or serpentine related
ince. It is approximately 115 km or 3 hours deposits. The latter type is discussed in this
land travel from Sorowako (Figure 1). The paper that potentially related to nickel sul-
3,148.11 ha areas have altitudes ranging of fides occurrences in PT. INCO’s (PTI) Latao
10 to 370 m above sea level. Contract of Work concession.

Along the history of nickel exploration and


mining in Indonesia, no nickel sulfide de- EXPLORATION HISTORY AND
posit was reported and relatively unknown. METHODOLOGY
All known nickel deposits in Indonesia are
lateritic deposits as weathering product of Pre 2007
ultramafic rocks. The finding of nickel sul-
fide occurrence in Indonesia is an important The Latao Block was explored by PT Inco
milestone to the history of nickel exploration due to its chromite occurrence. Chromite
in Indonesia. was reported in Sulawesi by Julius and
Dickmann during the Dutch colonial era
The nickel sulfide deposits can be defined as from Warau - Balambano road, Sapiri Island
a broad group of deposits containing nickel (Latao) and Lapaopao in 1924. A Dutch
with additional copper, cobalt, and platinum company called MMC had done a short
group elements (PGE), occurring as sulfide period of studies on the nickel laterite and
concentrations and associated with a vari- chromite potential of Latao area in 1941
able mafic and ultramafic rocks. (Sumardjo, 1972).

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The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

120o30"0'E 120o40"0'E 120o50"0'E 121o0"0'E 121o10"0'E 121o20"0'E 121o30"0'E 121o40"0'E 121o50"0'E 122o0"0'E

2o0"0'S
2o0"0'S

2o10"0'S
2o10"0'S

Sorowaka
Jakarta
Makassar

2o20"0'S
2o20"0'S

2o30"0'S
2o30"0'S

PTI Contract of Work

2o40"0'S
2o40"0'S

Legend

2o50"0'S
2o50"0'S

PTI Contract of Work


Roads
Lake LATAO
Province
PROJECT

3o0"0'S
3o0"0'S

120o30"0'E 120o40"0'E 120o50"0'E 121o0"0'E 121o10"0'E 121o20"0'E 121o30"0'E 121o40"0'E 121o50"0'E 122o0"0'E

Figure 1. Latao Project Geographic Location.

PTI reconnaissance team had done some containing chromium in magnetic and non-
drilling and pit resampling in 1969 (Nasu- magnetic fractions. The other program is
tion, 1973). In 1975, Auger drill program, Ground geophysical survey - IP along the
test pit, and ground magnetic surveys were soil sampling anomaly areas to define the
carried out over the old MMC trenches vertical distribution of podiform chromite
(Ahmad, 1976). Butler (1980) conducted bodies.
a geochemical sampling program using
backpack augers and field mapping along The preliminary result showed that the podi-
the Latao shoreline. After 1980, there was form chromite is relatively small potential.
no significant exploration activity in the However, some findings were surprising
Latao Block. during 2007 - 2008 detail geological map-
ping programs. Some series of silica al-
2007 - Present teration, rich magnetite rock bodies, altered
serpentinized ultramafic rocks related to
In 2007, the exploration program for Latao
Ni-Co mineralizations (up to 2% Ni, 0.2%
was designed to confirm its chromite po-
tential (Rafianto, 2007). Field activity was Co) are found. During 2008 drill test pro-
carried out by conducting soil sampling gram, four holes intersected unusual Ni-Co
using back pack auger combined with a mineralisations at certain depths and related
geological mapping. The target was to find to the silica alterations. These mineraliza-
anomalous areas of chromite in soil samples, tions could not be explained by traditional
which can be detected from its significant nickel laterite theory as normally applied in
concentration of heavy mineral concentrate Indonesian geological setting.

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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

In 2008, PTI changed the exploration strat- are: (i) West Sulawesi Tertiary Magmatic
egy from chromite exploration to exploring Arc and Associated Sediments, (ii) Cen-
for nickel sulfide potential (Rafianto et al., tral Sulawesi Metamorphic Belt, (iii) East
2008). Ground magnetic survey and core Sulawesi Ophiolite (ESO), and (iv) accreted
drilling programs were carried out to sharp- continental fragments of Banggai-Sula Is-
ening the 2007 IP/Resistivity results (Su- lands and the Tukang Besi-Buton Platforms
harto et al., 2009). The EPMA analysis from (Figure 2; Kadarusman et al., 2004). The
rock chip samples showed nickel sulfide tectonic evolution of the Sulawesi can be
minerals such as pentlandite and millerite. chronologically summarized as follows:
Since soil and rock chip samples showed Early Paleogene (65 Ma) - Middle Oligo-
unexplainable broad anomalies across Latao cene (30 Ma)
area, in first half of 2011 PTI conducted a The formation of Sulawesi began in the
120 km IP/Resistivity survey and directional Early Paleogene with the opening of
core rilling program (Attong et al., 2011). the Makassar Basin (Hall, 1996) followed
To understand the nickel sulfide mineraliza- closely by the opening of the Celebes Basins
tion, we need to differentiate between nickel and the rifting of the west and north arms of
sulfide and nickel silicate-oxides miner- Sulawesi. The opening of the Celebes Sea
alisations. A special assaying technique to was thought to have started by the Middle
selectively analyze Ni from NiS only using Eocene. The sea widened to the southeast
Bromine Methanol Br(Me)OH has been until the mid-Oligocene. This opening com-
applied in Latao exploration. bined with the northwards movement of the
Indo-Australian Plate, allowed for the ob-
duction of the ESO and Pompangeo Schist
GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS Belt (PSB) onto the Sundaland margin.
Late Oligocene (25 Ma)
Regional Tectonics and Geology By the end of the Oligocene, the ESO had
A regional tectonic setting description was been overthrusted onto the PSB of the west
provided by Fugro (2009) during ground Sulawesi continental margin. This was fol-
magnetic survey for PTI Latao project. The lowed by a change in plate boundaries and
summary of the tectonic of Sulawesi can the subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate
be described as below: Sulawesi located under the ESO (Hall, 1996). This compres-
at the convergence between the Eurasian sional event could be responsible for the
(Sundaland), the Pacific-Philippine Sea and NW-SE trending folding of both the East
the Australian Plates (Hinschberger et al., Sulawesi Ophiolite and the Pompangeo
2005; Kadarusman et al., 2004, Hall, 1996; Schist Belt.
Lee and Lawver, 1995). The present config- Early-Middle Miocene (20 - 15 Ma)
uration of Sulawesi reflects the interaction
As a result of the Indo-Australian Plate
between these plates and the amalgama-
subducting west under the ESO, arc magma-
tion of a number of micro-plates from the
tism formed the Neogene Volcano Clastics
Middle Miocene (approximately 15 Ma) to
(NVC). Kadarusman et al. (2004) noted
the present.
that these volcanoclastic rocks have been
The island of Sulawesi consists of four dis- mistakenly identified in some cases as a ba-
tinct lithotectonic belts, bounded by large saltic layer of the ESO (Monnier et al., 1995;
scale tectonic structures. The four belts Mubroto et al., 1994; Silver et al., 1983).

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The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

West and North Sulawesi


Volcano-Plutonic Arc
Quaternary sediments

Cenozoic volcanics
and plutonic rocks
Tertiary sediments

Central Sulawesi
Metamorphic Belt
Ophiolite Melange
HP Metamorphic Rock
(Pompangeo schists)
East Sulawesi
Ophiolite Belt
Neogene and Quaternary
sediments
Ophiolite

Banggai-Sula & Tukang Besi


Continental Fragments
Continental basement and cover

Continental basement below


sea level

Major thrust
Major strike-slip fault
Active volcano

Figure 2. Geological setting of the Sulawesi Region (Kadarusman et al., 2004).

Middle Miocene - Pleistocene (15 - 5 Ma) was moving approximately northwest,


The opening of the Ayu Trough in the subducting underneath the ESO. The major
east, starting in the middle Miocene (15 Ma.) NW - SE trending sinistral wrench faults
initiated a series of E - W wrench faults ex- (including the Matano and Lewanopo Faults
tending into Sulawesi (Hall, 1996). Further - Figure 3) can be attributed to the opening
obduction of the ESO and PSB during the of the Ayu Trough in the east starting in the
Pliocene was caused by the buoyant subduc- Middle Miocene (Hall, 1996) followed by
tion of the Banggai-Sula microcontinent a Pliocene westward extensional transpres-
(Kadarusman et al., 2004). This period of sion and a Quaternary transtensional defor-
intense activity was followed by a period mation regime.
of extensional collapse in the Late Pliocene.
Closer to Latao area in Southeast Sulawesi,
The Late Oligocene was a period of thrust- Rusmana et al. (1993) distinguished the re-
ing, where the ESO was overthrusted onto gion into two geological provinces known
the PSB. Post or syn-folding was a period as Hialu (oceanic crust - ophiolite) and Ti-
NW-SE trending folding which can be at- nondo (continental terrain). The continental
tributed to compression during the Late terrain comprises metamorphic basement,
Oligocene when the Indo-Australian Plate and Mesozoic sediments (Triassic Meluhu

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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

Legend
Major fault - inferred
Major fault - thrust
Geological boundary - inferred

0 5 10 20 30 50
km

Figure 3. Major tectonic and structural geology related to Latao Project (Fugro, 2009).

and Tokala Formations). The oceanic crust Metamorphic Rocks


of Cretaceous Ophiolite rock consists of The metamorphics exposed in northern
peridotite, harzburgite, dunite, gabbro, and Latao area comprise phyllite and schist hav-
serpentinite (Figure 4). ing a tectonic contact with ultramafic rock.
It is doubtful whether it is part of Triassic
Meluhu Formation or part of Mekongga
RESULT Complex.

Rock Types Petrographically the rocks exhibit hetero-


blastic textures, consisting of nematoblastic
The Latao survey block is situated in the mineral of opaque (hematite) and tourma-
Southeast Arm of the Sulawesi Region. The line, granoblastic minerals of quartz, and
geologically the Latao survey block is domi- lepidoblastic minerals of muscovite, fine to
nated by Cretaceous ophiolitic ultramafic medium grain sized (0.2 – 0.7 mm), anhedral
rocks (Figure 5), comprising predominantly to subhedral in crystals shape. Schistose
moderately to highly serpentinised perido- structure is shown by the orientation of
tite. The ophiolite sequence is believed to muscovite and opaque minerals (hema-
be obducted over the Meluhu and Tokala
tite). The porphyroblastic texture is present
Formations.
in the some area of thin section where the
In Latao CoW, there are four major types of porphyroblasts (maybe garnet) are usually
identified rock types, as follows: altered or pseudomorphosed by iron oxide

92
The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

Figure 4. Regional geology map (Rusmana et al., 1993). Pzm = Palaeozoic Metamorphics (Carboniferous);
TRJt = Tokala Formation (Triassic); TRJm= Meluhu Formation (Triassic) Ku = Ophiolites Rocks (Cret-
ceous); Tmpp = Pandua Formation (Pliocene).

282000 282500 283000 283500 284000 284500 285000 285500 286000 286500 287000 287500 288000 288500 289000 289500 290000

9667500
9667500

9667000
9667000

966500
966500

0 245 490 980 1,470 1,960


m
1:25000

Latao Project
966000
966000

9665500
9665500

9665000
9665000

Legend
9664500
9664500

Structure
Tidal Zone
Swamp
Basalt
9664000
9664000

Gabro Cumulate
Metasedimen Limestone
Hydrotermal and Polymict Breccia ?
Tectonic Breccia
9663500
9663500

Dunite alter
Magnetite

Chromite Zone
9663000
9663000

Metamorphyc Phyllite

PTI-Cow SK2005
9662500
9662500

Remark :
9662000
9662000

Name Sign Date


9661500
9661500

Drawin by Erwin

Revised by
9661000
9661000

Checked by
Approved by
9660500
9660500

9660000
9660000

282000 282500 283000 283500 284000 284500 285000 285500 286000 286500 287000 287500 288000 288500 289000 289500 290000

Figure 5. Latao geologic map.

to form brownish red color. This rock is me- phism process occurring at a relatively low
dium altered (retrogressive metamorphism). to medium grade and then they have done
The iron oxide altered or pseudomorphosed the retrograde metamorphism, where it is
the porphyroblasts whilst sericite altered the represented by the presence of iron oxide
muscovite. and sericite.
The presence of opaque mineral (hematite), Limestone
quartz, muscovite, and tourmaline as a major The limestones are present as isolated hills
mineralogy of rock suggests to a metamor- occurring at the boundary between ul-

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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

tramafic and metamorphic rocks. It is un- Ultramafic Rocks


clear whether it is part of Triassic Meluhu The ultramafic rocks dominate the Latao
or Tokala Formations or part of Mekongga CoW and have been altered into various ser-
Complex. By visual description, the rock pentinization levels (dominantly medium to
can be described as dark to light grey colour, highly serpentinized) The massive serpenti-
coarse-grained, dominantly consisting of nite has N-S orientation, stretches over 6 km
calcite and some samples at Mosiku area in length and 5 km wide. It has a greenish-
contain disseminated pyrites. black color and is composed by serpentine
The limestone exhibits the clastic and mud- minerals. Most of this ultramafic rocks is
supported texture, poorly sorted and open completely altered and strongly weathered
packed. The rock is dominated by the matrix at the surface. The serpentine and talc pres-
of carbonate muds with the spotted/patches ent on the fractures or cleavage the olivine
of opaque (pyrite), and they are usually and pyroxene form veinlets of serpentine ±
recrystallized into microcrystalline calcite talc. The veins of silica (quartz) are present
(micrite). The grains include quartz and fos- to cut the rock in the some areas of thin
sil fragments are present in the some area section (Figure 6a). Magnetite partially re-
of thin section. Quartz grains are angular to places chromite on grain peripheries occurs
subrounded. Fossil fragments are dominated as fracture fillings. The sulfide minerals that
by planktonic foraminifera, unbroken in occur as fine grains usually are associated
shape, their chamber usually filled by calcite with talc and carbonate minerals (Figure 6).
cement. The opaque minerals also present Hydrothermal Associated Rocks
as grain in some areas of thin section, sub- In Latao, there are several rocks interpreted
hedral in shape, and up to 0.5 mm in size. to have association with hydrothermal pro-
Stylolitic structure occures in the some area cesses, alterations and mineralization (Fig-
of thin section. ures 7, 8, 9). They are silica ribs, magnetite
This sample is fresh but the opaque grains bodies, and hydrothermal breccias (?). The
(pyrite) present in the some area of thin sec- silica ribs contain chalcedonic silica found
tion maybe a product of secondary process. in areas of Tanjung Berlian, Lawatuwatu,
The rock fracture filled by calcite ± opaque and Temboe. They have been mistakenly
(pyrite) form vein in the some areas within identified as low T lateritic product of silica
thin section. precipitation by previous explorers. The

Figure 6. Serpentine as alteration product from olivine with mesh structure cross by silica vein (a). Pentland-
ite and chromite as opaque minerals in serpentine (b) (ITB, 2009)

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The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

Figure 7. Latao silica alteration.

Figure 8. Ni – Co bearing magnetite outcrop.

a b
Figure 9. Ni – Co bearing magnetite outcrop.

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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

magnetite bodies are found in Laburino, Finally, a listwaenite - birbirite allteration


Roka, and Lawatuwatu. These magnetite concept is adopted.
bodies unusually containing nickel between
0.5% - 28% andmcobalt between 0.05% -
0.2% Co. DISCUSSION
The hydrothermal breccias (?) in Latao are
Current Exploration Program
related to magnetite bodies and chromite-
silica breccia found at Tanjung Berlian. The Designing exploration strategy for Latao is
major hydrothermal magnetite breccia (?) is challenged since there was no nickel sulfide
present at central area of Latao with linea- exploration in Indonesia. The first explora-
tion to NE-SW direction. The breccias have tion program of Latao Exploration was to
red-brownish colour due to the presence explore chromite deposits and irrelevant to
of iron oxides of hematite and magnetite. NiS exploration. Some adjustments have
Millerite and pyrite occur occasionally as to be made for sharpening the NiS targets.
coating of fragments and in the matrix of
breccia. This breccia has a close correlation It isa big challenge to find a similar deposit
with magnetite body areas. The thin section model around the world since the Latao
exhibits clastic texture, consisting of perido- is not a traditional nickel sulfide mineral-
tite fragments which are embedded within izations such as komatiite related, flood
the mixture of clay matrix, serpentine, basalt or mafic- ultramafic intrusions. It
silica, iron oxides, and chlorite aggregates. is interpreted that Latao mineralizations
The fragments of peridotite have angular are closely related with the combination
to sub-rounded in shape, grains size of 0.1 of serpentinization processes, silica altera-
- 5.0 cm, locally up to 1.5 cm in size, they tion (listwaenite-birbirite), and magnetite
exhibited the serpentinization and weather- - hematite (iron oxides) alterations. From
ing process, consist of olivine, pyroxene and the world-wide occurrences, some deposit
spinel/chromite models are considered to support the Latao
exploration model. They are:
The rock sample is strongly altered and
weathered, in which the iron oxides + chlo- • Outokumpu type (Findland); Ni-Co-
rite pseudomorphosed the olivine to form Cu-Zn deposits related to listwaenites-
the brownish - blackish red colour. The ser- birbirites alterations in ophiolite (Kon-
pentine occurson the fractured or cleavage tinen et al., 2004).
of the olivine and pyroxene to form veinlets • Bou Azzer (Morroco); CoAs-NiS-
of serpentine ± tremolite ± talc. Some deposits related to quartz-carbonate
pyroxenes are pseudomorphosed by talc (listwaenite) alterations in serpentinite
± tremolite. The veins or veinlets of silica (Ahmed et al., 2009).
(chalcedony) are present to cut the rock. • Divrigi (Turkey); Fe (Ni-Cu) related to
IOCG - like for large iron ore (magne-
The sulfur content (S%) were assayed from tite) deposits. Serpentinite contact with
some samples relatively showing much
limestone and granite (Unlu et al, 1995).
lower S content (<1000 ppm) compares
Reserves 133.8 Mt
with traditional.
• @ 56% Fe and 0.5% Cu. Considered as
NiS deposits in Canada or Australia. This Latao has magnetite bodies and hydro-
case highly challenges for PTI to find a com- thermal breccia (?) containing signifi-
parable deposit to explore in Latao further. cant iron oxides.

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The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

• Dumont serpentinite (Canada): NiS eralizations occur on a chlorite foliation in


deposits related to serpentinization and a Fe-chlorite groundmass altering to Fe-
talc - carbonate alteration. Measured + oxides with total Ni in individual mineral
Indicated resources 1.1 Bt @ 0.27% Ni more than 20% (Table 1).
(Royal Nickel Corp. May, 2011).
Soil sampling program were conducted
• Ronnbacken (Sweden); NiS deposits
in 2007 within the framework of a regional
related to serpentinization. Alpine-Type
sampling program across Latao area. The
Serpentinite contact with metamorphic
nickel values from the soil samples could
phyllite. Measured + Indicated resources
be potentially bias from lateritic mineraliza-
277 Mt @
tion, however the chemistry associations are
• 0.1% NiS and 0.003% Co (SRK consult-
very useful to define chromite or anoma-
ing, April 2011).
lous hydrothermal zones.
From above models, Ronnbacken and Du-
These altered zones are do not following
mont deposits are the most one considered
the normal nickel laterite profile pattern and
by PTI as they have large tonnages and
relatively easy to identified.
possibly occurred in Latao. Both deposits
have low average nickel grades but large The soil sampling used hand auger with
in tonnages. The geometallurgical model maximum depth of 10 m and total aver-
is important to liberate NiS minerals such age is 3.4 m. The soil sampling program
as pentlandite, heazlewoodite, and millerite, designed for ridge and spur sampling and
and making projects to be highly econom- also for regular grid pattern. Since 2007,
ics (discussed in preliminary economic around 7000 samples have been collected
consideration). and assayed for XRF analyses.
Geological Mapping and Soil Sampling A special case for chromite prospecting, a
Geological mapping with prospecting is simple beneficiation method adopted from
a critical part for Latao NiS exploration Philippines chromite exploration (Kater
program. The basic knowledge that we are et al, 1984) with panned concentrate for
dealing with an unusual ophiolitic nickel analyzing heavy mineral concentrate such
mineralization and unexplainable by tra- as chromium and magnetic separation
ditional nickel laterite theory came from were applied for soil samples in 2007. The
the geological mapping results. Hundreds chromium soil anomalies were detected but
of rock chip samples were collected and limited in small areas. However, the results
anaylized by Niton portable analyzer and were surprising and unexplainable for cobalt
selected samples were assayed for XRF, ICP values (Figure 12). The high grade cobalt
and FA. The results are shown in Figure 10 values from panned concentrate of soil
and many altered unweathered rock samples samples can reached > 1% up to 2.8% Co.
are elevated in nikel, cobalt, and iron. The This is an example that high cobalt values
anomalous areas were selected for next from certain areas are not following the
geophysical survey prior drilling program. conventional laterite theory and interpreted
these areas are hydrothermally altered.
Some selected surface rock samples were
submitted to SGS Canada for mineral- Geophysical Survey
ogical analyses. The nickel sulfide minerals The geophysical surveys of ground mag-
(pentlandite and millerite) are identified by netic survey and IP/Resistivity survey
EPMA analysis (Figure 11). These min- were conducted in Latao. Ground magnetic

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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

Figure 10. Anomalous nickel values from fresh rock samples.

Figure 11. Nickel sulfide minerals based on EPMA analysis (SGS, 2010).

survey was proposed to understand the mag- mineral such us magnetite, chromite, and
netic response related to alteration products pyrhotite a total of 120 km of total length
and general structural geology whereas the in 40 line km within 20 km area at 12.5 m
resistivity data can guide us to the alteration station spacing and 50 m line spacing, than
and mineralization zones which marked 80 line km within 80 km area at 25 m station
by the anomaly values of resistivity and spacing and 100 m line spacing has proposed
chargeability. for this survey.
Ground Magnetic Survey An interpretation was completed using
The ground magnetic survey has initi- the magnetic and low resolution radar. A
ated in mid November 2008 to April 2009 number of high-magnetic zones possibly
conducted by Fugro (2009). This survey is represent more massive zones of magnetite
quite considerable for explore the potential concentrations.

98
The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

Table 1. EPMA Analysis of Latao Nickel sulfides and Alloys (EMD0009916)

Weight
Point Mineral
As Ni S Fe Zn Co Cu P Total
1 Millerite 0.012 59.50 35.510 2.510 0.008 1.760 0.958 0.000 100.257
2 Millerite 0.072 41.720 31.510 5.450 0.000 3.060 0.391 0.000 82.203
3 Millerite 0.090 32.940 10.090 5.250 0.000 11.120 0.836 0.000 60.326
4 Millerite 0.027 54.140 33.080 3.210 0.020 4.880 0.279 0.000 95.636
5 Millerite 0.107 41.150 40.250 7.360 0.046 9.570 0.302 0.000 97.785
6 Millerite 0.13 42.860 32.270 8.220 0.021 4.430 0.490 0.000 98.304
7 Millerite 0.00 42.690 26.730 5.980 0.000 5.810 0.421 0.000 81.631
8 Millerite 0.00 56.930 34.570 4.130 0.000 1.410 0.468 0.000 97.526
Average 0.40 46.491 30.501 5.264 0.012 5.130 0.520 0.000 87.959

1 Pentlandite 0.040 34.440 38.860 4.100 0.000 17.260 0.546 0.000 95.246
2 Pentlandite 0.565 43.710 38.570 5.010 0.033 9.550 0.515 0.000 97.444
3 Pentlandite 0.026 21.250 21.450 8.150 0.064 20.180 3.400 0.000 74.520
4 Pentlandite 0.000 36.330 17.220 4.260 0.027 10.470 1.050 0.000 69.357
5 Pentlandite 0.056 27.870 24.950 7.290 0.091 14.820 1.360 0.000 76.437
6 Pentlandite 0.033 22.070 27.820 8.010 0.000 22.020 1.980 0.000 81.933
7 Pentlandite 0.096 25.110 23.100 5.610 0.000 18.360 2.670 0.000 74.946
8 Pentlandite 0.058 23.280 29.410 5.470 0.104 23.810 1.170 0.000 83.301
9 Pentlandite 0.096 24.040 25.270 7.340 0.041 19.650 1.180 0.000 77.617
Average 0.051 28.648 27.406 6.1.39 0.040 17.347 1.541 0.000 91.200

1 Co-Pentlandite 0.016 18.840 26.240 9.670 0.042 21.980 2.840 0.000 79.629
Average 0.016 18.840 26.240 9.670 0.042 21.980 2.840 0.000 79.629

1 Pyrite 0.068 0.016 54.090 47.880 0.042 0.009 0.014 0.000 102.118
Average 0.068 0.016 54.090 47.880 0.042 0.009 0.014 0.000 102.118

1 Chalcopyrite 0.058 10.630 31.570 24.590 0.034 0.414 25.270 0.000 92.566
Average 0.058 10.630 31.570 24.590 0.034 0.414 25.270 0.000 92.566

1 CuZnNiFe 0.015 17.760 0.027 5.990 19.520 0.015 54.760 0.000 98.086
2 CuZnNiFe 0.000 17.100 0.043 4.540 18.040 0.000 58.300 0.000 98.024
Average 0.008 17.430 0.035 5.365 18.780 0.008 56.530 0.000 98.055

IP/Resistivity Survey The second IP/Resistivity was conducted


The first IP/Resistivity survey was con- in 2011 and covering larger areas defined
ducted in 2007 at Tanjung Berlian. The IP/ as potential anomaly zones by previous
Resistivity survey used pole dipole method geological mapping and soil sampling. The
with 50 m spacing. Total lines are 18 or total line of IP survey is 120 km across all
equal with 16,050 m (Elliot, 2008). The IP the ultramafics and its contact with meta-
survey was following the soil sampling grid morphic rocks include hydrothermal associ-
lines with east – west direction across the ated rocks. This survey proposes to confirm
silica ribs position. the subsurface of nickel sulfide potential. It

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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

Figure 12. Unusual very high cobalt values from soil samples (after panned concentrate).

is interpreted that the prospect area of program is carried out from October 2011
nickel sulfide mineralization is related to to December 2011.
high resistivity and high chargeability val-
To understand the occurrences of nickel sul-
ues. The 2011 IP survey shows encouraging
fide mineralization, PTI selects a special as-
result. Some large anomalies (coincident of
saying technique to selectively analyzed NiS
high resistivity and high chargeability) are
by Bromine Methanol Br(Me)OH provided
detected and open to depth (Figures 13a and
by SGS Canada and Outotec Findland. This
13b; Geoservices, 2011). This survey highly
method can discriminate the nickel sulfide
supports for next drilling program and po-
mineralization with other nickel silicates or
tential to achieved large tonnage.
oxides minerals (NiS vs Ni total). This is
Diamond Drilling Program very useful to design the next preliminary
The first core drilling program in the Latao flotation test from drill core samples.
was conducted in 2008. A total of 2000 m
Until this paper is written, PTI is still wait-
depth of diamond drilling was proposed.
ing the Br(Me)OH assay results from 2008
The objective of this program was to test the
and 2011 drilling programs with around
2007 IP and soil anomalies and to confirm
4000 samples. However, few random sam-
the potential Ni-Co sulfide and Cr mineral-
ples were back and preliminary results are
ization. During 2008 drill test program, four
confirmed the occurrences of nickel sulfide
holes intersects unusual Ni-Co mineralisa-
in the core samples. Table 2 is an example
tions at certain depths (>80 m) and related
from a preliminary results of Br(Me)OH of
to the silica alterations. These mineraliza-
nickel sulfide only (%) vs nickel total (%)
tions could not be explained by a traditional
that composed of nickel silicates, oxides,
nickel laterite theory as normally applied in
and sulfides.
Indonesian geological setting.
The grade of NiS from drill samples is rela-
Early 2011, PTI started to conduct the 2nd
tively similar with Ronnbacken (Sweden) or
phase diamond drilling program to confirm
Dumont (Canada) deposits those related to
IP and ground magnetic anomalies related
the serpentinization processes.
to NiS mineralizations. Total of 10 holes
or 1,973.70 m depth were drilled until mid The occurrences of NiS mineralizations
2011. The 3rd phase of diamond drilling in drill samples are closely related to high

100
The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

Figure 13. Examples of 2011 IP survey anomalies. (a) Section of Latao IP anomalies; (b) 3D model intersec-
tions of high resistivity and high chargeability, open to depth.

resistivity and high chargeability from IP thermal alteration, and tectonic deformation.
survey. These IP anomalies are good guide It has numerous features in common with
for current drilling program and PTI is other mineral deposits associated with al-
expecting can achieved potential large ton- tered serpentinites.
nages from current drilling program.
From tectonic history, the westward move-
Interpretation of Mineralization ment of the Banggai-Sula microcontinent
Latao deposit is a product of the obduction during the Miocene initiated a new subduc-
of peridotitic oceanic crust, intensive hydro- tion zone, forming Neogene Volcano clastics

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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

Table 2. Example of Br(Me)OH assay for Nickel sulfide (%) occurrences.

BHID From To Samp ID NiS Ni Total NiS Average Ni Total Average


LTD0C31 38.00 39.00 CXL0004052 0.15 0.21
LTD0C31 39.00 39.72 CXL0004053 0.13 0.22
LTD0C31 39.72 40.00 CXL0004054 0.12 0.12
LTD0C31 40.00 41.00 CXL0004055 0.11 0.11
0.11 0.22
LTD0C31 41.00 41.72 CXL0004056 0.10 0.10

LTD0C31 41.72 42.00 CXL0004057 0.10 0.10


LTD0C31 42.00 43.00 CXL0004058 0.09 0.09
LTD0C31 43.00 43.72 CXL0004059 0.10 0.10

(NVC). Further obduction of the ESO and To compare with other normal ultramafic
Pompangeo Complex during the Pliocene rocks in Sulawesi, Kadarusman (2009)
was caused by the buoyant subduction of made some geochemical plots. It is con-
the Banggai-Sula microcontinent (Figure cluded that Latao bedrocks have different
14, Kadarusman, 2008). Like NVC, it is pattern with other peridotite in Sulawesi.
interpreted that hydrothermal fluids are Latao ultramafic bed rocks seem to be
possibly released through the channeling of modified from the original composition
major structures during subduction process.
by hydrothermal alteration (?). The Latao
Combined with serpentinization processes
bedrock more rich in silica, high nickel and
and depending sulfur availability, the nickel
low CaO (Figure 15).
sulfide mineralization in ophiolite such as
Latao possibly occured. The hydrothermal alteration corresponded
The NNE-SSW and NW-SE trends of hy- with the serpentinization processes while
drothermal associated occurrences in Latao the ophiolites were emplaced during a pe-
are the logic fault impacts (and as hydro- riod of crustal collision resulting in obduc-
thermal fluid channels) created by regional tion. The hydrothermal mineral assemblage
WNW-ESE tectonic movements parallel is a product of temperature, the presence of
with Lawanopo Fault. CO2, and oxygen and sulfur fugacity. The

Figure 14.1nterpreted regional tectonic and Latao mineralization (Kadarusman, 2008).

102
The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

Figure 15. Silica rich Latao ultramafic bedrock plot vs normal ultramafic rocks in Sulawesi (Kadarusman,
2009).

silica was subsequently remobilized and can be adopted but required further studies.
redeposited forming a stockwork of quartz
NiS mineralization in Latao is hosted by
veins and veinlets. The silica (occasionally
serpentine and hydrothermal breccia (?).
with carbonate) alteration within this en-
Nickel was originally located mainly in the
vironment is called listwaenite to birbirite
olivine lattice within the ultramafic rocks,
alteration. Listwaenites are described as
such as dunites and peridotites. Due to ser-
silicified and carbonated rocks from ser-
pentinization of the olivine, nickel in the
pentinized ultramafic rocks in ophiolite
olivine was released and nickel bearing sul-
complexes (Buisson - Leblanc, 1985), while
phides were formed depending on sulphur
birbirite alteration has more silica content
availability. Serpentinization of ultramafic
>85% (Esteban et al., 2011). The chromite
rocks and the olivine occurs through the sup-
breccia occurrence in Latao is originated
ply of water, S, and CO2. The reaction can be
from podiform chromite which is related to
summarised as follows (SRK, April, 2011):
upper mantle cumulate associations and
possibly affected by hydrothermal injection Olivine (Ni) + H2O + S2 + CO2 → Ser-
fluid. pentinite + Brucite + Carbonates + Fe3O4
+ NixSy* + H2
The genesis of Latao magnetite-hematite
* Ni-rich sulphides
bodies and in hydrothermal breccia (?) is
still unknown. However referring to the By experimental studies (Filippidis, 1982),
Divrigi iron mineralization in Turkey, the synthetic nickel bearing olivine has been
magnetite bodies were formed during a serpentinized at 350°C under a pressure of
hydrothermal alteration of serpentinites. In 2 kbar by adding sulphur and water. Olivine
Turkey, the iron is enriched by serpentini- was transformed to serpentinite, brucite, and
zation processes and further concentrated magnetite, and nickel rich sulphides were
by hydrothermal convective cells caused formed such as millerite (NiS), pentlandite
by intrusion of granite pluton (Unlu et al., ((Fe, Ni)9 S8), heazlewoodite (Ni3S2), and
1995). Some parts of this concept perhaps bravoite ((Fe, Ni, Co) S2). Low sulfur fugac-

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Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

ity favours the formation of heazlewoodite factors of bulk composition, temperature,


and nickel rich magnetite. At a higher and oxygen-sulfur fugacity are transformed
sulphur fugacity, lower nickel values are while serpentinization advances. The rich
found in magnetite, including iron sulphides nickel sulfide minerals such as heazlewood-
as pyrite. Dehydration experiments (at ite (70% Ni), millerite (60% Ni; 2 - 3% Co)
500°C) have shown that, based on the pres- and pentlandite (33% Ni; 2 - 6% Co), and
ence of brucite and serpentine, it is possible occasionally with Fe-Ni alloy mineral such
to get reformation of new olivine which is as awaruite (72% Ni + Fe) are potentially
more magnesium rich than the original ol- exists (Royal Nickel Corp, May 2011). The
ivine. This is interpreted as magnetite and Fe-Ni-S phase diagram (Misra and Fleet,
pentlandite being stable during the created 1973) can described the relations among
metamorphic conditions. the NiS minerals (Figure 16). In this ser-
pentinized environment, the occurrences
Preliminary Economic and Environmen- of pyrite and pyrrhotite as gangue minerals
tal Considerations are lack and minimum. This is very good
to produce high grade nickel concentrate
The large tonnage low grade nickel sulfide after metallurgical process. Ronnbacken
deposits are the main target for the Latao and Dumont projects contain the highest
NiS exploration program. The rationale be- nickel concentrate grades (25 - 35% Ni)
hind this target is referring to Ronnbacken compare with other traditional NiS projects
(Sweden) or Dumont (Canada) projects. (5 - 15% Ni) around the world. Both projects
Both deposist have large tonnage (>200 Mt) are potential to become world-class nickel
but low nickel grade (<0.3% Ni) and NiS projects with NPV >$250 million (Royal
mineralizations are related to serpentiniza- Nickel Corp, April 2011 and Nickel Moun-
tion processes. However, the Ronnbacken tain, 2011). The summary of Ronnbacken
has a closer geology to Latao since it is re- and Dumont projects can be summarized
lated to Alpine-type ultramafic (SRK, April in Table 3.
2011).
Nickel rich heazlewoodite and millerite + no
Economic Consideration iron sulfides = high grade nickel concentrate
Within this unique serpentinized ultramafic (IGE Nordic, November, 2010).
environment, the nickel sulfide minerals
formations are relatively uncommon com- The 2011 IP survey across the Latao area
pare with the traditional NiS deposits. The shows encouraging result. Some large areas

Figure 16. Fe-Ni-S phase diagram (Misra and Fleet, 1973).

104
The Serpentine-Related Nickel Sulfide Occurrences from Latao, SE Sulawesi:
a New Frontier of Nickel Exploration in Indonesia (R. Rafianto et al.)

Table3. Summary of Ronnbacken and Dumont Projects for Preliminary Economic Considerations

MRMR Produc- LOM % Concen- CAPEX OPEX NVP


tion trate
M+I INF tpa Ni years US$ millions US$/lb US$ millions
Ronnbacken 277 Mt 279 Mt 26.000 19 28% Ni
$1.548 5.55 $316
@0.1% Ni @0.1% Ni
Dumont 1.1 Bt 581 Mt 64.500 25 35% Ni
$2.304 3.87 $1.146
@0.27% @0.25% Ni

with combination of high resistivity and The Latao nickel sulfide mineralization is
chargeability are shown for next drilling tar- interpreted having relationships with ser-
gets. PTI has a great expectation to achieved pentine and mainly epigenetic nickel-sulfide
large tonnage of NiS deposits in Latao. type. Due to serpentinization of olivine,
the nickel in the olivine was released and
Environmental Consideration
nickel bearing sulfides were formed depend-
For environmental issue, the serpentine-
related NiS deposits have a good position ing on sulfur availability, beyond normal
since the mine environmental costs are in- serpentinization. It is interpreted that Latao
creasing. Very low sulfide content (Nickel mineralization is more complex and closely
Mountain, 2011) gives very low Acid Mine related with the combination of serpentiniza-
Drainage (<0.1%S vs 1 - 3%S for typical tion processes, silica alteration (listwaenite-
mines). birbirite) and magnetite-hematite (iron
oxides) alterations due to hydrothermal
activities. The relations among them still
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE EX- unknown and further studies are required.
PLORATION FRONTIER Designing exploration strategy for the
Latao has been challenging since there was
The Latao project contains unusual nickel no nickel sulfide exploration in Indonesia
mineralization and potentially becoming and the geological setting is unconven-
the first nickel sulfide deposit discovered tional. However, a combination of good
in Indonesia. It is interpreted that the poten- understanding on ultramafic mineralization,
tial of nickel sulfide deposit Indonesia has
careful geological mapping, soil sampling,
much different geological setting compare
mineralogical analysis, good geophysi-
to traditional Ni-Cu- PGM deposits such
cal survey, careful selection of analytical
as komatiite, mafic-ultramafic intrusions
or flood basalts environments in Australia, methods and drilling strategy have led PTI
Canada or Russia. to defining of the unknown nickel sulfide
potential in Indonesia.
The regional tectonic and geological settings
of Southeast Sulawesi are supportive to the In first half of 2011, several good geophysi-
nickel sulfide deposition theory in Latao. cal anomalies were defined and the next
The hydrothermal alteration corresponded program is to define the potential mineral
with the serpentinization processes, while resources by systematic drilling program.
the ophiolites were emplaced during a pe- The large tonnage – low grade nickel sul-
riod of crustal collision resulted in obduc- fide deposit is current PTI major target.
tion. The hydrothermal mineral assemblage The selective Br(Me)OH assaying program
is a product of temperature, the presence of is in progress and continue with EPMA
CO2, and oxygen and sulfur fugacity. mineralogical analysis. PTI is targeting for

105
Majalah Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 27 No. 2 Agustus 2012: 87-107

a preliminary metallurgical flotation test Filippidis, A., 1982. Experimental study of the ser-
from drill core samples sometimes in 2012. pentinization of Mg-Fe-Ni Olivine in the Presence
of Sulfur. Canadian Mineralogist, 20, p.567 - 574.
Experiences learned from the Latao, there is
Fugro, 2009. PT. Inco tbk. Integrated Interpretation
a new frontier of nickel exploration in Indo- of Ground Magnetic and Remote Sensed Data, Latao
nesia. The geology and tectonic settings of Area, Sulawesi. Fugro Airborne Surveys Pty Ltd.
Indonesian ophiolite complexes in Sulawesi, Geoservices, 2011. PT. Inco tbk - Latao IP Resistivity
Papua, Kalimantan, and Halmahera are Data, PT. Geoservices Exploration Division.
needed to be re-assessed. Hall, R., 1996. Reconstructing Cenozoic SE Asia, In:
Hall, R. and Blundell, D. (eds) Tectonic Evolution
of Southeast Asia, Geological Society of London
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special Publication 106, p. 153 - 184.

The paper has been presented in Seminar MGEI- Hinschberger, F., Malod, J-A., Rehault, J-P., Ville-
IAGI of the Sulawesi Mineral Resources 2011 in neuve, M., Royer, J-Y., and Burhanuddin, S., 2005.
Manado, and compiled within the proceedings. The Late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of eastern
committe is acknowledged. To publish the article in Indonesia, Tectonophysics. 404, p. 91 - 118.
the MGI-IAGI some improvements of the content
have been carried out. IGE Nordic, 2010. Ronnbacken - Developing a major
nickel sulphide project in Sweden, Raw Materials.
Group 7th Annual Exploration & Mining Investment
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