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You are on page 1of 32

At point 4: Table F.1, H4 := 209.3

At point 1: H1 := H4

At point 3: Table F.1, Hliq := H4 ∆Hlv := 2382.9

S'3 − Sliq

x'3 := x'3 = 0.855

∆Slv

H3 − H2

η turbine := η turbine = 0.805 Ans.

H'3 − H2

Ws := H3 − H2 QH := H2 − H1

3 3

Ws = −1.035 × 10 QH = 3.322 × 10

Ws

η cycle := η cycle = 0.311 Ans.

QH

266

8.2 mdot := 1.0 (kg/s)

The following property values are found by linear interpolation in Table F.1:

State 2, Sat. Vapor at TH: H2 := 2792.0 S2 := 6.4139 P2 := 3.533

State 3, Wet Vapor at TC: Hliq := 112.5 Hvap := 2550.6 P3 := 1616.0

State 4, Wet Vapor at TC: Sliq := 0.3929 Svap := 8.5200 P4 := 1616.0

(a) The pressures in kPa appear above.

(b) Steps 2--3 and 4--1 (Fig. 8.2) are isentropic, for which S3=S2 and S1=S4.

Thus by Eq. 6.82):

S2 − Sliq S1 − Sliq

x3 := x3 = 0.741 x4 := x4 = 0.241

Svap − Sliq Svap − Sliq

(c) The rate of heat addition, Step 1--2:

3

Qdot12 := mdot⋅ ( H2 − H1) Qdot12 = 1.931 × 10 (kJ/s)

H3 := Hliq + x3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H4 := Hliq + x4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)

3 H4 = 699.083

H3 = 1.919 × 10

3

Qdot34 := mdot⋅ ( H4 − H3) Qdot34 = −1.22 × 10 (kJ/s)

Wdot23 + Wdot41

(f) η := η = 0.368

Qdot12

ΣQ + ΣW = 0

267

8.3 The following vectors contain values for Parts (a) through (f).

Enthalpies and entropies for superheated vapor, Tables F.2 and F.4 @ P2

and T2 (see Fig. 8.4):

⎛ 3622.7⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎛ 6.9013⋅ kJ ⎞

⎜ ⎜

kg kg⋅ K

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟

⎜ 3529.6⋅ kg ⎟ ⎜ 6.9485 ⋅

kg⋅ K ⎟

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎜ 3635.4⋅ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 6.9875⋅ kJ ⎟

⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟

H2 := ⎜ ⎟ S2 := ⎜ ⎟

kJ kJ

⎜ 3475.6⋅ ⎟ ⎜ 6.9145⋅ ⎟

⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟

⎜ 1507.0⋅ lb ⎟ ⎜ 1.6595⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟

⎜ m

⎟ ⎜ m

⎟

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟

⎜ 1558.8 ⋅ ⎜ 1.6759 ⋅

⎝ lbm ⎠ ⎝ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠

Sat. liq. and sat. vap. values from Tables F.2 and F.4 @ P3 = P4:

⎛ 191.832⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎛ 2584.8⋅ kJ ⎞

⎜ ⎜

kg kg

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟

⎜ 251.453⋅ kg ⎟ ⎜ 2609.9⋅ kg ⎟

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎜ 191.832⋅ ⎟ kJ ⎜ 2584.8⋅ kJ ⎟

⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ kg ⎟

Hliq := ⎜ ⎟ Hvap := ⎜ ⎟

kJ kJ

⎜ 419.064⋅ ⎟ ⎜ 2676.0⋅ ⎟

⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ kg ⎟

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟

⎜ 180.17⋅ lb ⎟ ⎜ 1150.5⋅ lb ⎟

⎜ m

⎟ ⎜ m

⎟

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟

⎜ 69.73 ⋅ ⎜ 1105.8 ⋅

⎝ lbm ⎠ ⎝ lbm ⎠

268

⎛ 0.6493⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎛ 8.1511⋅ kJ ⎞

⎜ ⎜

kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟

⋅ ⋅

⎜ 0.8321

kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ 7.9094

kg⋅ K ⎟

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎜ 0.6493⋅ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 8.1511⋅ kJ ⎟

⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟

Sliq := ⎜ ⎟ Svap := ⎜ ⎟

kJ kJ

⎜ 1.3069⋅ ⎟ ⎜ 7.3554⋅ ⎟

⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟

⎜ 0.3121⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟ ⎜ 1.7568⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟

⎜ m

⎟ ⎜ m

⎟

⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎟

⎜ 0.1326 ⋅ ⎜ 1.9781 ⋅

⎝ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠ ⎝ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠

⎛ cm ⎞

3

⎜ 1.010⋅

⎜ gm ⎟

⎜ 3 ⎟

⎜ 1.017⋅ cm ⎟

⎜ gm ⎟

⎛ 0.80 ⎞ ⎛ 0.75 ⎞

⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜

⎜ 1.010⋅ cm ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟

⎜ gm ⎟ ⎜ 0.80 ⎟ ⎜ 0.80 ⎟

Vliq := ⎜ ⎟ η turbine := ⎜ ⎟ η pump := ⎜ ⎟

3

⎜ 1.044⋅ cm ⎟ ⎜ 0.78 ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟

⎜ gm ⎟ ⎜ 0.78 ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜

⎜

3

ft ⎟ ⎝ 0.80 ⎠ ⎝ 0.75 ⎠

⎜ 0.0167⋅ lbm ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎜ ft ⎟

3

⎜ 0.0161 ⋅

⎝ lbm ⎠

269

⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎛ 10000⋅ kPa ⎞ ⎛ 10⋅ kPa ⎞

⎜ ⎜ ⎜

⎜ 100 ⎟ ⎜ 7000⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 20⋅ kPa ⎟

⎜ 70 ⎟ 3 ⎜ 8500⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 10⋅ kPa ⎟

Wdot := −⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⋅ kW P1 := ⎜ ⎟ P4 := ⎜ ⎟

⎜ ⎟50 ⎜ 6500⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 101.33⋅ kPa ⎟

⎜ 50 ⎟ ⎜ 950⋅ psi ⎟ ⎜ 14.7⋅ psi ⎟

⎜ ⎜ ⎜

⎝ 80 ⎠ ⎝ 1125⋅ psi ⎠ ⎝ 1⋅ psi ⎠

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ →

Vliq⋅ ( P1 − P4)

Wpump :=

η pump H4 := Hliq H1 := H4 + Wpump

⎯⎯⎯⎯→

S2 − Sliq ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ →

S'3 = S2 x'3 := H'3 := ⎣⎡ Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) ⎤⎦

Svap − Sliq

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ →

H3 := ⎡⎣ H2 + η turbine⋅ ( H'3 − H2) ⎤⎦ Wturbine := H3 − H2

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→

( H2 − H1 ⋅ mdot)

Wdot

mdot := QdotH :=

Wturbine + Wpump

QdotC := QdotH + Wdot

Answers follow:

⎛ QdotH1 ⎞

⎛ mdot1 ⎞ ⎛ 70.43 ⎞ ⎜ ⎛ 240705 ⎞

⎜ ⎜ ⎜ QdotH ⎟ ⎜

mdot2

⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ 108.64 ⎟ kg ⎜ 2⎟

=⎜

355111 ⎟ kJ

⎜ mdot3 ⎟ ⎜ 62.13 ⎟ sec ⎜ QdotH ⎟ ⎜ 213277 ⎟ sec

⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 3

⎟ ⎜

⎝ mdot4 ⎠ ⎝ 67.29 ⎠ ⎜ QdotH ⎝ 205061 ⎠

⎝ 4⎠

⎜ =⎜ ⎜ =⎜

⎝ mdot6 ⎠ ⎝ 153.598 ⎠ sec ⎜ QdotH ⎝ 228033 ⎠ sec

⎝ 6⎠

270

⎛ QdotC1 ⎞ ⎛ 0.332 ⎞

⎜ ⎛ 160705 ⎞ ⎜

⎜ QdotC ⎟ ⎜ ⎯⎯⎯ → ⎜ 0.282 ⎟

⎜ 2⎟

=⎜

255111 ⎟ kJ

Wdot ⎜ 0.328 ⎟

⎜ QdotC ⎟ ⎜ 143277 ⎟ sec η := η =⎜ ⎟

⎜ 3

⎟ ⎜

QdotH ⎜ 0.244 ⎟

⎜ QdotC ⎝ 155061 ⎠ ⎜ 0.246 ⎟

⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎜

⎝ 0.333 ⎠

⎛ QdotC5 ⎞ ⎛ 145410 ⎞ BTU

⎜ =⎜

⎜ QdotC ⎝ 152208 ⎠ sec

⎝ 6⎠

Saturated liquid at 50 kPa (point 4)

cm

3

kJ P4 := 3300⋅ kPa

V4 := 1.030⋅ H4 := 340.564⋅

gm kg P1 := 50⋅ kPa

Saturated liquid and vapor at 50 kPa:

kJ

Hliq := H4 Hvap := 2646.0⋅

kg

kJ kJ

Sliq := 1.0912⋅ Svap := 7.5947⋅

kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

kJ

By Eq. (7.24), Wpump = 3.348

kg

kJ

H1 := H4 + Wpump H1 = 343.911

kg

The following vectors give values for temperatures of 450, 550, and 650 degC:

⎛⎜ 3340.6 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 7.0373 ⎞

kJ kJ

H2 := ⎜ 3565.3 ⎟ ⋅ S2 := ⎜ 7.3282 ⎟ ⋅

⎜ 3792.9 kg ⎜ 7.5891 kg⋅ K

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

271

S'3 − Sliq

S'3 := S2 x'3 :=

Svap − Sliq

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→

QH := ( H2 − H1) Wturbine + Wpump

η :=

QH

⎛⎜ 0.914 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 0.297 ⎞

x'3 = ⎜ 0.959 ⎟ η = ⎜ 0.314 ⎟ Ans.

⎜ 0.999 ⎜ 0.332

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

Saturated liquid at 30 kPa (point 4)

3

cm kJ

V4 := 1.022⋅ H4 := 289.302⋅ P1 := 30⋅ kPa

gm kg

⎛⎜ 5000 ⎞

kJ

Hliq := H4 Hvap := 2625.4⋅ P4 := ⎜ 7500 ⎟ ⋅ kPa

kg

⎜ 10000

⎝ ⎠

kJ kJ

Sliq := 0.9441⋅ Svap := 7.7695⋅

kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

⎛⎜ 294.381 ⎞

kJ

H1 := H4 + Wpump H1 = ⎜ 296.936 ⎟

⎜ 299.491 kg

⎝ ⎠

The following vectors give values for pressures of 5000, 7500, and

10000 kPa at 600 degC

⎛⎜ 3664.5 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 7.2578 ⎞

kJ kJ

H2 := ⎜ 3643.7 ⎟ ⋅ S2 := ⎜ 7.0526 ⎟ ⋅

⎜ 3622.7 kg ⎜ 6.9013 kg⋅ K

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

272

S'3 − Sliq

S'3 := S2 x'3 :=

Svap − Sliq

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→

QH := ( H2 − H1) Wturbine + Wpump

η :=

QH

⎛⎜ 0.925 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 0.359 ⎞

x'3 = ⎜ 0.895 ⎟ η = ⎜ 0.375 ⎟ Ans.

⎜ 0.873 ⎜ 0.386

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

kJ kJ

H1 := 3766.4⋅ S1 := 7.2200⋅ S'2 := S1

kg kg⋅ K

For sat. liq. and sat. vap. at 20 kPa:

kJ kJ

Hliq := 251.453⋅ Hvap := 2609.9⋅

kg kg

kJ kJ

Sliq := 0.8321⋅ Svap := 7.9094⋅

kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

The following enthalpies are interpolated in Table F.2 at four values for

intermediate pressure P2:

⎛ 725 ⎞ ⎛ 3023.9 ⎞

⎜ ⎜

P2 := ⎜

750 ⎟

H'2 := ⎜

3032.5 ⎟ kJ

⋅ kPa ⋅

⎜ 775 ⎟ ⎜ 3040.9 ⎟ kg

⎜ ⎜

⎝ 800 ⎠ ⎝ 3049.0 ⎠

η := 0.78 W12 := η ⋅ ( H'2 − H1) H2 := H1 + W12

⎜ ⎜ ⎜

−572.442 ⎟ kJ

=⎜ H2 = ⎜

3194 ⎟ kJ

S2 := ⎜

7.4898 ⎟ kJ

W12 ⋅

⎜ −565.89 ⎟ kg ⎜ 3200.5 ⎟ kg ⎜ 7.4851 ⎟ kg⋅ K

⎜ ⎜ ⎜

⎝ −559.572 ⎠ ⎝ 3206.8 ⎠ ⎝ 7.4797 ⎠

273

where the entropy values are by interpolation in Table F.2 at P2.

S2 − Sliq

x'3 := H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)

Svap − Sliq

⎛ −20.817 ⎞

⎜

−7.811 ⎟ kJ

∆W := W12 − W23 ∆W = ⎜

⎜ 5.073 ⎟ kg

⎜

⎝ 17.723 ⎠

The work difference is essentially linear in P2, and we interpolate linearly to

find the value of P2 for which the work difference is zero:

linterp ⎢

⎡ ∆W , P , 0.0⎤ = 765.16 kPa

2 ⎥ (P2)

⎢⎜⎛ kJ ⎞

⎥

⎣ ⎝ kg ⎠ ⎦

Also needed are values of H2 and S2 at this pressure. Again we do linear

interpolations:

kJ kJ

H2 := 3197.9⋅

kg kg

kJ kJ

S2 := 7.4869⋅

kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

We can now find the temperature at this state by interplation in Table F.2.

This gives an intermediate steam temperature t2 of 366.6 degC.

The work calculations must be repeated for THIS case:

S2 − Sliq

W12 := H2 − H1 x'3 :=

Svap − Sliq

kJ

W12 = −568.5 x'3 = 0.94

kg

kJ

3 kJ W23 = −568.46

H'3 = 2.469 × 10 kg

kg

274

kJ

Work := W12 + W23 Work = −1137

kg

For a single isentropic expansion from the initial pressure to the

final pressure, which yields a wet exhaust:

S1 − Sliq

x'3 := H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)

Svap − Sliq

3 kJ

H'3 = 2.38 × 10

x'3 = 0.903 kg

kJ

W' := H'3 − H1 W' = −1386.2

kg

Whence the overall efficiency is:

Work

η overall := η overall = 0.8202 Ans.

W'

275

8.7

From Table F.2 for steam at 4500 kPa and 500 degC:

kJ kJ

H2 := 3439.3⋅ S2 := 7.0311⋅ S'3 := S2

kg kg⋅ K

By interpolation at 350 kPa and this entropy,

WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2)

kJ

H'3 := 2770.6⋅ η := 0.78

kg

3 kJ kJ

H3 := H2 + WI H3 = 2.918 × 10 WI = −521.586

kg kg

kJ kJ

Hliq := 251.453⋅ Hvap := 2609.9⋅

kg kg

kJ kJ

Sliq := 0.8321⋅ Svap := 7.9094⋅

kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

276

S'4 − Sliq

x'4 := H'4 := Hliq + x'4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)

Svap − Sliq

3 kJ

H'4 = 2.317 × 10

x'4 = 0.876 kg

H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2)

3 kJ

H4 = 2.564 × 10

kg

3

cm

H5 := Hliq V5 := 1.017⋅ P5 := 20⋅ kPa P6 := 4500⋅ kPa

gm

V5⋅ ( P6 − P5)

Wpump := H6 := H5 + Wpump

η

kJ kJ

Wpump = 5.841 H6 = 257.294

kg kg

kJ

H7 := 584.270⋅ t7 := 138.87 (degC)

kg

We need the enthalpy of compressed liquid at point 1, where the pressure is

4500 kPa and the temperature is:

At this temperature, 132.87 degC, interpolation in Table F.1 gives:

3

kJ cm

Hsat.liq := 558.5⋅ Psat := 294.26⋅ kPa Vsat.liq := 1.073⋅

kg gm

Also by approximation, the definition of the volume expansivity yields:

3

⋅ ⎛⎜

1 1.083 − 1.063 ⎞ cm

β := ⋅ P1 := P6

Vsat.liq ⎝ 20 ⎠ gm⋅ K

−4 1

β = 9.32 × 10

K

277

By Eq. (7.25),

( )

H1 := Hsat.liq + Vsat.liq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P1 − Psat) H1 = 561.305

kJ

kg

By an energy balance on the feedwater heater:

H1 − H6

mass := ⋅ kg mass = 0.13028 kg Ans.

H3 − H7

QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ kg

Wnet

QH = 2878 kJ η := η = 0.2861 Ans.

QH

Although entropy values are not needed for most points in the process, they are

recorded here for future use in Problem 15.8.

BTU BTU

H2 := 1461.2⋅ S2 := 1.6671⋅ S'3 := S2

lbm lbm⋅ rankine

WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2)

BTU

H'3 := 1180.4⋅ η := 0.78

lbm

BTU BTU

H3 := H2 + WI H3 = 1242.2 WI = −219.024

lbm lbm

BTU

S3 := 1.7431⋅

lbm⋅ rankine

278

Isentropic expansion to 1(psia): S'4 := S2

Exhaust is wet: for sat. liq. & vap.:

BTU BTU

Hliq := 69.73⋅ Hvap := 1105.8⋅

lbm lbm

BTU BTU

Sliq := 0.1326⋅ Svap := 1.9781⋅

lbm⋅ rankine lbm⋅ rankine

S'4 − Sliq

x'4 := H'4 := Hliq + x'4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)

Svap − Sliq

BTU

x'4 = 0.831 H'4 = 931.204

lbm

H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2)

BTU

H4 = 1047.8

lbm

H4 − Hliq

x4 := S4 := Sliq + x4⋅ ( Svap − Sliq)

Hvap − Hliq

BTU

S4 = 1.8748

x4 = 0.944 lbm⋅ rankine

3

ft

P5 := 1⋅ psi H5 := Hliq V5 := 0.0161⋅

lbm

Wpump := Wpump = 2.489

η lbm

BTU

P6 := 650⋅ psi H6 := H5 + Wpump H6 = 72.219

lbm

For sat. liq. at 50(psia) (Table F.4):

BTU BTU

H7 := 250.21⋅ t7 := 281.01 S7 := 0.4112⋅

lbm lbm⋅ rankine

650(psia) and the temperature is

279

At this temperature, 270.01 degF, interpolation in Table F.3 gives:

3

ft

Psat := 41.87⋅ psi Vsat.liq := 0.1717⋅

lbm

BTU

Hsat.liq := 238.96⋅ BTU

lbm Ssat.liq := 0.3960⋅

lbm⋅ rankine

3

⋅ ⎛⎜

1 0.01726 − 0.01709 ⎞ ft

β := ⋅ P1 := P6

Vsat.liq ⎝ 20 ⎠ lbm⋅ rankine

−5 1

β = 4.95 × 10

rankine

By Eq. (7.25) and (7.26),

( )

H1 := Hsat.liq + Vsat.liq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P1 − Psat) H1 = 257.6

BTU

lbm

BTU

S1 = 0.397

lbm⋅ rankine

By an energy balance on the feedwater heater:

H1 − H6

mass := ⋅ lbm

H3 − H7 mass = 0.18687 lbm Ans.

QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ lbm

3

QH = 1.204 × 10 BTU

Wnet

η := η = 0.3112 Ans.

QH

280

8.9

kJ kJ

H2 := 3652.1⋅ S2 := 7.1258⋅ P2 := 6500⋅ kPa

kg kg⋅ K

At point 3 the pressure must be such that the steam has a condensation

temperature in feedwater heater I of 195 degC, 5 deg higher than the

temperature of the feed water to the boiler at point 1. Its saturation pressure,

corresponding to 195 degC, from Table F.1, is 1399.0 kPa. The steam at point 3

is superheated vapor at this pressure, and if expansion from P2 to P3 is

isentropic,

WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2)

kJ

H'3 := 3142.6⋅ η := 0.80

kg

3 kJ kJ

H3 := H2 + WI H3 = 3.244 × 10 WI = −407.6

kg kg

kJ

From Table F.1: H10 := 829.9⋅

kg

281

Similar calculations are required for feedwater heater II.

At the exhaust conditions of 20 kPa, the properties of sat. liq. and sat.

vap. are:

3

kJ kJ cm

Hliq := 251.453⋅ Hvap := 2609.9⋅ Vliq := 1.017⋅

kg kg gm

kJ kJ

Sliq := 0.8321⋅ Svap := 7.9094⋅

kg⋅ K kg⋅ K

If we find t7, then t8 is the mid-temperature between t7 and t1(190 degC), and

that fixes the pressure of stream 4 so that its saturation temperature is 5 degC

higher. At point 6, we have saturated liquid at 20 kPa, and its properties from

Table F.2 are:

V6⋅ ( P2 − P6)

Wpump := [Eq. (7.24)]

η

kJ

Wpump = 8.238 ∆H67 := Wpump

kg

We apply Eq. (7.25) for the calculation of the temperature change from point 6

to point 7. For this we need values of the heat capacity and volume expansivity

of water at about 60 degC. They can be estimated from data in Table F.1:

3

1 ⎛ 1.023 − 1.012 ⎞ cm 272.0 − 230.2 kJ

β := ⋅⎜ ⋅ CP := ⋅

Vliq ⎝ 20 ⎠ gm⋅ K 10 kg⋅ K

−4 1 kJ

β = 5.408 × 10 CP = 4.18

K kg⋅ K

∆T67 :=

( )

∆H67 − Vliq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ Tsat ⋅ ( P2 − P6)

∆T67 = 0.678 K

CP

∆T67 190 − t7

t7 := tsat + t9 := + t7 t8 := t9 + 5

K 2

282

t7 = 60.768

kJ

t8 = 130.38 From Table F.1: H8 := 547.9⋅

kg

H7 := Hliq + ∆H67 t9 = 125.38 T9 := ( 273.15 + t9) ⋅ K

kJ

H7 = 259.691

kg

At points 9 and 1, the streams are compressed liquid (P=6500 kPa), and we

find the effect of pressure on the liquid by Eq. (7.25). Values by

interpolation in Table F.1 at saturation temperatures t9 and t1:

3

kJ cm

Hsat.9 := 526.6⋅ Vsat.9 := 1.065⋅ Psat.9 := 234.9⋅ kPa

kg gm

3

kJ cm

Hsat.1 := 807.5⋅ Vsat.1 := 1.142⋅ Psat.1 := 1255.1⋅ kPa

kg gm

3 3

cm cm

∆V9 := ( 1.075 − 1.056) ⋅ ∆V1 := ( 1.156 − 1.128) ⋅

gm gm

1 ∆V9 1 ∆V1

∆T := 20⋅ K β 9 := ⋅ β 1 := ⋅

Vsat.9 ∆T Vsat.1 ∆T

−4 1 −3 1

β 9 = 8.92 × 10 β 1 = 1.226 × 10

K K

( )

H9 := Hsat.9 + Vsat.9⋅ 1 − β 9⋅ T9 ⋅ ( P2 − Psat.9) H9 = 530.9

kJ

kg

( )

H1 := Hsat.1 + Vsat.1⋅ 1 − β 1⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P2 − Psat.1) H1 = 810.089

kJ

kg

Now we can make an energy balance on feedwater heater I to find the

mass of steam condensed:

H1 − H9

mI := ⋅ kg mI = 0.11563 kg Ans.

H3 − H10

283

The temperature at point 8, t8 = 130.38 (see above) is the saturation temperture in

feedwater heater II. The saturation pressure by interpolation in Table F.1 is

273.28 kPa.

Isentropic expansion of steam from the initial conditions to this pressure results in

a slightly superheated vapor, for which by double interpolation in Table F.2:

H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2)

kJ

H'4 := 2763.2⋅ Then

kg

3 kJ

H4 = 2.941 × 10

kg

We can now make an energy balance on feedwater heater II to find the mass of

steam condensed:

mII :=

( H9 − H7) ⋅ 1⋅ kg − mI⋅ ( H10 − H8) mII = 0.09971 kg Ans.

H4 − H8

The final stage of expansion in the turbine is to 20 kPa, where the exhaust is wet.

For isentropic expansion,

S2 − Sliq

x'5 := H'5 := Hliq + x'5⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq)

Svap − Sliq

3 kJ

x'5 = 0.889 H'5 = 2.349 × 10

kg

H5 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'5 − H2)

kJ

Then H5 = 2609.4

kg

The work of the turbine is:

+ ( 1⋅ kg − mI − mII) ⋅ ( H5 − H4)

QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ kg

3

Wturbine = −936.2 kJ QH = 2.842 × 10 kJ

Wturbine + Wpump⋅ 1⋅ kg

η := η = 0.3265 Ans.

QH

284

8.10 Isobutane: Tc := 408.1⋅ K Pc := 36.48⋅ bar ω := 0.181

For isentropic expansion in the turbine, let the initial state be represented by

symbols with subscript zero and the final state by symbols with no subscript.

Then

J

∆S := 0⋅ For the heat capacity of isobutane:

mol⋅ K

−3 −6

37.853⋅ 10 −11.945⋅ 10

A := 1.677 B := C :=

K 2

K

T0 P0

Tr0 := Tr0 = 1.3064 Pr0 := Pr0 = 1.3158

Tc Pc

P

Pr := Pr = 0.123

Pc

The entropy change is given by Eq. (6.92) combined with Eq. (5.15) with D = 0:

τ := 0.8 (guess)

Given

⎡ ⎡

∆S = R⋅ ⎢A⋅ ln ( τ ) + ⎢ B⋅ T0 + C⋅ T0 ⋅ ⎜

2⎛ τ + 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ( τ − 1) − ln ⎛ P ⎞ ...⎤

⎥ ⎜P ⎥

⎢ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎥

⎢ ⎛ τ ⋅ T0 ⎞ ⎥

⎢+ SRB ⎜ , P r , ω − SRB ( T r0 , P r0 , ω ) ⎥

⎣ ⎝ Tc ⎠ ⎦

T

Tr := Tr = 1.114

Tc

The enthalpy change for this final temperature is given by Eq. (6.91), with HRB at

the above T:

(

∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T0 , T , 1.677 , 37.853⋅ 10

−3

, −11.945⋅ 10

−6

, 0.0 )

4 J

∆Hig = −1.141 × 10

mol

285

( ( )

∆Hturbine := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Tr , Pr , ω − HRB Tr0 , Pr0 , ω( ))

J

∆Hturbine = −8850.6 Wturbine := ∆Hturbine

mol

The work of the pump is given by Eq. (7.24), and for this we need an estimate of

the molar volume of isobutane as a saturated liquid at 450 kPa. This is given by

Eq. (3.72). The saturation temperature at 450 kPa is given by the Antoine

equation solved for t degC:

VP := 450⋅ kPa

Bvp

tsat := − Cvp tsat = 34 Tsat := ( tsat + 273.15) ⋅ K

Avp − ln ⎛⎜

VP ⎞

Tsat = 307.15 K

⎝ kPa ⎠

3 Tsat

cm

Vc := 262.7⋅ Zc := 0.282 Trsat := Trsat = 0.753

mol Tc

⎡ 2⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎣(1−Trsat) 7⎦ cm

3

Vliq := Vc⋅ Zc Vliq = 112.362

mol

Wpump := Vliq⋅ ( P0 − P)

J

Wpump = 488.8

mol

The flow rate of isobutane can now be found:

1000⋅ kW mol

mdot := mdot = 119.59 Ans.

Wturbine + Wpump sec

two steps:

a. Cooling of the vapor from 454.48 to 307.15 K

b. Condensation of the vapor at 307.15 K

Enthalpy change of cooling: HRB at the initial state has already been calculated.

For saturated vapor at 307.15 K:

(

∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T , Tsat , 1.677 , 37.853⋅ 10

−3

, −11.945⋅ 10

−6

)

, 0.0

286

4 J

∆Hig = −1.756 × 10

mol

( ( )

∆Ha := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Trsat , Pr , ω − HRB Tr , Pr , ω ( ))

J

∆Ha = −18082

mol

For the condensation process, we estimate the latent heat by Eqs. (4.12) and (4.13):

Tn

Tn := 261.4⋅ K Trn := Trn = 0.641

Tc

⎛ ⎛ Pc ⎞ ⎞

R⋅ Tn⋅ 1.092⋅ ⎜ ln ⎜ − 1.013

∆Hn := ⎝ ⎝ bar ⎠ ⎠ ∆Hn = 2.118 × 10

4 J

0.930 − Trn mol

0.38

⎛ 1 − Trsat ⎞ J

∆Hb := −∆Hn⋅ ⎜ ∆Hb = −18378

⎝ 1 − Trn ⎠ mol

(

Qdotout := mdot⋅ ∆Ha + ∆Hb )

1000⋅ kW

Qdotin := Wturbine + Wpump ⋅ mdot + Qdotout η :=

Qdotin

For isentropic expansion in the turbine, let the initial (inlet) state be

represented by symbols with subscript zero and the final (exit) state by

symbols with no subscript. Then

gm

T0 := 413.15⋅ K P0 := 3400⋅ kPa P := 450⋅ kPa molwt := 58.123

mol

J

∆S := 0⋅

mol⋅ K

287

For the heat capacity of isobutane:

−3 −6

37.853⋅ 10 −11.945⋅ 10

A := 1.677 B := C :=

K 2

K

T0 P0

Tr0 := Tr0 = 1.0124 Pr0 := Pr0 = 0.932

Tc Pc

P

Pr := Pr = 0.123

Pc

by HRLK and SRLK:

HRLK0 := −1.530 SRLK0 := −1.160

The entropy change is given by Eq. (6.92) combined with Eq. (5.15) with D = 0:

τ := 0.8 (guess)

Given

⎡ ⎡ ⎛ τ + 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ( τ − 1) − ln ⎛ P ⎞ ...⎤

∆S = R⋅ ⎢A⋅ ln ( τ ) + ⎢ B⋅ T0 + C⋅ T0 ⋅ ⎜

2

⎥ ⎜P ⎥

⎢ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥

0

⎢ ⎛ T 0⋅ τ ⎞ ⎥

⎢+ SRB ⎜ Tc , Pr , ω − SRLK0 ⎥

⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦

τ := Find ( τ ) τ = 0.809 T := τ ⋅ T0 T = 334.08 K

T

Tr := Tr = 0.819

Tc

The enthalpy change for this final temperature is given by Eq. (6.91), with

HRB at the above T:

(

∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T0 , T , 1.677 , 37.853⋅ 10

−3

, −11.945⋅ 10

−6

, 0.0)

3 J

∆Hig = −9.3 × 10

mol

( (

∆Hturbine := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Tr , Pr , ω − HRLK0 ) )

J

∆Hturbine = −4852.6 Wturbine := ∆Hturbine

mol

288

The work of the pump is given by Eq. (7.24), and the required value for the

molar volume of saturated-liquid isobutane at 450 kPa (34 degC) is the

value calculated in Problem 8.10:

3

Wpump := Vliq⋅ ( P0 − P)

cm J

Vliq := 112.36⋅ Wpump = 331.462

mol mol

For the cycle the net power OUTPUT is:

75 kg

mdot := ⋅

molwt sec

Wdot = 5834 kW Ans.

two steps:

a. Cooling of the vapor from 334.07 to 307.15 K

b. Condensation of the vapor at 307.15 K

Enthalpy change of cooling: HRB at the initial state has already been

calculated. For saturated vapor at 307.15 K it was found in Problem 8.10 as:

Tsat

Tsat := 307.15K Trsat := Trsat = 0.753

Tc

(

∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T , Tsat , 1.677 , 37.853⋅ 10

−3

, −11.945⋅ 10

−6

)

, 0.0

kJ

∆Hig = −2.817

mol

( ( )

∆Ha := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Trsat , Pr , ω − HRB Tr , Pr , ω ( ))

J

∆Ha = −2975

mol

For the condensation process, the enthalpy change was found in Problem

8.10:

∆Hb := −18378⋅

J

mol

(

Qdotout := mdot⋅ ∆Ha + ∆Hb )

Qdotout = −27553 kW Ans.

289

For the heater/boiler:

Wdot

η := η = 0.175 Ans.

Qdotin

We now recalculate results for a cycle for which the turbine and pump each

have an efficiency of 0.8. The work of the turbine is 80% of the value

calculated above, i.e.,

J

W'turbine := 0.8⋅ Wturbine W'turbine = −3882

mol

The work of the pump is:

Wpump J

W'pump := W'pump = 414.3

0.8 mol

the heat transferred out of the cooler condenser. Thus

The increase in pump work shows up as a decrease in the heat added in the

heater/boiler. Thus

Wdot

η := η = 0.134 Ans.

Qdotin

290

7

8.13 Refer to Fig. 8.10. CP := ⋅R

2

PC := 1⋅ bar TC := 293.15⋅ K PD := 5⋅ bar γ := 1.4

γ γ

By Eq. (3.30c): PC⋅ VC = PD⋅ VD

1 1

γ γ

VC ⎛ PD ⎞ or ⎛ PD ⎞

= ⎜ r := ⎜ r = 3.157 Ans.

V D ⎝ PC ⎠ ⎝ PC ⎠

γ −1

γ

⎛ PD ⎞ J

Eq. (3.30b): TD := TC⋅ ⎜ QDA := 1500⋅

⎝ PC ⎠ mol

QDA

QDA = CP⋅ ( TA − TD) TA := + TD TA = 515.845 K

CP

R⋅ T C

VB VC PC

re = = = T C PA

VA VA R⋅ T A PA := PD re := ⋅

T A PC

PA

re = 2.841 Ans.

8.14

⎛3 ⎞

⎜

Ratio := ⎜ ⎟

5 PB

Ratio = γ := 1.35

⎜7 ⎟ PA

⎜

⎝9 ⎠

Eq. (8.12) now becomes:

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→

⎡ γ −1 ⎤ ⎛ 0.248 ⎞

⎢ γ ⎥ ⎜

⎢ ⎛

η := 1 − ⎜

1 ⎞

⎥ η =⎜

0.341 ⎟

Ans.

⎣ ⎝ Ratio ⎠ ⎦ ⎜ 0.396 ⎟

⎜

⎝ 0.434 ⎠

291

8.16

7

TA := 303.15⋅ K TC := 1373.15⋅ K CP := ⋅ R

2

By Eq. (7.22)

⎡ R ⎤

⎢ CP ⎥ ⎛ 2 ⎞

⎢⎛ PB ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ 7

WAB = CP⋅ TA⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ = CP⋅ TA⋅ ⎝ cr − 1⎠

⎣⎝ PA ⎠ ⎦

⎡ R ⎤

⎢ CP ⎥ ⎛ 2 ⎞

⎢⎛ PD ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ 7

WCD = CP⋅ TC⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ = CP⋅ TC⋅ ⎝ er − 1⎠

⎣⎝ PC ⎠ ⎦

where cr is the compression ratio and er is the expansion ratio. Since the two

work terms are equal but of opposite signs,

⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞

⎜ 7 ⎜ 7

Given TC⋅ ⎝ er − 1⎠ = −TA⋅ ⎝ cr − 1⎠ er := Find ( er)

er = 0.552

292

R

CP

⎛ PD ⎞

By Eq. (7.18): TD = TC⋅ ⎜

⎝ PC ⎠

2

7

This may be written: TD := TC⋅ er

⎡ γ −1 ⎤

⎢ γ

⎥

2 2 2 ⋅ γ ⋅ P D D ⎢

⋅ V ⎛ E⎞

P ⎥

By Eq. (7.11) uE − uD = ⋅⎢ 1 − ⎜ ⎥ (A)

γ−1 ⎣ ⎝ PD ⎠ ⎦

We note the following:

PD PB PC PD

er = cr = = cr⋅ er =

PC PA PE PE

γ−1 R 2 PE 1

uD = 0 = = PD⋅ VD = R⋅ TD =

γ CP 7 PD cr⋅ er

gm

Then molwt := 29

mol

⎡ 2⎤

⎢ 7⎥

7

uE := 2⋅ ⋅

R ⎛

⋅ TD⋅ ⎢ 1 − ⎜

1 ⎞

⎥ uE = 843.4

m

Ans.

2 molwt ⎣ ⎝ cr⋅ er ⎠ ⎦ sec

Assume air to be an ideal gas with mean heat capacity (final temperature by

iteration):

(

Cpmair := MCPH 298.15K , 582K , 3.355 , 0.575⋅ 10

−3 )

5

, 0.0 , −0.016⋅ 10 ⋅ R

J

Cpmair = 29.921

mol⋅ K

293

Compressor:

⎡ R ⎤

⎢ Cpmair ⎥

Cpmair⋅ TA ⎢⎛ PB ⎞ ⎥ 3 J

Wsair := ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ Wsair = 8.292 × 10

η ⎣⎝ PA ⎠ ⎦ mol

Wsair

TB := TA + TB = 582.126 K

Cpmair

air and 1mol CH4.

Because the combustion is adiabatic, the basic equation is:

For ∆H_R, the mean heat capacities for air and methane are required.

The value for air is given above. For methane the temperature change

is very small; use the value given in Table C.1 for 298 K: 4.217*R.

The solution process requires iteration for N. Assume a value for N until

the above energy balance is satisfied.

5 J

∆HR = −4.896 × 10

mol

The product stream contains:

1 mol CO2, 2mol H2O, 0.79N mol N2, and (0.21N-2) mol O2

⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜

n := ⎜ ⎟ A := ⎜

3.470 ⎟

B := ⎜

1.450 ⎟ − 3

D := ⎜

2 0.121 ⎟ 5

⋅ 10 ⋅ 10

⎜ .79⋅ N ⎟ ⎜ 3.280 ⎟ ⎜ 0.593 ⎟ ⎜ 0.040 ⎟

⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜

⎝ .21⋅ N − 2 ⎠ ⎝ 3.639 ⎠ ⎝ 0.506 ⎠ ⎝ −0.227 ⎠

i := 1 .. 4

294

∑ ni = 58.638 A :=

∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B :=

∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) D :=

∑ ( ni⋅Di)

i i i i

5

A = 198.517 B = 0.036 D = −1.387 × 10

(

CpmP := MCPH 298.15K , 1000.K , 198.517 , 0.0361 , 0.0 , −1.3872⋅ 10 ⋅ R

5)

∆HP := CpmP⋅ ( TC − 298.15K)

6 J

∆HP = 1.292 × 10

mol

J

From Ex. 4.7: ∆H298 := −802625

mol

J

∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP = 136.223 (This result is sufficiently close to zero.)

mol

i.e., to 1.0133 bar:

PD := 1.0133bar PC := 7.5bar

The pertinent equations are analogous to those for the compressor. The

mean heat capacity is that of the combustion gases, and depends on the

temperature of the exhaust gases from the turbine, which must therefore be

found by iteration. For an initial calculation use the mean heat capacity

already determined. This calculation yields an exhaust temperature of

about 390 K. Thus iteration starts with this value. Parameters A, B, and D

have the final values determined above.

(

Cpm := MCPH 1000K , 343.12K , 198.517 , 0.0361 , 0.0 , −1.3872⋅ 10 ⋅ R

5)

3 J

Cpm = 1.849 × 10 For 58.638 moles of combustion product:

mol⋅ K

⎡⎢ R

⎥⎤

Cpm

58.638⋅ Cpm⋅ TC ⎢⎛ PD ⎞ ⎥ 6 J

Ws := ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ Ws = −1.214 × 10

η ⎣⎝ PC ⎠ ⎦ mol

Ws

TD := TC + TD = 343.123 K (Final result of iteration.) Ans.

Cpm

295

5 J

Wsnet := Ws + Wsair⋅ N Wsnet = −7.364 × 10 Ans.

mol

Parts (b) and (c) are solved in exactly the same way, with the following

results:

5

(b) TC := 1200 N := 37.48 Wsnet := −7.365⋅ 10 TD := 343.123

5

(c) TC := 1500 N := 24.07 Wsnet := −5.7519⋅ 10 TD := 598.94

dollars

8.18 η tm := 0.35 η me := 0.95 line_losses := 20% Cost_fuel := 4.00

GJ

Cost_fuel

Cost_electricity :=

⎡⎣η tm⋅ η me⋅ ( 1 − line_losses)⎤⎦

cents

Cost_electricity = 0.05 Ans.

kW⋅ hr

This is about 1/2 to 1/3 of the typical cost charged to residential customers.

kJ

8.19 TC := 111.4K TH := 300K ∆Hnlv := 8.206

mol

TC

η Carnot := 1 − η Carnot = 0.629 η HE := 0.6⋅ η Carnot η HE = 0.377

TH

Assume as a basis: W := 1kJ

QH :=

W

η HE

QH = 2.651 kJ (

QC := QH⋅ 1 − η HE ) QC = 1.651 kJ

QC

∆Hnlv mol Ans.

= 0.201

W kJ

296

8.20 TH := ( 27 + 273.15)K TC := ( 6 + 273.15)K

TC

a) η Carnot := 1 − η Carnot = 0.07 Ans.

TH

2

b) η actual := η Carnot⋅ 0.6⋅ η actual = 0.028 Ans.

3

c) The thermal efficiency is low and high fluid rates are required to generate

reasonable power. This argues for working fluids that are relatively

inexpensive. Candidates that provide reasonable pressures at the

required temperature levels include ammonia, n-butane, and propane.

297

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