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# Chapter 8 - Section A - Mathcad Solutions

## At point 2: Table F.2, H2 := 3531.5 S2 := 6.9636

At point 4: Table F.1, H4 := 209.3
At point 1: H1 := H4
At point 3: Table F.1, Hliq := H4 ∆Hlv := 2382.9

## For isentropic expansion, S'3 := S2

S'3 − Sliq
x'3 := x'3 = 0.855
∆Slv

## H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ∆Hlv H'3 = 2246

H3 − H2
η turbine := η turbine = 0.805 Ans.
H'3 − H2

Ws := H3 − H2 QH := H2 − H1
3 3
Ws = −1.035 × 10 QH = 3.322 × 10

Ws
η cycle := η cycle = 0.311 Ans.
QH

266
8.2 mdot := 1.0 (kg/s)
The following property values are found by linear interpolation in Table F.1:

## State 1, Sat. Liquid at TH: H1 := 860.7 S1 := 2.3482 P1 := 3.533

State 2, Sat. Vapor at TH: H2 := 2792.0 S2 := 6.4139 P2 := 3.533
State 3, Wet Vapor at TC: Hliq := 112.5 Hvap := 2550.6 P3 := 1616.0
State 4, Wet Vapor at TC: Sliq := 0.3929 Svap := 8.5200 P4 := 1616.0
(a) The pressures in kPa appear above.

(b) Steps 2--3 and 4--1 (Fig. 8.2) are isentropic, for which S3=S2 and S1=S4.
Thus by Eq. 6.82):
S2 − Sliq S1 − Sliq
x3 := x3 = 0.741 x4 := x4 = 0.241
Svap − Sliq Svap − Sliq
(c) The rate of heat addition, Step 1--2:
3
Qdot12 := mdot⋅ ( H2 − H1) Qdot12 = 1.931 × 10 (kJ/s)

## (d) The rate of heat rejection, Step 3--4:

H3 := Hliq + x3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H4 := Hliq + x4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)
3 H4 = 699.083
H3 = 1.919 × 10
3
Qdot34 := mdot⋅ ( H4 − H3) Qdot34 = −1.22 × 10 (kJ/s)

## Wdot41 := mdot⋅ ( H1 − H4) Wdot41 = 161.617

Wdot23 + Wdot41
(f) η := η = 0.368
Qdot12

## ΣQ := Qdot12 + Qdot34 ΣW := Wdot23 + Wdot41

ΣQ + ΣW = 0

267
8.3 The following vectors contain values for Parts (a) through (f).

Enthalpies and entropies for superheated vapor, Tables F.2 and F.4 @ P2
and T2 (see Fig. 8.4):

⎛ 3622.7⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎛ 6.9013⋅ kJ ⎞
⎜ ⎜
kg kg⋅ K
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟
⎜ 3529.6⋅ kg ⎟ ⎜ 6.9485 ⋅
kg⋅ K ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 3635.4⋅ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 6.9875⋅ kJ ⎟
⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟
H2 := ⎜ ⎟ S2 := ⎜ ⎟
kJ kJ
⎜ 3475.6⋅ ⎟ ⎜ 6.9145⋅ ⎟
⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟
⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟
⎜ 1507.0⋅ lb ⎟ ⎜ 1.6595⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟
⎜ m
⎟ ⎜ m

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟
⎜ 1558.8 ⋅ ⎜ 1.6759 ⋅
⎝ lbm ⎠ ⎝ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠

Sat. liq. and sat. vap. values from Tables F.2 and F.4 @ P3 = P4:

⎛ 191.832⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎛ 2584.8⋅ kJ ⎞
⎜ ⎜
kg kg
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟
⎜ 251.453⋅ kg ⎟ ⎜ 2609.9⋅ kg ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 191.832⋅ ⎟ kJ ⎜ 2584.8⋅ kJ ⎟
⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ kg ⎟
Hliq := ⎜ ⎟ Hvap := ⎜ ⎟
kJ kJ
⎜ 419.064⋅ ⎟ ⎜ 2676.0⋅ ⎟
⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ kg ⎟
⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟
⎜ 180.17⋅ lb ⎟ ⎜ 1150.5⋅ lb ⎟
⎜ m
⎟ ⎜ m

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟
⎜ 69.73 ⋅ ⎜ 1105.8 ⋅
⎝ lbm ⎠ ⎝ lbm ⎠

268
⎛ 0.6493⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎛ 8.1511⋅ kJ ⎞
⎜ ⎜
kg⋅ K kg⋅ K
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟
⋅ ⋅
⎜ 0.8321
kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ 7.9094
kg⋅ K ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 0.6493⋅ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 8.1511⋅ kJ ⎟
⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟
Sliq := ⎜ ⎟ Svap := ⎜ ⎟
kJ kJ
⎜ 1.3069⋅ ⎟ ⎜ 7.3554⋅ ⎟
⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟
⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟
⎜ 0.3121⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟ ⎜ 1.7568⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟
⎜ m
⎟ ⎜ m

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟
⎜ 0.1326 ⋅ ⎜ 1.9781 ⋅
⎝ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠ ⎝ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠

⎛ cm ⎞
3
⎜ 1.010⋅
⎜ gm ⎟
⎜ 3 ⎟
⎜ 1.017⋅ cm ⎟
⎜ gm ⎟
⎛ 0.80 ⎞ ⎛ 0.75 ⎞
⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜
⎜ 1.010⋅ cm ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟
⎜ gm ⎟ ⎜ 0.80 ⎟ ⎜ 0.80 ⎟
Vliq := ⎜ ⎟ η turbine := ⎜ ⎟ η pump := ⎜ ⎟
3
⎜ 1.044⋅ cm ⎟ ⎜ 0.78 ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟
⎜ gm ⎟ ⎜ 0.78 ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜

3
ft ⎟ ⎝ 0.80 ⎠ ⎝ 0.75 ⎠
⎜ 0.0167⋅ lbm ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ft ⎟
3
⎜ 0.0161 ⋅
⎝ lbm ⎠

269
⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎛ 10000⋅ kPa ⎞ ⎛ 10⋅ kPa ⎞
⎜ ⎜ ⎜
⎜ 100 ⎟ ⎜ 7000⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 20⋅ kPa ⎟
⎜ 70 ⎟ 3 ⎜ 8500⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 10⋅ kPa ⎟
Wdot := −⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⋅ kW P1 := ⎜ ⎟ P4 := ⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟50 ⎜ 6500⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 101.33⋅ kPa ⎟
⎜ 50 ⎟ ⎜ 950⋅ psi ⎟ ⎜ 14.7⋅ psi ⎟
⎜ ⎜ ⎜
⎝ 80 ⎠ ⎝ 1125⋅ psi ⎠ ⎝ 1⋅ psi ⎠
⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ →
Vliq⋅ ( P1 − P4)
Wpump :=
η pump H4 := Hliq H1 := H4 + Wpump

⎯⎯⎯⎯→
S2 − Sliq ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ →
S'3 = S2 x'3 := H'3 := ⎣⎡ Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) ⎤⎦
Svap − Sliq

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ →
H3 := ⎡⎣ H2 + η turbine⋅ ( H'3 − H2) ⎤⎦ Wturbine := H3 − H2

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→
⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→
( H2 − H1 ⋅ mdot)
Wdot
mdot := QdotH :=
Wturbine + Wpump
QdotC := QdotH + Wdot
⎛ QdotH1 ⎞
⎛ mdot1 ⎞ ⎛ 70.43 ⎞ ⎜ ⎛ 240705 ⎞
⎜ ⎜ ⎜ QdotH ⎟ ⎜
mdot2
⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ 108.64 ⎟ kg ⎜ 2⎟
=⎜
355111 ⎟ kJ
⎜ mdot3 ⎟ ⎜ 62.13 ⎟ sec ⎜ QdotH ⎟ ⎜ 213277 ⎟ sec
⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 3
⎟ ⎜
⎝ mdot4 ⎠ ⎝ 67.29 ⎠ ⎜ QdotH ⎝ 205061 ⎠
⎝ 4⎠

## ⎛ mdot5 ⎞ ⎛ 145.733 ⎞ lbm ⎛ QdotH5 ⎞ ⎛ 192801 ⎞ BTU

⎜ =⎜ ⎜ =⎜
⎝ mdot6 ⎠ ⎝ 153.598 ⎠ sec ⎜ QdotH ⎝ 228033 ⎠ sec
⎝ 6⎠

270
⎛ QdotC1 ⎞ ⎛ 0.332 ⎞
⎜ ⎛ 160705 ⎞ ⎜
⎜ QdotC ⎟ ⎜ ⎯⎯⎯ → ⎜ 0.282 ⎟
⎜ 2⎟
=⎜
255111 ⎟ kJ
Wdot ⎜ 0.328 ⎟
⎜ QdotC ⎟ ⎜ 143277 ⎟ sec η := η =⎜ ⎟
⎜ 3
⎟ ⎜
QdotH ⎜ 0.244 ⎟
⎜ QdotC ⎝ 155061 ⎠ ⎜ 0.246 ⎟
⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎜
⎝ 0.333 ⎠
⎛ QdotC5 ⎞ ⎛ 145410 ⎞ BTU
⎜ =⎜
⎜ QdotC ⎝ 152208 ⎠ sec
⎝ 6⎠

## 8.4 Subscripts refer to Fig. 8.3.

Saturated liquid at 50 kPa (point 4)

cm
3
kJ P4 := 3300⋅ kPa
V4 := 1.030⋅ H4 := 340.564⋅
gm kg P1 := 50⋅ kPa
Saturated liquid and vapor at 50 kPa:
kJ
Hliq := H4 Hvap := 2646.0⋅
kg

kJ kJ
Sliq := 1.0912⋅ Svap := 7.5947⋅
kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

## Wpump := V4⋅ ( P4 − P1)

kJ
By Eq. (7.24), Wpump = 3.348
kg

kJ
H1 := H4 + Wpump H1 = 343.911
kg

The following vectors give values for temperatures of 450, 550, and 650 degC:

⎛⎜ 3340.6 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 7.0373 ⎞
kJ kJ
H2 := ⎜ 3565.3 ⎟ ⋅ S2 := ⎜ 7.3282 ⎟ ⋅
⎜ 3792.9 kg ⎜ 7.5891 kg⋅ K
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

271
S'3 − Sliq
S'3 := S2 x'3 :=
Svap − Sliq

## H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) Wturbine := H'3 − H2

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→
QH := ( H2 − H1) Wturbine + Wpump
η :=
QH

⎛⎜ 0.914 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 0.297 ⎞
x'3 = ⎜ 0.959 ⎟ η = ⎜ 0.314 ⎟ Ans.
⎜ 0.999 ⎜ 0.332
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

## 8.5 Subscripts refer to Fig. 8.3.

Saturated liquid at 30 kPa (point 4)
3
cm kJ
V4 := 1.022⋅ H4 := 289.302⋅ P1 := 30⋅ kPa
gm kg

## Saturated liquid and vapor at 30 kPa:

⎛⎜ 5000 ⎞
kJ
Hliq := H4 Hvap := 2625.4⋅ P4 := ⎜ 7500 ⎟ ⋅ kPa
kg
⎜ 10000
⎝ ⎠
kJ kJ
Sliq := 0.9441⋅ Svap := 7.7695⋅
kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

## By Eq. (7.24), Wpump := ⎡⎣V4⋅ ( P4 − P1)⎤⎦

⎛⎜ 294.381 ⎞
kJ
H1 := H4 + Wpump H1 = ⎜ 296.936 ⎟
⎜ 299.491 kg
⎝ ⎠
The following vectors give values for pressures of 5000, 7500, and
10000 kPa at 600 degC

⎛⎜ 3664.5 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 7.2578 ⎞
kJ kJ
H2 := ⎜ 3643.7 ⎟ ⋅ S2 := ⎜ 7.0526 ⎟ ⋅
⎜ 3622.7 kg ⎜ 6.9013 kg⋅ K
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
272
S'3 − Sliq
S'3 := S2 x'3 :=
Svap − Sliq

## H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) Wturbine := H'3 − H2

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→
QH := ( H2 − H1) Wturbine + Wpump
η :=
QH

⎛⎜ 0.925 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 0.359 ⎞
x'3 = ⎜ 0.895 ⎟ η = ⎜ 0.375 ⎟ Ans.
⎜ 0.873 ⎜ 0.386
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

## 8.6 From Table F.2 at 7000 kPa and 640 degC:

kJ kJ
H1 := 3766.4⋅ S1 := 7.2200⋅ S'2 := S1
kg kg⋅ K
For sat. liq. and sat. vap. at 20 kPa:
kJ kJ
Hliq := 251.453⋅ Hvap := 2609.9⋅
kg kg

kJ kJ
Sliq := 0.8321⋅ Svap := 7.9094⋅
kg⋅ K kg⋅ K
The following enthalpies are interpolated in Table F.2 at four values for
intermediate pressure P2:
⎛ 725 ⎞ ⎛ 3023.9 ⎞
⎜ ⎜
P2 := ⎜
750 ⎟
H'2 := ⎜
3032.5 ⎟ kJ
⋅ kPa ⋅
⎜ 775 ⎟ ⎜ 3040.9 ⎟ kg
⎜ ⎜
⎝ 800 ⎠ ⎝ 3049.0 ⎠
η := 0.78 W12 := η ⋅ ( H'2 − H1) H2 := H1 + W12

## ⎛ −579.15 ⎞ ⎛ 3187.3 ⎞ ⎛ 7.4939 ⎞

⎜ ⎜ ⎜
−572.442 ⎟ kJ
=⎜ H2 = ⎜
3194 ⎟ kJ
S2 := ⎜
7.4898 ⎟ kJ
W12 ⋅
⎜ −565.89 ⎟ kg ⎜ 3200.5 ⎟ kg ⎜ 7.4851 ⎟ kg⋅ K
⎜ ⎜ ⎜
⎝ −559.572 ⎠ ⎝ 3206.8 ⎠ ⎝ 7.4797 ⎠
273
where the entropy values are by interpolation in Table F.2 at P2.

S2 − Sliq
x'3 := H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)
Svap − Sliq

## W23 := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2)

⎛ −20.817 ⎞

−7.811 ⎟ kJ
∆W := W12 − W23 ∆W = ⎜
⎜ 5.073 ⎟ kg

⎝ 17.723 ⎠
The work difference is essentially linear in P2, and we interpolate linearly to
find the value of P2 for which the work difference is zero:

linterp ⎢
⎡ ∆W , P , 0.0⎤ = 765.16 kPa
2 ⎥ (P2)
⎢⎜⎛ kJ ⎞

⎣ ⎝ kg ⎠ ⎦
Also needed are values of H2 and S2 at this pressure. Again we do linear
interpolations:

kJ kJ
H2 := 3197.9⋅
kg kg

## linterp ( P2 , S2 , 765.16⋅ kPa) = 7.4869

kJ kJ
S2 := 7.4869⋅
kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

We can now find the temperature at this state by interplation in Table F.2.
This gives an intermediate steam temperature t2 of 366.6 degC.
The work calculations must be repeated for THIS case:
S2 − Sliq
W12 := H2 − H1 x'3 :=
Svap − Sliq

kJ
W12 = −568.5 x'3 = 0.94
kg

## H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) W23 := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2)

kJ
3 kJ W23 = −568.46
H'3 = 2.469 × 10 kg
kg

274
kJ
Work := W12 + W23 Work = −1137
kg
For a single isentropic expansion from the initial pressure to the
final pressure, which yields a wet exhaust:

S1 − Sliq
x'3 := H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)
Svap − Sliq
3 kJ
H'3 = 2.38 × 10
x'3 = 0.903 kg

kJ
W' := H'3 − H1 W' = −1386.2
kg
Whence the overall efficiency is:
Work
η overall := η overall = 0.8202 Ans.
W'

275
8.7

From Table F.2 for steam at 4500 kPa and 500 degC:
kJ kJ
H2 := 3439.3⋅ S2 := 7.0311⋅ S'3 := S2
kg kg⋅ K
By interpolation at 350 kPa and this entropy,

WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2)
kJ
H'3 := 2770.6⋅ η := 0.78
kg
3 kJ kJ
H3 := H2 + WI H3 = 2.918 × 10 WI = −521.586
kg kg

## S'4 := S2 Exhaust is wet: for sat. liq. & vap.:

kJ kJ
Hliq := 251.453⋅ Hvap := 2609.9⋅
kg kg
kJ kJ
Sliq := 0.8321⋅ Svap := 7.9094⋅
kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

276
S'4 − Sliq
x'4 := H'4 := Hliq + x'4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)
Svap − Sliq
3 kJ
H'4 = 2.317 × 10
x'4 = 0.876 kg

H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2)
3 kJ
H4 = 2.564 × 10
kg

3
cm
H5 := Hliq V5 := 1.017⋅ P5 := 20⋅ kPa P6 := 4500⋅ kPa
gm

V5⋅ ( P6 − P5)
Wpump := H6 := H5 + Wpump
η
kJ kJ
Wpump = 5.841 H6 = 257.294
kg kg

## For sat. liq. at 350 kPa (Table F.2):

kJ
H7 := 584.270⋅ t7 := 138.87 (degC)
kg
We need the enthalpy of compressed liquid at point 1, where the pressure is
4500 kPa and the temperature is:

## t1 := 138.87 − 6 T1 := ( t1 + 273.15) ⋅ K t1 = 132.87

At this temperature, 132.87 degC, interpolation in Table F.1 gives:
3
kJ cm
Hsat.liq := 558.5⋅ Psat := 294.26⋅ kPa Vsat.liq := 1.073⋅
kg gm
Also by approximation, the definition of the volume expansivity yields:

3
⋅ ⎛⎜
1 1.083 − 1.063 ⎞ cm
β := ⋅ P1 := P6
Vsat.liq ⎝ 20 ⎠ gm⋅ K

−4 1
β = 9.32 × 10
K

277
By Eq. (7.25),

( )
H1 := Hsat.liq + Vsat.liq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P1 − Psat) H1 = 561.305
kJ
kg
By an energy balance on the feedwater heater:

H1 − H6
mass := ⋅ kg mass = 0.13028 kg Ans.
H3 − H7

## Wnet := ( WI + Wpump) ⋅ 1⋅ kg + WII Wnet = −823.3 kJ

QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ kg
Wnet
QH = 2878 kJ η := η = 0.2861 Ans.
QH

## 8.8 Refer to figure in preceding problem.

Although entropy values are not needed for most points in the process, they are
recorded here for future use in Problem 15.8.

## From Table F.4 for steam at 650(psia) & 900 degF:

BTU BTU
H2 := 1461.2⋅ S2 := 1.6671⋅ S'3 := S2
lbm lbm⋅ rankine

## By interpolation at 50(psia) and this entropy,

WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2)
BTU
H'3 := 1180.4⋅ η := 0.78
lbm
BTU BTU
H3 := H2 + WI H3 = 1242.2 WI = −219.024
lbm lbm
BTU
S3 := 1.7431⋅
lbm⋅ rankine

278
Isentropic expansion to 1(psia): S'4 := S2
Exhaust is wet: for sat. liq. & vap.:

BTU BTU
Hliq := 69.73⋅ Hvap := 1105.8⋅
lbm lbm

BTU BTU
Sliq := 0.1326⋅ Svap := 1.9781⋅
lbm⋅ rankine lbm⋅ rankine
S'4 − Sliq
x'4 := H'4 := Hliq + x'4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)
Svap − Sliq
BTU
x'4 = 0.831 H'4 = 931.204
lbm

H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2)
BTU
H4 = 1047.8
lbm
H4 − Hliq
x4 := S4 := Sliq + x4⋅ ( Svap − Sliq)
Hvap − Hliq
BTU
S4 = 1.8748
x4 = 0.944 lbm⋅ rankine
3
ft
P5 := 1⋅ psi H5 := Hliq V5 := 0.0161⋅
lbm

## V5⋅ ( P6 − P5) BTU

Wpump := Wpump = 2.489
η lbm
BTU
P6 := 650⋅ psi H6 := H5 + Wpump H6 = 72.219
lbm
For sat. liq. at 50(psia) (Table F.4):

BTU BTU
H7 := 250.21⋅ t7 := 281.01 S7 := 0.4112⋅
lbm lbm⋅ rankine

## We need the enthalpy of compressed liquid at point 1, where the pressure is

650(psia) and the temperature is

## t1 := 281.01 − 11 T1 := ( t1 + 459.67) ⋅ rankine t1 = 270.01

279
At this temperature, 270.01 degF, interpolation in Table F.3 gives:

3
ft
Psat := 41.87⋅ psi Vsat.liq := 0.1717⋅
lbm
BTU
Hsat.liq := 238.96⋅ BTU
lbm Ssat.liq := 0.3960⋅
lbm⋅ rankine

## The definition of the volume expansivity yields:

3
⋅ ⎛⎜
1 0.01726 − 0.01709 ⎞ ft
β := ⋅ P1 := P6
Vsat.liq ⎝ 20 ⎠ lbm⋅ rankine

−5 1
β = 4.95 × 10
rankine
By Eq. (7.25) and (7.26),

( )
H1 := Hsat.liq + Vsat.liq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P1 − Psat) H1 = 257.6
BTU
lbm

## S1 := Ssat.liq + Vsat.liq⋅ β ⋅ ( P1 − Psat)

BTU
S1 = 0.397
lbm⋅ rankine
By an energy balance on the feedwater heater:

H1 − H6
mass := ⋅ lbm
H3 − H7 mass = 0.18687 lbm Ans.

## Wnet := ( WI + Wpump) ⋅ 1⋅ lbm + WII Wnet = −374.586 BTU

QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ lbm
3
QH = 1.204 × 10 BTU

Wnet
η := η = 0.3112 Ans.
QH

280
8.9

## Steam at 6500 kPa & 600 degC (point 2) Table F.2:

kJ kJ
H2 := 3652.1⋅ S2 := 7.1258⋅ P2 := 6500⋅ kPa
kg kg⋅ K
At point 3 the pressure must be such that the steam has a condensation
temperature in feedwater heater I of 195 degC, 5 deg higher than the
temperature of the feed water to the boiler at point 1. Its saturation pressure,
corresponding to 195 degC, from Table F.1, is 1399.0 kPa. The steam at point 3
is superheated vapor at this pressure, and if expansion from P2 to P3 is
isentropic,

## S'3 := S2 By double interpolation in Table F.2,

WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2)
kJ
H'3 := 3142.6⋅ η := 0.80
kg
3 kJ kJ
H3 := H2 + WI H3 = 3.244 × 10 WI = −407.6
kg kg

kJ
From Table F.1: H10 := 829.9⋅
kg

281
Similar calculations are required for feedwater heater II.

At the exhaust conditions of 20 kPa, the properties of sat. liq. and sat.
vap. are:
3
kJ kJ cm
Hliq := 251.453⋅ Hvap := 2609.9⋅ Vliq := 1.017⋅
kg kg gm

kJ kJ
Sliq := 0.8321⋅ Svap := 7.9094⋅
kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

If we find t7, then t8 is the mid-temperature between t7 and t1(190 degC), and
that fixes the pressure of stream 4 so that its saturation temperature is 5 degC
higher. At point 6, we have saturated liquid at 20 kPa, and its properties from
Table F.2 are:

## H6 := Hliq V6 := Vliq P6 := 20⋅ kPa

V6⋅ ( P2 − P6)
Wpump := [Eq. (7.24)]
η
kJ
Wpump = 8.238 ∆H67 := Wpump
kg

We apply Eq. (7.25) for the calculation of the temperature change from point 6
to point 7. For this we need values of the heat capacity and volume expansivity
of water at about 60 degC. They can be estimated from data in Table F.1:

3
1 ⎛ 1.023 − 1.012 ⎞ cm 272.0 − 230.2 kJ
β := ⋅⎜ ⋅ CP := ⋅
Vliq ⎝ 20 ⎠ gm⋅ K 10 kg⋅ K

−4 1 kJ
β = 5.408 × 10 CP = 4.18
K kg⋅ K

## Solving Eq. (7.25) for delta T gives:

∆T67 :=
( )
∆H67 − Vliq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ Tsat ⋅ ( P2 − P6)
∆T67 = 0.678 K
CP

∆T67 190 − t7
t7 := tsat + t9 := + t7 t8 := t9 + 5
K 2
282
t7 = 60.768

kJ
t8 = 130.38 From Table F.1: H8 := 547.9⋅
kg
H7 := Hliq + ∆H67 t9 = 125.38 T9 := ( 273.15 + t9) ⋅ K

kJ
H7 = 259.691
kg

At points 9 and 1, the streams are compressed liquid (P=6500 kPa), and we
find the effect of pressure on the liquid by Eq. (7.25). Values by
interpolation in Table F.1 at saturation temperatures t9 and t1:

3
kJ cm
Hsat.9 := 526.6⋅ Vsat.9 := 1.065⋅ Psat.9 := 234.9⋅ kPa
kg gm
3
kJ cm
Hsat.1 := 807.5⋅ Vsat.1 := 1.142⋅ Psat.1 := 1255.1⋅ kPa
kg gm
3 3
cm cm
∆V9 := ( 1.075 − 1.056) ⋅ ∆V1 := ( 1.156 − 1.128) ⋅
gm gm

1 ∆V9 1 ∆V1
∆T := 20⋅ K β 9 := ⋅ β 1 := ⋅
Vsat.9 ∆T Vsat.1 ∆T

−4 1 −3 1
β 9 = 8.92 × 10 β 1 = 1.226 × 10
K K

( )
H9 := Hsat.9 + Vsat.9⋅ 1 − β 9⋅ T9 ⋅ ( P2 − Psat.9) H9 = 530.9
kJ
kg

## T1 := ( 273.15 + 190) ⋅ K T1 = 463.15 K

( )
H1 := Hsat.1 + Vsat.1⋅ 1 − β 1⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P2 − Psat.1) H1 = 810.089
kJ
kg
Now we can make an energy balance on feedwater heater I to find the
mass of steam condensed:

H1 − H9
mI := ⋅ kg mI = 0.11563 kg Ans.
H3 − H10

283
The temperature at point 8, t8 = 130.38 (see above) is the saturation temperture in
feedwater heater II. The saturation pressure by interpolation in Table F.1 is
273.28 kPa.

Isentropic expansion of steam from the initial conditions to this pressure results in
a slightly superheated vapor, for which by double interpolation in Table F.2:

H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2)
kJ
H'4 := 2763.2⋅ Then
kg
3 kJ
H4 = 2.941 × 10
kg
We can now make an energy balance on feedwater heater II to find the mass of
steam condensed:

mII :=
( H9 − H7) ⋅ 1⋅ kg − mI⋅ ( H10 − H8) mII = 0.09971 kg Ans.
H4 − H8

The final stage of expansion in the turbine is to 20 kPa, where the exhaust is wet.
For isentropic expansion,

S2 − Sliq
x'5 := H'5 := Hliq + x'5⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)
Svap − Sliq
3 kJ
x'5 = 0.889 H'5 = 2.349 × 10
kg

H5 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'5 − H2)
kJ
Then H5 = 2609.4
kg
The work of the turbine is:

## Wturbine := WI⋅ 1⋅ kg + ( 1⋅ kg − mI) ⋅ ( H4 − H3) ...

+ ( 1⋅ kg − mI − mII) ⋅ ( H5 − H4)

QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ kg
3
Wturbine = −936.2 kJ QH = 2.842 × 10 kJ

Wturbine + Wpump⋅ 1⋅ kg
η := η = 0.3265 Ans.
QH

284
8.10 Isobutane: Tc := 408.1⋅ K Pc := 36.48⋅ bar ω := 0.181
For isentropic expansion in the turbine, let the initial state be represented by
symbols with subscript zero and the final state by symbols with no subscript.
Then

## T0 := 533.15⋅ K P0 := 4800⋅ kPa P := 450⋅ kPa

J
∆S := 0⋅ For the heat capacity of isobutane:
mol⋅ K
−3 −6
37.853⋅ 10 −11.945⋅ 10
A := 1.677 B := C :=
K 2
K
T0 P0
Tr0 := Tr0 = 1.3064 Pr0 := Pr0 = 1.3158
Tc Pc
P
Pr := Pr = 0.123
Pc

## Use generalized second-virial correlation:

The entropy change is given by Eq. (6.92) combined with Eq. (5.15) with D = 0:

τ := 0.8 (guess)
Given
⎡ ⎡
∆S = R⋅ ⎢A⋅ ln ( τ ) + ⎢ B⋅ T0 + C⋅ T0 ⋅ ⎜
2⎛ τ + 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ( τ − 1) − ln ⎛ P ⎞ ...⎤
⎥ ⎜P ⎥
⎢ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎥
⎢ ⎛ τ ⋅ T0 ⎞ ⎥
⎢+ SRB ⎜ , P r , ω − SRB ( T r0 , P r0 , ω ) ⎥
⎣ ⎝ Tc ⎠ ⎦

## τ := Find ( τ ) τ = 0.852 T := τ ⋅ T0 T = 454.49 K

T
Tr := Tr = 1.114
Tc
The enthalpy change for this final temperature is given by Eq. (6.91), with HRB at
the above T:

(
∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T0 , T , 1.677 , 37.853⋅ 10
−3
, −11.945⋅ 10
−6
, 0.0 )
4 J
∆Hig = −1.141 × 10
mol

285
( ( )
∆Hturbine := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Tr , Pr , ω − HRB Tr0 , Pr0 , ω( ))
J
∆Hturbine = −8850.6 Wturbine := ∆Hturbine
mol
The work of the pump is given by Eq. (7.24), and for this we need an estimate of
the molar volume of isobutane as a saturated liquid at 450 kPa. This is given by
Eq. (3.72). The saturation temperature at 450 kPa is given by the Antoine
equation solved for t degC:

VP := 450⋅ kPa

## Avp := 14.57100 Bvp := 2606.775 Cvp := 274.068

Bvp
tsat := − Cvp tsat = 34 Tsat := ( tsat + 273.15) ⋅ K
Avp − ln ⎛⎜
VP ⎞
Tsat = 307.15 K
⎝ kPa ⎠
3 Tsat
cm
Vc := 262.7⋅ Zc := 0.282 Trsat := Trsat = 0.753
mol Tc
⎡ 2⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎣(1−Trsat) 7⎦ cm
3
Vliq := Vc⋅ Zc Vliq = 112.362
mol

Wpump := Vliq⋅ ( P0 − P)
J
Wpump = 488.8
mol
The flow rate of isobutane can now be found:

1000⋅ kW mol
mdot := mdot = 119.59 Ans.
Wturbine + Wpump sec

## The enthalpy change of the isobutane in the cooler/condenser is calculated in

two steps:
a. Cooling of the vapor from 454.48 to 307.15 K
b. Condensation of the vapor at 307.15 K
Enthalpy change of cooling: HRB at the initial state has already been calculated.
For saturated vapor at 307.15 K:

(
∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T , Tsat , 1.677 , 37.853⋅ 10
−3
, −11.945⋅ 10
−6
)
, 0.0

286
4 J
∆Hig = −1.756 × 10
mol

( ( )
∆Ha := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Trsat , Pr , ω − HRB Tr , Pr , ω ( ))
J
∆Ha = −18082
mol

For the condensation process, we estimate the latent heat by Eqs. (4.12) and (4.13):

Tn
Tn := 261.4⋅ K Trn := Trn = 0.641
Tc

⎛ ⎛ Pc ⎞ ⎞
R⋅ Tn⋅ 1.092⋅ ⎜ ln ⎜ − 1.013
∆Hn := ⎝ ⎝ bar ⎠ ⎠ ∆Hn = 2.118 × 10
4 J
0.930 − Trn mol

0.38
⎛ 1 − Trsat ⎞ J
∆Hb := −∆Hn⋅ ⎜ ∆Hb = −18378
⎝ 1 − Trn ⎠ mol

(
Qdotout := mdot⋅ ∆Ha + ∆Hb )
1000⋅ kW
Qdotin := Wturbine + Wpump ⋅ mdot + Qdotout η :=
Qdotin

## 8.11 Isobutane: Tc := 408.1⋅ K Pc := 36.48⋅ bar ω := 0.181

For isentropic expansion in the turbine, let the initial (inlet) state be
represented by symbols with subscript zero and the final (exit) state by
symbols with no subscript. Then
gm
T0 := 413.15⋅ K P0 := 3400⋅ kPa P := 450⋅ kPa molwt := 58.123
mol
J
∆S := 0⋅
mol⋅ K

287
For the heat capacity of isobutane:
−3 −6
37.853⋅ 10 −11.945⋅ 10
A := 1.677 B := C :=
K 2
K
T0 P0
Tr0 := Tr0 = 1.0124 Pr0 := Pr0 = 0.932
Tc Pc
P
Pr := Pr = 0.123
Pc

## Use Lee/Kesler correlation for turbine-inlet state, designating values

by HRLK and SRLK:
HRLK0 := −1.530 SRLK0 := −1.160
The entropy change is given by Eq. (6.92) combined with Eq. (5.15) with D = 0:

τ := 0.8 (guess)
Given
⎡ ⎡ ⎛ τ + 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ( τ − 1) − ln ⎛ P ⎞ ...⎤
∆S = R⋅ ⎢A⋅ ln ( τ ) + ⎢ B⋅ T0 + C⋅ T0 ⋅ ⎜
2
⎥ ⎜P ⎥
⎢ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥
0
⎢ ⎛ T 0⋅ τ ⎞ ⎥
⎢+ SRB ⎜ Tc , Pr , ω − SRLK0 ⎥
⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦
τ := Find ( τ ) τ = 0.809 T := τ ⋅ T0 T = 334.08 K
T
Tr := Tr = 0.819
Tc

The enthalpy change for this final temperature is given by Eq. (6.91), with
HRB at the above T:

(
∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T0 , T , 1.677 , 37.853⋅ 10
−3
, −11.945⋅ 10
−6
, 0.0)
3 J
∆Hig = −9.3 × 10
mol
( (
∆Hturbine := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Tr , Pr , ω − HRLK0 ) )
J
∆Hturbine = −4852.6 Wturbine := ∆Hturbine
mol

288
The work of the pump is given by Eq. (7.24), and the required value for the
molar volume of saturated-liquid isobutane at 450 kPa (34 degC) is the
value calculated in Problem 8.10:
3
Wpump := Vliq⋅ ( P0 − P)
cm J
Vliq := 112.36⋅ Wpump = 331.462
mol mol
For the cycle the net power OUTPUT is:

## Wdot := −mdot⋅ ( Wturbine + Wpump)

75 kg
mdot := ⋅
molwt sec
Wdot = 5834 kW Ans.

## The enthalpy change of the isobutane in the cooler/condenser is calculated in

two steps:
a. Cooling of the vapor from 334.07 to 307.15 K
b. Condensation of the vapor at 307.15 K

Enthalpy change of cooling: HRB at the initial state has already been
calculated. For saturated vapor at 307.15 K it was found in Problem 8.10 as:
Tsat
Tsat := 307.15K Trsat := Trsat = 0.753
Tc

(
∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T , Tsat , 1.677 , 37.853⋅ 10
−3
, −11.945⋅ 10
−6
)
, 0.0

kJ
∆Hig = −2.817
mol

( ( )
∆Ha := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Trsat , Pr , ω − HRB Tr , Pr , ω ( ))
J
∆Ha = −2975
mol

For the condensation process, the enthalpy change was found in Problem
8.10:

∆Hb := −18378⋅
J
mol
(
Qdotout := mdot⋅ ∆Ha + ∆Hb )
Qdotout = −27553 kW Ans.

289
For the heater/boiler:

## Qdotin := Wdot + Qdotout Qdotin = 33387 kW Ans.

Wdot
η := η = 0.175 Ans.
Qdotin

We now recalculate results for a cycle for which the turbine and pump each
have an efficiency of 0.8. The work of the turbine is 80% of the value
calculated above, i.e.,
J
W'turbine := 0.8⋅ Wturbine W'turbine = −3882
mol
The work of the pump is:

Wpump J
W'pump := W'pump = 414.3
0.8 mol

## The decrease in the work output of the turbine shows up as an increase in

the heat transferred out of the cooler condenser. Thus

## Qdotout = −28805 kW Ans.

The increase in pump work shows up as a decrease in the heat added in the
heater/boiler. Thus

## Qdotin := Qdotin − ( W'pump − Wpump) ⋅ mdot Qdotin = 33280 kW Ans.

Wdot
η := η = 0.134 Ans.
Qdotin

290
7
8.13 Refer to Fig. 8.10. CP := ⋅R
2
PC := 1⋅ bar TC := 293.15⋅ K PD := 5⋅ bar γ := 1.4
γ γ
By Eq. (3.30c): PC⋅ VC = PD⋅ VD

1 1
γ γ
VC ⎛ PD ⎞ or ⎛ PD ⎞
= ⎜ r := ⎜ r = 3.157 Ans.
V D ⎝ PC ⎠ ⎝ PC ⎠
γ −1
γ
⎛ PD ⎞ J
Eq. (3.30b): TD := TC⋅ ⎜ QDA := 1500⋅
⎝ PC ⎠ mol

QDA
QDA = CP⋅ ( TA − TD) TA := + TD TA = 515.845 K
CP
R⋅ T C
VB VC PC
re = = = T C PA
VA VA R⋅ T A PA := PD re := ⋅
T A PC
PA
re = 2.841 Ans.

8.14
⎛3 ⎞

Ratio := ⎜ ⎟
5 PB
Ratio = γ := 1.35
⎜7 ⎟ PA

⎝9 ⎠
Eq. (8.12) now becomes:
⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→
⎡ γ −1 ⎤ ⎛ 0.248 ⎞
⎢ γ ⎥ ⎜
⎢ ⎛
η := 1 − ⎜
1 ⎞
⎥ η =⎜
0.341 ⎟
Ans.
⎣ ⎝ Ratio ⎠ ⎦ ⎜ 0.396 ⎟

⎝ 0.434 ⎠

291
8.16

## Figure shows the air-standard turbojet power plant on a PV diagram.

7
TA := 303.15⋅ K TC := 1373.15⋅ K CP := ⋅ R
2
By Eq. (7.22)

⎡ R ⎤
⎢ CP ⎥ ⎛ 2 ⎞
⎢⎛ PB ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ 7
WAB = CP⋅ TA⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ = CP⋅ TA⋅ ⎝ cr − 1⎠
⎣⎝ PA ⎠ ⎦

⎡ R ⎤
⎢ CP ⎥ ⎛ 2 ⎞
⎢⎛ PD ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ 7
WCD = CP⋅ TC⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ = CP⋅ TC⋅ ⎝ er − 1⎠
⎣⎝ PC ⎠ ⎦
where cr is the compression ratio and er is the expansion ratio. Since the two
work terms are equal but of opposite signs,

## cr := 6.5 er := 0.5 (guess)

⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞
⎜ 7 ⎜ 7
Given TC⋅ ⎝ er − 1⎠ = −TA⋅ ⎝ cr − 1⎠ er := Find ( er)

er = 0.552

292
R
CP
⎛ PD ⎞
By Eq. (7.18): TD = TC⋅ ⎜
⎝ PC ⎠
2
7
This may be written: TD := TC⋅ er

⎡ γ −1 ⎤
⎢ γ

2 2 2 ⋅ γ ⋅ P D D ⎢
⋅ V ⎛ E⎞
P ⎥
By Eq. (7.11) uE − uD = ⋅⎢ 1 − ⎜ ⎥ (A)
γ−1 ⎣ ⎝ PD ⎠ ⎦
We note the following:

PD PB PC PD
er = cr = = cr⋅ er =
PC PA PE PE

## The following substitutions are made in (A):

γ−1 R 2 PE 1
uD = 0 = = PD⋅ VD = R⋅ TD =
γ CP 7 PD cr⋅ er
gm
Then molwt := 29
mol
⎡ 2⎤
⎢ 7⎥
7
uE := 2⋅ ⋅
R ⎛
⋅ TD⋅ ⎢ 1 − ⎜
1 ⎞
⎥ uE = 843.4
m
Ans.
2 molwt ⎣ ⎝ cr⋅ er ⎠ ⎦ sec

## 8.17 TA := 305⋅ K PA := 1.05bar PB := 7.5bar η := 0.8

Assume air to be an ideal gas with mean heat capacity (final temperature by
iteration):

(
Cpmair := MCPH 298.15K , 582K , 3.355 , 0.575⋅ 10
−3 )
5
, 0.0 , −0.016⋅ 10 ⋅ R
J
Cpmair = 29.921
mol⋅ K

293
Compressor:

⎡ R ⎤
⎢ Cpmair ⎥
Cpmair⋅ TA ⎢⎛ PB ⎞ ⎥ 3 J
Wsair := ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ Wsair = 8.292 × 10
η ⎣⎝ PA ⎠ ⎦ mol
Wsair
TB := TA + TB = 582.126 K
Cpmair

## Basis: Complete combustion of 1 mol CH4. Reactants are N mol of

air and 1mol CH4.
Because the combustion is adiabatic, the basic equation is:

## ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP = 0

For ∆H_R, the mean heat capacities for air and methane are required.
The value for air is given above. For methane the temperature change
is very small; use the value given in Table C.1 for 298 K: 4.217*R.

The solution process requires iteration for N. Assume a value for N until
the above energy balance is satisfied.

## ∆HR := Cpmair⋅ N⋅ ( 298.15 − 582.03) ⋅ K + 4.217⋅ R⋅ ( 298.15 − 300) ⋅ K

5 J
∆HR = −4.896 × 10
mol
The product stream contains:

1 mol CO2, 2mol H2O, 0.79N mol N2, and (0.21N-2) mol O2

## ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 5.457 ⎞ ⎛ 1.045 ⎞ ⎛ −1.157 ⎞

⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜
n := ⎜ ⎟ A := ⎜
3.470 ⎟
B := ⎜
1.450 ⎟ − 3
D := ⎜
2 0.121 ⎟ 5
⋅ 10 ⋅ 10
⎜ .79⋅ N ⎟ ⎜ 3.280 ⎟ ⎜ 0.593 ⎟ ⎜ 0.040 ⎟
⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜
⎝ .21⋅ N − 2 ⎠ ⎝ 3.639 ⎠ ⎝ 0.506 ⎠ ⎝ −0.227 ⎠
i := 1 .. 4

294
∑ ni = 58.638 A :=
∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B :=
∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) D :=
∑ ( ni⋅Di)
i i i i

5
A = 198.517 B = 0.036 D = −1.387 × 10

(
CpmP := MCPH 298.15K , 1000.K , 198.517 , 0.0361 , 0.0 , −1.3872⋅ 10 ⋅ R
5)
∆HP := CpmP⋅ ( TC − 298.15K)
6 J
∆HP = 1.292 × 10
mol

J
From Ex. 4.7: ∆H298 := −802625
mol

J
∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP = 136.223 (This result is sufficiently close to zero.)
mol

## Assume expansion of the combustion products in the turbine is to 1(atm),

i.e., to 1.0133 bar:
PD := 1.0133bar PC := 7.5bar
The pertinent equations are analogous to those for the compressor. The
mean heat capacity is that of the combustion gases, and depends on the
temperature of the exhaust gases from the turbine, which must therefore be
found by iteration. For an initial calculation use the mean heat capacity
already determined. This calculation yields an exhaust temperature of
about 390 K. Thus iteration starts with this value. Parameters A, B, and D
have the final values determined above.

(
Cpm := MCPH 1000K , 343.12K , 198.517 , 0.0361 , 0.0 , −1.3872⋅ 10 ⋅ R
5)
3 J
Cpm = 1.849 × 10 For 58.638 moles of combustion product:
mol⋅ K
⎡⎢ R
⎥⎤
Cpm
58.638⋅ Cpm⋅ TC ⎢⎛ PD ⎞ ⎥ 6 J
Ws := ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ Ws = −1.214 × 10
η ⎣⎝ PC ⎠ ⎦ mol
Ws
TD := TC + TD = 343.123 K (Final result of iteration.) Ans.
Cpm

295
5 J
Wsnet := Ws + Wsair⋅ N Wsnet = −7.364 × 10 Ans.
mol

## (J per mole of methane)

Parts (b) and (c) are solved in exactly the same way, with the following
results:

5
(b) TC := 1200 N := 37.48 Wsnet := −7.365⋅ 10 TD := 343.123

5
(c) TC := 1500 N := 24.07 Wsnet := −5.7519⋅ 10 TD := 598.94

dollars
8.18 η tm := 0.35 η me := 0.95 line_losses := 20% Cost_fuel := 4.00
GJ

Cost_fuel
Cost_electricity :=
⎡⎣η tm⋅ η me⋅ ( 1 − line_losses)⎤⎦
cents
Cost_electricity = 0.05 Ans.
kW⋅ hr
This is about 1/2 to 1/3 of the typical cost charged to residential customers.

kJ
8.19 TC := 111.4K TH := 300K ∆Hnlv := 8.206
mol
TC
η Carnot := 1 − η Carnot = 0.629 η HE := 0.6⋅ η Carnot η HE = 0.377
TH
Assume as a basis: W := 1kJ

QH :=
W
η HE
QH = 2.651 kJ (
QC := QH⋅ 1 − η HE ) QC = 1.651 kJ

QC
∆Hnlv mol Ans.
= 0.201
W kJ

296
8.20 TH := ( 27 + 273.15)K TC := ( 6 + 273.15)K
TC
a) η Carnot := 1 − η Carnot = 0.07 Ans.
TH
2
b) η actual := η Carnot⋅ 0.6⋅ η actual = 0.028 Ans.
3
c) The thermal efficiency is low and high fluid rates are required to generate
reasonable power. This argues for working fluids that are relatively
inexpensive. Candidates that provide reasonable pressures at the
required temperature levels include ammonia, n-butane, and propane.

297