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Introduction and Overview of

Power Generation

• Thermal Power Generation (Steam)


• Hydro Power Generation
• Nuclear Power Generation
• Renewable Energy

Energy Conversion and High Voltage Transmission: 1


Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
 Rankine Cycle:
Steam engine and steam turbines used steam as working
medium. This cycle can be carried out in four pieces of
equipment joint by pipes for conveying working medium`

Boiler Super Heater

Pump
Turbine

Condenser

Thermal Power Generation(Steam)


Power Generating Concept:
Steam (Heat Energy Mechanical Energy
(Rotational Energy) Electrical Energy)

Energy Conversion and High Voltage Transmission: 2


Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
Thermal Power Generation(Steam)

 Thermal power station involves conversion of


heat energy from coal combustion into
electrical energy

 The station is normally operated based on


Rankine cycle concept for which mechanical
power is generated by evaporating water to
high pressure steam in order to run the
generator

 Chemical energy stored in the coal is converted


into heat energy to boil water in boiler.

 The steam produced at high pressure has


sufficient mechanical energy to be able to
move turbines and consequently rotates
synchronous generator to generate electrical
power

Energy Conversion and High Voltage Transmission: 3


Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
Coil for Power Generating

Power Generating Plant

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Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
Schematic diagram for processes in thermal power station

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Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
Thermal Power Generation…Cont
 The main components in the generation
process at thermal power station are:
1. Coal and ash handling scheme.
2. Steam generating plant.
3. Steam turbine.
4. Synchronous generator.
5. Water processing plant.
6. Electrical connecting apparatus to transmission
line.

 Factors effecting the choice for the site:


i. Availability of coal
ii. Availability of water
iii. Nearness to load centers
iv. Pollution
v. Cost of land

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Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
Efficiency of Thermal Power Station
 In ideal situation, the total heat energy content of the
fuel burnt should be converted into mechanical energy at
the turbine and the latter into electrical energy in the
generator

 However energy losses will take place at various stages:


i. Incomplete burning of fuel
ii. Losses in boiler
iii. Losses in condenser
iv. Losses in turbine
v. Losses in generator

 To have a measure of these losses two efficiency terms


must be defined:

 The thermal efficiency is related to overall efficiency as:

Energy Conversion and High Voltage Transmission: 7


Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
Worked example
Problem 1: A thermal station requires on an average 0.8 kg of
coal to be burnt for every kWh of electric energy produced. If
the calorific value of coal is 5000 kilo calories/kg , calculate
the overall efficiency of the plant.

Note: The calorific value of a fuel is defined as the amount of


heat produced by the complete combustion of unit weight of
the fuel. It is generally expressed in kilo-calories/kg. Also kWh
of energy = 860 k calories.
Solution:

Energy Conversion and High Voltage Transmission: 8


Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
Worked example

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Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013
Tutorial
A 250MW steam power station uses coal of calorific value
6,100 kcal/kg .
The plant runs at 90% of full load for 20 hours and at 75%of
full load for the remaining 4 hours in day . Find out the daily
coal requirement of the plant having thermal efficiency
of 30% and generator efficiency of 93%.

Energy Conversion and High Voltage Transmission: 10


Engr. A.Rahim D. Aweys, HU,
2013