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Name: ------------------ Quiz 9 Time: 15 minutes

ME:5160 Fall 2017


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The exam is closed book and closed notes.
The drag on a sphere moving in a fluid is known to be a
function of the sphere diameter, the velocity, and the fluid
viscosity and density. Laboratory tests on a 4-in diameter
sphere were performed in a water tunnel and some model data
are plotted in the Figure. For these tests the viscosity of the
water was 2.3 × 10−5 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 ⋅ 𝑠𝑠/𝑓𝑓𝑡𝑡 2 and the water density was
1.94 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠/𝑓𝑓𝑡𝑡 3 . Estimate the drag on an 8 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 diameter
balloon moving in air at velocity of 3 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓/𝑠𝑠. Assume the air to
have a viscosity of 3.7 × 10−7 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 ⋅ 𝑠𝑠/𝑓𝑓𝑡𝑡 2 and density of
2.38 × 10−3 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠/𝑓𝑓𝑡𝑡 3 .
Name: ------------------ Quiz 9 Time: 15 minutes

ME:5160 Fall 2017


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Solution:
Format (+3)

Finding Pi Terms:
𝐷𝐷 = 𝑓𝑓(𝑑𝑑, 𝑉𝑉, 𝜌𝜌, 𝜇𝜇)

𝐷𝐷 =̇ 𝐹𝐹; 𝑑𝑑 =̇ 𝐿𝐿; 𝑉𝑉 =̇ 𝐿𝐿𝑇𝑇 −1 ; 𝜌𝜌 =̇ 𝐹𝐹𝐿𝐿−4 𝑇𝑇 2 ; 𝜇𝜇 =̇ 𝐹𝐹𝐿𝐿−2 𝑇𝑇

𝑘𝑘 = 𝑛𝑛 − 𝑗𝑗 = 5 − 3 = 2 (+1)

Using repeating variables 𝜌𝜌, 𝑉𝑉, 𝑑𝑑

Π1 = 𝐷𝐷𝜌𝜌𝑎𝑎 𝑉𝑉 𝑏𝑏 𝑑𝑑 𝑐𝑐 =̇ 𝐹𝐹 0 𝐿𝐿0 𝑇𝑇 0

𝐷𝐷 (+1)
Π1 =
𝜌𝜌𝑉𝑉 2 𝑑𝑑2

Π2 = 𝜇𝜇𝜌𝜌𝑎𝑎 𝑉𝑉 𝑏𝑏 𝑑𝑑𝑐𝑐 =̇ 𝐹𝐹 0 𝐿𝐿0 𝑇𝑇 0

𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌
Π2 = (+1)
𝜇𝜇
Therefore

𝐷𝐷 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌
2 2
= 𝜙𝜙 � �
𝜌𝜌𝑉𝑉 𝑑𝑑 𝜇𝜇
Reynolds similarity

𝜇𝜇𝑚𝑚 𝜌𝜌 𝑑𝑑
𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚 = 𝑉𝑉
𝜇𝜇 𝜌𝜌𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑑𝑚𝑚

2.3 × 10−5 2.38 × 10−3 8 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓


𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚 = 3 = 5.49 (+1.5)
3.7 × 10 −7 1.94 4/12 𝑠𝑠

From figure, 𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚 = 5.5 → 𝐷𝐷𝑚𝑚 ≈ 1.5 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 (+1)

𝜌𝜌 𝑉𝑉 2 𝑑𝑑2
𝐷𝐷 = 𝐷𝐷𝑚𝑚
𝜌𝜌𝑚𝑚 𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚2 𝑑𝑑𝑚𝑚
2

2.38 × 10−3 32 82
𝐷𝐷 = 1.5 = 0.316 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 (+1.5)
1.94 5.492 (4/12)2